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ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ ПРОГРАММА 2011/12

STRELKA

EDUCATION PROGRAMME 2011/12

RESEARCH REPORT CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS


RESEARCH REPORT CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS


ДИРЕКТОР Дэвид Эриксон

DIRECTOR David Erixon

ПРЕПОДАВАТЕЛИ Анастасия Смирнова, Куба Снопек

SUPERVISORS Anastassia Smirnova, Kuba Snopek

СТУДЕНТЫ Матисс Гроскауфманис, архитектор, Рига; Александр Новиков, архитектор, Минск; Ольга Сарапулова, архитектор, Уфа; Далия Сафиуллина, архитектор, Казань; Наталья Чамаева, политолог/ специалист по связям с общественностью; Блажей Чуба, архитектор, Гданьск; Анастасия Шевелева, архитектор, Волгоград

STUDENTS Nat Chamayeva, political sciences and PR specialist, Moscow; Blazej Czuba, researcher, St. Petersburg; Matiss Groskaufmanis, architect, Riga; Alexandr Novikov, architect, Minsk; Daliya Safiullina, architect, Kazan; Olga Sarapulova, architect, Ufa; Anastasia Sheveleva, architect, Volgograd

ЭКСПЕРТЫ-КОНСУЛЬТАНТЫ Василий Аузан, консультант; Олег Баевский, НИиПИ Генплан Москвы; Александр Берцинг, автор концепции «Prefab XXI»; Анна Броновицкая, историк архитектуры, редактор журналов «Проект Россия» и «Проект International»; Александр Высоковский, декан Высшей школы урбанистики; Александру Дерегату, McKinsey, Нью-Йорк; Барт Голдхорн, теоретик архитектуры, издатель журналов «Проект Россия» и «Проект International»; Дмитрий Задорин, специалист по панельному домостроению; Марк Зейдель, архитектор, специалист по сборному массовому жилищному строительству; Валерия Князева, специалист в области устойчивых архитектурных материалов, МАрхИ; Алексей Левинсон, руководитель отдела социокультурных исследований «Левада-центра»; Денис Леонтьев, архитектор, консультант; Пол МакКейб, бизнес-консультант школы цифровых медиа HyperIsland; Дмитрий Наринский, координатор НП «Объединение планировщиков»; Вадим Новиков, старший научный сотрудник АНХ при Правительстве РФ; Владимир Оруджов, генеральный директор фабрики «Мажино» концерна КРОСТ; Денис Ромодин, куратор проекта «СовАрх», создатель сайта «Архитектура Московского Модерна»; Алекс Сухаревский, McKinsey, Москва; Ефим Фрейдин, архитектор, урбанист; Марлена и Марек Хаппах, проект Odblokuj; Кшиштоф Хербст, социолог, участник группы проектировщиков микрорайона Урсынов; Анна Чин Го-пин, «RGI International»; Николай Шмук, девелопер

EXTERNAL EXPERTS Vasily Auzan, management consultant; Oleg Bayevskiy, deputy head of Moscow General Plan Institute; Alexander Berzing, architect, author of "Prefab XXI" concept; Anna Bronovitskaya, art historian, editor of Project Russia magazine; Anna Chin-Go-Pin, marketing director, RGI International; Alexandru Deregatu, McKinsey’s Marketing Analytics Group, New York; Peter Djuk, specialist on ecological architectural materials, MARCHI; Yefim Freidine, architect, urbanist; Yuri Grigoryan, architect; Bart Goldhoorn, architect, curator, founder of Project Russia magazine; Marlena & Marek Happach, curators, Odblokuj foundation, Warsaw; Krzysztof Herbst, sociologist, member of Ursynów microrayon project team, Warsaw; Valeriya Knyazeva, specialist on sustainable architectural materials, MArchI; Denis Leontiev, architect, consultant; Alexey Levinson, head of socio-cultural research, Levada-center; Paul McCabe, marketing consultant, HyperIsland; Dmitriy Narinskiy, head of Russian Urban Planners Association; Vadim Novikov, senior research fellow, Academy of National Economy; Vladimir Orudzhov, head of Mazhino housing construction factory, KROST; Ricardo Pinho, environmental engineer, specialist on waste management; Denis Romodin, historian of architecture, SovArch project curator; Maik Seidel, architect, specialist on plattenbau, Berlin; Nikolay Shmuk, developer; Peter Sigrist, architect, researcher of Moscow public space, Cornell University; Sergey Sitar, architect, architecture critique; Alex Sukharevsky, partner, McKinsey Russia; Hubert Trammer, architect, specialist on prefabricated mass housing, Warsaw; Sandra Vandermerwe, business consultant, expert on customer capitalism; Alexander Vysokovsky, dean of Higher School of Urban Studies; Dmitry Zadorin, architect, expert on prefabricated housing in Russia


ГОРОЖАНЕ КАК ПОТРЕБИТЕЛИ

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS

Студия «Горожане как потребители» в течение полугода занималась исследованием микрорайона — городской структуры, которая была придумана в Советском Союзе после Второй мировой войны для преодоления острейшего жилищного кризиса и десятилетиями оставалась главным градообразующим модулем на всей территории нашей страны.

In the course of six months our studio has researched the problem of the urban structure known as the microrayon — an invention of Soviet modernism comprising a complex of apartment buildings, bounded by highways, with a system of public services supposed to satisfy residents’ daily needs. In the last half century, the microrayon has come to be an integral part of the Russian urban landscape. We looked at the microrayon’s historical roots, documented its achievements and failures, and also closely inspected how it functions today, how people live there and what is going to happen to it in the near future.

Миллионы россиян живут в микрорайонах и сегодня. Фактически будущее российских городов во многом зависит от того, как именно будут решаться проблемы микрорайона, связанные не только с устаревшей инфраструктурой, истекающим сроком годности большинства панельных домов и отсутствием самых необходимых функций, но, прежде всего, с полной неспособностью этой городской структуры меняться и приспосабливаться к новым требованиям пользователей. Для нас очевидно, что в ближайшие 20–30 лет проблема радикальной реконструкции жилого фонда по всей России и поиск новых моделей доступного жилья станут главной заботой государства, муниципалитетов, да и самих горожан. Не смотря на множественные попытки хоть как-то изменить жизнь в стремительно дряхлеющих микрорайонах к лучшему, изменения эти пока остаются исключительно на тактическом уровне – покрасить, подпереть, залатать. Практически никто — ни градостроители, ни архитекторы, ни политики, ни экономисты, — не занимается вопросами комплексной трансформации микрорайнов старого типа, и не ищет более концептуальных походов к проблеме качественного, современного и доступного жилья. Недаром почти все то новое, что предлагается на рынке сегодня, построено по тем же советским лекалам — разве что квадратных метров на человека побольше — и с тем же пренебрежением к личным предпочтениям жителей, к их разнообразным жизненным обстоятельствам и к быстро меняющемуся миру вокруг них. В рамках студии мы решились проанализировать существующую ситуацию, которая, кстати говоря, очень мало и плохо изучена, и взглянуть на проблему доступного жилья и микрорайона более целостно. Ключевой вопрос мы сформулировали так:

More than 80 million Russians are currently impacted by the quality of life in microrayons. It is an incredible number, and one may say that the future of Russian cities is largely dependent on how the microrayons evolve. A substantial number of microrayons are about to come to the end of their projected lifespans. In the next 20 to 50 years, there will be a huge need for renewal and new buildings will become of primary concern for the state, the municipalities and for citizens. The current approach to renewing microrayons is based on the idea of incremental improvements. In the absence of political, economical or social will for strategic change, microrayons still largely function as they use to, while a lot of social and commercial services have been removed from these areas during the transition from a planned economy to a market economy. Microrayons were, and are, considered to be low cost, but only construction costs are traditionally taken into account. In reality, with all sustainability aspects completely overlooked, cheap microrayons are very expensive to maintain: over time they inevitably become a huge burden for the city and its citizens. Our studio took a closer look at the whole contextual issue of microrayons, explored more transformative and systematic approaches to increase the overall wealth creation and quality of life. The key question was: How can we improve quality of life while decreasing lifetime costs and build a much better eco-system with


Можно ли сконструировать городскую модель, которая обеспечивает высокий уровень жизни при невысоких затратах и является сбалансированой «экосистемой», выгодной для всех вовлеченных в нее горожан, строителей, девелоперов, инвесторов, поставщиков, чиновников и т.д.? Работая над ответом, мы использовали методологию глубокого изучения потребителя (Customer Focus methodology), которая сегодня все чаще применяется в экспериментальных маркетинговых исследованиях, но еще никогда не применялась в исследовании городов. С ее помощью нам удалось выявить некоторые возможности для редактирования и переосмысления существующих микрорайнов, которые мы и попытались представить в наших подчеркнуто футуристических, нарочито концептуальных, предлагающих совершенно другую оптику проектах, основанных впрочем на внимательном и подробном исследовании реальных обстоятельств. Мы хорошо понимаем, что находимся только в самом начале долгого и, вероятно, тернистого пути к новой городской модели. Присоединяйтесь к нам!

a win-win situation for everyone involved: citizens, builders, the municipality, suppliers, investors and small businesses, etc.? In our work we use a Customer Focus Methodology that gives usindepth understanding of customers’ values and beliefs, and provides the tools to locate value gaps and determine where waste comes from in various systems. Generally applied in cutting-edge market analysis, this methodology also proved to be very effective in combination with urban research and projective thinking, reinforcing our projects with strategically important insights and giving a basisfor our holistic approach. In a situation that may seem hopeless to many, we now see huge potential in redesign and metamorphing. Student projects investigate various aspects of this microrayon potential: from extrapolation of current trends to the problem of decision-making and social involvement, from design issues to new patterns of co-habitation. We envisage this studio work as a start of a continuous exploration on how we can build affordable housing in a much more financially, environmentally, socially and culturally sustainable way. Join our exploration!


This book is designed for personal, non-commercial use. You must not use it in any other way, and, except as permitted under applicable law, you must not copy, translate, publish, licence or sell the book without our consent.


CONTENTS STUDIO WORK: FACTBOOK

2

STUDIO WORK: METHODOLOGY

4

DR. CRISIS, OR: HOW WE LEARNED TO STOP FAKING AND KILL THE MICRORAYON Natalya Chamayeva, Olga Sarapulova

6

RE-BRIEFING KHRUSHCHEV'S DREAM Matiss Groskaufmanis, Blazej Czuba

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CITY OF ACCESS: TOWARDS THE NEW ORDER OF THINGS... Anastasia Sheveleva

50

TRANSITIONAL MICRORAYON: CUSTOMER FOCUSED HOUSING MODEL FOR MOSCOW Alexander Novikov

64

UPCYCLING MODEL: REEVALUATING WASTE IN RUSSIA Daliya Safiullina

78

1


STUDIO WORK

Microrayon factbook is an outcome of studio strategy which prescribed first months to be devoted for constructing profound awareness of the subject. Historical background of mass housing in Moscow and Russia as a whole, international context of 20th century housing, prefabrication technology and other chosen subjects were covered. The factbook is to be perceived as basis for further research of the studio. Being an ongoing rather than finished product, the scope for further additions to the factbook expands as more discoveries have been made during further research.

Factbook 8

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

9

NAT CHAMAEVA: MICRORAYON (DEFINITION)

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Microrayon (definition)

1. Definition of microrayon

2. Origins of concept The problem of improvement of residential areas has received considerable attention before the war. Already in the 30s, architects and builders were able to raise and resolve such problems as the creation of houses with beautification, landscaped yards and gardens. In the prewar period, a number of research institutes was working on hygienic requirements. Together with architectural and design workshops they were researching the organization and improvement of residential areas in terms of creating there the best conditions of ventilation, insulation and so on. In the postwar years, the question of the most appropriate organization of residential development and establishment of certain service facilities in a systematic way was raised in a very urgent manner. This was caused by terrible housing conditions in the postwar cities. In 1945 – 46, the Committee for Architecture at the Council of Ministers of the USSR held a competition for the projects of residential neighborhoods. The very idea of the contest was born in the atmosphere of liberalization of social life in the last years of the war. One of the motives of liberalization was a stream of information about mass housing in Britain and the United States. At that time, some domestic experience was re-evaluated. In fact, most English-speaking sources referred to the development of integrated residential quarters, carried out by Giprogor, Institute of Communal Hygiene and Kharkov’s Giprograd in the early 30’s. The term “microrayon” was chosen as a symbol of a new principle of urban design. Its goal was to provide comfortable services to all population groups”. The term was borrowed from old Giprograd studies, where it was used as a replacement of an English concept of «neighborhood unit». All publications about foreign city planning were se-

Mode n

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BLAZEJ CZUBA: HOUSING ESTATE

Housing estate is a group of residential buildings, usually multi-storey, built as one development and serving a large group of residents. The term often refers to social housing with rent-controlled apartments, as that was a prevailing tenure system in 1960s and 1970s from which period most such housing estates date from.

See also:

United Kingdom – Council Estate

Germany – Neubaugebiet

In the United Kingdom housing estates were council founded developments frequently built using prefabricated construction methods. They were often results of a slum clearance policy and were built in inner city areas vacated by demolished fabric. Most of the estates quickly dilapidated and residents groups houses there became the most disadvantaged parts of the British society. A recent study shows that a person born on the estate after 1970 has 11 times less chances to be employed than an average Britton and twice more chances to be suffering from mental diseases.

Examples: ş Ahrensfelder Terrassen, Berlin-Marzahn

Examples: ş Churchill Gardens, London ş Park Hill, Sheffield

A project for Nizhny Novgorod (former Gorkiy) by Giprogor, 1936

became basic units of city planning. As a rule, first floors of houses were used for food, retail, community and cultural services, such as cafeterias and restaurants, food stores and manufactured goods shops, fashion studios and repair shops, hospitals, cinemas, museums, childcare centers, etc. Actually, it was more like “what you want and however you want”, often regardless of people’s real needs and negative side of placing many of these types of facilities in residential buildings. The non-systematic placement of these commercial and public enterprises and institutions, together with the poor quality of their operation, led to a decrease of comfort of living in such houses. Sometimes, special standalone units with cultural and educational services was built in the quarters. But since these services were mostly episodic, their location did not follow any lawgoverned system. Public life also put forward the need for clubs located near residential areas (for discussions, lectures, etc.). Usually such “red corners” were arranged somewhere in the quarter, but they didn’t have enough space to accommodate all. In fact, they were intended to serve no more than one house or very few of them. An early example of complex beautification were hairdressing saloons built everywhere around the city. Architects presented the project: a green glass cube with several doors.

See also: ş MOSS, S., “The Death of the Housing Ideal”, The Guardian, Friday 4 March 2011 ş MUIR, H., “A Vision for Housing and a Grim Reality”, The Guardian, Thursday 22 September 2005 ş “Slums in the sky”, The Economist, 29 September 2005

Municipal authorities liked the idea, so it was decided to build such a cube in each district. These two-storey buildings appeared everywhere. They housed more than just beauty saloons: repair shops, consumer services centers, savings banks, post offices, shops of every kind, restaurants, laundries, kitchens, bars, fashion studios, libraries and small executive committees were located in these community centers. Still, the mechanical planning of city quarters resulted in a number of disadvantages, most of all – the division of a single community by a network of transit streets. It was necessary to find a better solution for the city planning, and that was the concept of microrayon.

France – Grand Ensemble Grand Ensemble are large satellite districts built on the peripheries of cities, built from 1953 to early 1970s to cope with overcrowding and deteriorated state of existing housing stock. The urban idea was to create autonomous entities with their own hospitality and shopping amenities, closely based on CIAM’s objectives. Some 250 grand ensembles were built in France and now constitute 18% of the overall housing stock. Failure of social engineering and mismatched social policies led to quick deterioration of estates that quickly began being called ‘quarters sensibles’; the usual association with them is ‘concentration camp cities’, ‘danger zones’ ‘housing exiguity’ and ‘riots’.

3. Establishment of microrayons In mid 50s, finding a fast solution for the urgent housing problem became the main concern for policy makers and experts. The turning point was the All-Union Conference of Builders in December 1954, where the existing practice of building cities was severely criticized. In particular, it was noted that architects do not pay enough attention to create a rational system of public services within residential areas, and “a number of projects feature unsatisfactory approach to the deployment of cultural institutions and community services.”

Examples: ş Le Mirail, Toulouse ş Sarcelles, Paris

hou ng n Eu ope

ş ş

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

Poland – Wielki Zespol Mieszkaniowy Poland as a country under Soviet influence followed closely the guidelines coming from the metropolis, which led in late 1950s to introduction of prefabricated building methods. Wielki Zespol Mieszkaniowy, commonly called Osiedle, is an urban entity close to the Soviet Microrayon or Frech Grande Ensemble. Unlike the Frech counterpart it did not face social problems, having a diverse population and usually sufficient connection with the rest of the city. The greatest boom in housing came in 1970s from which decade most Osiedle’s date from. 1990s saw almost immediate shutting down of panel factories and return to masonry or in-situ concrete methods, mostly due to slower scale of private building by developers and changing expectations of customers. In the first decade of XXI Century most of the buildings underwent regeneration that would usually include replacement of windows , new thermal insulation and frequently replacement of heating systems. Since Osiedle’s still dominate the market in many Polish cities and they were traditionally an egalitarian space, they retain a high mixture of social groups and tenure forms and are still frequently occupied by middle classes.

Второй период

Robin Hood Gardens, 1960s-1972, Architects Peter and Alison Smithsons; the only large realised housing project of the main member of Team X that revolutionised modernist approach to housing. About to be demolished

ogy is being built across the country. Examples: ş Cheryomushki 9C ş Khavsko-Shabolovsky ş Severnoe Butovo ş Severnoe Chertanovo ş Yasenevo

Russia – Microrayon A microrayon is an autonomous urban neighbourhood built in the Soviet Union after 1954, usually comprising of prefabricated blocks of flats. It remains a standard administrative unit in post-Soviet cities. It was defined as an area large enough to allow for all the basic daily requirements of residents to be met within its boundaries and should have its own kindergarten, a school and shops. A typical module would comprise of apartments for 8,000-12,000 residents and be part of a larger raion of 30,000-50,000 people, which would feature additional services such as a cinema and sports facilities. Microrayon still retain its role as a main organiser of Russian cities and unlike many other countries is considered a relatively healthy environment by its residents and a typol-

Reasons for failure Social Policy Haut du Lievre in Nancy of the late 1950s began its life as an object of pride of the whole city; designed by a renowned UNESCO Palace architect, Bernard Zehrfuss, the new district was a solution to the post-war housing shortage in the city, and the modern buildings surrounded by vast greenery contrasted with decaying old centre. First residents of communal apartments were lawyers, doctors and richer working class families, all fascinated by high-standard flats with central heating and modern bathrooms. The situation, however, changed dramatically in 1965 when as part of the rejuvena-

tion project of the city centre thousands of inner-city inhabitants from troubled communities were relocated to Haut de Lievre. The middle classes quickly moved out of the district, vacating enough flats to allow the municipality to place newcoming immigrants in their former homes. Within a couple of years the dream suburb became a ghetto of the poorest. The story of Haut de Lievre is not much different from many, if not the majority, of modernist estates. Built as large, heavily subsidised municipal projects, they did not always attract wealthy social groups and the majority of the stock operated as social housing. Most British housing estates were created as a result of slum-clearance of the most deprived areas of cities, with often least able residents being moved to the new estates. Those new district where communities reflected the whole spectrum of society usually managed much better and some to this day remain sough-after locations. Carefully stratified community was one of the most successful features of Tapiola new town.

Peripheral location It did not help the fate of grande ensembles and other continental new districts that they were usually built on cheap green fields outside of the city. It took many years after completion of housing projects before transport infrastructure

T p a on

В Москве впервые в истории СССР руководство города столкнулось с проблемой нехватки территории. В ходе застройки «хрущёвками» были освоены территории на юго-западе, севере и юге столицы и встал вопрос об определении новой административной границы Москвы. Определилась новая административная граница города в 1960 году, одновременно с появлением МКАД, ставшей своеобразным вещественным олицетворением пределов Москвы. После изменения границ возникла необходимость в разработке нового Генплана Москвы, который и был разработан и утверждён в 1971 году. Одной из его основных предпосылок было признание нецелесообразности дальнейшего территориального роста города и значительного роста его населения. Поэтому одним из путей решения задач нового Генплана было выбрано увеличение этажности городской застройки. Это обусловило массовое экспериментальное строительство в 60-х. При этом уже к середине 1960-х годов уже был разработан ряд типовых проектов 9—12-этажных жилых домов. Массовое распространение получили серии II-49П и I-515, 1-605. NB. Кстати «Инструкцией по проектированию конструкций панельных жилых зданий» серии зданий были разделены по конструктивнопланировочной структуре: ş I - с продольными несущими стенами и перекрытиями, опер тыми преимущественно по двум сторонам на продольные стены.

Moscow Microrayon Masterplan Development

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Yako Be opo k

1. Residential Quarter #1295

II - с поперечными несущими стенами, и перекрытиями, опертыми преимущественно по двум сторонам на поперечные сте ны; III - с продольными несущими стенами, поперечными диаф рагмами жесткости и перекрытиями, опер тыми преимущественно по двум сторонам на продольные стены. Отсюда и маркировки серий. На тот момент рост этажности и смена серийных поколений носили вынужденный характер. И в первую очередь рассматривался вопрос стоимости жилого метра, поэтому вспомогательные помещения квартир - были по прежнему невелики. То есть технические новации касались зданий в целом, а планировки - оставались прежними. ş

Amount of sqm of microrayons of different generations

Третий период Говоря о третьем периоде нельзя не вспомнить о легендарном фильме Эльдара Рязанова «Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!» Эта кинолента стала не только отражением духа и антуража эпохи «золотых семидесятых», но и увековечила экспериментальный жилой дом на проспекте Вернадского, 125 — именно в нём проходили съёмки картины. Этот 16-этажный крупнопанельный жилой дом в Тропарёве был построен по индивидуальному проекту в 1970 году. Таких экспериментальных зданий в Москве было построено всего три и все — на проспекте Вернадского. Спроектированы они были на основе элементов нового Единого каталога строительных деталей. Эти дома стали предшественниками панельных жилых домов серии П30 и экспериментальных П3 - которыми к 1980 году будет застроена московская Олимпийская деревня. Впоследствии на опыте этого строительства, фактически на основе «дома Жени Лукашина» была разработаны серии 16-этажных жилых домов — П3-16 П44, П22 и тд. В третьем периоде (1970—1985 гг.) в жилищном строительстве лидирующим стал «метод Единого каталога». В него входили жилые дома таких серий как: П3, П22, П30, П31, П42, П43, П44, П46 («П�� — «панельный»). В массовое строительство пошёл десяток этих серий. А пилотными районами третьего этапа принято считать “Тропарево-Никулино” район вокруг метро ЮгоЗападная и в меньшей степени - “Лианозово” и “Теплый стан”. И как и в первом и во втором этапах среди серий

быстро выявились передовики и аутсайдеры. В передовиках оказались П3, П30, П44, П46, остальные серии этого этапа КПД гораздо менее многочисленны и давно прекращены строительством. Чего не скажешь о квартете победителей. Они хоть в переработанном виде - составили основу следующего- 4-го этапа, и успешно пережили 90-е. Эти -же серии, прибавив правда в этажности, в настоящее время возглавили экспансию за МКАД. References: ş http://mgsupgs.livejournal.com/202550.html

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ş ş ş ş ş ş

Stalin period

Khrushchev period and later «Struggle against frills» was a formal rehabilitation of avantgarde that architects greetedwith enthusiasm. But finally the whole period turned into an exile of the profession. The main focus of Soviet architecture of that time was on mass produced housing districts. Administrative approach in the city development that was set by the country leaders gave the leading role to constructors and set strict design regulations. That was a hard period for architects that Belopolsky was trying to avoid by starting teaching at MARCHI. But he finally never left his job. His main works of that time were

2

СНиП 2.07.01-89* Градостроительство. Планировка и застройка городских и сельских поселений

МГСН 1.01. 99 Нормы и правила проектирования планировки и застройки г. Москвы

Microrayon gross density (плотность брутто)

400- 466 ppl/ ha (9-sto- 455 ppl/ ha (9 storeys; 6600 sq.m/ rey; 4200 sq.m/ha); 311- 355 ppl/ ha (5-storey; ha) 365 ppl/ha 2800 sq.m/ha) (5 storeys; 5300 sq.m/ ha)

200 ppl/ ha- 420 ppl/ ha

defined according to morphotype*

Microrayon development (застройка микрорайона)

based on unified or typological projects relevant to local climatic segmented into and “byt” conditions and clusters of residential buildings architectural demographic make up and spatial organization considering environment and local climate conditions

n/a

City planning characteristics are determined by placementin the city

Red line (красная линия)

incase offset from the main street red line min 6 meters entrance can be facing residential street

if first floor residentialwith an offset from the red line. if retail in first floorscan be on the red line. can be on red line due to local traditions

n/a

СНиП II-60-75 Планировка и застройка городов, поселков и сельских населенных пунктов

offset from the main street red line min 6 meters; residential street min 3 m

Owne h p n Ru m

14,5 sq. m/ person (for first phase of construction); 16 - 18 sq. m/ person (for estimated period); 23 sq.m /person (for reserved territiries estimation beyond estimated period) for regions with average family size less than3 ppl- max 18 sq.m/person; for average family sizeis more than 4 ppl- min 16 sq.m/person

18 sq. m/person for density calculations; population of city determined based on city development projection data considering demographic forecast of natural mechanical population growth and commuting patterns (маятниковых миграций)

according to category of comfort defined in (МГСН 3.01-96) 1st category- no more than 50 sq. m per person, 2nd category- no more than 30 sq. m/person

Microrayon Public Center (общественный центр)

club facilities and library, canteen, laundry, retail shops: grocery, industrial products, barbershop, tailoring, housing and utility office

Public centers of local importance may serve several microrayons located within the territory bounded by main streets of city importance.

n/a

The share of nonresidential construction in the amount of microrayon development shall not exceed 25%

Distance between buildings

based on fire regulations according to degree of fire resistance (table 9)

based on solar insolation norms, if 2-4 storeys- min 20 m between long sides, min 12 between side facades

п.9.19 if 4 storeys and higher-min 20m between long sides, min 10m between side facades. can be less if meet insolation requirements

defined according to morphotype

no more than 150 square meters

30-60 sq. m (excluding built-up area) for up to 5 storeys block housing (recommended prilozeniye 3)

n/a

Size of land (includ- n/a for houses higher than 2 storeys ing built-up area) around houses/ per apartment (Размеры земельных участков, выделяемых около жилых домов на 1 квартиру)

*Moscow has the status of a historic city, in accordance with the laws of the Russian Federation and Moscow City Statute. According to MGSN urban development in Moscow City should not lead to a distortion of objects of cultural heritage, as well as their perception. Certain criterias are defined arrocding to morphotype of existing built environment. See the list of morphotypes here.

a

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De e opmen o hou ng ma ke n Mo cow

m

Early 50-s Kuntsevo, Leninsky av. Gagarinskoe – Stalin’s block development with brick houses Late 50-s Kuntsevo – Stalin’s block development with panel houses Early 60-s Yugo-Zapad – rows of housing 1966 Strogino Gate – free site development 1982 Krilatskoe – free use of all possible patterns 1990 Severnoe Butovo – back to block development

Main Stages of Microrayon masterplan development (after Denis Romodin) ş ş ş ş ş

Early 50- Leninsky av. – Stroiteley str. (Е. Стамо) – blockdevelopment Mid. 50-s Novie Cheremushki. Kvartal #9 (N.Osterman) – blockdevelopment Late 50-s Himki-Hovrino (K.Alabian, N.Selivanov) – rowsofhousing Early 60-s Novogireevo-Ivanovskoe (Штеллер, Лебедев) – free site development 70-s Yasenevo (Yakov Belopolsky)

Floors

Area

Built area

4

51 500

13 400

Year of construction: 1926 Architects: ?

Till early 1990s, similarly to other Soviet republics, in Latvia microrayon is owned and looked after by the state. Residents voluntarily cooperate on maintenance. During early 1990s the process of privatization takes off and By the end of decade almost 50% of total housing stock is made avaialable for privatizaiton. Privatizing apartments also leaves an effect on land ownership - due to different forms of controlling adjaced land plots, the entity of microrayon is sliced up into a plot-by-plot-affair. Land plots acommodating residential buildings in microrayon are either: a) collectively purchased by owners of privatized apartments, b) p

Density

Residential Quarter #1295 has a multilayered masterplan composition. The distance in-between the buildings is very small that makes the courtyards cozy.

ALEXANDER NOVIKOV: THE SOVIET ARCHITECT

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ANASTASIA SHEVELEVA: UNDER ONE ROOF

IDEAL vs REAL: introduction

Comment by Alexander Novikov

The official goal of Stalin-era Empire Style architecture was to glorify the Soviet Union. It was designed by the former constructivists who did not willingly relinquish their ideas. Boris Iofan was one of the ex-constructivists. He took Yakov Belopolsky into a team for designing the Palace of Soviets. This was an influential period for the younger architect, who adopted Iofan’s design approach and constructivist thinking, which can sometimes be seen in his later works.

СНиП II-К.2-62 Планировка и застройка населенных мест

9 sq. m/person 12 sq. m/ person (for estimated period (на расчетный срок), 15 sq. m/person (for reserved territiries estimation beyond estimated period) (расчета резервных территорий на перспективу)

1990s:

The Soviet Architect

This is the article about Yakov Belopolsky, Moscow architect who started his career in the Stalin period and built his last buildings in the 90s. Soviet and post Soviet historical periods had its own goals in the field of architecture. They can be characterized by its own architectural approach and creative opportunities given to an architect. How did architect show himself, how did he act in a specific situation? And what did he finally come up with after the USSR collapse when architects found themselves in a creative freedom that they have never experienced before?

Category

Average provision of population with total floor area (Средняя жилищная обеспеченность населения общей площадью)

Main Stages of Microrayon masterplan development (after Dmitry Zadorin)

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

Introduction

MGSN 1.01. 99 Moscow City norms and regulations for planning and development

167

m

Owne h p o m c o a on n R ga

started to increase rapidly and reached the size of towns by 1980s. Then it started to slow down and then decreased to almost a starting size of the beginning of the century. The housing height increased slowly till 1970s where it reached a certain height and remained stable until now.

DALIYA SAFIULLINA: BUILDING REGULATIONS COMPARISON CHART

Building Regulations SNiP II-К.2-62. SNiP II-60-75. SNiP 2.07.01-89* Title Planning and devel- Planning and dePlanning and development of residential velopment of cities, opment of urban and areas villages and rural rural settlements settlements

Percentage of different generations in overall number of microrayons

By Alexander Novikov

This article is an overview on Moscow masterplan development during the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. It starts with a short analysis of the main tendencies and changes. Projects overview is represented in a chronological order. Every project is represented by its masterplan and additional information. This overview accounts masterplan as one of the main characteristics of microrayon development history. The overview starts with constructivism period. Various microrayons masterplan patterns were used. Apparently that was a result of a certain administrative freedom in housing development. Moreover some microrayons were built as a result of the competition wins (Havsko-Shabolovskii Residential District). The main element of masterplan development during Stalin’s period was a closed rectangular courtyard that repeated itself along the site (Residential District in Ugo-Zapad). The Khrushchev epoch started the new era in masterplan development. Masterplans consisted of rows of typical panel houses that were set around the courtyard Novie Cheremushki. Kvartal #9. Later there were attempts to create more complicated compositions (Himki-Hovrino Microrayon). Panel houses turning sections showed new opportunities. The masterplan composition became more complicated and got to the central focus of architects creative energy (Ivanovskoe, Veshniaki-Vladichino). Then the variety of building series allowed to create sophisticated compositions in volume playing with different height (Yasenevo). But still the basic principles of masterplan organization were usually based on the same principles where buildings where set around the courtyard. This idea almost disappeared in Severnoe Chertanovo where buildings where set in a natural composition. Later masterplan composition got back to something of Stalyn’s closed courtyards (Olympic Village). The Soviet period can be seen as a gradual evolution of microrayon masterplan. There were certain periods that could be characterized by specific tendencies in masterplan composition that were dependent on technology evolution or leaders decisions. Today all possible patterns are being used and it is difficult to find a certain tendencies in its development. Miscellaneous developing companies design a variety of microrayons. That distinguishes it from the late Soviet period where there was an entity of ideas and intentions. Today’s situation could be even compared to early constructivism experiments where there was a search for the optimal decision that showed random masterplan compositions. Masterplan analysis shows the slow growth of the size of housing districts from 1920s to 1960s. In 1960s the growth

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

Microrayon scale

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

M

166

The size and definition of microrayon changes more drastically- from 6-12 thousand people in 1965 to 25-35 thousand of people for microrayons in Moscow City in 2006 (based on 1989). However, while average provision of population with total residential floor area grows from 9 sq.m per person in 1962, 14.5 square meters per person in 1975 to 18 square meters per person in 1989,density of residential development in microrayon remains approximately within the same boundaries for the same number of floors: (from 311- 355 ppl/ ha in 1962 and 366 ppl/ ha in 1975 for 5-storey development) and (400-466 ppl/ ha in 1962 and 455 ppl/ ha in 1975 for 9-storey development) to unspecified 200- 420 people per hectare for mixed development as established in 1989. Average provision of population with total residential floor area today is precsribed according to a particular category of comfort defined in 1996. This unequivocally demonstrates the process of gradual raising the bar of the level of comfort in the USSR and relative liberation of regulations upon switching to capitalist market economy.

M c o a on ua on Kha ko Shabo o k

m

ALEXANDER NOVIKOV: MOSCOW MICRORAYON MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT

153

ş

Первый период Первый период датируется 1957—1962 гг., когда в Москве в большом количестве возводились панельные пятиэтажки, называемые в народе «хрущёвками». Это было время, когда одной из самых острых проблем являлась нехватка жилья. Именно тогда и было решено взять на вооружение технологию возведения жилых домов из готовых панелей, которая позволяла в рекордные по сравнению с кирпичным домостроением сроки возводить сравнительно дешёвое и достаточно качественное жильё. Благодаря внедрению индустриального домостроения многие тысячи семей в нашей стране впервые после революции получили возможность обрести свой отдельный, независимый «домашний очаг». К этому периоду относятся серии домов К-7, II-32, 1605-АМ, 1 МГ-300, II-35 и другие.

ASTIER, H., “France’s City Policy in Tatters”, BBC News, Monday 7 November 2005 BLAIN, C., “Team X, the French Context”, Faculty of Architecture TU Delft.

M

70

RUSLAN SABIROV: PREFAB PERIODS

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

By Ruslan Sabirov

By Błażej Czuba

verely criticized. A debate unfolded in 1945 - 46 around the competition for the preparation of pilot projects of residential areas. It was the first post-war attempt to approach the creation of a wholesome living environment. From the beginning it was marked by a desire to move away from the Anglo-American theory of neighborhood and to fit it into the overall concept of the Soviet city. During 1947, the word “microrayon” gradually disappeared from the professional vocabulary, because it was perceived, as a semantic analog of “neighborhood”, if not as an exact translation. Attempts to use the idea of microrayon at the XII Plenum of the Union of Soviet Architects board, held in July-August 1947, was also received negatively. Reference to Western city designers, who spoke about the priority of Soviet architects in the development of a residential neighborhood at the end of the war, were now considered as a scandalous political provocation. Soviet experience of the late 20s - early 30s, which really had a lot of value, went into oblivion again, and referring to it became dangerous. Along with the ban on the study and use of Anglo-American practice of housing construction, the search for new social and functional basis for the urban environment was interrupted. Despite the urgency of the public service districts organisation, these ideas were not in favor when the practice of building, city design and more generally, the future of postwar Moscow were discussed. The exception was made for an experimental construction of 4-8-storey type houses at Peschanye streets in 1947 - 1948. This new district included large parade square, parks, cinemas, schools, medical institutions, shops and other businesses services, which were placed in the ground floors of houses. The district of Peschanye streets preceded the creation of microrayons. This innovative project was even awarded with the Stalin’s Prize. As for the majority of new construction in the postwar period of 1945-49, most of it was done using a method of “ribbon-like” construction, or just individual “fragments” inserted along the existing highways and streets. Multistorey houses were built along red lines. They played a role of barriers, protecting the street from inner yards, or vice versa. During these years, improvement of internal spaces became quite formal, in reality. Design of buildings, yards and public areas was carried out independently. Only starting from 1951-1952, a shift in the practice of residential construction became marked by a shift towards a more complex planning. The most progressive aspect of construction in 1951-52 was this transition from “fragments” and ribbons to a quarter-baced city design. Residential areas of 6 to 12 hectares with houses built mostly aroung the perimeter

152

Prefab periods

Housing estate

By Nat Chamaeva

Microrayon is a relatively closed spatial unit bounded by highways, with a developed system of internal driveways. It provides a system of public services to satisfy daily needs of citizens. It is a primary unit of contemporary urban residential development in Russia (mostly on the free territories). Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary gave the following definition: “Microrayon is a complex of apartment buildings and systems of institutions of cultural and community services that meet the daily needs of the population. It is located on the territory adjacent to the highways, but which has no transit roads. Microrayon includes kindergartens, nurseries, schools, stores of essential goods, gardens and sports grounds.”

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

By Anastasia Sheveleva

huge residential districts Konkovo-Derevlevo, BelyayevoBogorodskoye, Teply Stan, Yasenevo, Southern and Northern Butovo, that were built up with typical houses. Some of them consisted of the repetitive microrayons, sometimes distinguished only by the facade color. They are usually blamed for it’s huge scale and anonymity of the depressing surrounding. But at the same time he designed such daring projects as Izvestiya Publishing House or World exhibition in Moscow that became an icon of its time, Institute of Information with its human focused inner space and delicate usage of natural light, memorials such as «Minor Land» in Novorossiyskor Monument-Museum in Lenino where symbols became a basis of the expressive architectural compositions of the buildings or forward looking Dwelling house of a new type ND-10 that proposed a completely new principle of a city development and included Soviet Union into a world architectural thinking process of that time. It’s hard to believe that all these microrayons and all these singular projects were designed by one person simultaneously. But going into details we find that architects job in the field of mass produced housing was diminished to a process of creating masterplan patterns out of typical buildings. Also the usage of random building series allowed to design interesting complicated formal volume compositions but the lack of human scale made it unpleasant to live in. Architectural competitions, public buildings and memorials was a small field left for architect’s regular job. That is where Belopolsky can be judged as an architect. Microrayons can be rather considered to be a creation of a Soviet system with its well-defined goals.

IDEAL vs REAL: under one roof By Anastasia Sheveleva

IDEAL

World exhibition in Moscow. Ordered contest. The second prize (1961)

Conclusion – Post Soviet period USSR broke down and released architects from ideological pressure. Most of the architects seemed to go crazy by the emerging opportunities and dived into postmodern experiments. Following his own direction Belopolsky designed Park-Place that was so pure and distinct in its modernistic style with even no attempts to be something of the fashion of that days. It has something in common with Japanese metabolic architecture of the 50s. But what was the reason to go in this direction in the 90s? Did he take it as a time for implementing older favorite and unrealized ideas such as ND-10 that he has been designing for three years? But the architecture of «Zenith»business center seems to be something of a new generation, something that has never been implemented in Russia before. Followed by advanced ideas of that time it has all the characters of a foundationally new approach. Twenty years have passed but even today it remains one of the finest examples of contemporary Moscow architecture. So here it is standing on the back of mass produced housing districts being Yakov Belopolsky’s last word on the back of the other’s words, representing his architecture that finally became free and so distinct from everything that has been done by him before.

This series of articles on the theme “Ideal vs. Real” is trying to show a correlation between the ideal concept of a socialist city declared by the mass media and the historically established reality of everyday life. All that is called ideal in these articles, because to us it is false and utopian, was, to the makers of it, true and existent. The real part of each article refers to the results of introducing the ideal plans into daily life. In the case of the microrayon the ideal plan consisted of well-connected assumptions about the future fueled by the good intentions of the planners to change people’s lives for the better and create a new way of living in the USSR. Despite good intentions, none of the plans could achieve the ideal: unpredictable, random things happened that revealed vulnerable “holes” in the plan. However, a plan is useless if it is not dedicated to a great ideal: without the mobilizing power of dreams, a massive building campaign is not worth it.

1. Experimental spaces ş ş ş ş

Under one roof No transport in microrayon! Flats for newly-weds Flats with furniture

One of the main ideas of the microrayon was to make a carfree space. All the infrastructure objects were to be in a pedestrian area, and underground parking lots were to be built for car owners. However, the concept was not implemented in full. A similar fate befell other interesting ideas, like constructing of two-floor apartments in panel houses.

2. Interior ş ş ş

3. Obshchepit ş ş

Mass foodservice Vegetables vs meat

The state planned to make eating out widespread, convenient and affordable to such an extent that it would mostly free people from cooking food themselves. According to this idea, the Khrushchev period saw the design of unbelievably small kitchens in the houses. Yet, these small kitchens are still present in our lives, while all the other attempts to implement the idea proved to be unsuccessful. The choice of meals in gastronomy shops and cafes was very limited, and lunches and dinners offered by family canteens never became affordable.

That is why an experimental concept of the public center in microrayons was developed in 1960s. In such a place everything would be “under one roof”: hairdressing saloon, valet shop, canteen, household kitchen, grocery shop, club, gym etc. In this scenario every resident of microrayon (even one living in the outskirt) would be able to reach this center in a five minute walk. In addition this concept would save money on construction.[2];[3]

The described concept in general was known as “Kombinat bytovogo obsluzhivaniya”- public amenities and personal service center.

Beauty — Into Daily Life! Household advice Dining table

Following the death of Stalin, even the interiors of new apartments bore the mark of Khrushchev implementing destalinization policy. With the help of mass media, books and national exhibitions, the state cultivated good taste in the Soviet people. “Nothing superfluous!”; “In new apartments-new furniture!”— these are the mottos of the period. However, the reality made its corrections: either new pieces of furniture were impossible to find or they were too expensive despite the efforts of the state to make them cheap and available.

117

Real

Usually services (grocery stores, shops, canteens etc.) in microrayons are either situated on the ground floor of the buildings or spread around the whole district. Both are extremely inconvenient for the residents because in one case it could bring noise and disturb people who live on the first floors. In the other case one has to make quite a tedious journey to purchase everything one needs.[1] “One has to do a lot of things: buy groceries in the shop, semiprepared products in the household kitchen, get children sandals repaired, drop off cloth at the laundry. And of course stop by the hairdresser to brush up before Sunday. To get it all done one has to spend three-four hours.” [2]

Drawing by S. Moiseeva

The idea was very promising and successful but the big question is why in these service centers state related departments (post office, bank, health clinic, office of civil registration etc.) could rarely or never be found. Adding those services to an “under one roof” concept would be even more time and energy saving for residents of microrayons. Over time, due to changes in economic and social situation doma byta were gradually phased out by hypermarkets, malls and private sector providing services to people. Today we have a huge amount of delinked firms spread around the city that are very pricy. [4] Right now we are where we have started. It is time and energy consuming to run errands. References: ş [1] 1959. “The place you live in...” Ogoniok, June 28, 13 ş [2] 1962. “Under one roof.” Ogoniok, May 13, 14 ş [3] Osterman, N. 1966. “Дом нового быта” Ogoniok, January 9, 26-27 ş [4] “Москва: спрос на бытовые малые предприятия превышает предложение.” Last modified October 13, 2008

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Patterns of customer value By Olga Sarapulova

In the 1960’s, the economist Philip Kotler changed the perception of marketing. For him, a product is more than physical. A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, or use, or something that can satisfy a need or want. Therefore,he identified five levels of product:

Core Benefit – the fundamental need or want that consumers satisfy by consuming the product or service Generic Product – a version of the product containing only those attributes or characteristics absolutely necessary for it to function Expected Product – the set of attributes or characteristics that buyers normally expect and agree to when they purchase a product ş Augmented Product – inclusion of additional features, benefits, attributes or related services that serve to differentiate the product from its competitors ş Potential Product – all the augmentations and transformations a product might undergo in the future “The transition to a new level means an increase in the value of goods for customers and together they form a hierarchy of value to consumers. It is based on the pivotal advantage - that the main service, or purchase acquired by the customer” [1] Ключевой ценностью жилья является безопасность, воспроизводство жизни, приватность и безопасность. Именно на этом уровне складываются определенные типы жилья, соответствующие образу жизни людей. В соответствии с набором ключевых ценностей жилья формируется второй уровень товара — наполнение ценности: стены, крыша, электричество, коммуникации. Ожидаемый товар – условия, на которые покупатель согласен: безопасность,тишина, комфорт, экологичность, инфраструктура, техобслуживание. Улучшенный товар предоставляет клиенту качества сверх ожидания: приятные знакомства, желаемый социальный уровень соседей, благоустроенный двор -

спортплощадка, детская площадка, бассейн, парковка, дополнительное обслуживание - охрана, консъерж. Потенциальный товар – это будущие улучшения и трансформации товара: развитие транспортной и сервисной инфраструктуры района, повышение престижности района, повышение инвестиционной привлекательности объекта

ş ş

ş

Потребительские предпочтения покупателей Москвы В качестве основных тенденций сравнительно молодого московского рынка жилой недвижимости можно выделить рост комфортности жилья (увеличение размеров кухни, повышение высоты потолков, строительство подземной парковки, обеспечение инфраструктуры дома и благоустройство дворовых территорий), дифференциация жилья по условным классам и расслоение потребителей на микросегменты, а так же повышение требований покупателей. «Все эти тенденции определяют развитие нового образа жизни потребителей, новых стандартов и культуры жилья, что отражается на динамике структуры потребительской ценности жилья на российском рынке.»[2] Потребительское поведение большей части потребителей на рынке жилья Москвы, не смотря на существенные социально-экономические и социокультурные сдвиги, сохраняет традиционные

OLGA SARAPULOVA: PATTERNS OF CUSTOMER VALUE

ценностные ориентации. При этом произошла принципиальная смена восприятия жилища домохозяйством от «дома как места для встреч и ночлег��» (советская формула жилища), до пространства для жизни с определенным набором услуг, обеспечивающим дополнительную степень свободы как личной, так и общей (традиционно сложившейся в России).[2] Более важное значение стали приобретать такие характеристики жилья как его безопасность, комфортность, приватность, отражение образа жизни, включающего уклад, уровень, качество и стиль жизни потребителя, что и предопределило необходимость их учета для понимания сущности «жилья» как социальноэкономической категории.[3] Согласно исследованию, проведенному Галкиным М.Н., покупатели рассматривают жилище уже не просто как место проживания, но и как закрепление и выражение своего статуса в обществе. В понимании респондентов жилище перестает быть просто материальным объектом, оно становиться сферой жизни, от которой они требуют определенного уровня услуг. При этом жильцы хотят, чтобы их жилище «росло» вместе с ними по социальной лестнице развивались услуги предоставляемые жильцам, усовершенствовалось само жилье.[3] Основные факторы, влияющих на потребительский выбор на московском рынке жилья, были определены на основании опроса московских риэлтеров, проведенным Макаров А.Н.[4] Основные из них - планировка квартиры, тип дома (панельный, кирпичный), этаж, удаленность от центра, удаленность от ближайшей станции метро, экологическое состояние района, “престижность” района, наличие в районе развитой инфраструктуры. Необходимо отметить, что при прочих равных условиях цена на квартиру зависит от наличия или отсутствия дополнительных удобств, которые включают наличие металлической входной двери, домофона или охраны, второго балкона (или лоджии) и т.д.

Близости станции метро и другого транспорта, в том числе – железнодорожного Удаленность квартиры от ближайшей станции метрополитена оказывает значительное влияние на выбор покупателя. Роль этого фактора определяется тем обстоятельством, что большинство жителей при передвижениях по городу пользуются общественным транспортом, наиболее распространенным и доступным видом которого является метрополитен. Возможность этого показателя не в последнюю очередь связана с плохим состоянием московских дрог, постоянными пробками, что делает метро необходимым даже для автовладельцев. Анализ предложений на рынке недвижимости позволяет сделать вывод, что цена жилья существенно различается в пределах одного района в зависимости от

273

удаленности квартиры от метро. Разница цен составляет в различных районах от 10 до 20%.

Экология района В последние годы возросло внимание потребителя к экологии товаров. Эта тенденция отразилась и на рынке жилья, что привело к росту значения экологического состояния района при выборе квартир.

288

CITIZENS AS CUSTOMERS: MICRORAYON FACTBOOK

Microrayon design in Soviet Riga By Matiss Groskaufmanis

Early microrayon design in Riga This article is synthesized from extracts of book “Contemporary Architecture in Soviet Latvia” [1] (1966). Few principles and ideology of designing microrayons in 1960s Soviet Latvia (and other Soviet repulblics accordingly) are exposed.

MATISS GROSKAUFMANIS: MICRORAYON DESIGN IN SOVIET RIGA

New forms of communal living Emphasis on new developments on communal living is also obvious. As an example, residential disctrict “Zone A” project is described from two contrasting proposals:

289

References: ş [1] O. Zakamennijs, Laikmetīgā Arhitektūra Padomju Latvijā (Riga: Liesma, 1966) [2] Laikmetīgā Arhitektūra Padomju Latvijā, p22 [3] Laikmetīgā Arhitektūra Padomju Latvijā, p20 [4] Laikmetīgā Arhitektūra Padomju Latvijā, p27

ş ş ş

schools were built from mass-designed projects that were not related to particular series of housing units. However, unity of aesthetics were achieved by using the same external cladding material as housing blocks (e.g. white brick)[3]

Spatial variety

The new urban logic of microrayon

Proposal by “Latgiprogstroj” institute emphasizes organization of family life and suggests that the level of comfort is more important than size of apartments (source:Laikmetiga Arhitektura Padomju Latvija, p20) Architect’s impression of new microrayon “Agenskalna Priedes” (source:Laikmetiga Arhitektura Padomju Latvija, p20)

Наиболее благоприятными с точки зрения экологии в Москве считаются те зоны, которые расположены в районах станций метро “Юго-Западная”, “Проспект Вернадского”, “Новые Черемушки”, “Крылатское”, “Митино”, “Молодежная”, “Фили”, “Багратионовская”, “Кутузовская”, “Пионерская”. К самым неблагоприятным районам можно отнести районы близ станций метро “Нагатинская”, “Нагорная”, “Братеево”, “Марьино”, “Люблино”, “Печатники”, “Черкизовская”, “Каширская”, “Царицино”, “Автозаводская”, “Бабушкинская”.

Экология района Наличие в районе разветвленной сети учреждений социального профиля, различных фирм, развитой сферы услуг населению, удобных транспортных путей и развязок, повышает привлекательность квартир для покупателя. Значение инфраструктуры повышается по мере роста уровня жизни населения и сопутствующего ему увеличения потребления.

Престижность района Роль этого фактора определяется, прежде всего,

Along with fundamental changes brought in at late 1950s, the notion of ideal urban block also was changed. Emphasis was shifted from qualities of particular building to spatial qualities of overall composition of buildings or the masterplan. As for one of the first experimental microrayons in Riga and Soviet Latvia, “Āgenskalna priedes” (first stage completed in 1959), there were four fundamentally new principles regarding its spatial composition: ş The original landscape is preserved - trees and topography is left as intact as possible, careful attitude towards environment is advocated, ş Buildings are arranged into clearly readable clusters or groups, ş The arrangement of buildings has resulted in broad, open courtyards and decent daylight exposure for all apartments ş Services (shops, kindergartens, schools etc.), for the first time, are located separately. Instead of being placed in ground floors of residential blocks, they are placed in vast spaces between the buildings.

Unity in aesthetics Despite the new, exceedingly rational direction of Soviet architecture in late 1950s, aesthetics in general were still important, and any minor changes in mass produced panels were celebrated by architects, attention was paid to nuances of external finishes.[2] For example, kindergartens and

By summarizing current efforts in microrayon construction, the author concludes that future developments are to be designed in close relation between building and urban scales. Apart from attention to landscaping, much greater variety in terms of residential block volumes is suggested - slab and point blocks of different heights should be mixed in order to achieve greater spatial diversity. Also free standing buildings are advocated as a mean to expand options of spatial configuration of microrayon.[4]

Proposal by G.Melbergs explores improvement of service functions and ways how consolidate residential and service into single spatial unit. (source:Laikmetiga Arhitektura Padomju Latvija, p20)

3


STUDIO WORK

Fundamental tool of the studio is customer activity cycle methodology that was used for mapping out the life-span of the customer's relationship to the 'microrayon' in a continuous loop. The activity cycle encompassed subjects from planning, purchasing an apartment to everyday life and maintenance, followed by renovation and an eventual move to another home. Each of these phases were then studied in detail in order to find 'value gaps' - things, procedures and services that are done poorly, unreasonably costly, ineffectively, or not done at all. Distilled 'value gaps' are then consolidated into main points of inefficiencies of the system to be used towards developing further research proposals.

Methodology

1. Find & Occupy — Low affordability

9. Exit

— Lack of offer

— Low return of investment in renovation

— Low expectations

— Low expectations

— Difficult obtainment process

— High associated cost for exit due to inefficient procedures

+ Certain realized pilot projects

— Limited access to funding discourages exit to better home

+ Existing government subsidy schemes

— Low residential mobility

+ Media promoting idealized higher quality of life

? Revival of apartment exchange tradition

+ Access to experience of life in developed countries

? Promotion of long term renting

+ Emerging legislation protecting buyer

+ Housing mortgage lending agency exists

2. Urban plan — Lack of vision and drive for change regarding urban planning process.

8. Upgrade

— Top-down urban planning without involvment of other parties

— Lack of relocation strategies

— Absence of productive competition due to monopolized planning power

— Lack of clear renovation options

d&Occup 1. Fin y

— Lack of co-investment 9.

E

— No clear framework of accountability for decisionmakers

2.U rb an

— No resident focus within current planning

an Pl

— Lack of storage during renovation

x it

e-plan 3.Pr

8.Upgra de

— No strategies for update and recycle microrayon

7. Maintain M 7.

— Utilities market distorted by state subsidies

6.U se

— Lack of customer control + Emerging trend of demonopolization + Growing collective awareness of citizen powe + Neighborhood based virtual communities + Emerging feedback quality systems service ? Online payment & analysis services + Marginally emerging promotion of sustainability

uild

— Societal inertia/reluctance to change

5.B

— Lack of sustainable/affordable solutions

ta ain

in

— Limited access to land 4.P lan

— Monopolised market of utilities

3,4,5. Plan & Build — Lack of competition in land & construction market — Intransparency of land & constraction market — High level of insecure risks on the early stages of planning — High borrowing cost — Complex, contradictory and rapidly changing system of legislation — Lack of accountability of bureaucracy — Desires/interests of customers considered superficially — Low professionalism in development, design & construction + Small share of co-op housing developments ? Pre approved type housing packages + Existing willingness of incremental improvements

6. Use

+ Marginal trend of developer also being maintaining body

— Societal inertia/reluctance to change

+ Existing platforms for developers

— Poor quality of offer of infrastructure

+ Existing educational programmes for developers & builders

— Inflexible offer of provision of spaces — Lack of community and trust ? Existing but inactive subcultures of microrayon

4

5


Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Nat Chamayeva Olga Sarapulova

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

cant problems we have cannot be solved at the same level of thinking with which we created them” Albert Einstein, theoretical physicist

In the beginning of our research, the interim purpose of our studio was to . So, we started with a study of the Microrayon, the existing model for mass housing in Moscow, by looking at the preconditions for its emergence long before Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev’s housing reform

with the same Microrayons with a slightly fancier façade. Having taken that journey, we were left with nothing. Microrayon appeared to be the best shot on the market,

Our next move was to take a powerful factor affecting many layers in the existing context and see what would happen if it was removed from the picture. We modeled a scenario for mass housing, in which the absence of such a factor caused another crisis, and discovered that it would features. But how would we get there without the pain of

it. Still, something was terribly wrong about it, and it had something to do with the embedded in it. So, we decided to go deeper, changed the purpose of our studio to and started from scratch.

and How to Get There)

First, we examined the systemic restructuring of Russian society after the Soviet era, and what it did to mass housing. There we discovered a chaotic interpolation of trends, which seemed contradictory on the surface, but turned to have logic inside. Gradually, a broader picture of mass housing crisis and its systemic causes distilled in our minds. (Part 1. Stripping the Microrayon. Tractatus Logico-Vitalis)

belong to emerging and potential market spaces. These are all promising seeds of development that are tentative and vulnerable at present, but may be exactly what is needed to make a more sustainable quality of life possible. Promoting, connecting, enhancing and accelerating them will drive a fundamental change of the housing system and set a new benchmark for the quality of life in Moscow. In the long run, the death of the Microrayon. No need to call on Dr. Crisis ever again. (Part 4. Skipping the Crisis.

From there we left with a question: How does this ongoing crisis affect the quality of citizens’ lives and their things visible. So, the next step was to forecast what would happen to the mass housing system if all its major trends and controversies remained perfectly intact for the next

6

trajectory in the near future. The result was a sharp and powerful picture of an “Inertial Future” waiting around the corner unless something big happened. What could that be? (Part 2. Existing Trends and the Inertial Future)

When we more closely examined the interim steps of an them already have prototypes in the existing system of

public awareness campaign delivering the results of our research, of which this publication is already a start.

7


Part I.

Stripping Microrayon. Tractatus Logico-Vitalis

Dr.Crisis, Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon Dr.

Part I.

Dr. Crisis Crisis,or: or:How HowWe WeLearned Learnedto toStop StopFaking Fakingand andKill Killthe theMicrorayon Microrayon

«

»

«

»

«

»

«

8

Stripping Microrayon. Tractatus Logico-Vitalis

»

9


Part I.

Stripping Microrayon. Tractatus Logico-Vitalis

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Part II.

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

How to Design Crisis: Notes on Methodology

Urban environment

Systemic crisis of mass housing is a mash, some things are visible and some are not. Many visible ones is known by everyone who has ever lived in a big city. Others are less evident, but there's nothing new about them for a Muscovite. Some are hardly known by anyone except a policymaker or an expert. And daily experience of citizens remains known almost solely to themselves. In order to make invisible things visible, and banal things - an assault on the eye, we've decided to increase the contrast of existing contradictions, ruptures, absurdities and oversights. This allowed major trends. We were wondering, where are they driving us to? We decided to choose most vibrant of the trends, pretend that nothing woulda change in the logic of their deployment and see where they would take us by 2025.

Communication

Positioning a magnifying glass of extrapolation upon existing trends allowed us to see the Inertial version of the Future. Then we tried to imagine what it would feel like to live there. The result had a bitter dystopian taste in it.

List of programmes Long-term target program "Residence" for the Moscow region for 2009-2012 http://rmsk.mosreg.ru/userdata/dol-48841.doc

Customer control

State program "Social support for residents of the city of Moscow" for 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/BIG_2.pdf State Program for Moscow "Development of municipal engineering infrastructure" for 2012-2016 http://mos.ru/documents/index.php?id_4=127259 State Program for Moscow "Development of Transport System" on 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/transport_gos_programma_depr_i_df1.pdf State Program for Moscow "Education for the Capital" for 2012-2016 http://mos.ru/documents/index.php?id_4=127258 State Program for Moscow "Energy in Moscow" for 2012-2016 and up to 2020 http://mos.ru/documents/index.php?id_4=127206 State Program for Moscow "Housing" for 2012-2016 http://mos.ru/documents/index.php?id_4=127271

Public involvement

State Program for Moscow "Moscow Sports" on 2012-2016 http://mos.ru/documents/index.php?id_4=127239 State Program for Moscow "Open Government" for 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/open-gov.pdf State Program for Moscow "Promotion of economic activity" for 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/Gosprogramma_Stimulirovanie.pdf State Program for Moscow "Safe City" for 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/Programma_Bezopasnyi_gorod.pdf State Program for Moscow "Urban Policy" for 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/Gradostroitelnaya_politika [1]. pdf

Citizen awareness "

"

State Program for Moscow 'property and land policy of the city of Moscow "for 20122016 http://mos.ru/documents/index.php?id_4=127240 State Program of Moscow "Development of the Moscow City Health (Capital Health)" for 2012-2016 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/zdravookhranenie.pdf The "Strategy of socio-economic development of the city of Moscow in 2025" http://www.depir.ru/content/c384-page1.html The strategy of socio-economic development till 2020 "Strategy 2020" http://2020strategy.ru/data/2012/03/13/1214585985/itog.pdf

Methodology of our research consists of three phases: 1. Extrapolation of existing trends around mass housing into the future 2. Prognostic scenario for alternative future to be achieved through a major system crisis particles) which can allow for this alternative future to happen without the need to go through the major system crisis

Passive Future Methodology of Extrapolation Vocabulary* Trend is basic element for extrapolation methodology. Extrapolation is a research and modeling methodology built around projection of existing trends into the future, as if nothing else changes in the system and all trends keep their pace and direction. It is not the goal of our research to give exact estimations of projected numeric data. We are focused on identifying the major underlying direction of trends that are well established, as well as emerging. Limit of extrapolation is the end date of prognosis. Development tendency is a certain common direction of development, its long term evolution vector. * Based on “Basic economic prognosis” by Gromova N.M., Gromova N.I., Academiya Estestvoznaniya publishing house, 2006 For our prognosis, we've chosen year 2025 as the limit of extrapolation. There are several reasons explaining the choice of this date. Currently there are over a hundred of various city development programs and sub-programs. Majority of them are limited by a 5 year perspective. Zhilishche program for affordable housing is looking at 2016 as its final point, and there’s no vision of what’s to be expected beyond that ultimate date. 2020 is the horizon for Strategiya 2020 strategiya vision by leading Russian experts on modernization and renewal, who are delivering their vision to the federal Ministry of Economy Development. Finally, Strategiya Socialno-Economicheskogo Razvitiya Moskvy do 2025 goda sets its final focal point at 2025. This is the ultimate “end of the world” date for Moscow. Nobody dares to project what may happen after that. els. By making a step further, we create our own vision of mass housing and affordable living in Moscow, if nothing changes and all trends continue their development in the current direction. Our extrapolation is built around 5 major trends that we chose for their value for the citizen and impact upon the whole system: 1. Amount and physical quality of living space

5. Citizen awareness and involvement in the urban development These trends are represented in an analytical format. Extrapolation is built around comparison of city development programs by Moscow administration between themselves and with reality. Major mismatches and disconnections have been discovered and emphasized by projecting them further into the future. Development trends poll results, as well as expert interviews and independent estimations are represented in the format of a newspaper from the future, from which we learn the impact of those trends upon daily life of the citizens. As a result of extrapolation, we have developed a vision of Inertial Future which is most likely to happen, unless something major happens and brings a transformative change onto the system. Quality of life in this expected future keeps going down, while the cost of living never stops to increase.

10

11


Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

Part II.

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

87 Microrayons

Part II.

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

100% wear of pipes today is how much by 2025?

More than will be built around Moscow by 2025

Zhilishche

Zhilishche

Moscow

Moscow Region

The goal of state program: To increase the provision of housing to

24.2 sq.m. per person in Moscow Region

134 000 000 sq.m. has to be built in order to make the announced plans come true

Igor Leonenko, head of Acive Citizens School.

Current situation

63

20% %

Gas supply

68% comfort class

Heating supply

25% economy class monolith + brick

36%

55%

panel

5%

References and sources:

12

88 % - 32 %

30 years

55 % 60 %

40 % Electricity

only

34 %

only

60 % 51%

Low housing affordability

1 Federal Housing Program Zhilishche for Moscow 2 Rosstat, Prognozed Rate of Moscow Growth by 0,73% a year + calculation error http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6619 3 Moskomstat, 2010 http://moscow.gks.ru/moskva/stroit/default.aspx 4 Federal Housing Program Zhilishche for Moskovskaya Oblast’ 5 Poll by FOM http://bd.fom.ru/report/cat/home_fam/hosehom/d071824 6 Most optimistic of experts (those who add a “grey” salary in their calculations) claim housing in Moscow is affordable only to the richest 5%, Strategy 2025 7 Нousing Аffordability Rate (House Price to Income Ratio) http://www. numbeo.com/property-investment/rankings.jsp 8 Analytical ballot by RWAY company www.rway.ru 9 MIC Real Estate statistics http://www.mir-realty.ru/ 10 http://www.rbcdaily.ru/2012/02/06/market/562949982738350 11 http://kommersant.ru/doc/501020/print 12 http://analitika.zem.ru/partners_text/3968/ 13 http://www.rbcdaily.ru/2012/02/06/market/562949982738350 14 http://moscow.gks.ru/munstat/mo/2010/Ясенево2010/29.htm 15 Expiration date for a typical P-44T series is http://dsk1.ru/houses/p44t/ 16 Poll on www.metrinfo.ru website

20%

45%

64%

only

96 %

business class

Water supply and sewage

60 %

54 %

2

%

55 %

65 % 65% 64% Collector network

2 % of muscovites

72 % of muscovites

References and sources: 1 Strategy 2025 2 Moscow “Heating Infrastructure Development” program 3 Moscow “Gas Infrastructure Development” program 4 ОАО Mosenergo http://solex-un.ru/sites/solex-un/files/energo_review/konsolidirovannyy_obzor_--problemy_effektivnogo_teplosnabzheniya--.pdf

5 Subprogram "Development and modernization of water supply and sanitation system and technical water supply in Moscow" 6 Subprogram "Development and modernization of the collector farms in City of Moscow " 7 Department of Fuel and Energy of Moscow Government 8 State Program for Moscow "Energy in Moscow" for 2012-2016 and up to 2020 9 Active Citizens School www.shagovec.ru

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Part II.

Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Part II.

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

If you want a place on a cemetery by 2025, better sign up now!

Buy one too, and you won't need roads" Boris Gromov, Governor of Moscow Region

Sergey Sobyanin, Mayor of Moscow to Vedomosti Newspaper, August 15, 2012

over

40 % of jobs

$

50 bln

$

73 place

1.3 mln

only

Major highways on the map of housing construction in Moscow and the Moscow region

39%

57%

only

34

46%

4%

only on

10 %

only on

1%

5 of 10 only

10 %

43%

81place

$

49%

4.5

mln

10

km/h

+

41% km/h

16 %

8 600 =

1 kg

0.6 mln

11

only $

22 %

100 minutes

5 760 250

100 km

only

10%

1

7 days

$

per

1 000

16 000

" "

References and sources: 1 GUP “Moskovskiy Metropoliten ”, http://news.metro.ru/mmnews2012.html 2 State Program for Moscow "Development of Transport System" on 2012-2016 3 Moscow Statistical Yearbook, 2010 4 Subprogram "Highways, streets and roads Network” 5 http://www.memoid.ru/node/Perspektivy_borby_s_avtotransportnym_kollapsom_v_Moskve 6. The number of registered cars in Moscow by January 1,2012, according to traffic police data

14

References and sources: 7 http://www.numbeo.com 8. Strategy 2025 9 Based on DublGIS data 10 http://www.memoid.ru/node/Perspektivy_borby_s_avtotransportnym_kollapsom_v_Moskve 11 Mechanism to Overcome StrategicGaps 12 http://ria.ru/society/20100702/251750868.html

1 CIA World Factbook , July 2010 2 Moscow Statistical Yearbook, 2009 3 State Program of Moscow "Development of the Moscow City Health (Capital Health)" for 2012-2016 4 State Program for Moscow "Education for the Capital" for 2012-2016

5 Moskomstat 6 Among the 88 largest cities in the world, Health Care Index for 2012, http://www.numbeo.com 7 www.mosritual.ru 8 http://ria.ru/moscow/20110512/373189277.html 9 Rosstat

15


In 2025 citizens are accused for extremism for demanding a better quality of life Citizen Involvement: Breaking the Waves

T

wenty-four years ago, moved by the

that took them silently into itself and drained

In return, citizens were given a ghost of order and promises of an improved standard of living.

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

“Nowadays the street provides a platform for coordination of interests. The Parliament in our country is a dead institution, so it’s reborn on the streetst,” said Marina Litvinovich, member of United Civic Front. “Someone wants to complicate the situation in this country and encourage instability. We should learn from the past and tell those who are blowing up the fear in the society, that they are doing an inacceptable thing,” said Mikhail Gorbachev, Former Soviet President.

As the years went by, more of kids, teenagers and youth witnessed or kept the memories of their parents during the times when the system

2007

with every new day?

by Federal Law on General Principles of Municipal self-government. But results of Public Hearings serve merely as recommendations. New Urban Planning Code of Moscow and Public Hearing Regulations state their goal as to consider the interests of individuals and entities in the process of urban development and protect human rights for a favorable environment and living conditions, but establishes no obligation to provide a meaningful response to residents’ comments and suggestions.

Public Hearing

By that time, information networks entangled

2008

matters remained out of their grasp and that

In the absence of direct elections of the Mayor of Moscow, a local TOS remains the only legitimate form of direct management and control of residents over their local environment. Strict requirements for TOS registration make them virtually impossible to create. Local district authorities demand that delegates to the TOS conference should be elected only on face to face meetings, passport information on 50% of residents must be provided each house must elect one candidate.[3]

system was so weakened and inert that it seemed not to mention the referendums (none of three

2009

returned again, gradually rising higher, getting pursuit of an improved standard of living,

First experimental committees of Territorial Public Self-Government Microrayon Brateevo. “TOS was an experiment to transform the political system in the districts and transfer the money from the budget or Microrayon to any entities outside the power of state. Its other goal was to control independent environmental and public housing movements created by the civil society. In fact, it was the suppression of the grass-roots protest movement.” [1]

The citizens were forsaking that fragile illusion of control and involvement which left a trace somewhere in the back of their heads. Their alienation from the system of government

1989 Top-down creation of TOS in Moscow increases their number by 400% over three months.

1992 Vertical structure of executive power in Moscow is established in the form of rigid centralization and subordination. After reform of Moscow territorial structure, 128 municipalities and 10 administrative districts are formed. TOS remains the only real power to oppose growing authority of city government and its local district administration.

16

Half a year ago, moved by the deteriorating

2003

1995 TOS is denied of a legal status, its decisions have no legal grounding anymore. Federal law “On General Principles of Municipal self-government in the Russian Federation” states that TOS doesn’t represent a body of state power [2]

1999 2000

1995

1993

1993

Yuri Luzhkov becomes Mayor of Moscow and stays in power for 13 years

Explosions of houses in Moscow and other cities. Panic among citizens who want peace more than anything. A change of internal policy course towards hyper-centralization.

Enactment of the Constitution. Suspension of TOS. Forced termination of the strike movement.

Vladimir Putin becomes President of Russia.

Local district administration gains power, municipal selfgovernment gets weaker. Amount of TOS in Moscow is reduced by 14 times. Overall, the process of “calming the country down” begins after a period of political turbulence.

2002

Municipal Self Government is put under larger control of the executive branch of city power.

Last elections of Mayor of Moscow directly by the vote of citizens. Despite all obstacles, about 300 to 400 TOSs continue to operate in Moscow. Deprived of the right to form a legal entity and participate in commercial activities, they suffer from lack of funds and space, passivity of the population, and total control by local district administration.

2005-2009 First “March of Dissent Marsh Nesoglasnykh) takes place on Constitution Day. Its agenda is political, leaders belong to established opposition. The slogans are “We want another Russia!”, “This is our city!”, “No to police state!”, “Down with the power of the KGB,” “Freedom to political prisoners!” It is followed by four years of protest activities continued by “Strategy-31” movement in support of the guaranteed right for a peaceful protest. Unauthorized by administration, protest actions result in mass detentions, violation of rights and repression by police, causing them to attract more attention and slowly grow in number.

1999

TOS operates under strict control of local district authorities. In most cases, it can’t be considered fully a structure of civil society. They were the fruit of a social role-playing game called “permission to riot”. And they were genetically related not so much to the society, as to the Russian government and acted on its behalf. Such quasi-social bodies become a permanent feature of Russian self-government system.”[1]

“Most of the comments and suggestions of participants of public hearings had nothing to do directly with projects”. They were sent to respective departments, committees, city services, institutions and territorial executive authorities to work out the issue”. Providing quality feedback to the citizen was not required by law. [4]

...something in the system broke. Or maybe it was the people who fed it with its blood.

Real expendable income in Russian, Rosstat

1988

A series of public hearings take place to discuss the General Plan and Rules of Land Use and Development. In total, 41 000 comments and suggestions were received from the participants of

2010 A benchmark for a local referendum is set at 5 percent of the number of registered voters. That could actually be collected by a small group of initiative citizens. But an overall analysis of legislative changes reveals a trend for a further ‘nationalization’ of municipal self government, a reduction of its autonomy and growth of responsibility of state, and centralized distribution of resources, which left more of issues uncovered by the local budget. [5] Strategy-31 movement at Triumphalnaya Square gathered 2,000 participants. They become massive, regular and as violently suppressed by police, as before. “This is an objective historical processes,” – said Stanislav Belkovsky, political scientist. –“I remember the mid-80s, when we talked the same way, sitting in our kitchens at home and whining that the communist power will never give up. But some time after - in hindsight – we realized that communism had been doomed, because this system had proven itself to be fully ineffective both economically and politically. Just the same thing is happening today.

Sergei Sobyanin is chosen Mayor of Moscow

2011

Part II.

Uralvagonzavod workers offer their help in the repression of riots to “protect our stability”. In their Manifesto against opposition rallies, they say: “It is those hip loafers from Moscow who appropriated the right to speak on behalf of all people. While we are working round the clock on our factories and produce goods that bring money to the state, they roam the streets, shouting about their rights. All of that without a slightest taste of the issues that concern real people.” Soon after their leader was appointed President’s Representative in Urals Federal District. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin warns about the foreign in Russian protests. [8] Many experts remain critical towards mass protest in its current form. “I do not want to get personal, - wrote Stanislav Belkovsky, a political scientist - but threequarters of people who stood on stage at Bolotnaya square, pursued their private mercantile tasks not related to the objectives and priorities of those who protest”. [9] “The most important social consequence of these political developments is positive solidarity. Urban groups - political, territorial, professional, and others - met and got acquainted. It is the emergence of real urban space in Moscow that we’re witnessing” - Alexei Levinson, head of the sociocultural research. “What we have seen in recent months in Moscow and other cities, But these rallies are a symptom of their own and a catalyst for a ” [10] “People are just tired, they have already crossed all the boundaries. People who are well dressed and earn a good salary, are going out onto the streets on Saturday and saying, ‘No more.’ That’s when you know you need a change “- said Yana Larionova, 26, a real estate agent. Galina Bogunets, 74, a retired factory worker, acknowledged that her life was good, her family healthy and prosperous. “We are not starving, of course, but the political freedom had evaporated.”[7]

2012 Putin publishes an article “Russia Muscles Up - the Challenges We Must Rise to Face” as a part of promoting himself before the President elections. He acknowledges that “over the past 10 years Russia has produced a considerable segment of the population - people who in the West are called the middle class. Their incomes allow them a certain freedom of what to spend and what to save, what to buy and how to spend their holidays… In short, the middle classes has begun shaping their real demands in but “there can be no real democracy until politics is embraced by the majority of the population, until [11] Protesters interpret this as a denial of the fact that they are already representing the majority of those who didn’t vote for United Russia and it’s time to acknowledge that Russia’s people is ready for democracy, real-time. [12] Putin is elected President of Russia. A new phase of protest begins by “March of millions” on May 6 at Bolotnaya square which gathers 8000-50000 participants. It is repressed with extreme, unprecedented violence. It is continued by a 1-month-long # OccupyAbay sitting and walking protest in form of an urban festival, gathers from 500 to 3000

“The problem is that the authorities do not really understand now, what to do with this story. And most importantly - there is no antidote for them in case political protest bonds with social protest, “- says the director of the International Institute of Political transformation of the political protest into the social.” [16] “The authorities and United Russia have lost the young educated urban middle class. The degree and forms of activity of that class will be changing, depending on reaction by the authorities. It’s like trying to stop streams of melting snow in springtime. Put Boris Makarenko, political scientist. [17]

ma elections, a wave of protests against its results runs across the city. An unauthorized rally on Chistoprudny boulevard on December 5&6 gathered up to 7,000 participants and was severely repressed. It was followed by a series of mass protest actions in the and strolls, top, according to the police) to express their criticism of the election results. Estimations of number of participants by the police and the organizers varies by tens of times. Gradually protest against the elections turns into peaceful mass protest movement against the governing power. It continues regularly on a mass scale till now. Police actions remain within legal framework, “Police Is with People” becomes a popular slogan.

Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

participants at different times and is constantly being pushed around the city by the police for violations of public order. On May 28, a group of people is detained on the Red Square for wearing a symbol of protest - white ribbons. Some actions happen without involvement of police, such as a protest stroll on the Boulevard Ring on May 13, 2012 by writers of a critical mindset gathering 3,000-15,000 people and followed by a stroll of artists. Gradually the political protest is turning into an on-going peaceful civic protest. Sergei Sobyanin offers to grant municipal representatives that would allow residents of Moscow to have more “Some of the municipal representatives have proven themselves wishes of residents. They should be given more power”. Those present at the meeting of municipal deputies, it seems, did not expect such generosity, which yet has to become a city law. [13] By amendments to the law on self-government, it is proposed to make it impossible to put a burden of state Strelka Institute starts discussion of a new model of public hearings, followed by a public discussion on desirable usage of river embankments. The aim of discussions is to process and make public hearing an inherent part of urban development. Amendments to the Federal Law “On Assemblies, Rallies, Demonstrations, Processions and Picketing” on June 14 increase the maximum protest-related offences that reach up to $9,000 for individual organizers. “A society which permits rallies and marches must protect itself from radicalism”, claimed Putin, who said he did not consider the law unnecessarily harsh. [14] “The

This is an absolutely irresponsible policy that has put Russian on the brink of a civil confrontation. But Yashin, one of protest movement leaders. Politics-driven civil protest of citizens gradually transforms into a socially-driven civic protest. On June 12, the second March of Millions started at the Bul’varnoye Ring and resulted in a rally on prospekt Sakharova, with 18000 to 100000 participants. “The source of power is its people,” read “Manifesto of the Free Russia” approved by the rally. – “Our struggle for political rights is associated with the struggle for economic rights. People have a legitimate right to peaceful mass protest in order to put pressure on the government and make it change. We are craving for a change at all levels of life” - Manifesto of the Free Russia Protesters prepare to demand a referendum for an early termination of city authority, due to the substantial expansion of Moscow boundaries and increased number of voters. [15] An all-Russia “One Day of Protest Actions” rally is planned for September 15, 2012.

“The era of stability in Russia is over. A change of trend is inevitable. The essence is in changed country’s social structure; the middle class appeared. And now it won’t go away, it will only increase in number, and the amount of its interests will only increase”- Anatoly Chubais, head of the Russian State Nanotechnology Corporation 18] “Recent events have shown that the new generation cares about what happens to their country, region, and home. The energy of the new is moving in clear, simple, practical actions. This so-called “policy of small things” is an extremely useful city trend,” said architect Oleg Shapiro, Board of Trustees Member of Strelka Institute for Media, Architecture and Design. [19]

References and sources: 1. Levchik, Dmitriy. Emergence of Public Self-Government in Russia: Territorial and Labor Protest Movements (1988-1993). Moscow, 2005 http://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/603/521/1219/Text_dissertation.pdf 2. http://vasilievaa.narod.ru/Tos/diplom/Kulikov03.htm 3. http://www.yabloko.ru/Press/2009/090105_msk_tos.html 4. http://gpinfo.mka.mos.ru/hearings/page00006.htm 5. http://dl.smo74.ru/Shirokov.2011.doc 6. http://www.nr2.ru/moskow/12/05/05/all/ 7. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/11/world/europe/thousandsprotest-in-moscow-russia-in-defiance-of-putin.html 8. http://kommersant.ru/doc/1838421

9. www.nr2.ru/moskow/12/05/05/all/ 10. The transcript of Lecture available at http://polly-journ.livejournal.com/187578.html 11. http://premier.gov.ru/eng/events/news/17755/ 12. http://en.rian.ru/images/17141/27/171412746.jpg 13. http://izvestia.ru/news/526013 14. http://en.rian.ru/images/17389/44/173894486.jpg 15. http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=805997 16. http://www.kommersant.ru/pda/power.html?id = 1939707 17. http://www.itar-tass.com/en/c39/417675.html 18. http://en.rian. ru/russia/20120601/173789866.html 19. http://izvestia.ru/news/526824

2012

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

2010

Existing Trends and the Inertial Future

2005

Part II.

17


Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

daily newspaper published in Moscow since 6 December 1923. This is the oldest evening newspaper in Russia, one of the most popular in Moscow. Every evening it tells readers about the major world and Moscow events of the day, including those that are not over yet. "Evening Moscow" promptly informs its readers about the major information on urgent issues from the government of our city. A FRESH JUNE 25, 2025 ISSUE ALREADY AVAILABLE!

36 men fell from overcrowdDr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon PROJECT TO BUILD ed platforms of Moscow THE NEW MOSCOW MEGARAYON Metro since the beginning of June IS DECLARED AN URBAN PLANNING The temperature of hot water next winter will be lowered from 90 to 30 degrees is announced the largest in Europe Non-payers for electricity will be granted an amnesty Elementary school teacher goes on hunger strike in protest of 55 students in his class. “Other teachers have a maximum of 40 kids in class. I’m new at this school, and they gave me 51! That’s not fair.” Why do Muscovites kill themNikolay Godunov, Professor of Moscow Transport Institute: “I see no direct connection. It can happen anywhere. I’m sure people kill themselves in other places,

declared the project to build the Megarayon on the territory of New Moscow an urban planning mistake. This was announced at a Moscow City Duma meeting. According to the mayor, for some reason, the infrastructure component was completely neglected in the construction of Megarayon. "But what's done is done. We need to think about how to save it from savagery and abandonment," – Sobyanin said, adding that Megarayon still needs to be provided with utilities, roads, public transport, schools, kindergartens and shops. "We have to make it work," - he said. The Megarayon project began in 2012 on the territory of New Moscow South-West which was added to Moscow to ensure its smooth expansion. The original plan was

COLLECTIVE PRAYER FOR A COLLAPSED MICRORAYON

place where they spend most of their day”

MISTAKE

to build over 130 millions of square meters of residential areas, which is almost ninety times the square of Moscow’s renowned Yasenevo microrayon. In September 2023, former deputy head of NIIPI Genplana Mikhail Krolevskiy said that at least 40 districts of New Moscow Megarayon would be completed by the end commissioned volume). According to him, by the end of 2028 the volume of built space per cent of the plan). In the end of January, the head of the Moscow construction complex Artur Kusnulin, said that the construction of New Moscow Megarayon" is scheduled for completion within 5 years.

STREETS OF MICRORAYON NOVOPERE ARE FLOODED WITH FECES On Friday, June 20, around 11 am, a water breakthrough occurred at street of Novoperedelkino, a hip artistic microrayon in the old heart of Smaller Moscow. wastewater mixed with feces and hours. All this time, water was unavailable in the homes of the residents and facilities nearby.

On Saturday, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill led the cross procession to commemorate the Cheremushki Downfall at the Jesus Christ the Savior Cathedral in Moscow. Accompanied by the clergy, the Russian Orthodox Church came out of the temple with the icon of St. Spiridon Tremithus. St. Spiridon of Tremithus is the favorite saint of Muscovites. He is known to help to sell or buy an apartment or other property. Through the prayers of St. Spiridon Tremithus legal issues concerning real estate are effectively delivered. The procession made three circles around the cathedral, accompanied by prayer, singing and bell ringing.

18

This accident caused a major dissent among the members of local neighbors committee. Anna Petrenko, 47, head of the neighbors “Wash Your Step” committee: “On Friday we always work collectively in the yard, clean the doorsteps and make everything look nice. And now there’s this dreadful stinking swamp in the middle of our yard. But you know, I heard this coming. How many times we’ve asked the local authorities to let us wash them away! Well, you know, all those migrants who are living in here, hundreds in one apartment, clogging up the system. I’m surprised it hadn’t happened before”, sh said. “A capital renovation of engineering in Novoperedelkino is scheduled for 2032,” explains Viktor Abramyan, head of municipal council. “We do what we can, but until that time, residents will have to learn to be patient.”

19


Part III.

An Alternative Future and How to Get There

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

A

lternative Future is one potential scenario for the system, which may be provoked by external and internal factors of change. To create our version of an Alternative Future, we have formation of trends in mass housing and quality of life in Moscow, such as state orders of housing in the form of social programs, high interest rates on mortgages, low productivity in the construction industry, and high oil prices. In our Alternative Future scenario we show just one possible scenario for the future, which takes could occur after a sharp and lasting drop in world oil prices. Why oil? High price for oil is one of the primary factors that perpetuate The Russian economy in general and Moscow economy in particular are dependent on export revenues from the sale of raw materials such as oil. Moscow accounts for over 80%

Worse Is Better or: Getting off the Needle Why do we need to model an Alternative Future? Imagining the future is a starting point for a holistic understanding of the status quo and building a strategy formulate one’s expectations from the living environment and critically evaluate the current situation.

than 50% of the total banking capital of Russia. The share of fuel and energy revenues directed toward Moscow in comparison with Russia as a whole is currently 50%.[1] The share of direct revenues from commodity companies to the Moscow budget exceeds 20%. Indirect revenues investment, consumer goods, etc.) are enormous, defying accurate estimation. Russia is not among the countries oil prices. Thus city government is dependent on external factors beyond its control. In the city budget for 2012, the revenues.

Government

253 1,7

Oil export revenue

doesn’t

allows

for

the

existing

programs. Botox injections of oil mask the systemic crisis surface

of

fake

prosperity.

Government programs are aimed at outdated standards and create no strategic mechanisms to improve expenditures for government programs for 2012-2016 are directed toward stimulating economic activity in the city.[2] The city declares its policy socially-oriented, but it is neither sustainable nor proactive. “A in the city budget is not returned to taxpayers in the form of public goods. It is redistributed according to the needs of social policy of the city and state. This situation is more attractive to recipients of social help, rather than active producers.”[1] In 2012, the city will directly spend nearly 20% of its budget on “target” social programs, which are not creating any motivation and provide no working tools to improve the welfare of citizens and overcome passivity.[3] The costs of city administration are growing, as well as the amount of bureaucrats in the system and the scope of their work, but the in decline. The “Open Government” city program does not provide a strategy to reduce the number of to the program, “the number of realize the scope of functions of the executive power of Moscow.” [4] A program for digitization of city services provides a good recent government inspection of its implementation for the period of 2008-2011 revealed that more than 4 billion rubles were wasted

is preserved by revenues from the export of oil

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

the planned system of electronic documentation has not been established. [5] Despite the pouring of money into the city budget, the standard of living has been decreasing, not growing. Moscow citizen’s real income has been going down for the past year, and the trend is negative Every third Muscovite earns less than 60% of the average income [1] . Every tenth is living below the minimal wage. Real cash incomes of the population remain stagnant. [8] Ultimately, it is the citizen who

Illusions of wealth allow the state to deploy large-scale housing programs. Large volumes, outdated quality standards and a non-transparent system of order distribution prefabricated panel microrayons at the expense of the budget) create economic models of affordable housing and create an obstacle to the development of a free housing market. In 2012, 20% of new residential construction is devoted to social housing. At the current rate, in 2014 every third apartment will be built at the expense of the municipal budget. [6] The state order is a “safety cushion” for and other oligopoly companies demand for prefabricated panels protects these companies from bankruptcy, which would threaten them in a competitive market. apartments, which developers are obliged to hand over to the city for free in order to negotiate an investment contract) increases the market price of property for the end buyer by 20-25%. Ultimately, city social programs are paid for by all taxpayers, most of which do not Government subsidies for housing and utilities, social infrastructure, road network and public transport, which are not tested for their cost to

stimulate

competitiveness,

service in these areas.

Level of welfare

Currently 23% of utilities fees and residential housing maintenance is paid for by the city. [7]

deficit proficit

2000

20

2010

2012

2015

Sources: 1 Dynamics of real expendable income in Russia, Rosstat 2 Oil export revenue of Moscow companies, Moscomstat 3 Amount of officials in Russia, Rosstat 4 Moscow budget deficit, Federal Debt Committee of Moscow 5 Interfax, http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=556274

A sharp and lasting drop in oil prices will cause a shortterm crisis of living standards, followed by an increase in of life improvement. Removal of the oil backbone of the city’s economy will create preconditions for “shaking off” and provide stimulation for market alternatives.De-monopolization of the housing, utilities and communal service markets will open doors for small- and medium-sized businesses that are more sensitive consumer preferences. Made evident by lack of funds, the ineffectiveness of centralized decision-making structures will give and civil control.Forced reduction of administrative costs, staff and areas of control will create a market space for new technological solutions to replace unfriendly city interfaces in order to improve communication between the city and citizens and use remaining Collapse of social programs will deprive some citizens from their dependence on the state and increase their level of responsibility for the quality of the urban environment and their own lives. Despite the short-term decline in living standards, citizens will gradually learn to demand more for their money. They will tend to make better-informed decisions and take more initiative to control the cost of living. As a result, our scenario of an Alternative Future brings us to the following conclusion. The from a substantial drop in oil prices because this would cut existing market, government and thus increase competitiveness. A painful short-term crisis followed by a period of “recovery” will provide the city more sustainable, costeffective and open to change, which will result in quality-of-life improvement in the long run. * Alternative Future scenario is based on analytical reports and statements by Russian experts on the prospects of the Russian economy in case of a collapse in world oil prices.

References and sources: 1 Strategy 2025 2 http://budget.mos.ru/gp_expenses 3 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/mbudget2012_010911a.png 4 http://s.mos.ru/common/upload/open-gov.pdf 5 http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/index. shtml?2012/04/16/485865

6 http://www.rbcdaily.ru/2012/02/06/market/562949982738350 7 http://grani.ru/Society/m.185512.html 8 Moskomstat 9 www.lenta.ru/articles/2012/06/04/oilprice/ 10 www.sberex.ru/article/64 11 www.kommersant.ru/doc/313411/print

Part III.

An Alternative Future and How to Get There

Methodology of an Alternative Future In describing our methodology for forecasting an Alternative Future for mass housing in Moscow, we’ve drawn upon concepts from the world of physics, namely refraction points. These concepts offer a metaphorical framework for analyzing the structure of the existing model, identifying its weaknesses, and uncovering promising directions for future development. Charged particles are local energy clots that can interact with each other particles A motionless solitary charged particle creates a very weak electromagnetic radiation. They are characterized by high adaptability and passivity. They play a minor supporting role in preserving existing trends and don’t tend to bring about new ones. Examples of motionless particles include inert citizens, local self-government, public hearings. Charged particles in uniform motion creates a stronger radiation. This means that an entity is locally stable and can pursue its interests to a limited extent without the strength or will to change the context of its activities or initiate a new trend. Examples of moving charged particles include small businesses, independent municipal deputies, For us, this means that entities and practices are drawn together by similar interests and common goals, which creates a relatively stable and Examples of include oligopoly companies, bureaucracy, local governing bodies.

the radiation emitted by charged particles. By waves we mean the dynamics of various components of living space, which result Examples of waves include increased state investment in social housing, increased budget for city government programs, lower purchasing power of the population. Field is the state of interaction space. Its intensity may vary locally, exerting waves. In the context of our research, is the actual state of a particular area of urban environment. Examples of include an oil-dependent economy, corrupt and autocratic administration, oligopolized mass housing market, poor communication among citizens. Properties of the internal and external factors, leading to its destabilization and the emergence of refraction points. By refraction points we mean possibilities for alternative scenarios to emerge. Emergence of refraction points can be caused by a critical mass of internal factors, such as which affect the nature of interaction and speed of charged particles and intensity of waves. Examples of internal factors include civil protest into a protest of urban citizens, systemic political reforms, macroeconomic stability, evolution in consumer values. extremely unstable and unsustainable in cases of strong external change, which forces them to either adapt or disappear. Examples of external factors External and internal factors of change serve as feedback for each external factor and subsequent activation of internal factors, major trends change their direction, bringing about a different result in an Alternative Future. In the scenario of one version of the Alternative Future set below, we see that after a short-term crisis, a different future emerges, in which quality of life gradually improves and the cost of living declines.

21


Part III.

An Alternative Future and How to Get There

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Part III.

The Russian budget for 2012 is based on a predicted oil price of $100 per barrel. 1.5% of GDP. Due to a record-breaking growth of energy prices «

»

An Alternative Future and How to Get There

Since then, budgetary expenditures have been revised upwards. One of the reasons for the positive prognosis was favorable trends in world oil prices, which remained around $120 per barrel for several months.

On June 1, 2012 the price of Brent oil fell to $98.95. The price of Russian Urals oil per barrel fell below $97. Since then,the oil price continues to fall. «

»

« »

"

"

References and sources: 1 at a press conference on oil prices and the Russian economy, June 9, 2012 http://pressria.ru/media/20120609/600385599. html 2 FBK on April 12, 2012 http://www.ng.ru/economics/2012-04-12/1_ perspektivy.html 3 http://lenta.ru/articles/2012/06/04/oilprice/ 4 www.lenta.ru/articles/2012/06/04/oilprice/ 5 www.sberex.ru/article/64 6 www.kommersant.ru/doc/313411/print

SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

where citizens enjoy more options for a desirable lifestyle, increased social mobility and customized housing accessible at an affordable price. 22

23


Part IV.

Skipping the Crisis. Design of Public Awareness

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

-

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Part IV.

Skipping the Crisis. Design of Public Awareness

Autonomous Boiler in an ApartBuilding an autonomous boiler room in an apartment building

solutions and high energy-saving

-

mentality of the industrial era

Ease of setup allows adaptation of the type of housing to

The savings are partly due to lower losses during heat delivery and partly due to the use of modern heat generating equip-

-

-

obsolete and out of favour with -

ity at night to take advantage of

legal interests of owners in -

-

state of housing and utilities tariffs and help them understand better how utilities and housing management works,

that will emerge in foreseeable do with new forms of property

Residents

Russian Housing Development model is proposed by Alexander for Housing Development will

Transport

experimental autonomous heating system has been set up advisory board in our house,

to meet the needs of the apart-

distinguishing features of their habitation provided by a system

renovation of the existing mi-

know, this advisory board is our -

underground and transport

-

business, supply equipment

and to the development of -

-

-

to stimulate long-term investment in real estate development

stronger position for the rayon

References and sources: 1 http://www.interfax-russia.ru/Center/comment.asp?id=319723 2 http://www.s-holding.ru/?ud=2 3 http://www.s-holding.ru/?ud=3 4 http://top.rbc.ru/society/15/06/2012/655233. shtml 5 http://www.yabloko.ru/shag 6 http://www.namiks.ru/ index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=1436 7 http://pokrovka-29.narod.ru/publikatsii/ dohodi_tovarischestva_sobstvennikov_zhilya/ 8 http://youhouse.ru/energosberejenie/ kotelnaya-dlya-doma.php 9 http://tsg-rf.ru/library/topic-1401/1801 10 http://ochakovo.zao.mos.ru/gos_prog/3.pdf 11 http://www.moskv.ru/articles/fulltext/show/ id/11997/

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SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

where citizens enjoy more options for a desirable lifestyle, increased social mobility and customized housing accessible at an affordable price. 25


Part IV.

Skipping the Crisis. Design of Public Awareness

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon

Part IV.

Skipping the Crisis. Design of Public Awareness

Towards a Model of Charged Particles Accelerator “The gross national product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education or the joy of their play.

An Alternative Future sounds rather pleasing, but how do we get there? The conclusion that the housing situation and other things competitiveness may prove itself true. But what should we do? Should Russia just wait until oil prices fall, then make it through

Oil export revenue

No, we believe, it shouldn’t.

Level of welfare

It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the in-

What we need is an engine that would take us into an Alternative Future another crisis. We call it the Charged Particles Accelerator. Charged Particles Accelerator build up a critical mass of charged particles and transform them Charged particles are singular and disconnected practices, each of which is too small and vulnerable to make an impact on a bigger picture and shift a trend. But when a critical mass of incremental practices is achieved, a snowball effect may take place, allowing for solitary particles to transform into constant components.

It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country.

After the image of an Alternative Future monitored existing practices around mass housing and urban life, looking for charged particles, such as examples of sustainable resident control, education programs and awareness campaigns and other things available already in 2012, but at a very small and fragmented scale. We have discovered and showcased some that we believe to have a transformative energy behind them. Their variability and adaptability create a huge potential for a and accelerated. Through this change, the desired future can be reached without the painful process of a major crisis. Charged Particles Accelerator is a shortcut to an Alternative Future.

It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile."

The next step of our research would be development of a Charged Particles Accelerator model, together with a strategy for its implementation in Moscow.

Robert Kennedy on Quality of Life, March 18, 1968

Public Awareness Campaign Dr. Crisis or: How We Learned to Stop Faking and Kill the Microrayon Nat Chamayeva, Olga Sarapulova

Re-evaluating Potential of Waste

Experience

Microrayons

Access Instead of Ownership by Anastasia Sheveleva Transitional Microrayon by Alexander Novikov

Elements of the model

Strategy for

A new brief for Microrayon by Blazej Czuba and Matiss Grofkaufmanis

"We envisage the projects of our studio as the very first steps along the road that bypasses the crisis..." Anastassia Smirnova, International Supervisor, Studio Citizens as Customers

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Methodology for quality-based Urban Planning

Integrated research on Quality of Life

Outreach to Moscow Government

Quality of Life

27


RE-BRIEFING KHRUSHCHEV’S DREAM MATISS GROSKAUFMANIS AND BLAZEJ CZUBA

In 1954, in the midst of post war housing shortage, Nikita Khrushchev envisioned a bold dream: a cheap, decent home for everyone in high-quality healthy environment of full provision of daily services. Half a century later the majority of the built environment of Moscow comprises of lifeless sprawl of high-rise residential suburbs with limited services around, weak transport links and few local opportunities. Microrayon, the product of the dream, today has mutated to ‘storage of people’. In spite of that, the concept itself is not to be discarded, rather the implementation of it. The Soviet Union left legacy of hierarchical space organisation and industrialised building machine that Moscow cannot afford to dismantle as it still provides the quickest and most efficient way to meet the soaring housing need. At the same time the product needs to change in order to stop the deterioration of the standard of life. However, the change does not start in factories but in the minds of those who make decisions, since they are those who impact the housing market. In Moscow, most of the panel housing is ordered by the city government therefore the real leverage on industry is in their hands and not the customer’s. Accordingly, we propose a transformative shadow brief to be deployed in the next phase of Moscow’s programme “Housing” starting from 2016. By not providing answers but a set of ideals, the shadow brief outlines an integrated approach to housing and planning policies, which, if implemented, should ensure long term planning mentality and competition between major developers. The programme potentially is a foundation for a new model of housing provision that goes beyond simple space allowance and offers holistic living environment and choice. Not a sleeping district but an integral part of the city that contributes to creating polynodal Moscow. Khrushchev’s dream rebriefed.

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KHRUSHCHEVKA

THE DREAM In 1954 Khrushchev gave a speech introducing a new model for building within The Soviet Union that had the power suggesting a manifesto for modern architecture. This speech was a brief that soon became law and revolutionised the way Soviet people lived. The vision, above housing for all, was of strong hierarchy of urban cells that would provide ideal equation of services within the city for all to be equal. The task was too great and the dream never came true in its entirety, only homes were provided but often remained void of infrastructure. Quality of dwellings increased throughout decades but quality of life did not follow the trend with commuting and spatial discrepancies rising.

INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT The path that the world on the other side of the Iron Curtain had taken was no different from the situation in the Soviet Union; enormous housing shortage of the post-war era brought projects of a scale adequate to the situation. CIAM (Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne) led the way into the Cartesian world of rational Modernist housing estates and new towns meant to accommodate people in idealistic districts of modern concrete structures, vast greenery and removal from the drear of XIX Century industrial city. Those ideals are all echoed in Soviet counterparts that in spite of having a different society and regime based on similar principles. The path of Modernism in mass housing left only tedious memories and detested fabric in many cities; CIAM principles were heavily criticized by MARS groups of the 40s and TEAM X of the 50s and soon enough were abolished within intelligentsia of the time1. Yet, the construction of the forthcoming decades brought a multitude of unfinished and badly managed grand ensembles, new towns, council estates or projects that were all infested with same problems: enormous social housing complexes had little chance to adapt to quickly changing realities of XX Century and urban renewals or immigration brought the least advantaged to live in places that never were intended for such habitation; peripheral location, lack of infrastructure and opportunities, boredom and unemployment led to imminent ghettoisation of dream projects that too soon and too often were demolished and still are. Whether this was a fault of a dream or its implementation is a complex field, however, lessons for Russia to be learnt shall be clear and even decades after the crisis reached Europe it may still catch new-built microrayons that only wait to become ghettos for the deprived.

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S

oviet urban planning unit, the microrayon, has in over thirty years become a standard model of development for the country’s legislation, industry and citizens. Yet, despite filling the entire empire with identical buildings and identical cities for their identical residents, the Soviets never managed to realise the dream that their urbanist theory wished for. The fantasy did not come true during their realm and yet the caricature of it is still being built today, with too similar products in too different a world. Neither the lifestyle nor legislation support the microrayon today, only a brand and sentiment are left in this hollow legacy of the past

THE CHANGE

On December 7, 1954 Nikita Khrushchev delivered a speech ‘On the extensive introduction of industrial methods, improving the quality and reducing the cost of construction’2. Its common slogan: “We are not against beauty, but we are against superfluity” speaks of a switch the country

machine, but exaggerated further in an empire pushing for progress. The ambition was very humane, it wished for everyone to live in descent standards that are equal to conditions in which all the rest may dwell. Buildings then had to be cheap so that the government could afford to give an apartment to every citizen. Stripping off details, simplifying and standardising design across the whole country were more the methods to achieve this task rather than ideological prerequisites. The speech, sometimes referred to as a manifesto of the new way of thinking and one of the strongest representations of modernist thought in history, may also be considered a brief to actual policy-makers for them to initiate a housing reform. The speech represented a number of values that were perceived crucial for the change to happen, a formula containing ideals rather than a sophisticated proposal. Not long after the brief,

First khrushchevkas of an experimental district of Novye Cheremushki in Moscow, image taken in early 1960s. The ultimate of Soviet housing supply was a minimum dwelling, an individual apartment for each Soviet family that should cost as much as a room in a Stalinist building. A great achievement of the time nevertheless, Khrushchevkas of first years offered very small flats in five-storey buildings set in green yards. Toilet, bathroom, kitchen and rooms were all brought to maximum smallishness, yet, the goal was realised to a great extent, and multi-family apartments have become a small minority within two decades.

MICRORAYON

URBAN PLANNING

The Soviets never managed to realise the dream that their urbanist theory willed for. The fantasy did not come true during their realm and yet the caricature of it is still being built today, with too similar products in too different a world. had experienced within next couple of years; inefficient classicism of Stalinist Empire was taken over by hyper functionalist rational style of the new empire of equality where once again each person was promised to have the same as all the rest. This time, to some extent the goal was achieved. Within 20 years since 1954 about 60 million people were moved to new apartments in mass-scale factory-made buildings. Khrushchev in the speech stated that prefabricated construction methods would be introduced throughout the union, ahead of monolithic concrete, as a more efficient and modern system, indicative of a symbol for a newly industrialised superpower. This was an emblem of the time, reminiscent of Le Corbusier’s fascination with a

(the speech) was delivered, an actual document was presented; ‘the resolution of the CPSU Central Committee USSR Council of Ministers No. 1871 “On the elimination of waste in the design and construction” became law on November 4, 1955’3. Within the five years following the release of the document, the change became imminent and prefabricated housing would be on site in the cities of the whole empire.

Diagram of organisation of a rayon with four microrayons. The utopia has never been realised in its entirety, yet, the part that came true in the fullest form is microrayon - the urban cell of mostly prefabricated slabs set in vast greenery of landscaped pedestrian yards with all daily amenities located at the doorstep. The model, similar in concept to a residential sector of the ‘Ideal communist city’ was envisioned as a vehicle-free zone bordered by main roads, in essence not much different from any other modernist urban paradigms. Microrayon, etymologically derived from an English ‘neighbourhood’ was proposed as a formula to satisfy all the daily needs of its inhabitants; hence schools and kindergartens were located within, in a format allowing children to reach them without the need of crossing any traffic routes; shops, sports facilities, a park were all there. Yards filled with vast greenery functioned as an extension of a utilitarian apartment, too often too small for a traditional family to spend all day inside it.

There has been no one clear system that would dominate the discourse on socialist city and the following concept, derived from an English edition of a late 1960s Moscow State University project on “Ideal communist city”4 only functions here as an example: 1500-2000 Residential Complex -kindergarten, primary school, grocery store 25000-35000 Residential Sector -academic centre, shopping centre, cinema, restaurant, swimming pool, medical unit 100000 NUS (New Unit of Settlement) or Rayon -large community park, socio-cultural centre with assembly halls, theatres, planetarium and sports facilities Large green belt between NUS Industrial Complex Scientific Complex -both exist at a centre of an NUS cluster and provide centre of administrative and scientific activities.

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INNOVATION

ACTUALITY The resilient copying machine of standardized housing of Soviet Union is still running. The industry, still too dependent on the state’s good and bad will, bases itself on the past system’s legacy of microrayon, of which nothing is left but a hollow sentiment. Architectural innovation is imitated by reinventing same series and packing ever more square meters in same apartment layouts. Public space, encapsulated in concrete panel ghettos of high-rise slabs, is even more standardized than buildings themselves. Despite limited efforts of subsidized mortgages and targeted social programs, it takes Muscovite 30 years to earn money sufficient to buy such a dream home, only that this dream is located kilometres away from city boundaries and jobs in a dreary 23-storey tower on a field of a used-to-be village.5

INNOVATION

Pre-approved design and standardisation may as well be the greatest innovations of Soviet housing; they may also become a threat, if taken too far. Very limited space for manoeuvre has a manufacturer of housing today since its design usually comes from a reincarnated Soviet planning instutute such as MNIITEP, a Moscowowned copyright holder of a majority of current design series. In an apparent race for square metres to meet spatiality of ‘Western’ apartments as the only indication of civilizational progress has been area size per inhabitant, which currently is at 22 sq m per person, aimed to rise to 24.7 in the next years.6 Currently certain efforts of updating the pre-approved housing series are evident, however, understanding of innovation does not reach any further than incrementally tweaking dimensions, floor areas or building height. Ironically, a one-room apartment a lucky Muscovite may buy in a brand new P-44T series building is not much different from what its factory offered to first customers of 1958 K-7 series.

AFFORDABILITY

Low cost as key justification for production of austere panel towers does not live to its expectations - apartments in rapidly reproduced concrete slabs and towers are still not affordable for most customers. Additionally, due to large-scale privatization of Soviet housing stock starting from early 1990s and lack of access to alternative tenure models, owner occupation is the option most sought after. Uncertainty, high interest rates for mortgages and distrust to borrowing are still preventing most citizens from access to decent housing, still 80% of residents are owning for their homes while any kind of rental market mostly exists in the gray zone of economy.7 Moscow city government offers various social programs for housing provision for priority social groups such as young families, relocated households or war veterans, however the volumes are still low and waiting list queues reach up to decades.8

PLANNING

Moscow of today is a city of monofunctional high rise suburbs; 92.7% of the population lives somewhere between the Third Ring Road and

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the Moscow Ring Road (MKAD) in an eternal sprawl of mass-produced housing slabs.9 Microrayon lifestyle is a thing of the past with parents driving their children to best rather than nearest schools and then shopping in huge malls, a new icon of each junction of MKAD, only to turn back and drive into the very centre where 60% of all Moscow jobs are located.10 Recent attempts to create local plans for the whole territory of Moscow may bring more control over service provision, however so far the reality keep getting more dreary with housing being built further and ferther away from the centre, offering nothing but few chain stores and chain cafes.

1960s

1970s

1605/5 DSK2

II 52 DSK3

P 43 DSK1

1990s

2000s

PD-4 DSK4

P-3M DSK3

state Timeline of innovation in layouts of orders oneroom apartments in Moscow 900 000m2 state orders 900 000m2

CHOICE

MARKET

Other 532 000 m2

P-44T 880 000 m2

P-55 187 000 m2

state orders 900 000 m2

private sector 300 000 m2

P-3M 270 000 m2

P-46 490 000 m2

CHOICE

KOPE 270 000 m2

Despite marginal attempts by developers to tailor apartment layouts for different households, sameness still prevails. Moreover, such an apartment is dissimilar from any other product on the market; there is only one layout, unfortunately far from perfect and it needs to be used by all, regardless of their lifestyle. The situation only repeats itself on the exterior, since no variations are available for buildings of one factory, and such may be many, almost 1 mln sq m of P44T12 is built each year, this means that at least fifth of Moscow new housing is exactly the same.

Total output of major of prefabricated housing enterprises in Moscow, 201113

Client share of country’s largest construction conglomerrate SU-155 portfolio in 201115 Source: "Kommersant", № 37 (4822), 01/03/2012

Source: "Kommersant", № 37 (4822), 01/03/2012

AFFORDABILITY

MARKET

The fact that housing is still being built in a way too similar to Soviet model is largely fuelled by short term feasibility of infrastructure behind it which still remains a great deal for contractors and the city. Sadly, those two have never entirely separated; Moscow Government tends to support the industry each time the hand of the market may try to reach it.14 In such “private state capitalism” no real competition may exist, especially if a considerable chunk of largest companies’ revenue comes from public sector contracts, with that number reaching up two thirds of company’s annual turnover. Accordingly the system itself supports its stagnating decay as absence of competition eliminates need for real innovation.

1980s

PLANNING

200 000 R 167 000 R

50 000 R

2000

2005

2008

2010

Average prices for one square metre of comfort class apartment in Moscow11

Inward tendency of Moscow’s infrastructure and people’s movement

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Afterlife of Khrushchev’s dream in 2011

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PROJECT PASSPORT This project proposes a brief for transformation of housing industry in Moscow and thus of lifestyle of people dwelling in its products. The brief for programme “Housing”, an abstract hypothesis, addresses the Moscow City powerhouse instead of any commercial entities, since this is public sector that remains the main player in the economy-class housing in Moscow, in our conviction holding a lever both economic and political that is capable of turning the industry’s decay upside down, should there be a will on its side. This is mentality of people making decisions that needs change and only then can physical fabric be altered.

T

he housing industry has a strong but complex relationship with the Moscow City Government as many leading figures in companies are also part of upper political circles. Moreover, some assets of the housing production apparatus such as the planning institute MNIITEP are owned by the city itself. The pattern is best expressed in the fact that housing orders of the city have sustained stable demand for factories’ output and allowed companies to stay afloat during turbulences of real estate market such as the 2008 recession.16 This relationship seems to be favouring companies more than target groups of citizens in need for housing. Moscow as a city can survive in long term without the immense output capacity of panel factories. However factories in order to keep running to be viable cannot survive without demand from the city. Also the low cost segment real estate market cannot sustain itself without subsidized mortgages and other allowances from the city. Therefore, this brief for the next chapter of the Moscow State program “Housing” is a powerful leverage that the Moscow City Government can use for achieving a new standard in the stagnant construction industry and own planning discourse.

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Moreover, federal and local governments have been increasingly promising better housing to their citizens; both the entities aim to fund the building of 2 million sq metres of apartments in the next 4 years as well as subsidise and stimulate purchase of millions more.17 Projected ambition of this extra-ordinary plan to generate new habitat for tens of thousands of people within next years is an enormously powerful tool to drive a change not only in accommodating people but also rewriting the diminishing definition of what microrayon is supposed to be. It is crucial to acknowledge that not only homes are to be generated as a result of programme, but also new districts as cells of the city organism that can potentially contribute to broader landscape or infrastructure, society and non-natural resource based economy. Recent changes in the political sphere of Moscow governments and willingness to highlight housing policy as strategic domain for the future of Russia are already creating momentum for a change of approach and method; however, what is needed is a non-decorative realization that housing is a much broader term than a social policy or construction method.18

FORMAT OF THE PROPOSAL

Brief addressing decision-makers of municipal programmes of development at Департамент градостроительной политики города Москвы (Department of urban policy of Moscow)

PURPOSE OF THE BRIEF

Formula for producing and managing affordable housing in Moscow as a vehicle for driving a broader change in residential real estate market and decentralisation of the city through adaptation of Soviet-created infrastructural and administrative framework of housing rayons to non-planned economy and society.

REASON FOR BRIEF PLACEMENT

In Moscow state-funded housing projects take the largest share of the output of affordable housing manufacturers, therefore their programmes have the biggest leverage to drive change in the industry and beyond.

MAIN OBJECTIVES

1. Strengthening the position of a rayon in a city 2. Diversifying the offer of services and properties in a rayon 3. Promoting long-term business interest through creation of a body of an operator.

PROGRAMMES TO BE ADDRESSED

Государственная программа г. Москвы “Градостроительная политика” на 2016-2020 гг. (Moscow State program for the medium term (2016-2020) “Town-planning policy”) Государственная программа города Москвы на среднесрочный период (2016-2020 гг.) “Жилище” (Moscow State program for the medium term (2016-2020) “Housing”)

STRATEGY OF IMPLEMENTATION

The programme, which is an outcome of thus brief, is revealed four years in advance for involved parties to adapt to new principles. It sets criteria to be imple- mented in tenders for public sector funded housing projects.

FURTHER STEPS TO BE TAKES

The programme is renewed every four years with current guidelines being evaluated and adjusted.

Envisioned re-briefing of Khrushchev’s dream, 2016 - 2020. Not against sameness but for diversity.

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MAIN POINTS The proposal is a hypothetical brief for the next stage of urban planning and housing development programme in Moscow and its surroundings. Building on the Soviet urban planning agenda, it is defined on quantitative basis of walking distances within each city unit. A 20-minute walk distance defines boundaries of the city. A number of inhabitants of 100 000 is equivalent with an average size of administrative districts within the city of Moscow and remains true to the theory developed under the Soviets. Rayon has its centre, large enough to provide diverse experience for city dwellers, reducing need of commuting to the metropolis. It is also a holistic model for management of building fabric well beyond its completion, therefore promoting longterm business principles. The proposal is no more than a formula on how to establish new criteria for urban developments within the city of Moscow and its principles are meant to be adapted to existing city fabric as much as the new one. The intended result of the project is for Moscow of sleeping districts to be by gone and the city in multitude of neighbourhoods to be emerged. LESS CENTRALISATION

OFFER EVERYWHERE Mix-use development becomes a principle of building with homes, offices and hospitality services happening all together. In addition strong assets of the central core businesses are scattered across the whole rayon, bringing more life and care to all parts of the city. Buildings have embedded flexibility that ensures that urban entities metabolise rather than remain as a finished unit once the developer leaves the site.

DIFFERENT HOMES FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE Russian society hasn’t been that polarised since the end of tsardom and yet the majority of people live in apartments not much different from one another. Availability needs to express diversity of the people and even a standardised product can provide it. Not only traditional apartments are available but emerging models that support lifestyles of urban singles or those who believe in a greater degree of collective living.

PREFABRICATED FUTURE Moscow of today is a mono-centric metropolis of approximately 15 million people. However, it can no longer operate under such conditions. A framework of 100 000-people-strong city modules is established on a basis of existing Soviet rayon formula19; those units become a city in itself, providing jobs, dwellings and entertainment, limiting necessity of leaving one’s rayon every day. The historic centre of Moscow remains a core of the city, however, not an everyday destination of every Muscovite.

Industrial production and standardisation of buildings remain a tangible legacy of Soviet Union, yet their model needs adaptation, even if the concept is to remain as the quickest way of achieving projected output today. Modern factories allow for production or any size and shape of a panel, high quality and efficiency minimises cost and speed limits nuisance in a city and severe outdoor environment. Building formula allows for a variety of programmes and home types to be fitted within the structure of the building being only a framework that can be adjusted to whatever the need and budget.

1800m

1200m

1200m 150m

150m

700m

400m

20 min

150m

10 min

10 min

FULL PACKAGE

20 min

1800m

700m 700m

400m 700m700m 400m

700m

1200m COMPACT DISTRICT

1800m

20 min

Soviet urban planning in Cartesian spirit operated in dimensions and distances; projects realised were defined in accordance. New city modules build on this heritage, 100 000 people share an area that encircles each unit’s core with a radius of a 20-minute walk; additional sub-centres of the module are established on the 10-minute walk equation, providing with basic functions for residents, hence being reminiscent in scale to microrayon. Patchwork of parcels of public land is inserted into private developments, providing space free from commercial interests.

BUY

BUY

BUY

BUY

RENT

RENT

RENT

RENT TO BUY EXCHANGE APARTMENT

RENT

RENT TO BUY EXCHANGE APARTMENT

BUY

RENT TO BUY EXCHANGE APARTMENT

10 min

BUY FLEXIBLE TENURE RENT

GREATER OFFER

RENT

BUY

The central unit of each rayon is a civic centre, public realm attractive enough to satisfy needs of local residents and visitors, with a diverse enough programme to give a job and cultural/leisure offer for different city dwellers. To cope with diverse expectations, different developers participate in building and maintaining of the rayon, making sure that monotony is challenged on large scale as only then the area can be attractive to businesses, since this is a diverse offer that catches their interest.

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BUY

Today’s management system of microrayon is a patchwork of incoherent interests. In the proposed model, different parts of the district are managed by broker companies offering integrated customer service, everything that is needed for one’s living may be provided by one platform that incorporates services of diverse businesses, ensuring the peace of mind of customers. A package reminiscent of tariff plans of mobile phone operators, giving the best value for amenities offered - from basic management to extra services: access to common utilities, co-working spaces, meeting and leisure rooms, goods home delivery etc.

RENT TO BUY EXCHANGE APARTMENT

BUY

RENT

RENT

RENT

RENT

BUY

RENT TO BUY EXCHANGE APARTMENT

Ownership is still an option, however, no longer the only one; the operator offers a number of homeprovision plans: simple short-term rental, long-term commitments or rent-to-buy schemes resembling leasing deals. It is easy to change a plan as well as to change an apartment within a realm of the operator. Leaving the operator’s system for alternative properties is also regulated and simplified to stimulate competition between those providers. The effect is increased residential mobility of residents.

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MICRORAYON SITUATIONS It is nothing but a stereotype to see microrayon as repetitive execution of same formula resulting in isolated urban entities brutally placed over whatever was there before and disconnected from the ‘rest’ city. In contrary, when materialized, the rayon almost inevitably settles in reality by deviating from the generic master plan creating a specific ‘situation’. Melting into other urban structures, the new district can materialised in multitude of forms and still follow the same logic of proximities and provision.

R AYO N Whilst the original concept for residential district hierarchy was a generic set of distances, zones and minimum necessities, the new model is rather a formula that allows for desirable diversity to happen. However, it does not give up the area to the complete chaos created by private developments and interests. A regular framework of public land patches acts as a structure that organizes the district and keeps it running as well as prevents chaos and anarchy of developments. Not one but many developers are participating in the project, ensuring that monotony of a single product and mentality does not take place.

METABOLISING CHAOS

RAYON CENTRE

DEVELOPMENT

PROXIMITY

In a sphere of private interests of different social groups and businesses, a patchwork of parcels of public land owned and managed by municipal bodies, is created within the rayon, ensuring that public space exists across the whole city. Those parcels may become sub-centres of rayon or simply parks, churches, community centres etc. Their task is to ensure that a private operator does not acquire omnipresent monopoly.

Not one but many developers need to participate in the creation of the rayon; winning a bid to develop land as a rayon comes with a set of strict quality regulations; however it provides virtually free land and favourable financing. With the current capacity of housing factories, rayon could be built in a little over a year, if all their output capacity was centred onto one development. However, to maintain diversity and competition within rayon no developers may invest to more than a third of its overall size.

POPULATION

Population of 100 000 people is proposed for a rayon as it is sufficient enough to maintain a vibrant civic centre and attract population and businesses, yet, small enough to remain walkable and comprehensible. Density is set high to make the best use of valuable land. However, to achieve it, rather than building higher one should also build denser. Today’s insolation regulations can easily be met in a very dense environment of 2.0 FAR (Floor-to-Area-Ratio) with buildings of 9 storeys, still providing more square metres than would a tower.20 High-rise buildings may as well exist; however, they are not to be the only possible option.

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The central element of the rayon, to which all the developments gravitate, is a civic centre that plays both the social role that Soviets envisioned for it and functions as an economic hub for each rayon, providing a strong enough realm to attract businesses of different kind to create their branches or headquarters in a rayon centre rather than a city centre.

Original concept of microrayon was heavily based on distances to services and hierarchy of those. The proposed model bases on those and suggests that even the furthest place within the rayon is within reach of a 20-minute walk to the centre of the rayon. Smaller sub-centres supporting some of the daily needs: shops, school, kindergarten, should be located within a radius of a 10-minute walk. Businesses also are an integral part of each residential complex, ending with functional divisions of Soviet microrayons.

BETWEEN BUILDINGS

Microrayon yard was a true incarnation of Modernist idea of free landscape and free public space. Today land more often is private and individual or affinity group interests are expressed more strongly. Space between buildings should have different functions and provide with different experiences, at times being private, semi-private or public. However, it may not be gated at large scale, remaining true to the original principle.

YASENEVO In the early 1980s about 220 000 residents were to settle in a greenfield location in the outskirts of Moscow and the location rapidly developed as a ‘city within a city’ containing a number of microrayons. The vast scale of district is reflected in almost symmetrical, geometrically perfected master plan bordering with one of the largest parks in Moscow. Intentions of master plan eventually shifted from generous shopping and services complex in the main axis of the residential district to two and a half kilometre long void - an anti-strip containing emptiness, car parks, kiosks and other improvised functions. Today, introduction of free market has filled some of the service gaps, however the broad empty halfsquare kilometre strip crossing Yasenevo at its main axis is still unpleasant evidence of unrealized parts of initial civic centre for the city within a city.

NORTHERN BUTOVO Finished in the early 1990s, the district was connected to the Moscow metro system a decade later, it therefore caused a thriving car culture. Twenty years later Southern Butovo is still an island of housing within a territory that is yet to be urbanized and connected with other more modern residential districts. The centre of district has a metro station and park, yet still offers a limited variety of local services. An array of primary educational and day care facilities crosses the longitudinal centre.

41


THE STORY OF SINGAPORE Singapore, a highly technocratic state with a portfolio of breaking citizen rights, has managed within a very short period of time to revolutionise its housing on a level comparable with Khrushchev’s.

OPERATOR

at a design stage, it is in their interest to obtain a good product, for only then can long-term return be sustained.

42

Before any development occurs, a local plan is drafted to establish a framework of future development zones, rayon centre and a framework of public land patches that should later form subcentres and other municipal facilities. Transport infrastructure is planned and partially implemented before developers come on site.

BID Each sector of the rayon is offered for development in a public bid for investment contracts. However, only parties that consist of both a developer and future operator, be it one or separate entities, are allowed to participate. This should ensure long-term thinking is embedded into the project. Land is leased for a symbolic sum of RUB 1 as well as a contract backed by the municipality ensures lower interest rates. However, considerable part of development needs to be housing in municipal programme as well as rayons land need to be allocated to multiple developers to ensure competition and diversity.

PRODUCTION Coordinated development system prevents an omnipresent situation of delayed investment in infrastructure supporting housing. No one may move in before services are built around dwellings. Upon completion of a bid municipality works with a developer to establish rayon sub-centres on a basis of public land framework, as well as basic functions within the development. It is also keeping charge on implementation of mixture of use within a development, a value to be the core of the project statute.

EXIIT A ND

FI

D

E AT

RE

80% of land in Moscow Oblast belongs to public sector21; land, consolidated by municipal agency, should become a basis of the development and a major bargaining power. Currently in Moscow about 1/3 of property cost is acquitted to land obtainment; in the proposal this cost may be levied.

PLANNING

N

N O V

Only a team comprising of both a building body and an operating one may participate in a competition for investments contracts to build within a rayon; this is the main tool to ensure that long-term thinking is imprinted as early as possible in the project. Since an operator is present

A model of an operator has set size limitations which function as an anti-monopoly mechanism. There needs to be a number of such bodies in each of the rayons, however, operators may and are encouraged to participate in projects in other parts of the city, therefore providing a greater customer basis and a greater offer for them. Together with strong participation of residents in controlling operators, this should avoid attempts of social control and exclusivity.

OCCUPY

LL

FROM DEVELOPER TO OPERATOR

Housing operator is a model for integrated service of residential solutions. Long term engagement and customer centric approach allows the operator to respond to key problems of Moscow economy class housing – low residential mobility, lack of affordable housing and lack of choice. Similarly to cell phone operators, it is an entity that provides an integrated service - flexible tariff plans rather than just products. At its basic level the offer of an operator would not go beyond simple maintenance of a building and its surroundings, however, additional services and space to use would be part of other tariffs.

Flexible provision of space and local opportunities of jobs, leisure and social care within easy reach from home. Variety of tariff plans are available to fit best into needs of residents.

E DW

The brief proposes long-term involvement of building industry into each new rayon established. In market economy a stable customer base of 100 000 is a potential for substantial revenue. Extended services to residential and commercial customers, diverse assets from rental and lease operations allow for broadening of the market scope of private as well as public investors, therefore providing with secure revenue regardless of a situation in the construction sector. Stimulating or enforcing long-term involvement ensures that a developer chooses solutions that bring them not only short benefit but also puts down costs or maintenance and upgrade that they become responsible for.

LAND

Integrated database of available apartments and expiring contracts is available for each operator and existing cutomers have a priority to switch apartment, is they will so. Roamning mortgage and rental schemes allow for simplified process of moving addresses.

AIN NT AI

PROFIT OF LONG-TERM INVOLVEMENT

To test new properties short term trial periods are available. Afterwards customer may choose from a variety of different models: rent, rent-to-buy, ownership. Government’s subsidized mortgage interest rates support the model.

Long term rental contracts still allow for renovation and reward customer’s investment in the apartment.

MARKET ENTRY Once the development is completed units should be either sold, rented or leased in rentto-buy schemes in proportion to be defined at a later stage of the project. At this point, if the developer and operator are not one entity, property may either be sold to an operator or remain with a developer, which together with an operator provides package to users.

M

Today’s mentality of quick profit and little consideration of the future cannot remain if Moscow is to develop high-quality environmnent for its residents. A new formula is proposed that ensures long-term planning is at a core of new developments and brings a more sustainable solution to production of urban tissue. It also outlines a business logic that would provide integrated management system which should terminate current hegemony of mess and inefficiency.

All the utilities are taken care of by the operator and one monthly bill is provided. Tariff plans are easy to switch from to adapt to changing needs.

PROVISION

METABOLISING

A developer provides an integrated offer of different services that bring together small or large businesses scattered around the rayon, providing a more economised formula as well as minimising hassle of obtaining and managing those individually. It may also have its own providers. Fees are fixed; however, package offer should be wide enough to address needs of different customers.

The majority of developments in Moscow stop changing upon their completion and do not have the capacity to grow. This way microrayon dies, not being able to adapt to new needs. Rayon has embedded space for growth and its master plan is flexible enough to adapt to new trends and requirements; this together with flexibility of building structure established future potential for any built entities.

The city had been known before independence as one of the dreariest places in Asia where people shared moist rooms in decrepit sheds. In 1960 The Housing and Development Board (HDB) was established by the government of Singapore to deal with the problem. The aim was to provide public housing to the majority of inhabitants of the island; today 85% of Singaporeans live in state-owned properties. To achieve the goal the government consolidated the land of the island in a not totally legitimate manner, however, achieved a strong position to build on mass scale. Each of the developments was thought of in a fashion of new towns, with first ones being 150000-180000-strong cities with all the infrastructure and services being provided at the same time as housing. Today public housing is even available to executives and the state builds high-end properties. The prices, though, still remain much lower than for private properties. There are many ways of how to enter the property ladder and different properties are available to different social groups, however, the majority of people (95%) own their homes on a basis of a 99-year lease contract. Buildings are managed by Town Councils, entities that have been created for the purpose of solely maintaining HDB properties. However, HDB remains responsible for upgrading buildings, should the need occur. HDB, although, a story of success, has had its faults: buildings and their complexes were too monotonous and sometimes all regions are made up of similar products. The organization also at some point could no longer manage its great housing stock. However, a recent reform in the last 2000s split HDB into smaller units that each manages one district.22 THE STORY OF REGISTERED SOCIAL LANDLORDS Concept of registered social landlord (RSL), originated in mid-20th century in the United Kingdom and is the most illustrative example of continuous private sector involvement in ongoing housing provision. RSL can take a multitude of forms, be it housing association, non profit companies, cooperatives etc. Its primary function is to provide housing in accordance to agenda set by local authority. Being an autonomous entity, such organization is still funded as well as held responsible for its actions and policies by the government.23

43


OPERATOR NETWORK

CUSTOMER

Wireless internet

Dry cleaning Home teaching

Greater choice is the main outcome of an operator for its user. The ownership model is rethought and new models are introduced that bring greater flexibility and affordability through increased rental and rent-to-buy schemes. Those tenure models are part of a package from an operator that, within different tariff plans, offers a variety of services within the rayon, proposing an economically sound solution with minimum hassle for a resident.

Digital TV

Local transit

Start-up camp

Mini golf course

Garage

Dacha

Insurance

Driver Parking slot

Car repair

Parcel of garden

Fitness class Storage room

Lifestyle coach

Tennis court

Swimming pool

SPA Sauna

Co-working space

DIY workshop

Gym access

Cleaning service

Medical care

Broadband

Laundry service

Nursery

Grocery delivery

OPERATOR #2

THE STORY OF IKEA In late 2011 the world’s largest furniture manufacturer IKEA announced a project of their own at a housing district in the East of LondonStrand East. The project aims at exploring innovative ways of organizing tenancy and developing residential neighbourhoods of the future. Strand East is meant as a solely long-term rental complex, providing an alternative to owner-occupation-dominated British market with rather dispersed buy-to-let rental properties. 24 IKEA is known as a company propagating Scandinavian values in their policies; their branches across the world try to embody modesty, community spirit, liveliness and sense of order, values that are also meant to be represented in the residential developments. However, as much as those values are appealing for new neighbourhoods, one may fear that an omnipresent operator like IKEA may create a totalitarian feeling and limited freedom. IKEA shops are an embodiment of a great spirit, however, also a definitely crafted space with an a priori scenario that each of the visitors needs to comply with. In the proposal presence of public bodies in each of the developments and strong community representation in operator’s structures is trying to ensure that quality of life is not orchestrated from above but is happening organically. What is a novelty in the country, though, is the fact that management is taken over by the developer as well, meaning that a tenant is provided with the majority of services by one provider only. The practice, sometimes too reminiscent of ‘public space’ issues of private shopping centres, is to give an ideal, carefully crafted experience to the residents, making sure that only right shops and cafes exist on site and additional attractions and festivities are held on weekends. IKEA, being the landlord, also promised to stimulate community-creation and create a healthy resident-mix.25

44

I

n the ever-changing society of today new affinity groups are emerging constantly, leading to an ever greater polarisation of society. Individualised society has recently awarded more interest to a notion of sharing of both services and spaces as a more sustainable and economically viable option. However, this belief is not represented by the whole of the society and the operator shall address the needs of all those groups.

TENURE MODEL

Property ownership has been and remains an established form of investment since it gives a feeling of security and stability and allows for a greater freedom within an apartment. Yet rental is believed to give more freedom of mobility (relevant in today’s society), less hassle at all stages of habitation and often-greater affordability. Let apartments in Moscow comprise up to 10 million sq. m, which is 25% of overall housing stock, however, more than 90% of them are not legally contracted;28 therefore, no protection is given to either tenant or landlord, which is one of many factors that have heavily inflated prices of such properties in the city. Rental should become a

OPERATOR #1

RENT-TO-BUY

A model this proposal is focusing on takes longterm rental a step further; a tenant has a right to purchase their apartment upon reaching a certain tenancy period or when the sum of rental fees already paid reaches the value of the apartment. This is not a new scheme, known in the UK as ‘right to buy’29 and used in social housing properties, it offers an option of purchasing one’s home on a below-market price when a tenant has been living at an address for a considerable period of time. Rent-to-buy is a viable alternative to a mortgageburdened owner-occupied property, providing a more hassle-free option for a resident that remains secure at their home thanks to a longterm contract; and at the same time it offers a potential of getting onto the property ladder with time, when the eventual price to be paid is lower than if bought in the first place. This is a win-win model for both the parties, since investor reclaims the cost on property and ensures longterm revenue and the customer eventually gets an own home at a price that he can afford.

The result is a system of greater accessibility of both services and apartments that offers them all with little hassle in one customised package. large chunk of the property market and institutional landlords should participate in creation of a diverse offering that remains affordable to the user.

LONG-TERM RENTAL

If rental market was legally established and both landlord and tenant rights were secured by law and contract one may hope the prices of let apartments in Moscow should decrease, since potential waste and risk decreases. Long-term rental gives a chance for a tenant to truly inhabit home and invest into the customisation of it without the risk of wasted effort and at the same time, allows for an easy exit from a property, should such need occur. It is also a model that can help reduce the affordability threshold that leaves most Russians without hope for a proper home.

OPERATOR #3

Single professional

one bedroom apartment rent

Young couple

Family

Elderly couple

two bedroom apartment

rent-to-buy four bedroom apartment

two bedroom apartment

co-working space

share of rent subsidized

laundry service

cleaning service laundry service grocery delivery

THE STORY OF BO KLOK IKEA is also a creator of BO KLOK prefabricated housing in the UK which is offering trial periods for potential buyers; for 6 months one may live in a new building, paying a rental fee, to make sure whether purchasing it is a right decision. 26 THE STORY OF BROMFORD HOUSING Bromford Council is one of few British social landlords participating in the government’s scheme on ‘tenant cashback’. It aims to give the budget for maintenance and repair of council apartments to interested residents, believing that certain basic chores can be conducted by them. Contrary to the concept presented in this document, it proposes to minimize management and give more power and responsibility to inhabitants. However, the result of the situation occurring is that fact that all the residents of Bromford have to be paying an identical flat fee based on the services that all the customers use. The scheme is a small step towards a tariff-based model that would charge residents for amenities and services that they need and use rather than distribute the cost of them all through the whole community.27

TARIFF PLAN BASED TENURE

The new generation model works with flexible tariff plans for provision of space and additional services. Rather than paying subsidized rent to the housing authority, utility bills to utility companies, each resident is to receive a single bill for their home that includes full or deduced monthly fees according to their eligibility within the Moscow welfare system. The result is a system of greater accessibility of both services and apartments that offers them all with little hassle in one customised package. The precedent of it is most evident in the market mobile networks. A number of tariffs for contract customers offer varying services that are believed to be profitable for both parties. Additionally, addons to packages exist as well as pay-as-you-go schemes for those that do not want to commit long-term. Such system is also to be used in housing management of the future rayon.

courtyard garden laundry service grocery delivery

Operator coordinates third-party service providers and offers the best value for money customised to needs of different customers; eventual product is cheaper for the end user and hassle-free.

45


NO PRESCRIBED VOLUME

BUILDING An end has to be put to the monofunctional and monostructural slab of microrayon, since it gives no chance for future alteration. A standard building does not have to mean sameness; today’s technologies in panel prefabrication allow for form and function of far limits, still maintaining high output capacity and production speed; unlike 1960s, computer can automatically calculate structure and its production, hence the cost of the customised product does not need to be higher than that of a copy. New series that allow for flexibility are key to functioning of future rayon. There is not a reason why a high-rise tower should be the only residential typology available. Even, if this is the cheapest model in today’s Moscow (this has not been clearly proven, for example flaws in the process of building steer the price up, not the building body itself). With a diverse society in the making, a built environment be diverse and does not have to cost more, leaving monotony no excuse. MODERN PANEL FACTORIES Today, prefabrication technology is much more automated than Russian factories are; computer software may automatically calculate panels needed for a project and their structural needs, essentially preparing all whole construction drawings by itself. Such units in modern factories are automatically placed within their production lines which are constructed to fit any customised model. This way the price of a project no longer depends on the number of copies that are being produced, they call all cost the same, since the framework allows for that.33 Investment in a modern plant is very costly, however, long-term return on it is ensured by its capabilities. Ironically, though, such factories already exist in Russia and still keep producing panel housing known in form since Khrushchev. Hence, even if it is crucial to invest in new technology, also the environment around production needs to be altered with legislative framework setting new standards and the market requiring quality. Otherwise inertia of an outdated system may not be stopped. THE STORY OF ATHENS Le Corbusier’s Domino housing has inspired a number of large scale project for creation of a unified system of housing in a city; possibly the most sophisticated of those was developed in Athens. ‘Polykatoikia’, a municipality-promoted model of reinforced concrete shell of a small footprint, became a symbol of Athens and many Greek cities, virtually taking over all the other typologies that could occur in the city. ‘Polykatoikia’ is essentially a building shell defined by a land plot and height regulations; it is usually a residential building with a couple of apartments on each floor, large balconies facing the street, however, it may be filled with any other programme one may require. The structure in here is nothing more than a container of needs that may occur through the building’s life; they can and are constantly adapted to new functions thanks to efficient and rigid structure.34

46

T

oday the system has advanced itself to the ultimate typology that is most common in municipal housing output – a slab-tower in a field. However, the tower does not have to be killed in order to bring back the human face of municipal housing developments. Neither highrise not standardisation are the problems; rather the quality and still variety of what is being built. Unfortunately, the one-size-fits-all belief has taken ground; on average three or four types of flats are available in buildings of each factory; and even then they do not differ between the competitors. Diversity of modern society should be addressed in the offer and several options should be made available for each budget. Typologies other than a sectional high-rise should exist in this segment and medium-rise apartment buildings, row houses and other high-density models have not been introduced.

SLICING UP THE APARTMENT

The way we dwell is changing and no longer does a traditional apartment satisfy the needs of all the people. An apartment as home should re-

maximum of adaptation to different needs and functional programmes. Load-bearing walls happen perpendicularly to facade, giving opportunity to easily refurbish facade, extend the room, or add a balcony. Grid of structure is wide enough to put an end to non-adaptable deep rooms of existing buildings. Eventually the building becomes a container of programmes rather than enforcer. The fate of today’s microrayons that never are altered cannot happen anymore. Rather than following today’s practice of filling yards with new buildings, buildings themselves are being metabolised, leaving public space for the people.

SECOND LIFE OF PANEL FACTORIES

The Soviet system has left huge legacy of complex housing manufacturing plants as well as expertise in prefabrication and strong mentality of belief in it;30 this valuable heritage, however, has not been adjusted to the current socio-economic situation and lacks quality needed today. At the same time any initiative of change is placed as a hostage to the situation – panel factories cannot be embraced

Building is defined by rigid and efficient structure that minimises costs, however, allows for maximum of adaptation to different needs and functional programmes. main the core of life for many, if not the majority. However, others may live in different patterns and those should also be represented. Small apartments, sometimes cells reminiscent of metabolist cubicles provide affordable living, with a variety of functions missing in the core being spread across a building where traditional apartments in multiple of variations, microflats, co-working spaces, offices, shared kitchens and gathering spaces exist all together. The building metabolises to adjust to needs of its residents, eliminating communal spaces or bringing more of them.

METABOLISING BUILDING

Permanency of historic cities and their evolution throughout the centuries, admired by many, should also be part of the development pattern of today. Long-term planning and profit return calculated for decades rather than years are principles for a higher quality city to be erected. Building is defined by a rigid and efficient structure that minimises costs,and also allows for

DIVERSITY INSIDE

Currently the most popular building series P44T has the majority of its wall partitions bearing load, making it impossible to make any change within and outside of an apartment. The structure of a prefabricated building, even if brought to maximum efficiency, must still allow for high adaptability. It should not prevent from creating apartments and other typologies within it. Therefore as an alternative it is important to take precedent from industrial buildings that at a minimum cost propose flexible space solutions because of their larger structural spans that can be filled with alternative programme. This way a small apartment may function next to an apartment that houses a large family, as well as next to communal functions such as common kitchen or co-working spaces.

EMBEDDED ABILITY TO CHANGE

since they are producing inflexible and dogmatic sameness but at the same time they cannot be killed because they offer the only realistic way to meet housing needs and higher standard of life in reasonable time. The change has to be gradual and it has to exploit the existing technology. There are already signs of interest in new prefabrication methods but also it is far from being implemented31. Therefore the most feasible way is to keep the existing infrastructure and use it to the maximum – and the principle of panel construction with adjustments can be used to produce considerable diversity. In this climate and this economic system the prefabricated method may allow for cheaper, better quality and faster production of housing. Panel prefabrication, despite its negative connotations of post-war housing estates, is returning in highly developed countries for those reasons;32 and Russia with its ready infrastructure may use that to its advantage.

If a building may be adaptable on the inside, it too can happen on the exterior; the technology allows for addition of balconies, loggias but most of all, non-typical extensions of the building’s plinth; small businesses, work-live units, attractive garden flats, hospitality services or just opening in building fabric should all be imprinted into the model proposed.

47


CITY

CONCLUSION

With the constantly growing population of Moscow, steps need to be taken to address its explicit monocentrality; rayon of a much greater service base should form a foundation for a network of nucleus that take the weight off the city centre. The formula envisioned should be applied to both the new-built developments and existing fabric that may be renewed following new criteria.

When envisioning a new way of accommodating people Khrushchev aimed for new Soviet cities to be a perfect habitat for their people. In reality, the dream was not executed to its full extent - districts of homes were built but not enough infrastructure to support them, leading to a surrogate of a city. Similarly, also the concept prescribed in this brief may only function when executed in full, otherwise it is destined to fail. In the speech Khrushchev talked of constant re-evaluation of housing products, however, practice lacked self-criticism; race for greater numbers prevailed and innovation was scarce. Actual review of results is what drives progress, not imitation of it. Ongoing production of housing cannot become a sustainable process if not supplemented with regular conceptual rethinking of possibilities.

SOVIET ATTEMPTS TO DECENTRALISE MOSCOW The issue of growing monocentric cities has been one of the domains in Soviet visions of Moscow. One of the first great attempts on the capital was Nikolai Ladovski’s Parabola project published in 193036; it advocated creation of a horseshoe pattern of linear expansion of Moscow in the direction of St Petersburg that would be an alternative to concentration of activities in the centre and building high-rises. A project never was realised in Soviet Union, however it heavily inspired Konstantinos Doxidias, one of the great master planners of Modernism.

Access to vast resources and up-to-date technology are not enough for the brief and envisioned model of housing to happen. Russian customers are not in power to change, neither politically and also mentally, since microrayon became their natural habitat. There is still strong and omnipotent power of state that holds a lever of change, however, the realisation and will may only happen on that level. Hence this formula, in its humility, addresses those in power, believing that, through deploying this brief, they can make a difference that may have effects comparable with the reform of Khrushchev.

Not long after Ladovsky’s concept, as a result of a 1932 competition, a General Plan for Reconstruction of Moscow was announced in 1935 that proposed the creation of a uniform urban fabric throughout the city territory based on a strong rational grid that was juxtaposed with the radial structure of the city that still was maintained with additional rings around. A patchwork of parks, administrative and public buildings was meant to be scattered around the city, easing the tension onto the city centre and ensuring activities happening in all the districts37. Neither in the times of Soviet Union, nor today has Moscow been a polycentric city; however, certain attempts envisioned in 1935 and later may be traced and eventually become a basis for redefinition of existing fabric to reach a result closer to the originally anticipated one. A number of institutions are present in the area outside of the Third Ring Road, especially in the South West; also a number of satellite cities have been built around Moscow with Zelenograd being one of the most influential. The fabric and potential foundation for diversification of residential districts already does exist in Moscow, however, it has not been implemented in full and unfortunately housing remains mono-functional, not providing services vast enough to become a city nucleus in itself.

Technology allows change but decisions are taken somewhere else. Each rayon is part of a larger network of similar entities; it may not function as a self-sufficient organism nor a network of such rayons only, still relying on city centre and other infrastructure. This same principle applies to existing structure of the city and the formula is eventually applied to the majority of rayons of Moscow.

PROJECTED GROWTH Moscow is already on a brink of congestion with its infrastructure used well beyond its capacity. The situation can only deteriorate if no change is implemented soon. With current trends of population growth at 0.75% per year official data is claiming additional 2 million people will live in Moscow by 2025; with such projection and government’s plan to increase space provision per inhabitant by 2.4 sq m new developments will be needed on massive scale and simply cannot rely on current patterns of using old infrastructure35.

16.3 mln 14.3 mln (unofficial)

1940

1980

2012

Projected increase in population of Moscow until 2025

48

2025

Synthesis of a bureaucrat of the housing production system 2011

49


CITY OF ACCESS

towards the new order of things...

WHY?

by Anastasia Sheveleva

HYPER-CONSUMERISM “The question remains as to where are we ahead in the future-escaping the isolation of private space towards more unprivate realm, or if we are about to face another whole new dimension of living.” [1]

The road to the project City of Access you are about to read started for me in January 2012 with the series of articles for the studio Microrayon Factbook. But it actually started in the mid 1950s with the beginning of a massive housing campaign when byt1 became the main concern of the state government and an extraordinary degree of attention and time was devoted to reshaping everyday living. Planners thought about how life in the new environment would be organized, focusing on what could be done to make it better, easier and more comfortable for the new residents. However, over time many of the introduced concepts failed for various reasons and some of the concepts stayed only on paper. This research for the Factbook got me thinking whether some aspects of the planned lifestyle should and can be reactivated now and in the microrayons of the future and what is actually going on in the everyday lives of people in the microroayon today. Therefore in order for these concerns to be answered I turned away from the historical perspective and archival research and became focused on qualitative research as aninvestigation of todays daily practices in Moscow microrayons’. By taking fieldtrips to different microrayons of the city: Strogino, Cheremushki, Mar’ino etc and carrying out observation and interviews with the residents, I tried to understand whether microrayon space creates an opportunity for people or limits it? I questioned how people manipulate, reappropriate, make and take up microrayon spaces in order to meet their needs? What people do in microrayon on daily bases and how these activities relate to one another spatially? An attempt to answer these questions was presented with the help of an activity cycle USE that was a snapshot of the various existing and emerging daily life practices in Moscow microrayons. It identified

the occurring process in everyday lives of the residents and current problems. It appeared from this exercise that a lot of problems and inconveniences are connected to peoples inability or unwillingness to communicate and share with each other not only thoughts but spaces, services and things. There is no more free space for people, relationships, and experiences. Over the years we built a hard shell in the microrayon that led to social exclusion and spatial separation of millions of people that are stuck in the cages of high-rise apartment blocks. Microrayon today appears to be “a river which collects urban energies linked to daily lives and pushes them towards individualism and fragmentations which, at times, explode” [2]. At home we trapped ourselves behind two metal doors and appointed a concierge downstairs to secure ourselves from the “outside intrusion” and the “real life” that is usually somewhere outside the microrayon. We live in houses where our balconies, closets, garages and sheds are filled with tones of stuff we posses but rarely or never use. Things we own fill up all our spaces and fill up our minds. “We have constructed a large part of our freedom around our “right to own” and our self-identity around what we do” [3]. Do we need these hard borders between Me and We, Inside and Outside, is erecting walls not sufficient anymore? Why do we spend so much time thinking about stuff we own and things we want to buy: apartments, cars, TV-sets; and forgetting about relationships and interactions with people and spaces? This realization led me to the project CITY of ACCESS. What if we switched from dominant ownership mindset to a new access based system? What if we could access everything we need in microrayon? Whatwould a new autonomous microrayon as a sufficient entity within the city look like?

The report you are about to read is an attempt to create the new model of consumption in the microrayon where access to services prevails over ownership of goods. The proposed model can be applied to the renovation of the existing microrayons and its resources and to the development of standards and recommendations for the new microrayons.

ACCESS /’ak’ses/ noun 1)[mass noun] (often access to)

2) [in singular] verb [with object] 1)approach or enter (a place) Oxford Dictionaries Online

In this project by the term ACCESS a type of consumption alternative to ownership is implied. An important feature of access in these circumstances is that the individual that consumes a variety of services or products doesn’t own it. The owner (that can be a state, municipality, businesses, private individuals etc.) in its turn does not use the services it provides for him or herself, but leases it for some rate or gives it to people in exchange for other services or for free.

-byt is loosely translated as daily life, is an ethnographic term relating to the totality of quotidian behaviour. It refers to every aspect of daily-life, from food, clothing, domestic material culture and family life. It can also be understood as the English world ‘lifestyle’ with the additional sense of the ideological underpinnings of quotidian behavior and material culture. [4]

1

50

After the USSR collapse in 1991 Moscow leaned toward new ideology: hyper-consumerism. International brands and garish advertising rapidly spread, facilitating the domination of the western lifestyle on the lives of Russians. Following the abolishment of state socialism in the postSoviet realm, Moscow developed a thriving sector of “owners”. Buying an apartment and furnishing it like the French palaces of the 18th century, or at least purchasing an expensive car has become a new obsession. Consumerism has led the city to the transportation problems, environmental issues, housing crisis and crisis in daily life of the Muscovites who have a constant feeling of dissatisfaction, unconscious anxiety and desire to «keep up with life» by buying more and more stuff they don’t actually need.“The old cities cannot accommodate the new generation of people and things. Even simple smart gadgets can no

Subsequently, the peasant community was able to maintain a certain harmony between the communal and personal interests. The daily life principles of the community were largely rational from the perspective of the individual and brought clear advantages. In the Soviet years the principles of collectivism were brought up to the maximum level and had clearly repressive nature with respect to separate individuals. From the perspective of the people, Soviet collectivism limited individual well-being and destroyed personalities. Therefore with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pendulum has swung rapidly to the side of extreme individualism. As a percentage of the population born and formed in Soviet society is reducing, a new balance of individual and public is being formed. Its main driving force - the principle of economic, social or now, the border between consuming and not asking questions and starting to take responsibility for our actions. There is one step that separates generation of hyper-consumers from the generation of rational consumers -“empowered individuals (if

where they live” [5]. ‘generous’ in many ways.” [7]

COLLABORATIVE CONSUMPTION In Western countries the problem of hyperconsumption has been actively discussed since the 1960s because it fails toraise quality of life and level of happiness and health. Additionallyhyper-consumption is damaging the planet. The growth of the population, climate change, exhaustion of natural resources requires new ways of accessing the planets resources in order to have a sustainable future. Subsequently thisis why the world is gearing toward new ways of living where hyper-consumption is phased out by collaborative consumption [3] or rational consumption. These styles of consumerism actions are based on access over ownership and sharing, bartering, lending, swapping, renting and trading are essential components. It’s a new era of accessed based relationships like: Zipcar, Ebay… [6] Russia is far behind the Western countries. We have just started an active discussion of this issue, primarily in Moscow. Therefore it is safe to assume that in the next years a big shift from hyper-consumption to rational consumption in all areas of life especially in the everyday life of the residents is going to occur in the city.

HISTORICAL PRECONDITIONS Historically, Russia has accumulated a vast experience of accessing different resources, an experience that was both positive and negative. Pre-revolutionary Russia was home to a positive example, - the peasant community (Obshchina). The Obshchina – heldone of the most amazing social institutions. The community not only effectively implemented land use, but also played an important role in preserving the moral and religious values.

With the realization of inability of further city development based on non-sufficient hyper-consumption model and changed economic conditions in Russia new perspective of rational consumption model based on access over ownership appeared.

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS Earlier access was given to the citizens by the state “top-down” and was fed by resources that the socialist economy was able to allocate for common comfort. In a free market economy, on the other hand, access becomes a type of business which is determined by a supply and demand relationship for such kind of services. “Top-down” mechanism of command and control is removed. The new era of decentralized and transparent market has begun.

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS At the same time it is a new era of technology. With the age of new technology, the idea of access has migrated to a virtual world:“our development amount that people want to add, share and express is increasing” [8]. We have reached the point where we can start transferring these principles back to a physical reality of everyday life and use technology as an intermediary. It can help to coordinate, scale and transcend boundaries. It can connect us to the things or services we want exactly when we need it. Unfortunately there is no simple data extrapolation to predict the precise future of rational consumption. No one knows how big, far, and fast it will grow. However it is possible to analyze historical background and growing trends that can help to indicate if rational consumption model based on access as socioeconomic phenomenon could appear and evolve in the megapolis like Moscow in the next years.

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ACCESS 1960s

OWNERSHIP 1990s

NEW ACCESS 2000S

In the 1960s with the beginning of mass-housing building campaign ordinary soviet people gained access to spaces and services. Families left communal apartments, basements or barracks and moved into new private flats. For millions of people this was the beginning of a new life. Besides, private flats residents of newly built microrayons allowed access to certain services that were supposed to bring a high quality of living: schools, kindergartens, stores, parks, libraries, household kitchens etc.

In 1991 Moscow leaned toward new ideology: ownership. Access to the main services like schools, kindergartens and stores remained however with a rapid growth of consumerism people started purchasing things they previously had an access to. Buying an apartment, purchasing an expensive car and shopping in the mall has become a new obsession.

"Our life will not become less comfortable, if we’ll use things that have idling capacity. Passing things from hand to hand is normal. Those who assure us of opposite either want to earn more money by producing things and providing services; or are just lazy to refuse wasteful habits that are damaging the planet's resources; or do not think about it in general” [11].

BATH KITCHEN

BATH KITCHEN

BEDROOM

BEDROOM

#1 APARTMENT

APARTMENT Home exchange became very popular in Moscow in the last years: groups in livejournal connect people who are interested in house swapping all over Russia and the world. Famous internet resource airbnb focused on peer-to-peer short-term accommodations around the world (founded in August of 2008) is working in the Russian market since the end of 2011. Couchsurfing (founded 2003) that gives travelers an opportunity to find an available couch to sleep is extremely popular in Moscow today.

#1 APARTMENT

Nowadays huge amount of stuff, services and spaces in Moscow is already being accessed: swapped, rented, bartered and shared. People willingly rent and lend instruments and equipment, swap clothes and apartments and even rent friends. events offer an opportunity to swap goods and services free of charge in order to build a community based on sharing resources, caring for one another and improving the collective lives of all[14].

SKILLS / FAVOURS In Russia we have a long tradition of sharing skills and favours among each other: everyone has something they want to learn and something they can teach to others.

SPORT / TOURISTIC EQUIPMENT

#2 SERVICES providing a high quality level of living and public services. 1 group of services: “facilities located within the microrayon and servicing only this particular terriory” [9]

SCHOOL

KINDERGARTEN + NURSERY

SPORT FACILITIES

GARAGE

PARK / GARDEN

YARD

HOUSEHOLD GROUNDS

TOT LOTS

2 group of services: “facilities servicing the residents of several neighboring microrayons.” [9]

CINEMA

LIBRARY

STORES RESTAURANT PUBLIC CENTER (grocery, perfumery) CAFE / CANTEEN

Experimental services: were planned to be in each microrayon, in practice appeared rarely or were not working as planned.

HOUSEHOLD KITCHEN +MILK KITCHEN

RENTAL CENTER

#3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

metro

52

#2 SERVICES providing a high quality level of living and public services

1 group of services: main services remained, however a shortage of parking spaces turned courtyards, playgrounds and thoroghfares of microrayons into unofficial parking lots.

SCHOOL

KINDERGARTEN + NURSERY

SPORT FACILITIES

PARKING LOT

PARK / GARDEN

YARD

HOUSEHOLD GROUNDS

“No cars within the microrayon” [10]

couchsurfing[13]

NEW YORK LONDON MOSCOW BEIJING

1. 3. 11. 34.

11.088 5.750 598 150

NEW YORK LONDON MOSCOW BEIJING

99.451 61.135 26.128 14.471

(2,4%) (1,5%) (0,6%) (0,3%)

A lot of firms rent out different types of professional equipment in Moscow: musical instruments, tools for construction, photo-video cameras etc.

2 group of services

CINEMA

LIBRARY

CO-WORKING

MALL

STORES (grocery, perfumery)

RESTAURANT CAFE / CANTEEN

Experimental services. After the collapse of the USSR due to changes in economic and social situation experimental services started to disappear: doma byta were gradually phased out by hypermarkets, malls and private sector providing services to people; household kitchens were phased out by kulinariyas. Rental centers became redundant due to a lot of disadvantages and growth of consumerism.

#3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

metro

PRO-EQUIPMENT

CLOTHES / THINGS SWAP

TOT LOTS

“DOM BYTA” GOOD SERVICES BUREAU

PRIVATE TRANSPORT

airbnb [12]

It is easy to rent bicycles, skis, skates, rollerblades, tents, backpacks, sleeping bags and touristic equipment in Moscow today. The trendiest is bicycle renting. Bicycles in Moscow are easily rented in parks, city center or in the sport equipment shops.

PRIVATE TRANSPORT

Children clothing and toys swap has been the most popular type of non-official swap for generations in Russia. It is a tradition with a long history. Nowadays a lot of goods swaps are happening in Moscow. A lot of these swaps are happening on internet platforms like http://otdamdarom.ru/ http://barter77.ru/ Or social networks like facebook, vkontakte, livejournal, twitter: http://obmen.livejournal.com/ http://po4ti-darom.livejournal.com/ http://vk.com/club19352446 http://www.facebook.com/rfmmoscow Besides internet resources dedicated to the new way of living a lot of events take place in the city like the “Really, Really Free Market”. These

Renting co-working spaces is becoming more popular in Moscow. For example art cluster Flacon offers place from 2600 to 9900 rub/per/month[15].

FRIEND The last and most unusual is a possibility to rent a friend in Moscow in case you are lonely or don’t have company to go to the cinema, hang out in the café , dance in the night club or just talk [16].

I can’t stress this enough but very important thing is to realize that in the new model of rational consumption-in the City of Access- ownership won’t disappear completely. We will always have to own things that have some intangible value for us like wedding rings, toys, etc. But ownership as a global trend is radically diminishing giving a way to a new access based system.

53


CITY OF ACCESS An access to services will allow us to choose, pick and select what we are “prepared to share and collaborate with and what we actually prefer to remain individual.” [17] This is a moment to discover what we want to access and what we still need to own, draw or erase lines between self-interest and good of bigger community, build or demolish walls between private and public. We can choose our own path through “river of access”. It will allow us to use services we can’t access today and combine them in the way never experienced before.

SKILLS LIBRARY

ROBOTS LIBRARY

There are thousand residents living in microrayon who possess certain talents and skills that can be shared. Some can repair old bikes; some know several foreign languages and some are excellent cooks. Residents can offer classes to others on any type of skill.

Residents have an access to a full range of robots in the robots library: they can choose from a big variety of year/monthly/weekly subscriptions or hour fees to access any robot from the list.

ADD YOUR CATEGORY

COMMUNAL BOOKSHELF

A turn to a new rational consumption model based on access to services will completely change our idea of the future microrayon and the city. When you walk into a room today, what do you do? You look for the light switch, right? You assume the walls have electricity even though it’s invisible. In the future the first thing you look for will be the range of provided services. In the future we’ll assume the microrayon has an access to it.

Access in the future microrayons is provided by the operators which instantly take care of residents and offer a variety of subscription plans to serve ones needs. Tariff plans can be adjusted any time. Residents are free to upgrade, switch to another tariff plan or radically to a different operator.

WORKING

FARMERS’ MARKET

POP-UP APARTMENT RESTAURANT

WORK.

54

EATING COMMUT. RECREATION

LIVING SPORT RECREATION EATING ENTAIRT.

SCHOOL

LIBRARY

OFFICE BBQ AREA CO-WORKING SPACE

CAR

COMMUNITY OWNED STORE LOCAL CAFES

DINNING ROOM

LAUNDRY CO-LUNCHING CO-BRANCHING CO-DINING

BICYCLE

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

COMMUNAL KITCHEN

INTERNET TELEPHONE

COMMUTING

ELECTRICITY

STORAGE SPACE

SEAGWAY

SPACE WATERCRAFT AIRCRAFT

AIRCONDITIONING

HOUSE INFR.

LIVING

GUEST ROOM HOTEL

SMOKING SHELTER

HEATING

JYM SEWAGE WASTE MEDICAL POINT

WATER

SPORT APARTMENT

HEALTH PLAY/SPORTGROUNDS

SEX

FAVOUR BANK Microrayon favourbank is an interface between the person who wants a favour and the person who is ready to extend a favour. Internet website and an application for the mobile device are the platform for searching and placing favours. Favors are extended physically or virtually connecting people from the same neighborhood or other microrayons of Moscow.

City of Access will allow us to combine services we couldn’t access before. EDUC.

KINDERGARTEN

GREENHOUSE

YARD

COMMUNAL LOUNGE

POP-UP MUSEUM GALLERY

LIVING

EDUCATION

WORKSHOP

EATING The new microrayon will function as it was originally intended - an autonomous self-sufficient entity within the city, as the , that attracts as many and as diverse services, functions and experiences as possible. Each resident choose its own way through the “river of access.” The big challenge for the society in this city is to balance the interest of the individuals and the group and not to let self-interest to outweigh the collective good. In other words citizens need to avoid tragedy of the commons “where an individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers” [18]. residents realize and mutually agree upon the fact that by giving more or restrict themselves from getting more they enable value to expand in return.

STUDY ROOM

HEALTH SPORT EATING

LESURE RECREATION

PETS PARK

FESTS

CONCERTS

COMMUNAL GARDEN

PETS LIBRARY POP-UP CINEMA

POP-UP THEATRE PLAYROOM

See the next page

GOODS LIBRARY PARK

CULTURE ENTAIRTAINING

LIBRARIES

PHARMACY

Allows residents to borrow tools, equipment and other goods. Library functions either similar to a rental shop, with a charge for borrowing the tools, or more commonly free of charge as a form of community sharing. Residents can save money and resources by sharing goods with neighbors.

For the microrayon residents who are big pets fans but don't have enough time to make a long-term commitment, or whose relatives have animal allergies, microrayon pets library is offering a desirable access to animals. The library provides local access to an eclectic array of domestic animals for periods ranging from just a few hours to a number of days. Local drop-off and collection within the microrayon is available. All the pets for hire are rescued ond have been rehomed to a pets center, where they are well looked after.

55


ACCESS TIMELINE

Microrayon 1960s.

Microrayon 1990s.

1960

1990

Microrayon 2030s.

Microrayon 2050s.

...

2012 ...

Changes in the level of access in the historical perspective could be traced through the conventional "access index " - the share of goods or services consumed by an individual or social group at a time without acquiring such a property.

acces

hard grid 1960

2012

2030

This index is inversely proportional to the "ownership index". The problem of computing the indexes of access and ownership, as well as predicting their dynamics could be an interesting challenge for sociologists or economists.

...

Ownership, index =0.9

56

Access sprawl, index =0.3

Access sprawl, index =0.9

57


ACCESS SCALE URBAN SCALE The most important and relevant aspect in the City of Access is the new environment the whole scale of which is based on a human being: “the people are what make a city, what creates vibrancy and energy… people whose common biography and being is reflected in even the cities smallest detail”[19]. Environment that allows living in a harmony with each other and in balance with nature: greenery between the buildings, parks for animals, renewable energy sources, recycling centers, new system of access based infrastructure that includes cars, bicycles, segways, water and even aircrafts.

ARCHITECTURAL SCALE In the City of Access big changes are going to occur in the architectural scale as well. It’s not just about the building or the apartment anymore; it is about what we actually need to access on this scale that we now have to own in our homes. An access to the apartment that is connected to the variety of services and spaces outside of it is granted to all the residents. The services like communal facilities that include kitchens, laundry rooms, storage spaces, hotels, smoking shelters, play rooms etc are spread around the building (see the next page).

PERSONAL SCALE We possess a lot of things and skills that have “idling capacity”[3]. We keep the stuff we own locked into the table draws, closets and balconies. We keep our skills and talents inside. City of Access can help future communities easily establish a variety of local lending libraries to serve as neighborhood sharing hubs. Each resident has an access to this network: goods, pets, robots, skill share library, favour bank etc. There everybody can lend or rent things, exchange services and skills. Each of the citizens in this system carries a reputation that is made up of his or her record of participation and social engagement and contribution to the community. The reputation acts as an indicator for risks. The better reputation means lower risk, lower risk means lower cost and higher social value for the neighbors, community and neighborhood itself.

PETS PARK Pet owners can access microrayon resources for animals: free open parks, training grounds, waste stations with plastic bag dispensers and cans etc. This “animal friendly microrayon” project is supported by an educational program and creation of an “animal welcome map” of the area.

architectural scale

urban scale

"Human scale was true building scale. ... What other scale could I use?" [20]. Access in the CITY happens on three interconnected scales: urban, architectural and personal. It is granted to everybody despite territorial residency, religion, gender or race. A smooth transition from one scale of access to another gives citizens a continuity of experience, blurs the boundaries between urban fabric, buildings, apartments and people. It not only makes the lives of citizens easier but diversifies the environment and helps to make the urban scale more personal and personal relationships more communal.

personal scale

PETS LIBRARY For animal lovers microrayon pets library is offering a desirable access to animals. The library provides local access to an eclectic array of domestic animals: dogs, cats and rabbits to birds, ferrets and turtles for periods ranging from just a few hours to a number of days.

POP-UP EVENTS In the microrayon where thousands people live it’s possible that while you are sitting at home alone watching “Titanic” or “Fight Club” several people in your neighborhood are doing the same. It can easily be done by creating awareness of the upcoming event among the residents and by simply having people over at the apartment or common space of the house: common room, roof, yard etc.

On this page you can find examples of access on urban and personal scales.

58

FARM+GREENHOUSE In the City of Access big changes are going to occur in the architectural scale. It’s not just about the building or the apartment any more; it is about what we actually need to access on this scale that we now have to own in our homes.

59


ACCESS SCALE Very soon ownership of the concrete place will lose its attractiveness with new forms of access to apartments located all over the city (with the long term/short term renting conditions). The customer in this case becomes a free mover and has the option to just pack up and leave. Consequently residential mobility becomes a norm rather than once-in-a-lifetime experience.

Buildings with apartments in new access based model should be:

Repairable / upgradable- modular, standardized parts that allow the space to be fixed or upgraded easily rather than demolished; allows an expansion to accommodate a growing family: an access to an extra living space is available. Typical wedding or birthday gift for a newly born is a fully equipped living module that can be attached to the apartment (parasite module).

[21] -allows many generations of residents to access safe, well built space without exhaustion of natural resources. -allows residents to personalize /customize living space from the start. The initial design should allow the space adjust easily for different users in the way that is not expensive or time consuming.

12

Sex

9

3 Most of the spaces are multifunctional and can accommodate various types of activities that change during the day, weekly, monthly or depending on the season. The same guest room ,for example, can be used for accommodating relatives of residents, sexual activities or throwing surprise parties for friends.

6 Surprise party

Residents have an access to various typologies of apartments that are easy to adapt. The boundary of the apartment does not end at its door. The apartment is broken down into the archipelago of spaces that serves needs far beyond residential - event, affinity, co-working spaces etc. The resident operator

kitchen

apartment

+1

signs up for various services out of the apartment. In case of new needs inside of the apartment the customer does not have to look for a new option - the operator instantly takes care of it and offers either a suitable apartment within the neighborhood or upgrade existing one with new space. up

side

down

storage communal kitchen/ dining room

bedroom hall

bathroom

parasite modules study room

workshop

communal facilities

apartments’ variety

playroom

office

communal garden

communal facilities co-working space

60

Grandmother’s visit

jym

guestroom/hotel communal lounge

For the guests of the microrayon residents,visitors and anybody who wishes to spend a night or more in the area there is an access to guest rooms in the building available.

The last and very important question in this project should be answered. Who will come up with, create and curate future access in the city? Will todays architects be able to do it or will they have to face a lot of changes in the profession? Will they adapt and be willing to change or will architectural profession as we know it today become obsolete?

61


ARCHITECT OF ACCESS It is absolutely obvious that in the City of Access traditional architectural practice can’t continue to prosper. I am not suggesting that architects are necessarily “facing [23] Yet, architects with a mindset” who practice their profession as a tradition with conventions that are “time[24] and who believe that practiced a certain way otherwise they will [24] will be replaced by forwardthinking creative design consultants/ directors/preachers/therapists/etc. who will be called ARCHITECTS OF ACCESS. They move easily between disciplines, are sensitive to the cultural milieu, politically and socially aware. They listen to the people they are designing for and explore more meaningful ways to connect with the customers who in their turn become active participants of the design process. “Master Builder” in the city of future is replaced by the “Master of Access” who uses ACCESS INDEX( that measures the overall ability of individuals in the city to access and use new services) to design everyday life experiences, personal and spatial relationships between the people and the environment; and creates opportunities for self-expression. In the City of Access

VISITOR: housewife RESIDENT: teacher

HOUSE #10 RESIDENT: doctor

URBAN FARM

MASTER OF ACCESS

HOUSE #20 YARD

MASTER BUILDER PETS’ LIBRARY

SCHOOL HOUSE #12

imagination, of illustration of mind, rather SEASONAL EXPERIENCE

[25]

RESIDENT: magician

An earthquake is about to occur in the architecture profession very soon that will undoubtedly lead to major changes and we all better be ready for it. “Architects in the past have tended to concentrate their attention on the building as a static object. I believe dynamics are more important: the dynamics of people, their interaction with spaces and environmental condition.”[26]

“In ten years we’ll probably not call ourselves an architectural practice, it will be something else entirely.” [22]

“…A person needs new experiences. They jar something deep inside, allowing him to grow. Without change something sleeps inside us, and seldom awakens. The sleeper must awaken.” [27] “Master of Access” designs everyday life experiences, personal and spatial relationships between the people and the environment; and creates opportunities for self-expression.

Master Builder

62

microrayon

Master of Access

City of Access

63


Transitional Microrayon 2016

2014

2015

2012

2013

2010

2011

2008

0

2009

Customer Focused Housing Model for Moscow Alexander Novikov year

-200

%

-400 -600

TM (Transitional Microrayon) is a term I am going to

Group of buildings 200-300 meters

-800

-1000

to customers needs it obtains some of the distinguishing -1200

Microrayon Daily use services: up to 500 from home

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 meters 0

40

mln. of people

35

170

30

160

20

Temporality The durability of the panel houses grew with every designed series and now it is not limited, which means that Micro-

15

5

– 5…7 minutes access 2011

2009

2010

2007

2008

2005

2006

2002

0 year

150 140 130 120 110

10

2004

2005

1999

1993

1987

1981

1975

1969

1963

1957

1951

1945

Demographic Crises

25

year more than housing, it is one continuous process ofthousands inhabitaof people Rayon igration increase What – policy shall Russian governTM is a rethinking of a social housing model, which was Periodic use services: up to 1000 meters 15 minutes from tural increase ment set towards the migrants? home

2

model still doesn’t take into consideration uniqueness of a person by copying standardized housing % of population

100

TM Inhabitants

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

90 80 2040

2045

2050

year

2010

normative” prognosis analytical prognosis

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

year

UN, 2006, lower version HSE, 2007, analytical prognosis HSE, 2007, zero migratio nprognosis Rosstat, 2006, main version HSE, 2007, “normative” prognosis UN, 2006, upper version UN, 2006, medium version U.S. Census Bureau, 2003

Try to limit the influx of migrants. Do not put any administrative barriers and try to use migrants for the good of Russia.

Reduction of population 4

Soviet Microrayon “Microrayon is a complex of apartment buildings and systems of institutions of cultural and community services on the territory adjacent to the highways, but which has no ies, schools, stores of essential goods, gardens and sports Microrayon as a model appeared in a time of a serious

A person with his unique needs was not taken into consideration by the Everyone was supposed to have the same way of living

There are many distinct groups of people with common lifestyles and needs in Moscow, which can be taken as an

This situation has become paradoxical with the fall of the

labor migrants as they seem to be a very vivid example to see the incompatibility of tenant’s needs with the exist-

Temporality

the former Soviet Republics (mostly Tajikistan, Kirgizstan

quickly and cheaply provide citizens who mostly lived in the of urban organization which was based on the provision of Even the historical part of the city was reorganized accord60 years lifespan of an average Soviet citizen a person had to change at least two newly built apartments during his 3

Living conditions Their living conditions, a key factor for this research, can be struction sites, in the basements of the apartment buildings

“There are different population projections for Russia in the next 50 years made by the UN, Rosstat, various research centers, the U.S. Census Bureau. Some of these predictions are presented here. Although the exact trajectory of the future population dynamics are different, all the forecasts more optimistic and less optimistic are predicting quite rapid decline of the population until 2050.” 4

“Russia has entered a stage of demographic development which is more or less typical for all developed countries, when there is no great hope that the growth will ever resume.” 4 One of the main problems this crisis will lead to is the economic growth slowdown and one of the solutions to deal this very moment there was no clear strategy in migration 5

Rayon

Group of Buildings Microrayon Today

Microrayon

The housIt has moved from social to

construction principles has been kept from the Soviet times, Strictly organized services model was replaced by the selfThere were certain improvements on the interior design But it doesn’t have the effect that has been achieved by the Soviet Microrayon, which highly raised the quality of life of

Model of the structure of public service in Rayon 2

64

65


2016

Reduction of working-age population The period of the reduction of the working-age population is considered a demographic crises and started long time ago…The period of the reduction of the number of workingage population (women 16 to 55 and men 16 to 60 years) will be very fast . The estimated decline is 400-500 thousand per year in the near future and up to 1 million per year in years to come. 4 “This is a huge reduction, and it will last very long. By 2015 it will reach a peak, then it will become smaller and smaller, but still does not stop in 2025. By this time the total loss of potential workers will be more than 15 million people.” 4

-1200 thousands of people

15 10 5 0 2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

normative” prognosis analytical prognosis Migrants and their descendants in the population of Russia in the analytical and normative versions of a probabilistic forecast, the median value in% 4 Migrants may exceed a quarter or even a third of the total population.

15

5 0

35 city or country for temporary or permanent from another 30 25 don’t necessarily need comfort but are mostly interested in a better location in the city responding to their daily inter-

20 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 Let’s take a look on the life stories of labor migrants in com15 normative” prognosis analytical 10 prognosis 170

2011

0 year

160

2010

150 year

Try to limit the influx of migrants. 0 any administrative barriDo not put 2015 2020 2025 2030 ers and try to2010 use migrants for the normative” prognosis good of Russia.

130 What policy shall Russian govern120 ment set towards the migrants? 110 to the Country 4 Try to limit the influx of migrants. 100 Do not put any administrative barri90 migrants for the ers and try to use good of Russia. 80 year 2010 2015 2020 2025

analytical prognosis

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

year

150 2015 140

2020

2025

2030

2035

130 prognosis normative” 120 analytical prognosis 110

100

5

160

90 80 2035

2040

2045

2050

year

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

UN, 2006, lower version HSE, 2007, analytical prognosis HSE, 2007, zero migratio nprognosis Rosstat, 2006, main version HSE, 2007, “normative” prognosis UN, 2006, upper version UN, 2006, medium version U.S. Census Bureau, 2003

UN, 2006, lower version HSE, 2007, analytical prognosis HSE, 2007, zero migratio nprognosis Rosstat, 2006, main version HSE, 2007, “normative” prognosis UN, 2006, upper version UN, 2006, medium version U.S. Census Bureau, 2003

“... the current population of Russia becomes a minority, which means it will be a new population.” 4

“And this will inevitably lead to a change in the composition of the population of Russia, which will increase the proportion of migrants and their descendants. By mid-century, they may exceed a quarter or even a third of the total population. If we move for another 50 years and see what will happen in 2100, the current population of Russia becomes a minority, which means it will be a new population.” 4

20

mln. of people

5

2010

2009

«People in transition» are the people in a certain lifestage and situation of change of a social position and lifestyle, which is caused by entering a new society and/or a transi% of population These are young professionals starting their career, young people who haven’t decided what to 40 do in future, young people starting their independent

10

2011

2008

2006

2007

2010

2009

2005

2008

include people who might potentially become migrant’s

What policy shall Russian govern15 ment set10towards the migrants?

170

140

2004

2007

2016

2002

2006

2004

2005

100 90 80 70 60 year 50 40 What policy shall 30 Russian%governof population ment set towards the migrants? 40 20 10 35 Try to limit the influx of migrants. 30 Do not put any0 administrative barriers and try to use migrants for the 25 good of Russia. 20

2002

30

20

%

2010

2005

1999

1993

2011

1987

1975

1981

2009

2010

2007

2008

1969

1963

2005

2006

1957

2004

1951

2002

1945

1939

1933

1927

other Soviet republics. This period ended in the mid-1970s, when there were less people leaving Russia than coming What policy shall Russian government set is towards migrants? in from these republics. This whenthethe return of Russian citizens and their children who once left Russia to these Try to limit the influx of migrants. republics has started. Do From that time until thebarribeginning of not put any administrative try to use migrants for the Russia’s the 1990s natural and ers netand migration was positive, good of after Russia.1992 the natural increase population grew rapidly. But became negative. While migration growth maintains, and in some years, especially in 1993-1994., after the collapse of the Soviet Union, was very large, it can’t compensate the natural decline in general, and therefore the population declines.” 4

-1000

year 25

20

2009

100 90 -2500 80 70 60 rate of migration 50 increase rate of natural40increase The components of population change in Russia, 1927-2006, in thousands 4 30 This graph shows the migration gain in relationship with the birth rate and its potential in regulating the20demography of the country. 10 0 “For a long time Russia gave one part of its population year to -2000

35

25

mln. of people

2007

%

2006

2005

1999

1993

1987

1981

1975

% of population -800 40

2005

-1500

Integration and the change of population comyear position of-600 Russia thousands of people

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2004

-1200

2002

-500 rate of migration increase -1000 rate of natural increase

1969

1963

0year

1957

1951

1945

500

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010 2016

2014

%

-400

1000

2016

1939

2015

-1000 -200

1500

2014

2011

year 4 Reduction of working-age population projected by Rosstat 2007 0

2000

2015

2010

2008

thousands of people -800

2013

-1200

2012

-600

2009

2005

1999

1993

1987

1981

1975

1969

1963

7

66

2009

-400

-1000

n increasethousands of people crease 2500

The government has only started to40 realize the necessity of value brought 35 by migrants and at the same time 30 society changes it’s attitude towards

2008

6

year

100 90 80 year 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

-200

-800

On the 27th of April 2012 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has approved the concept of migration policy until

2008

0

-600

Co-inhabitants For easier interaction and communication with a host community another group of people with common needs and

% of population

2011

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

year

%

-400

temporary residence permit, improvement of the system for obtaining a residence permit and cancelation of the quota mechanism and replacing it with “differentiated mecha-

1957

1951

Problems of integration are not state priorities and there are

-200

“Strategy 2020” (migration policy until 2025) The Federal Migration Service (FMS) has presented a draft of peopleconcept of the state migration policy which aims to attract new workers into the country for permanent residence as

1933 2013

2009

0

2008

Dmitry Medvedev has approved a draft concept of migration policy until 2025 which aims to attract new

December ethnic unrest in Moscow (2010)

67

2


I don’t want to stay in Moscow. I’ll go home in winter and then maybe I will come back for another year.

Maybe I will stay in Moscow

But I don’t care as long as it is cheap and close to the center. We wanted to live close to our University but it was too expensive.

I livein the basement of the apartment building. It’s very basic but I can stand it because I need money and it’s just temporary.

Constructor

Shop assistant

The only solution is to live in the centre, but it is expensive.

Architect

Street cleaner

Engineer

Student

about another family that was also looking for an apartI’m not going to live here all my life, it is just temporary.

We live there together with another family from We cook at home and never go to cafes, it’s too

-

I don’t know what I’m going to do in future. I like it here now.

Architect salaries and professional level are lower then in Minsk that’s

Work on the construction is dangerous and you always have to be careful because you cannot get medical assis-

Artist

Teacher

It is expensive but we live close to the center and can go to all kind of places.

Journalist

Student It’s very basic and dirty but I can stand it because I need We buy very basic food and out very often because I’m usually tired and I’m afraid of the

But I don’t care as long as it is cheap There are no furniture and basic

home in winter and then maybe I will come back for another

Street cleaner

I knew that our University provides students with hostel only after the second or even third year of studies that’s why I It is usually a problem because you come to a strange city with no place I was

I sometimes go to cafes to eat but most of the time we cook Teacher

-

Engineer

-

I’m not going to live here all my I go to all kind of places in the city:

I Renting an It’s very basic but I can I buy

I live together with another girl in

-

-

I don’t want

I go to all kind of places in the city: museums, galleries, Journalist

I don’t speak Russian Shop assistant

-

And you also have But my friends told me

68

But I have to take care of it and maintenance is usually a

Artist

expensive but we live close to the center and can go to all

I cook at home Sometimes I go to all kind of places in the city: museums, I don’t think I will stay in Mosbut

69


Ghetto Map and Apartments Costs “Comparing the map of the cost of housing, concentrating on estate segregation, and economic migrants settling map showing the potential for segregation and the formation of

Transitional Microrayon

Looking at this picture, we can predict the development scenario of the capital, which is almost inevitable, while maintaining the current urban migration policies and functioning middle class from areas with a bad reputation, which is acThis is a process we are witnessing today. There are certain areas in the process of forming which accumulate social disadvantage and it can gradually become problematic.” 8 “The housing market, which was formed in Moscow over polarization, emphasizing “poor” and “rich” areas. …”Sickle” of the most expensive neighborhoods of the city, stretching from north-west to south-west and covering a wide part of its center, has increased its importance in structuring, whilst assessing the attractiveness of the location.” 8

Settlements of economic migrants stretched along MKAD in the cheapest area of Moscow 8

Apartments Costs. The expensive districts stretched from north-west to south-west of Moscow 9

Looking at this picture, we can predict the development scenario of the capital, which is almost inevitable...

Migrants city attractions The map shows that migrants attractions are proportionally -

TM motion scheme

Transitional Microrayon is a complex of separate temporary apartment buildings inserted into the existing fabric of the city, which together with the existing infrastructure provide a particular customer with a continuous

Fledglings city attractions

areas of the city and includes a system of the temporal positioning

in the central part of the city, where most of their leisure

Services TM together with the existing infrastructure of the city Migrants’ attractions are proportionally spread around the city (cafes, fast foods, constructions, grocery stores, parks, markets).

Fledglings’ attractions are concentrated in the central part of the city (universities, clubs, theatres, restaurants, cafes, fast foods, exhibition halls, grocery stores, parks).

Location is a combination of customers’ needs and an attempt to recreate the vanishing social homogeneity of the

system of services is developed in a way that services necessary for TM customer missing in the existing infrastructure have to be added with the TM services of services is based on the service radiuses where all the

Temporality

always a group of buildings located within a service radius

hardly accessible for renting TM temporarily uses the unallocated land of the city as a part of a State Program (see

Cadastre Map Access to Land Renting land in Moscow is complicated and today has be-

Customer The needs of «People in transition» and their lifestyle form

OTHER MIGRANTS YOUNG

organize land auctions where a renting contract can be There were only eight land auctions for the construction of buildings with a total area of only 46,000 square meters and four land auctions by Housing Development Fund (RZHS) in 2011. 10 Another opportunity was buying a

from the interaction with society to daily needs are taken into consideration and form an activity cycle which has

PROFESSIONALS

MIGRANTS

CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

SERVICES

MICRORAYON

The composition of tenants depends on the interests of cer-

MICRORAYON

The cadastre map shows areas of Moscow, which have no 11

That is an unallocated land, which is under 10 This land can potentially be used

Intersection of Interests area around the historical part of the city (outside the Gar-

Cadastre Map showing the unallocated land (white), which can potentially be used for housing. 11

“HIPSTERS”

The intersections of migrants and the historical part of the city and the Third Transport Ring.

“HIPSTERS” YOUNG PROFESSIONALS

MIGRANTS

CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

the city is an area of a very dense built-up environment with a very small amount of unused land, which makes construc-

70

SERVICES

RESIDENTIAL AREA FORMER INDUSTRIAL AREA The compositions of tenants

YOUNG PROFESSIONALS

STUDENTS MIGRANTS

OTHER MIGRANTS YOUNG PROFESSIONALS

STUDENTS MIGRANTS

CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

SERVICES

CITY CENTER

CITY CENTER

SERVICES

RESIDENTIAL AREA

RESIDENTIAL AREA

71


Customer experience is divided into three main stages: entering, living and exiting

Structure

Entering stage working status, provide him with a job and choose an apartment in TM Living stage is supposed to provide him with all necessary services for working and living in Exiting stage supposed to help him to start his life outside the TM Exit strategy Livivng in TM Program Manager - chooses sites according to clients demand (construction companies)

Co-investors (developers and construction companies) These are temporary structures on the construction site or self-organized temporary dwellings inside the constructed TM will be supported by two State programs: Housing for Migrants State Program / FMS Moscow

TM is a way for construction comTM

-

The aim is to provide migrants with good living and working Unused Land Activation State Program / Department of Land Resources The aim is to bring the potentially valuable and unused land discovering of the potential of the unused land and brining identify the land which is not used, not being rented and has given for a temporary use to

according to

be given back to the department on the expiration of this pe-

(the duration of a construction in Moscow is two years in

is a skeletal organization, linking the operations of members into one common system to provide ized in a way that a process or a group of processes is controlled by one person, a process manager Process managers work in team to form a bigger process, a cycle that goes from design to transfer Process managers are young and active people possessing certain skills, which allow them to collaborate with one another easily

cally move to another one with a different lifestyle where

- develops technical assignment on the quantity and composition of tenants - writes a brief - deals with the Department of Land Resources Design Manager - hires a design company - controls it - approves the documentation with the authorities - chooses a company for module production - controls the production of modules - chooses a construction company - controls the construction process Services Manager - chooses companies for every building according to brief

activity cycle of a migrant in TM

- controls them - chooses managers for built-in services (apartment / roommate exchange and labor exchange) - controls them - chooses a maintenance company - controls the process - chooses a cleaning and security company - controls them - hires the housing managers - controls them

activity cycle

- helps customer on the enter/live/exit stages in TM Transfer Manager - chooses a transferring company - controls it

Transfer

Migration

Maintenance and Housing

Services

Construction

Design

Program

dark corridors of bureaucracy

72

73


Value Adds provided to the TM inhabitants, was made according to the analyses of the problems they face in the existing hous-

Migrants-Fledglings This list of value adds for TM inhabitants shows the inter-

Value Adds for All

2

Value Adds for Migrants

R500

3

4

1

5

Location in Miscow

- labor exchange - safety / security - registration and FMS services

Value Adds for Migrants Location

6

- close to work

7

Affordable Services

- labor exchange - safety / security - registration and FMS services

- affordable apartments - no deposit - food Temporality cafesmove in / out process -- easy -- shops move in / out at any time - maintenance

- close to work

Affordable Services

- internet - sport facilities

Choice Flexibility Value and Adds for Fledglings

Affordable Services Apartment and - affordable apartments -Roommate no deposit Database

- food easy to find / exchange an apartment - cafes easy to find / exchange a roommate - shops Choice and Flexibility - maintenance - place to cook Apartment - rooms different and in shape -Roommate opportunity to rent many apartments Database at a time - easy to find / exchange an apartment -- rooms one person a roommate easy tofor find / exchange - rooms for bigger groups

Location university(5) university(5) club(3) club(3) theatre(9) theatre(9) museum(11) museum(11) cinema(1) cinema(1) office office center(21) center(21) restaurant(53) restaurant(53) cafe/fast cafe/fast food(15) food(15) construction(4) construction(4) park(6) park(6) metro(5) metro(5)

Value Adds for Fledglings

- easy move in / out process - move in / out at any time

Affordable Services Value Adds for All

Affordable Services

R1000

Temporality

Choice and Flexibility Location - place to cook

-- close metro in shape roomstodifferent - opportunity to rent many apartments Risks Insurance at a timecontract - official - rooms for one person Furniture and Equipment - rooms for bigger groups

Location

- workshop - freedom to use apartment and space around the building in a way you want (organize parties, exhibitions, picnics, …) Affordable Services -- rooms internetbig enough to invite friends and make parties -- rooms not only for sleeping (eating, cooking, making parties, sport facilities working) Choice andinFlexibility - rooms different shape - workshop place to work (cabinet) - freedom to use apartment and space around the building Location in a way you want (organize parties, exhibitions, picnics, …) -- opportunity to customize and makeand it hip rooms big enough to invite friends make parties close to not parks, clubs, … cooking, making parties, - rooms onlymuseums, for sleeping (eating, -working) close to the center -- close University roomstodifferent in shape - place to workand (cabinet) Furniture Equipment -Location good and practical furniture - opportunity to customize and make it hip close to parks, museums, clubs, … - close to the center - close to University

Furniture and Equipment - good and practical furniture

- close to metro

Risks Insurance - official contract

lack in the infrastructure was formed on the basis of social sites for

Furniture and Equipment

TM inhabitants will use the existing

Value Adds for TM Inhabitants: Site 1

Site 3

Site 4

Location

APARTMENTS SHOP FOOD STORE MANUFACTURED GOODS STORE

Site 5,6,7

Site 1

- close to the center -Value close to University Adds - close to work ants: - close to metro

APARTMENTS

Existing Infrastructure Services -Location clubs

BAKERY MEDICAL ASSISTANCE LABOR EXCHANGE TM OFFICE

Site 2 APARTMENTS FOOD STORE

APARTMENTS APARTMENTS

CAFE

CLOTHING STORE FOR CHILDREN WATCH REPAIR PET-SHOP BAKERY

OPEN CINEMA

SPORT GROUNDS

for TM Inhabit-

-- theatres close to the center -- museums close to University -- cinema close to work -- restaurants close to metro - cafe/fast foods Existing Infrastructure - parks - clubs - theatres - museums - cinema - restaurants - cafe/fast foods - parks

Services

MANUFACTURED GOODS STORE

TM inhabitants-Locals This list explains how TM inhabitants the positioning of TM TM inhabitants will use

Value Adds for All (provided by TM) Affordable Services and Shops -Value food storesAdds for All -(provided cafes by TM)

- shops - sport facilities -Affordable tennis Services and - fitness club Shops - sports club - food stores bakery - cafes watch and clock repair workshop - shops pet-shop - sport facilities cinema - tennis children’s clothing store - fitness club time room rent for workquick short -shops, sportsmeeting club rooms, … . - bakery - watch and clock repair workshop (neighborhood tenants needs where defined on the basis - pet-shop of the social survey information) - cinema - children’s clothing store - quick short time room rent for workshops, meeting rooms, … .

Value Adds for Neighborhood Tenants

Value Adds for Neighborhood Tenants

(neighborhood tenants needs where defined on the basis of the social survey information)

APARTMENTS MAINTANACE CAFE BAKERY

Site 3

74

Site 4

Site 5,6,7

Value adds for TM inhabitants and locals

75


I can see my university from here.

I can see the Kremlin from my window

I go to that cafe quite often. It is so cheap. I rent a workshop here.

I like it. They show movies every weekend.

76

77


UPCYCLING MODEL:

REEVALUATING WASTE IN RUSSIA

CHAPTER 1. CASE FOR CHANGE

1.1 Wasting the potential of waste management in Russia

By Daliya Safiullina Known under several aliases-dumps, polygons, landfills in Russia is a complex phenomenon and by far the most common way to deal with waste generated by all industrial sectors. Despite that de jure disposing waste on landfills is not the only option for waste disposal, de facto disposing waste in a dump polygon (landfill) in Russia remains the only alternative.

Preface It would be an understatement to say that the issue of construction and demolition waste is underaddressed in Russian legislative system. This chapter simply doesn’t exist on the legislative level making any attempts of implementing it almost impossible. The consequences of such a short term thinking and neglecting the problems that our society will be facing in a few decades may be absolutely detrimental due to the enormous scale of the problem. The problem is urgent not only for the Moscow Region but for Russia as a whole. Therefore this research is looking at the massive hardware “heritage” of panel housing that we have inherited from the Soviet era, current tendencies in construction, extrapolating the consequences of such into the future and a model proposal where wastes can be prevented from ever entering the waste stream by being turned into a “resource”.The research depicts extracts from an amendment to the construction legislation that aims to set new priorities in waste management- mitigating the consequences of already produced waste derived by mass housing across Russia as well as reducing the amount of waste generated in new construction and recovering energy whenever possible. The research is focused on Russia with a particular focus on the Moscow Region as one of the largest producer of construction and demolition waste due to extensive housing production on a mass scale and aims to meet the interim purpose of creating a sustainable quality of life for all.

Amount of panels in Russia, if put together, would result in a fence long enough to wrap around Russian border 1.3 times.*

Fig. 1 Image depicts the hero of “Whire Sun of the Desert” movie, USSR, 1970, in a desert at Russian border that could have been built of concrete panels. The calculations are done for exterior panels alone in all Russian regions that accounts for only 26% of all constrion elements of a building.

Numbers as drivers of change 90% of debris in Moscow is currently being exported only to landfills.The problem of running out of physical polygon space in the Moscow Region to store the waste has long been underestimated and underlooked by the officials. Finally, the problem was acknowledged on the State level when Valeriy Shkurov, the Minister of Housing and utility services in Moscow Region. In February of 2012 the state approved a long-term waste disposal program “Waste management and disposal of waste from production and consumption in the Moscow Region for 2012-2020”. The proposed actions include building waste processing complexes, waste sorting complexes and waste resorting stations.

Out of 3.5 billion tons of waste generated annually in Russia (as of 2009), only 1.7 billion is disposed. The fate of the other 1.8 billion tons remains unknown. The significant addition to the waste that is already accumulated by the residential sector is being accumulated by the construction, demolition and excavation sectors. Of 3.5 billion tonnes of waste generated in Russia it is assumed that at least one third comes from construction and demolition activties. Currently for 15,000 legal, registered landfills, Russia accounts for app. 10,000 unauthorized landfills or illegal dump sites. “Salarievo” landfill in Moscow Region is believed to be the largest landfill in Europe. Despite the fact that it was officially closed in 2007, it is still accepting the waste being generated by Moscow City.

Over 60 % of waste disposal polygons in Moscow Region have run out of physical space.


CHAPTER 2. THE RESOURCES

2.2 Russia’s supply of Resources that sit idle

2.1 Russia’s supply and geopolitics of Natural resources What if we see the urge for rapid development of the socio-economic combined with evident over-exploitation of traditional natural resources (resource depletion) as a potential driver for restructuring the future? What if the mistakes of the Soviet past and inertial development ever since can be the key point to constructively turn the crisis situation around and lead to a solution that may be a “foot in the door” for energy solutions away from the dependency on the oil grid?

Russia is one of the world’s richest countries in raw materials, many of which are of geopolitical importance and significant inputs for an industrial economy. Oil and gas used to be the primary hard-currency income for the Soviet Union, and they remain as such for the Russian Federation. Russia’s traditional fossil- based energy complex completely dependent on coal, oil and gas supplies provides fuel for traditional power plants and thermal energy power plants.

1960s

The volume of sales of governmental companies accounts for 52% of the overall volume sales of oil and gas. These numbers indicate that Russian government appears to be successfully profiting from this market where theas country’s economy is highly sensitive to global demand and high volatility of oil and gas prices. The structure of the Russian power sector has been centralized where as the last decade demonstrates the trend of decentralizing energy generation that has gained momentum. According to the BP statistical review, Russia has 10.8 billion tons of oil; however, if it maintains its current rate of extraction, this oil will run out in 19 years and eight months.

60-80% DEPLETED

The city of the future has to deal with mobility and integration. In this respect the embodiment of Soviet ideology produced on a massive scale across the country – ubiquitous and outdated microrayons- may not always a problem. Instead, they can become a solution, representing an Artificial Natural resource that didn’t exist before. This new Artificial Natural resource for Russia may have an economic potential that may contribute to solving acute problems in the current fossil fuel fixated economy.

5-10 YEARS TO REACH

Fig. 3 Diagram of resource depletion. 75-80% of Russia’s known oil and gas deposits are depleted . The map indicates the tendency of oil and gas depletion in the Western part of Russia, thus exploration of the resource is moving towards East, to Siberia.

“Export of oil and gas is still the primary and easiest way to produce money for Russia. Government is aspiring to take strategic positions in the sector.”

1980s

2000s

34% 26% MICRORAYON EXPIRATION DEADLINE Fig. 4 The Microrayon Deadline diagram shown the timeline of physical expiration dates of prefabricated houses. Source: Dmitry Zadorin, Drawn by Ruslan Sabirov.

Demolition waste accumulated from microrayons expiring over next 1225 years can become the first generation of Artificial Natural resource.

To Europe

To CIS

existing oil pipelines Gazprom pipelines projected Gazprom pipelines Russia’s Export of gas and oil 0

250

500

1000 km

KNOWN RUSSIAN RESERVES OF OIL Amounts of reserves more than 1 000 million t. 500- 1 000 million t.

PREFAB HOUSING BUILT IN 1957-2006 Quantity of people living in To China

To China

more than 10 million

To Korea

100-500 million t. 10-100 million t. unknown/ Fig. 2 Map of unified Russian governmental grid and the network of state- run oil and gas pipelines dem-

onstrates how Russia is distributing its natural resources. Russia accounts for around 20% of the world’s production of oil and natural gas and possesses large reserves of both fuels and large-scale exporter to Europe, CIS countries, etc. Source: research by Oleg Semakin

2058

30%

To Europe

OIL AND GAS PIPELINE NETWORK Export to other countries

2047

10%

Map of distribution and quantity of people living in mass prefabricated housing built in period from 1957- 2006

Map of location and distribution of oil and gas resources in Russia

2024

3- 10 million

1957- 1970s 1st, 2nd “generation”

1 -3 million 500 000- 1 million 100- 500 thousand

before 1957 1995- 2006 4th “generation”

1971-1994 3rd “generation”

Fig. 5 The map clearly idicates that prefabricated mass housing of four “generations” of industrialization is predominant in practically all other types of housing in almost all the regions of Russian Federation.


2.3 The Direct conveyor: Current situation in construction industry Why change?

Russia has undergone significant political and economic changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Therefore, it would seem that the best remedy against it would be constant. However, favorable market conditions, fuelled by explosive growth in housing prices paradoxically did not create the preconditions for the beginning of modernization in the construction industry in Russia. Instead, the construction industry in Russia became one of the most anachronistic spheres. What is the most striking is what is being produced by this large conveyor. Once being an integral entity, the USSR State Committee for Construction (Gosstroi) achieved first position in the world of expanded clay and cement production and Soviet housing construction complex reached the limit of its capacity- 87 million square meters of housing per year in 1985. Today the construction industry is almost completely detached from its scientific basis - a source of ideas on implementation of new technologies that was almost paralyzed since

1990s. As a result, (integrated house-building factory called DSKs, now privately run, remain the major producer of housing in the country. Dozens of companies that continue to produce prefabricated so-called “new” series of housing differ from their Soviet by tiles or coloring and are built with the same outdated technology that was used during the Soviet period. More than 90% of all residential buildings in Moscow are being built of reinforced concrete. According to experts, the Soviet technology reserve of reinforced concrete has been ex-

hausted. One of the reasons why the principals of reinforced concrete is outdated is that it does not allow for flexibility and customization that are paramount in 2012. Consequently, the Russian construction industry is not able to perceive the new technology. This technology still implies building load-bearing walls that require significant “embodied energy” expenditures as opposed to one of frame construction utilized widely for decades in the West. The industry seems to be in need of a complete overhaul itself.

Mentality of industrial era that created microrayon no longer exists but construction companies are actively exploiting the soviet industrial base utilizing the same materials and technologies as 50 years ago. Map of major DSK leaders that are the largest producers prefabricated mass housing in Russia

According to experts, all processes related to construction production, whether it be state or corporations, need to be updated every five or six years. However the short-term oriented interest of the construction industries combined with the lack of proper state regulations result in a highly inert environment where old outdated equipment is being revived. The quality control system does not work, penalties for environmental damage are scanty. Deterioration of the equipment is one of the major barriers to the introduction of new technologies as there is a need for a radical re-stocking of-equipment for cement plants. The deterioration rate of equipment in cement industry currently accounts for 90%, this being a disadvantage in addition to the fact that concrete and cement production in general are among the most energy-intensive materials used in the construction industry and a major contributor to CO2 in the atmosphere. By the end of 1970s

it became evident that costs of housing energy supply for life in prefabricated houses produced by DSKs exceed the international standards by three to four times.

Current state of construction market 4.3 %

The prices on cement are high where as manufacturing capacity for it is low, and yet there is a great demand for cement in different regions of Russia. In fact, the amount of sq. meters being built annually per person in China is 5 times greater than in Russia. The rate is (0.35 sq. m/ person (60 million sq. m) in Russia versus 1.5 square meter per person (2 billion sq. m) in China). All attempts to render the goals of

2.4%

3.8% 2.9%

3%

current market is associated with significant investments and high risks. Yet the construction management and delivery process is very fragmented and there is no holistic way of controlling it. The problem is that whenever new technological solutions that can generate savings up to 20-25 percent become available, it affects only one side of the building process - for example, foundations (15% of the cost of the building), building envelope (shell) (55%), roofing (10 %), etc. On the Moscow construction market where the ratio between average prime cost of construction for one square meter to the final cost can be to five, saving 5-10% of final cost doesn’t seem for construction companies worth of investing into risky transitions if they are not economically feasible. The model that would change all the concepts of construction simultaneously is lacking. One of the attempts to create one was federal program “Gilye” that targets a production rate of 130–140 million square meters / year. This is about 1 sq.m/ person, the same rate as is being

attempts are counted on fingers. Current situation with waste disposal resembles one of purchasing a ticket to a theater. The cost of “ticket” for a s-called “professional” landfill, where garbage is buried in the ground with the use of special isolation technology has increased ten-fold since 2005 (e.g.600 rubles per Kamaz waste (10 tons) as opposed to 6000 rubles in 2011). landfills in Russia often cost exactly the amount of money it takes to collect and transport the waste to the landfill. Prices for garbage collection depend on the distance that is traveled by a “Kamaz” to the client. Prices usually start at 4000 rubles per 8 cubic meters of debris. In a highly competitive market it is economically not feasible to raise prices in the garbage after the polygon-monopolists. The demand proper construction waste disposal has dropped dramatically. In reality it seems like no one is actually legally responsible for disposing the construction and demolition waste. The management company is not obligated to pay “before” nor “after” the

built in Austria, which is by no comparison better supplied with housing than Russia. Average cost of construction in Russia - a thousand dollars per square meter. The selling price is higher than two or three or four times. At an average cost of housing construction in Moscow at $1500 it sold for $5000. In such a relationship whether it is important for builders to build housing is not for $1500 but for $1300 or even $1,200?

verification. Construction and demolition waste belongs to the 4th grade in the waste ranking which means that the proprietary has to be charged an additional fee for Causing Harm to the Environment (NVOS) in the situation where disposing this sort of waste causes a harmful impact and it is proven. However, the legislative system overlooks a lot of flaws that allow to avoid any responsibility for it.

Shady market of construction and demolition waste in Russia Historically the waste management in the country was state-dominated, however today it is driven by app. 40 % private companies. The current situation on the Moscow Region

Who is actually paying for all this waste? Since there is no clear working model of dealing with construction waste a lot of illegal dumping is happening. Despite the situation is being shady, the bottom line is already clear: DSKs

3.4% 3.3%

2.4%

REGIONS WITH LARGEST ONGOING PREFAB CONSTRUCTION BY DSK, % from all Russia’s construction, 2011

2.4%

Moscow- 1.8 million sq.m Moscow Region- 8.2 million sq.m St. Petersburg- 2.7 million sq.m Tatarstan- 2.3 million sq.m Bashkortostan- 2.1 million sq.m Tyumen oblast’- 2.0 million sq. m Rostov oblast’- 1.8 million sq.m Sverdlovsk oblast’- 1.8 million sq. m Nizhny Novgorod oblast’- 1.4 million sq. m Novosibirsk oblast’- 1.4 million sq. m 0

250

500

PREFAB PANEL HOUSING BUILT FROM 1956-2006 Quantity of people living in more than 5 million 3- 5 million 1.5 -3 million 500 000- 1.5 million 300- 500 thousand 100-300 thousand less than 100 thousand

1000 km

Fig. 6 Map of DSKs continuing to produce prefabricated mass housing demonstrates how many percent on the current construction market is manufactured by DSK. The share of prefabricated panel houses in the primary market currently is about 43%.

national programs such as “Affordable housing” rendered almost null. The cost of cement, if compared to neighbouring China, is six to seven times more expensive in Russia ($150- 200 compared to $40 per ton in China). However importing cement to Russia from China renders inefficient due to transportation costswand tax problems that destroy all the benefits. Introduction of innovative technologies in the

waste market depicts how the lion’s share of waste management market belongs to one person. The situation with construction and demolition waste is slightly more sophisticated. The widespread nepotism together with rampant corruption within the sector results in companies trying to implement illegal schemes in order to gain governmental assistance. Construction and demolition waste recycling

do not bother about disposing the tonnes of construction debris that remain after the short lifespan of results of their intensive production . Which results in a citizen that has to pay significantly for something that is deteriorating the environments and preventing sustainable quality of various levels (state taxes, utility costs, health problems, etc.)


3.2 Redefining terms according to Track 1- Track 2 concept

CHAPTER 3. TOTAL UPCYCLING

3.1 The Reversed Conveyor Model for DSK In restructuring the “resource” developed during Soviet times to serve the needs of next generation type of housing that is emerging, it is important to redefine the notion of sustainable construction- related activities according to the Track 1- track 2 business model.

It is obvious that the socialist spatial model should be revised to correspond to current conditions. In reaction, this research pursues ways to deal with the microrayons that have already been produced and are doomed to become demolition waste in 25-40 year period of time upon reaching expiration date. This research is looking at developing potential strategies to deal with the large amounts of waste. The “Upcycling Model” proposal introduces ways to stop the “conveyer”, revert it, recycle it and offer the alternatives, it will show a “win-win” model: DSK construction factory, environment, municipality, citizen.

Construction Waste Management- Redefining the Definitions for construction market

The Model

Product:

Objectives:

The Upcycling Model is based on analysis of problems of current construction and C&D waste management in Russia found throughout the research. Existing examples of construction and demolition waste models from around the world have been collected and examined. The current construction industry practice has certain flaws and is not suitable for long term planning. In setting pro-active boundaries for future development, the most important issue is to streamline, and to establish a common language between public authorities, construction industries and developers. Legislative ambiguities should be tackled bringing the nature of the deconstruction industry on a national level. The project proposal describes a model where wastes can be prevented from ever entering the waste stream by being turned into Artificial Natural resource and may serve as a baseline for further investigation on national or regional patterns of deconstruction-related activity.

Guidance Document that provides policy makers, waste managers, and businesses with the background to Life Cycle Thinking and illustrates the way to embed construction waste management and disposal into the process of construction production into housing production process initiating political change in terms of quality use of waste management on legislative level.

-encourage and enable businesses and consumers to be more efficient in their use of materials -reduce the amount of waste generated, -recover energy whenever possible mitigating the consequences of already produced waste derived by mass housing across Russia - set new priorities in construction and waste management

Target audience: -Policy makers, local authorities and government: support policy directions and choices at federal, national, regional and local level - Buisnesses, Architects, Contractors and site managers: identify efficiencies that can lead to cost savings; designing projects, materials procurement, in setting site waste management targets, and in communicating their environmental performance

The Direct Conveyor Model for DSK

Track 1 Thinking Recycle [downcycling]

materials are refashioned into a product of diminished quality

Reuse

Track 2 Thinking Upcycle

taking a used or discarded product and refashioning it to create an entire new product of higher quality or value

use of a product more than once in its same form for the same purpose

Upgrade

Direct Conveyor for DSK

Reversed Conveyor for Re-DSK

Demolish

Deconstruct

Non- Structural Deconstruction

Structural deconstruction

The removal of existing structures and utilities as required to clear the construction site. The removal of the facilities proposed for destruction in the justification for the new construction. Demolition can include mechanical and manual methods.

Manual selective dismantling or removal of materials from buildings for the purpose of building material recovery, salvage or reuse. Deconstruction can include non-structural and structural recovery of building materials.

Emerging market

Mature market

[Upcycling] is taking a used or discarded product and refashioning it to create an entire new product of higher value The Reversed Conveyor Model for DSK

Stream 1- REUSED: Construction elements upgraded or reused to be utilized for new construction

DSK

Fig. 7 The Conventional DSK model demonstrates how most of the construction debris results in a landfill after the lifespan of a building.

Fig. 8 The diagram of the Reversed Conveyor for DSK shows how the “flow” of concrete resource in construction that extends beyonf the lifespan of a building and derects the fstreams of construction materials that haму already been produced.

Stream 2- RECYCLED: Inert material is grinded to be recycled and cast for further life cycle in construction industry Stream 3: UPCYCLED: construction waste refashioned into a packaged customized product of higher value


3.4 Recovery Rate Dataset and Assumptions

3.3 The Reversed Conveyor Model The Upcycling model would produce an entirely new type of packaged customized product with embedded recycling technology and policy on how to recycle it, manual that eventually in 50 years or so (DSK 1.0) type of plant wouldn’t be necessary. The model is based on take-back schemes for DSKs to avoid disposable products. If analogy is to be drawn between the construction and automobile industries, then DSK are similarly to car manufacturers to be required to take back their products when they are no longer useful, creating a powerful incentive to employ cradleto-cradle strategies. Companies then upcycle

the parts and materials into new products in compliance with particular requirements for manufacturers to recycle or upcycle products. As Track 2 businesses acquire or employ physical goods that are more long-lasting, the incentives are also likely to shift back to upgrading, recycling, upcycling products in order to prevent then from ever entering the waste streams.

Transporting the resource to Transporting build infrastruc-the resourceTransporting to the ture Transporting the build infrastrucresource to resource to ture build infrastrucTransporting build new citiesthe ture resourceTransporting to the build new cities to Transporting the resource resource to build new cities Transporting the build new indusresourceTransporting to the tries build new indus-to resource tries build new industries

Using Upcycled packaged cusUsing Upcycled tomized product cus-Upcycled Using forpackaged new generatomized product cuspackaged tion of housing new tomized genera- product in for tfuture tion of housing for new generain tfuture tion of housing in tfuture

Raw material input: cement, aggregates, Raw material sand, water input: cement, aggregates, sand, water Deactivated byproducts of Deactivated byother industriesproducts of bye.g. ashes Deactivated from other industriesproducts of Thermal Power e.g. ashes from other industriesPlants Thermale.g. Power ashes from Plants Thermal Power Plants

Material

MRF Recovery Rate Mixed Waste Skip Baseline Good

MRF Recovery Rate Segregated Skip Baseline Good

Concrete

70%

80%

75%

95%

Metals

70%

85%

80%

95%

Aggregates

90%

100%

95%

100%

Bricks & blocks

60%

70%

80%

90%

Screed

70%

80%

75%

95%

Fig. 9 The table indicates high potential recovery rates for major prefabricated housing components. As recovery and utilization rates are determined by economic and demographic characteristics the Current moundegree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. tain of waste Current moungenerated by tain of waste Current mounconstruction generated byof waste tain sector construction generated by sector construction sector

Raw material input: cement, aggregates, sand, water

DSK DSK

DSK

Direct conveyor of conventional DSK Direct conveyor of conventional DSK Current way of disposal of C&D Current way of waste to the disposalCurrent of C&D way of landfill waste todisposal the of C&D landfill waste to the landfill

Casting new forms from reCasting new cycled concrete forms from re- new Casting cycled concrete forms from recycled concrete

Packaged product with embedPackaged ded recyclingproduct withPackaged embed- prodscheme ded recycling uct with embedscheme ded recycling scheme Upcycled customized Upcycled cus[printed] producttomizedUpcycled cus[printed]tomized product [printed] product

Upcycling deconstructed elements for upUpcycling degraded construcconstructed eletion ments for upgraded construction

Minimized waste from Upcycling process Minimized for disposal waste from Upcycling process for disposal

Conventional construction Conventional process construction Conventional process construction process

Proposed deconstruction Proposed process deconstruction Proposed process deconstruction process

Fig. 9 The diagram of the ecosystem of Upcycling model and process of “reversing” the conveyor that implies DSK taking back the construction waste they have produced and regenerating it into a product of higher value for various spheres: construction, building new industries (such as promoting renewable energy in Russia), building new roads in areas of high demand, producing new customized product- material for housing with an embedded recycling scheme in it.


4.3 A peek into technology

CHAPTER 4. HOW IT ALL WORKS 4.1 Defining Sustainability for different stakeholders The general definition of sustainability is meeting the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The Upcycling Model involves all the principal parties of a project-owner, architect, engineer, contractor, and subcontractors etc and re-defines the notion of sustainability for the major stakeholders. This is when the Customer Focus Ideology kicks in- involving each of the vested parties early on in the design process.

Mass produced prefabricated buildings on the scale of a country allow for buying in bulk and using or recycling the majority of the materials at the manufacturing site. Constituent parts of a product typically deteriorate at different rates, standardized parts are more easily reused, replaced, and recycled. Standards for the series of industrial housing generations established during the Soviet era to allow for lowering the cost of making offers across several platforms today.

for the Government:

for DSK:

for Architect and Contractor:

Ţ4IJGUUIFJODFOUJWFTUPSFQBJSJOH SFDZDMJOHNBterials, reduce the costs of transporting of construction and demolition waste to businesses that will reuse recovered building material. Ţ&YQBOEUBYEFEVDUJPOTGPSUIFQSJWBUFTFDUPS recovery of used building materials (non-profit charitable organizations for donating used building materials; private UBMRO business to encourage their development) Ţ$SFBUFCJEEJOHSFRVJSFNFOUTUIBUBXBSECPOVT points for contractors who use non-structural and structural deconstruction techniques to recover materials. Ţ(JWFJODFOUJWFTUPFNFSHJOHDPNQBOJFTUIBU provide the necessary services of sorting, removal, and recycling.

Ţ$PNFJOFBSMJFSJOUIFDZDMF Ţ"DDPVOUGPSUIFVQTUSFBNBOEEPXOTUSFBN benefits and trade-offs. Identify environmental improvement opportunities at all stages across its life cycle, from raw material extraction and conversion, through product manufacture, product distribution, use and fate at the endof-life stage. Ţ&NCFESFDZDMJOHUFDIOPMPHZBOEQPMJDZPO what is supposed to be done with it after the “lifespan” of the product while manufacturing Provide customer with product of higher value than the previous “panels”- e.g. is customized holistic approach-incorporating the waste from other industries Ţ$SFBUFSFDZDMFEBHHSFHBUFQSPEVDUJPOQMBOU and the use of recycled aggregate concrete mixing plant or pre-products processing plant to make full use of waste concrete.

Ţ"SDIJUFDUJTUPJODMVEFUIF$8.QMBOJOUIF construction documents within the conventional building activity cycle [design/bid/build] at an early stage comply with the new code of practice for the Building Industry (required to minimize waste, developing ways to reuse existing materials, which may be included in the new design or elsewhere) P provide on-site instruction of appropriate separation, handling, and recycling to be used by all parties at the appropriate stages of the project.

17%

11%

8%

36%

floor slabs

Exterior and interior wall panels structure for special purposes

that these are methods that do have a potential of being used in the near future but are not proposed as a remedy for a long-term perspective since Upcycling model proposes to utilize the Artificial Natural resources that are already in existence in order to clear the way for the emerging innovative technologies that would come by 2020s.

for citizen: Ţ"DRVJSFPSFNQMPZQIZTJDBMHPPETUIBUBSF more long-lasting Ţ&OKPZUIFIFBMUIZQMFBTBOUFOWJSPONFOU

4.2 Possible applications of recycled material 28%

Since technology itself is not the primary goal of this research, it is important to stress that there are a lot of efficient technologies long available that lay idle but could be implemented by DSKs. The following pages show a peek of how technologies from the Artificial Natural resource can produce better and more efficient materials. However, it is important to point out

New infrastructure: road construction (roadbed, road surface, road blocks & partitions) Stream 1: UPCYCLED: con struction waste refashioned into a packaged customized product of higher value Stream 2- RECYCLED: Inert material is grinded to be recycled and cast for further life cycle in construction

New construction: crushed and graded coarse and fine aggre-

recirculated water for washing automotive mixers

New cindustries: promorinf renewables development in Russia

reciclulated water for washing the separation tank

discharge of the inert with particle size separation option

industry

foundation structure

other

Stream 3- REUSED: Con struction elements upgrad ed or reused to be utilized for new construction

Stream 4-DOWNCYCLED: recycled into a product of lower value or disposed

Recycled crushed directly on the spot by “Portable Re-DSKs” immediately used for new construction New “currency” available in each Region for domestic use and export

inert material washing nozzle

recirculated water conveyed to the storage tank

recirculated water leading to feeding the automotive mixers additional input of clean water

Reduced inevitable waste from demolition and recycling disposed properly Fig. 10 Components of the buildings: The diagram shows the percentage of particular building component, e.g. floor slabs are 28% of the building, visualize the components and the potential applications of the recycled or upcycled material.

Fig. 11 Example of Euromecc technology that prevents concrete from entering the waste stream.


CHAPTER 5. CONSEQUENCES OF THE “WIN-WIN”

4.4 Missed out opportunities: technologies

3.3 The addded value across all layers

Despite the fact that all the technologies mentioned above were invented in Russia and have been available for implementation for a few years now, large construction industries do not seen to demonstrate interest in them. One of the objectives of this guideline is to design the awareness that there are technologies that may be more energy efficient and economically feasible at the same time for DSKs.

STCC stands for Steel Tube Confined Concrete The USSR has developed a breakthrough scientific and technical base for construction technology with application of Steel Tube Confined Concrete frameworks as a new supporting structure. The world’s first method of calculation STCC structures was published by Professor Gvozdev in 1932. Today the legal framework for STCC structures adopted from USSR exists in

Germany, Austria, Japan, China, USA, but does not exist in Russia. The ideology of precast concrete declared taboo on all other technologies with a recent rare exception of monolythic construction. Yet the implication of STCC structures permits the avoidance of using building material- consuming material-bearing walls, to facilitate multi-story high-rise building which would cut the amount of concrete and metal in half and reduce the prime costs by 25-30 percent. This technology would allow to save up to 50% of metal supplies without compromising on high seismic resistance, reliability and durability. A Regulatory framework, technical characteristics data and hundreds of patents are available on Japanese, American, Chinese and Russian techniques of STCC structures, a technology that allows to produce STCC from used-up old pipes being one of them. Experts lead by Marcel Bikbau state that the strength of the STCC has

an insignificant dependency on the state of the pipes, and actually the layer of rust is working as a damping layer and can replace polymer layers utilized by Japanese technology. The abundance of Russia’s supply of worn out pipes is hardly questionable. Today the used tubes can be bought from two to three times cheaper than the new ones. However even the price for the new steel pipes are comparable to the ones

of reinforcement. Currently STCC structure technology is most widely spread in China, particularly Shanghai and Beijing. This may be a result of an academic exchange of Mr. Tsai in Moscow Institute for Engineering and Construction back in 1961. The technology was also adopted and is widely used in Kazakhstan where 3 million square meters of STCC structure housing with increased 9-point seismic resistance is currently being built in Almaty since STCC column is in fact not a subject

Despite the fact that all the technologies mentioned above were invented in Russia and have been available for implementation for a few years now, large construction

increased strength of the concrete. The special technology of Mechanochemical processing of cement, aligning it with the microencapsulation invented by Marcel Bikbau allows to produce cement with the same figures for the grade, increased durability while cutting down energy input almost twice (300-400 kilocalorie instead of 700-720 kcal per kilogram of cement). The technology not only dramatically reduces

to precipitous collapse. According to Marcel Bikbau, cement today, when used in construction, reveals its potential for a maximum of 20-25%. This is the part of cement, which gives the brand strength in the concrete and causes of its construction and engineering properties. The potential of mechanically activated cements allow for production of heavy-duty 1300-1500 grade of concrete.

power consumption and improves quality of the product, but also allows for incorporating cheap (kremnozemistie dobavki) silica additives such as volcanic rocks, sand, slag and ash into the composition of cement. This is the way to the efficient processing of hundreds of millions of tons of industrial waste.

Mechanochemically processed cement, aligning it with the microencapsulation

Holistic management: incorporating the waste from other industries:

A remarkable feature of this technology makes it possible to obtain excellent cements with high quality with 30-35% decrease of amount of cement clinker that is responsible for significant energy loss during the burn stage. As a result, from one ton of ordinary cement of 500 grade it

Using waste from other industries approach is potentially a “win-win” solution. The example of the existing technology developed by Yuri Peterson, a scientist from Novosibirskdemonstrates the way to use ashes accumulated as a byproduct of combined heat

is possible to get 2.4 tons of binder grade 300500, or 1 ton of cement grade 700-800. The cement was certified in the United States and has received recognition. In order to begin to produce cement with qualitatively new characteristics it is necessary to re- equip grinding plants (pomolniy tsekh) fully with relevant grinding. According to the experts, the thinner the cement grind is, the faster it will interact with water which is a pledge of

and power supply plant; TES) that is otherways harmful for the environment ash- disposal areas (zolootvali) to produce building materials for housing. Example of “Sibit” company in Novosibirsk in corporation with Novosibirskenergo) producing cellular concrete blocks that claim to exceed brick in terms of strength and thermal performance.

Today the relative capital investment per tonne of cement - it is minimum $150-200. However if using the technology of and is, in fact, the technology of finishing of cement clinker or cement, the necessary capital investment per ton of cement would be about $30-35. With the introduction of siliceous additives according to the new technology the amount of cement produced in the country would increase by at least 10-15 million tons in the coming years. It has been estimated in Chinese construction reports that that recycled concrete can actually be more economically feasible than conventional concrete. Recycled aggregate concrete prices are considerably lower than the traditional concrete prices. Even without the environmental benefits of recycled concrete, solely on the recycling of construction waste, half of the costs of disposal can be saved. The case of Shanghai demonstrates that while disposal of 100 000 m3 of waste concrete accounts for 14.85 million yuan, processing it into recycled concrete aggregate costs only about 8 million yuan (80 yuan / m3).

such a holistic model affects other spheres.

Economic exchanges between the main stakeholders of construction industry occur at the intersection of the various value components. Counter intuitively, today it seems that expensive cement is profitable for businesses because the only stakeholder who would benefit from cheap construction would be the citizen. When evaluating the potential of construction waste upcycling we should single out the following three categories: direct revenue, indirect revenue and intangible value. The assumption is that if the direct revenue will initially increase due to “reverting” the conveyor and all the costs associated with change of equipment, the process will still naturally bring high profits to the construction industries through indirect revenue. Apart from this factor, the impact from

is not direct, it will bring the cost down (cutting down the taxes) and create an environmental impact that benefits the citizens.

Environmental “win-win”

+reduces the amount of construction and demolition waste that is sent to landfills +reuse of building materials reduces the demand for new building materials and therefore lowers the amount of energy and resources used in their production

Socioeconomic “win-win” +increased employment opportunities +job training for unskilled unemployed workers (dealing with “human waste” David was talking about) + historic preservation +building materials affordability +small business development in economically depressed areas +potential for preapproved deconstruction due to standardized resources Despite the fact that the value for the end user

How should it be controlled, role of the Government The model of Upcycling is proposed to be implementated into the National Projects for the mass construction of a modern comfortable housing such as “Gilye” Federal Program and has to be incorporated with a combination of legislative measures and modern technological solutions for effective use of new system of architecture and construction instead of outdated material and energy-intensive system of precast concrete, or even more expensive

monolithic construction. Implementation of new technologies has to become a condition set by legislative system in the very beginning. Tenders must be created with the specific technological and economic conditions. DSKs are to manufacture new material with embedded recycling system in it. Economic requirements must be sharp: (e.g. instead of construction spending 0.85 cubic meter of concrete and 70 kilograms of metal per square meter of housing as it is currently being done in Moscow, and 0.40 cubic meter of concrete and 18.2 kilograms of metal, as in developed countries). That way whoever spends more would not be involved in the game. In fact, apart from large state orders, the role of the state in construction industries is reduced to a minimum. There is no a particular institution in the Government that would be in charge of controlling technological policy. The existing Agency for the Construction and housing does not have the leverage nor for the construction industries, nor for the contractor where as the Ministry of Construction is the key agency

in the U.S., Japan, Brazil, China, and in many other countries. Thus, a new institutional body incorporated into Re-DSK is to be established in order to control the quality of the material, ensure stable quality in mass production and compliance with technical standards. The need to develop construction and waste management emerges not only because of the potential crisis of excessive waste and all the tragic environmental consequences but also due to the missed out opportunity to turn the waste into a benefit. Resource that may solve many other additional acute problems (such as promotion of renewables) and results as a paradigm shift for construction management where new governance structure will follow the path of development of new technologies that would lead to a solid result.


Fig. 12 Map of regions in demand for Articicial Natural resource as defined by Federal programs

Map of supply and potential export to regions in demand for Artificial Natural resource

Dudinka Norilsk

such self- sustaining regions. There are all the necessary resources to form a Russian domestic concrete market. The enormous amounts of forecast deposits of demolition waste in Russia could cover domestic demands for asphalt and concrete in the foreseeable future in case the Upcycling model is implemented.

MADRID

As Asian countries are rapidly developing it is assumed that demand for Artificial Natural resource and Upcycling product will be expanding. Additional layer of existing and projected infrastructure (predominantly railway) defines Russia as part of such global network of Artificial Natural resources and major exporter of concrete and steel due to exceptional geographical location. While China is the world’s biggest producer of construction and demolition waste constantly producing 40 million tons of C&D waste annually (concrete annual production in China accounted for about 45 percent of the world’s total (about 1.3 billion m3) it could be a potential strategic partner for exchanging the technology and the management of Upcycling, several Chinese companies have already expressed their desire to buy a technology of C&D waste recycling. It would be more energy- efficient to import Artificial natural resources such as recycled steel from Russia rather than shipping it from Australia as it is currently done.

Europe

SUPPLY OF ARTIFICIAL NATURAL RESOURCE Amount of Prefab Panel Housing more than 5 million 3- 5 million 1.5 -3 million 500 000- 1.5 million CAIRO

300- 500 thousand 100-300 thousand less than 100 thousand cities- e.g. Togliatti- largest suppliers of Artificial Natural resource

DEMAND FOR ARTIFICIAL NATURAL RESOURCE Identified by State programs Zabaikaliye regions in need for housing development*

Artificial Natural resource may solve many acute problems. We simply can not afford to be wasting the waste any longer.

Atyrau TBILISI

Kazakhstan

YEREVAN

ASTANA

regions with dangerous road conditions ** regions with unsatisfactory road conditions *Federal long-term target program "Residence" for Russia, 2012-2016

BAKU

** Safety rating for Russian roads from 2011 large cities with high demand for resources for construction

Uzbekistan ULAANBAATAR

TEHRAN

POTENTIAL EXPORT OF ARTIFICIAL NATURAL RESOURCE potential export of Atrificial Natural Resource potential domestic export of Atrificial Natural Resource

Mongolia ASHGABAT

DUSHANBE

BISHKEK

China China

Afganistan KABUL

ISLAMABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK major railways: Trans Siberian, Baikal- Amur, Chinese Eastern, Trans Mongolian main railway secondary railway

NEW DELHI

projected railway 0

Artificial Natural Conclusion Resource may solve many acute problems. Potential for export We can not afford to The map indicates that abundant reserves of Artificial Natural resource every region be wasting thein almost waste of the country allow for export to the areas of highestlonger. demand as well as recycling on site any while cutting down on transportation costs for

250

500

1000 km

THIMPHU

DHAKA

Fig. 13 Map of overlapping the supply of the Artificial Natural resource with the demand for it and potential export to other countries

Mumbai

BEIJING

PYONGYANG

Korea

The model of Upcycling is proposed to be implementated into the National Projects for the mass construction of a modern comfortable housing such as “Gilye” Federal Program and has to be incorporated with a combination of legislative measures and modern technological solutions for effective use of new system of architecture and construction instead of outdated material and energy-intensive system of precast concrete, or even more expensive monolithic construction. Implementation of new technologies has to become a regulation set by legislative system in the very beginning. Tenders must be created with the specific technological and economic conditions.


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Citizens as Customers: Final Report