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Analysis and structural design of timber structures

Cross-Laminated Timber Structural Design Basic design and engineering principles according to Eurocode Cross-laminated timber as an innovative structural element opens up new possibilities in structural timber construction. The present guideline is to assist in properly exploiting and implementing these possibilities in planning and execution. Firstly, the two-dimensional construction product cross-laminated timber (BSP or XLAM) is described with respect to its manufacture and its properties. This is followed by the description of the structural behaviour, basic design principles and fire performance and then modelling assumtions and characteristic material values according to Eurocode. Joining technology focuses on self-tapping woodscrews; this section is supplemented by general design proposals. Structural behaviour of buildings under horizontal loads and earthquake resistance associated therewith conclude the general part. Application examples underline the described contents for easier access and discussion of extensive engineering models. DI Dr. Markus Wallner-Novak DI Josef Koppelhuber DI Kurt Pock

proHolz Austria November 2014

isbn 978-3-902926-03-6 | Euro 35


Cross-Laminated Timber Structural Design Basic design and engineering principles according to Eurocode

Publication details Owner and publisher proHolz Austria Working group of the Austrian timber industry for promotion of the application of timber Chairman Hans Michael Offner Managing Director Georg Binder Project Management Alexander Eder 1011 Vienna⁄ Austria Uraniastrasse 4 T + 43 (0)1 ⁄ 712 04 74 info@proholz.at, www.proholz.at

Merk Timber GmbH D-86551 Aichach Industriestraße 2 T + 49 (0)8251 ⁄ 908 - 0 office@merk.de www.merk.de

Design Cover Gassner Redolfi, Schlins (at) Reinhard Gassner, Marcel Bachmann Contents Markus Wallner-Novak

Hasslacher Norica Timber A-9751 Sachsenburg Feistritz 1 T + 43 (0)4769 ⁄ 2249 - 0 info@hasslacher.at www.hasslacher.at

Translation Translation agency Allesprachen, Graz

Financial support by Binderholz Bausysteme GmbH A-5400 Hallein Solvay-Halvic-Straße 46 T + 43 (0)6245 ⁄ 70 500 - 556 office@binderholz-bausysteme.com www.binderholz-bausysteme.com Haas Fertigbau Holzbauwerk GesmbH & Co kg A-8263 Großwilfersdorf Radersdorf 62 T + 43 (0)3385 ⁄ 666 - 0 Info@Haas-Fertigbau.at www.haas-fertigbau.at Mayr-Melnhof Holz Holding ag A-8700 Leoben, Turmgasse 67 T + 43 (0)3842 ⁄ 300 - 0 holding@mm-holz.com www.mm-holz.com

Stora Enso Building and Living A-9462 Bad St. Leonhard Wisperndorf 4 T + 43 (0)4350 ⁄ 2301 - 3207 buildingsolutions@ storaenso.com www.clt.info Fachverband der Holzindustrie Österreichs A-1037 Wien Schwarzenbergplatz 4 T + 43 (0)1 ⁄ 712 26 01 office@holzindustrie.at www.holzindustrie.at Authors DI Dr. Markus Wallner-Novak DI Josef Koppelhuber DI Kurt Pock

Print Eberl Print, Immenstadt (de)

1st edition english 2014, 600 copies Translation on the basis of the German version of September 2013 Price per copy 35 Euros, incl. vat, excl. shipment isbn 978-3-902926-03-6 issn 1680-4252

Printed on pefc-certified paper. This product originates from sustainably managed forests and controlled sources. www.pefc.at Copyright 2014 by proHolz Austria and the authors. The publication and any contributions and figures contained therein are copyrighted. Any use beyond the limits of copyright without the publisher’s approval is inadmissible and punishable. proHolz Austria and the authors endeavour to research or state, respectively, information correctly and completely. However, we ask for your understanding that no liability can be assumed for the contents.


Foreword

The development of timber construction over the past hundred years has been characterised by enormous innovation. The elements made of timber and timber materials as well as the joining technique have undergone constant further development. The timber, or more exactly the individual board, represents the basis for glued-laminated timber, board stack elements or cross-laminated timber. At the first glance, the relatively “new” construction material cross-laminated timber – its practical, economically relevant use in the building sector started about twenty years ago – is a simple construction material. It consists of strength-graded laminations, which are glued together crosswise at 90° to an odd number of layer. Superficially, a homogeneous wooden panel is formed. Upon closer examination by the engineer, however, the complexity of this structural element can be noticed: it is an orthogonally layered, laminar composite element made of wood with a complex calculation basis. “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” (Albert Einstein, 1879 – 1955) The present structural design manual is giving designers, engineering consultants and performers an understanding of the basic principles for technically proper planning and application of cross-laminated timber. The main focus is on the structural function of cross-laminated timber as a load-bearing structural element and on the requirements associated therewith. For joining the cross-laminated timber elements, design proposals were prepared. The structural design guideline enables practitioners an easy and fast understanding of the construction product cross-laminated timber, since the verifications required in terms of structural engineering are described with the associated engineering calculation models and explained on the basis of practical examples. This structural design manual was meticulously and thoroughly prepared by DI Dr. Markus Wallner-Novak and his co-authors DI Josef Koppelhuber and DI Kurt Pock. Here, the engineer will find answers to the essential issues when it comes to the structural design of crosslaminated timber, so that this manual represents an important contribution to practical dimensioning of cross-laminated timber. Wilhelm Luggin Luggin – Ziviltechnikergesellschaft m.b.H.






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Cross-sectional values for cross-laminated timber with fictitious build-ups – Ceilings and roofs Designation

Build-up

I0,net

W0,net

SR,net

AR,

I0,ef / ref 2,00 m

[cm4]

[cm3]

[cm3]

[cm2]

3,00 m

)/(

4,00 m 5,00 m [cm4]

6,00 m

7,00 m [–]

XLAM 130 C5s

30l–20w–30l– 20w–30l

15.675 86 %

2.412

1.500

1.567

11.990 65 %

13.778 75 %

14.546 79 %

14.932 82 %

15.151 83 %

15.287 83 %

0,193

XLAM 150 L5s

30l–30w–30l– 30w–30l

22.275 79 %

2.970

1.800

1.856

15.186 54 %

18.422 65 %

19.924 71 %

20.709 74 %

21.163 75 %

21.447 76 %

0,184

XLAM 160 L5s

40l–20w–40l– 20w–40l

30.400 89 %

3.800

2.400

1.900

21.680 64 %

25.741 75 %

27.580 81 %

28.529 84 %

29.074 85 %

29.414 86 %

0,208

XLAM 220 L7s

40l–20w–40l– 20w–40l–20w–40l

74.196 84 %

6.739

4.800

2.319

43.594 49 %

56.360 64 %

62.921 71 %

66.530 75 %

68.676 77 %

70.042 79 %

0,217

XLAM 220 L7s2

30l–30l–30w–40l– 30w–30l–30l

80.933 91 %

7.358

4.800

2.529

42.978 48 %

57.680 65 %

65.856 74 %

70.550 80 %

73.412 83 %

75.260 85 %

0,188

Cross-sectional values for cross-laminated timber with fictitious build-ups – Walls Designation

XLAM 90 C3s

Build-up

30l–30w–30l

A0,net

SR,net

I0,ef [cm4]/i0,ef [cm]/ [–]

I0,net Inet Ibrut

W0,net

AR,

[cm2]

[cm4]

[cm3]

[cm3]

[cm2]

2,50 m 2,95 m 3,00 m 4,00 m 5,00 m 6,00 m [–]

600

5.850

1.300

900

975

5.120 2,92 86

1.600

1.300

11.083 11.737 11.796 12.613 13.035 13.277 0,155 3,72 3,83 3,84 3,97 4,04 4,07 67 77 78 101 124 147

1.560

1.050

1.114

6.532 3,30 76

15.675 2.412

1.500

1.567

13.088 13.722 13.778 14.546 14.932 15.151 3,81 3,90 3,91 4,02 4,07 4,10 66 76 77 99 123 146

0,193

1.800

1.856

17.130 4,36 57

0,184

96 % XLAM 120 C3s

40l–40w–40l

800

13.867 2.311 96 %

XLAM 100 C3s

30l–40w–30l

600

7.800 94 %

XLAM 130 C5s

30l–20w–30l– 20w–30l

900

86 % XLAM 150 C5s

30l–30w–30l– 30w–30l

900

22.275 2.970 79 %

Fictitious element build-ups used in the guideline with cross-sectional values for dimensioning of elements subjected to bending according to Chapters 5 and 6 of the present guideline.

)/(

ref

The element build-ups above are fictitious and were defined independently of respective manufacturers. The tables represent a possible listing of the cross-sectional values for dimensioning according to the present guideline. For manufacturerrelated build-ups and corresponding cross-sectional-values, please contact one of the manufacturers.

A0,net I0,net W0,net SR,net AR, Ð I0,ef i0,ef ref )/(

5.305 2,97 99

6.843 3,38 87

5.321 2,98 101

6.871 3,38 89

5.539 3,04 132

7.247 3,48 115

5.647 3,07 163

7.436 3,52 142

5.707 3,08 195

7.543 3,55 169

18.314 18.422 19.924 20.709 21.163 4,51 4,52 4,71 4,80 4,85 65 66 85 104 124

0,155

0,152

Net area – in the direction of the top layers in cm2 Net moment of inertia – in the direction of the top layers in cm4 Net section modulus – in the direction of the top layers in cm3 Net static moment – in the direction of the top layers in cm3 Equivalent area for determination of the decisive rolling shear stress in cm2 Effective moment of inertia – in the direction of the top layers in cm4 Effective radius of inertia – in the direction of the top layers in cm Reference length or buckling length in m Slenderness (no unit) Shear correction factor for calculation as a transversally shear-flexible element (no unit)

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Cross laminated timber (CLT) Structural design - EN  

Cross laminated timber (CLT) Structural design - EN  

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