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ECOMIMESIS BIOMIMETIC DESIGN FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Claire Stokoe MALAD NS2 February 2013


Front Page Illustration: Living system structure “All living systems are open ones� http://www.intechopen.com/js/ckeditor/kcfinder/upload/images/shutterstock_78684223-1.jpg


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

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NATURE & DESIGN MODERNISM: DESIGNING OUT NATURE HUMAN SYSTEMS HUMAN VS BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

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BIOMIMICRY WHAT IS BIOMIMICRY? BIOLOGY LOOKING TO DESIGN DESIGN LOOKING TO BIOLOGY

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METHODS & APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY BIOMIMICRY 3.8 DESIGN SPIRAL BIOMIMICRY 3.8 LIFE’S PRINCIPLES BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH BIOTRIZ APPROACH BIOMIMICRY THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

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BIOMIMESIS & SUSTAINABILITY

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ECOSYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES & PROCESSES ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS WASTE EQUALS FOOD RE-USE OVER RECYCLE PRESERVE & MAINTAIN HEALTHY WATER SUPPLY USE CURRENT SOLAR ENERGY PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY

54 58 62 72 80 88

ECOMIMESIS: BIOMIMETIC DESIGN FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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Fig. 001


ABSTRACT This essay explores the application of Biomimetic Design principles in Landscape Architecture. Positing Biomimicry as a potential approach in creating ecologically sound, highly sustainable designs for the human landscape. By understanding natural processes and integrating ecological sustainability, biomimetic design offers solutions that will sit comfortably in their environment, that function in such a way that they become an integral part of public space and urban design. Biomimetic practice has been integrated into a number of industries; materials, manufacturing, communications, medicine and industrial chemistry. Biomimetic Design, is a relatively new field; product designers, architects and planners have begun to apply biomimetic principles to their process and are producing some of the most innovative and sustainable solutions. In comparison Landscape Architects have been slow to integrate biomimetic design into their design practice. This essay examines Biomimicry in theory, application and practice. It will examine the usefulness of the various methodologies devised to apply biomimicry and their relevance to landscape architecture.

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NATURE & DESIGN The ‘model of nature’ has been used as a source of inspiration for design of the human environment for milennia. The forms, structures and organising principles found in nature have inspired countless concepts, patterns, processes and products in art, design and architecture. The way that nature is employed in design correlates quite significantly with the prevailing attitudes toward nature at that particular point in time. Pre-Enlightenment, the prevailing understanding of the world, across many cultures was Holistic. Holism (from holos, a Greek word meaning all, whole, entire, total), is the idea that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties, should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems somehow function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts(Oshry 2008). The “Enlightenment” of the 18th century experienced a shift from the holistic, organic view of the world to a mechanistic, reductionistic understanding. Reductionism in science says that a complex system can be explained by reduction to its fundamental parts. For example, the processes of biology are reducible to chemistry and the laws of chemistry are explained by physics. One particular turning point can be attributed to the invention of the microscope, which provided a perception of the world that was much smaller, segmented, observable and quantifiable. Before the world was broken down into the various disciplines familiar

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Engineering and so forth; Nature, and its many components were understood within the whole semantic network that connected it to the world. (Foucault 1970). Nicholas A. Christakis explains that “for the last few centuries, the Cartesian project in science has been to break matter down into ever smaller bits, in the pursuit of understanding. “ (Clark, 2011) In the 18th century with primacy attributed to the observable world, and all of those philosophies, symbols, myths and anecdotes dispelled from books on the Natual Sciences and therefore common understanding. Form took precedence. Architects and designers absorbed motifs from nature into their designs. Ernst Haeckels scientific illustrations of nature influenced architecture and other design disciplines which absorbed the motifs from nature and employed them artistically (Bergdoll 2007 p13) The symmetry and organisation of the organisms reflect the methodological approach of science illustration, but there is a prevailing aesthetic which undoes any notion of objectivity. They do however beautifully illustrate the primacy of observation. For Ruskin, the Romantic writer, artist and social commentator foliage, flowers, and fruit, “intended for our gathering, and for our constant delight” (Ruskin, 2008 p211)are paradisial decorative motifs (Fig003). Ruskin’s delight unconsciously mirrored the taxonomic systems of subordination attributed to his time. The prevailing notion of nature was that it was beautiful rather than useful. It was used only to decorate homes, exemplified by William Morris’s wallpaper designs (Fig.005) which in their symmetry appear to almost mechanise the forms of foliage.

Fig. 002

Fig. 003


Fig. 004

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Fig. 005

William Morris, Snakeshead printed textile, 1876


Fig. 006


Fig. 007

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William Morris was part of the arts and crafts movement. A reactionary group that contested the current mechanistation and the separation of man from nature. It saw the revival of handicraft. Morris used medieval embroidery techniques based on Opus Anglicanum for his wallpapers, rather than use the machines and new technologies that were available. (Morris 1893) A few decades later modernism had taken root. With LeCorbusier at the forefront of Modern Urbanism, minimalist, pure, functional style dominated. Le Corbusier dreamed of “cleaning and purging” the city, bringing “a calm and powerful architecture” - referring to steel, plate glass, and reinforced concrete. Though Le Corbusier’s designs for Stockholm did not succeed, later architects took his ideas and partly “destroyed” the city with them. (Theodore Dalrymple, 2009)

images are ones that, while abstract, nevertheless refer to, or evoke, living forms such as plants and the human body. The term comes from combining the Greek words bios, meaning life, and morphe, meaning form.” Forms from nature were abstracted and turned into designs for ceramics, furniture and architecture etc. Bruno Tauts Glass Pavillion 1914 (Fig. 007) exeplifies modernist utopian biomorphic architecture, as do his drawings for “Alpine Architecture”. The style persisted through the 20th century, for example Eero Saarinen’s TWA Terminal at JFK Airport (1962) reflects the organic curves and forms found in nature for their aesthetic, continuing the taxonomic subordination of nature as a pleasing abstracted form.

For the modernists, nature became irrelevant and passé, for the city superseded nature as the life force. The only place nature had in this movement was in abstracted shape or symbol. Le Corbusier used the symbol of the kidney to reference the design of the washroom for the unbuilt Olivetti Headquarters project (Fig. 006) (Pawlyn 2011) Biomorphism is a good example of bio-inspired design. Emerging in the early 20th century, biomorphism models architecture and products on the forms found in nature. Tate glossary defines Biomorphism“Biomorphic forms or

Fig. 008

Fig. 009

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MODERNISM: DESIGNING OUT NATURE The age of reason saw a shift in the perception of nature as other to civilization; cities were built as autonomous environments, as isolated machines - and still are. The onset of the Industrial Revolution mechanised the human environment as well as human attitudes and understanding of their environment. Driven by “progress� and profits nature was exploited and dominated. Gathering pace from around 1850, Modernism, in western art, architecture and design selfconsciously rejected the past as a model for the design of the present. It is thus characterised by constant innovation. But modern art has often been driven too by various social and political agendas. These were often utopian, and modernism was in general associated with ideal visions of human life and society and a belief in progress. From the very beginning, modernism was directly aligned with the machine, and the marriage of the two has become integrated into design and architectural thinking of the 20th century. Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) opens on an explicit visual connection between the two: a lingering shot of a rectilinear skyscraper superimposed with the pumping pistons of some infernal machine. (Codrington 2001/02) The mining of ancient sunlight, or the extraction of fossilised carbon stores, or the extrusion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, powered the Industrial Revolution. Michael Pawlin refers to this time as the Fossil Fuel Age because of the enormous impact it had on the way society functioned. (2011)

In Cradle to Cradle; Remaking the way we make things William MacDonough and Michael Braungart (2009 p18) list what the design intention of the Industrial Revolution might have been if written in retrospect: Design a system of production that: >Puts billions of pounds of toxic material into the air, water and soil every year. >Produces some materials so dangerous they will require constant vigilance by future generations.

"My God is machinery, and the art of the future will be the expression of the individual artist through the thousand powers of the machine," Frank Lloyd Wright

Fig. 010

>Results in gigantic amounts of waste. >Puts valuable materials in holes all over the planet, where they can never be retrieved. >Requires thousands of complex regulations: not to keep people and natural systems safe, but rather to keep them from being poisoned too quickly. >Measures productivity by how few people are working. >Creates prosperity by digging up or cutting down natural resources and then burying or burning them erodes the diversity of species and cultural practices. Such outcomes were never the intent of the engineers and designers of the Industrial Revolution, rather they were a consequence of quick fixes and problem solving, exploiting resources for economic gain. In the past two centuries the human footprint on earth has multiplied many times over. (Orr 2002)

Fig. 011

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Fig. 012

Fig. 012

Surrealist artist Salvador Dali recounts an exchange with Le Corbusier

When I was barely twenty-one years old, I happened to be having lunch one day ... in the company of the masochistic and Protestant architect Le Corbusier who, as everyone knows, is the inventor of the architecture of self-punishment. Le Corbusier asked me if I had any ideas on the future of his art. Yes, I had. I have ideas on everything, as a matter of fact. I answered him that architecture would become “soft and hairy.� ... In listening to me, Le Corbusier had the expression of one swallowing gall. -

(Dali, 1957, Trans. 1996, p. 45.)

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Fig. 013


HUMAN SYSTEMS Geoffrey West articulated that cities are the “crucible of civilization”. They are expanding at an exponential rate - every week more than 1 million people are added to a city, and by the second part of this century the planet will be dominated by cities. (West 2011) The built environment occupies a large portion of the earth’s surface and is vast in scale (Kibert et al. 2002, p. 1), having a lifespan that lasts for a mere 50–100 years (Mazria 2010,p. 1). The urban environment is accountable for both social and environmental problems. It creates vast proportions of waste, material and energy use and green house gas emissions (Doughty and Hammond, 2004). Humanity has just crossed a major landmark in its history with the majority of people now living in cities (UN World Urbanization Prospects 2004). A study on the science of cities undertaken by relating urbanisation to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system.” (Bettencourt et al. 2007)

The present worldwide trend toward urbanization is intimately related to economic development and to profound changes in social organisation, land use, and patterns of human behavior. The demographic scale of these changes is unprecedented (UN World Urbanization Prospects 2004) and will lead to important but as of yet poorly understood impacts on the global environment. By 2030, the urban population of developing countries is expected to more than double to 4 billion, with an estimated 3-fold increase in occupancy of land area (3), whereas in developed countries it may still increase by as much as 20%. To sustain such rapid urbanization there is a necessity for significant innovation in urban planning, design and planting practices in order to establish a balance between human development needs and the planet’s environmental limits. Bettencourt et al. 2007)

A shift in design thinking is needed in order to “move to a sustainable way of living within environmental limits over the next few decades, allowing for continued human development and population growth, while adapting to climate change impacts.” (Head 2008, p. 5).

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Fig. 014 Engineering TRIZ solutions arranged according to size/hierarchy

Fig. 015 Biological effects arranged according to size/hierarchy

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HUMAN VS BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Cities as consumers of energy and resources and producers of artifacts, information, and waste have often been compared with biological entities, in both classical studies in urban sociology as well as in recent research concerned with urban ecosystems and sustainable development. Recent analogies include cities as ‘‘living systems’’ (Miller JG 1978) or ‘‘organisms’’ (Lovelock 1969) and notions of urban ‘‘ecosystems’’ (Botkin, Beveridge 1997). Findings of recent studies undertaken by Bettencourt et al. show that these terms aren’t just qualitative metaphors, but, at least for the infrastructure of a city are quantifiably similar to biological and organic and ecological entities as they are economies of scale. In cities, the data associated with infrastructure bares characteristics of an economy of scale, analogous with those found in nature. As an organism, or an ecosystem gets larger, its metabolism decreases, it uses less energy, less material. Economies of scale are described by:

The resources driving growth are ultimately limited, thus, if conditions remain unchanged, such boundless growth is unsustainable, consequentially leading to stagnation and ultimate collapse. This pattern of growth is inherently unsustainable as it must constantly re-invent and innovate, effectively resetting the initial conditions and parameters of living. Not only does the super-linear development require constant adaptation and reinvention but each new cycle, each change must arise at an accelerated rate in order to maintain growth.

The human systems that have developed over the last century rely primarily on the use of fossil fuels. Energy has become central to the “human/mechanistic” solution. Shown in the graph opposite by the red mass. The lower graph shows how nature solves problems, it is obvious to see that energy usage is minimal, and they rely far more heavily on structure and information - which in human systems are largely ignored. Nature presents a far superior methodolgy of problem solving, and it would seem that we need to re-think our approach, and look to nature for advice.

Many studies of biological and technological systems show that there is a mere 12% similarity between the human (mechanical) and natural problem solving methodologies. (Vincent et al. 2006)

Fig. 016

Ω = 0.8 < 1 Such scaling is found throughout nature as exemplified in Fig (016). Data shows that if infrastructure and city size were to be plotted in such a graph, they would look remarkably similar (Appendix). Thus proving that we should be considering the planning and design of our urban infrastructure as an organism or ecosystem. A shift must be made in how the built environment is created and maintained. Bettencourt et al. predict an imminent collapse of the current super-linear rate of growth of the population of cities.

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BIOMIMICRY is a m

seeks to create sustainable sol time-tested patterns and strate billion years of selection and re created a sustainable world, an enlightened design solutions.


method of innovation that lutions by emulating natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s egies of design. With 3.8 efinement, nature has nd a plethora of ecologically


Fig. 017

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Modern architec ts have frequently used nature as a source for unconventional forms and for symbolic association. The reason that it is necessary to make a distinction is because we require a func tional revolution of sor ts if we are to bring about the transformations (needed to solve current problems), and I firmly believe that it will be biomimicry rather than biomorphism t h a t w i l l d e l i v e r t h e s o l u t i o n s w e n e e d. â&#x20AC;? Pawlyn 2011 p.2

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WHAT IS BIOMIMICRY? Biomimetics, a name coined by Otto Schmitt in the 1950s for the transfer of ideas and analogues from biology to technology, has produced some significant and successful devices and concepts, but it is still in its infancy and still needs time to become fully integrated into popular thinking and popular design. (Vincent et al 2006) Biologist Julien Vincent describes it as “The abstraction of good design from nature” (2003) Architect Michael Pawlin defines Biomimicry as “mimicking the functional basis of biological forms, processes and systems to produce sustainable solutions” (2011 p.2) The Biomimicry Institute posit that “Biomimicry is the science and art of emulating nature’s best biological ideas to solve human problems” (2007). “At its most practical, biomimicry is a way of seeking sustainable solutions by borrowing life’s blueprints, chemical recipes, and ecosystem strategies. At its most transformative, it brings us into right relation with the rest of the natural world” - Biomimicry 3.8 Vitruvius speculated that humans learned the art of building by watching birds construct their nests—a claim echoed nearly two thousand years later by Bernard Rudofsky, best known today as the curator of the 1964 MoMA exhibition “Architecture without Architects.” Yet the two men differed on one key point: whereas Vitruvius asserted that men soon surpassed their animal teachers in skill, whereas Rudofsky believed contemporary designers could learn something yet from the beavers and the bees. (Cheng 2006)

“Biomimicry is learning from and then emulating natural forms, processes, and ecosystems to create more sustainable designs. (It is) studying a leaf to invent a better solar cell or a coral reef to make a resilient company ... Mimicking these earth-savvy designs can help humans leapfrog to technologies that sip energy, shave material use, reject toxins, and work as a system to create conditions conducive to life.”

Hawken (2007, cited by Pederson Zari 2007) articulates that the human species existed long before the oldest living forest and are undoubtedly an adaptable species. However there is only a small overlap between human design solutions we see today and tactics used in nature. Especially considering we exist in the same context and with the same available resources.(Pedesrson Zari 2007).

As previously stated, the Industrial Revoltion changed the ‘context’ of the human species. Civilization was positioned outside of nature and therefore developed accordingly. Biomimicry brings us back to our roots, taking us back to nature, closing the gap that has been widening for the past two centuries, returning to a settled culture. (Orr 2011)

Webster’s Dictionary in 1974 - The study of the formation, structure, or function of biologically produced substances and materials (as enzymes or silk) and biological mechanisms and processes (as protein synthesis or photosynthesis) especially for the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones. (Harkness 2001)

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Fig. 018

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Biomimicry - the design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled on biological entities and processes.â&#x20AC;? Oxford English Dictionary (2011)

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Probably one of the most well known inventions inspired by nature is “Velcro”. The hooks of the burdock seed caught in the coat of George de Mestral’s dog when they were out on a walk. The first use he wanted to put the concept to was a novel type of zip fastener. (Vincent et al. )

Fig. 019

Leonardo Da Vinci emulated nature’s designs in the engineering of some of his mechanical devices. It is apparant that he has studied the wing of a bird in order to devise a concept for a flying machine (Fig 019). These were unfortunatly isolated instances of which there was no succession, scholarship or following. As previosuly stated biomimicry is distinct from biomorphism, which is commonplace in architecture and design because it seeks to understand the meaning behind forms and processes found in nature in order to appropriate such understandings into new design and solutions. It is a design discipline, a branch of science, a problem-solving method, a sustainability ethos, a movement, a stance toward nature, a new way of viewing and valuing biodiversity. Biomimicry is an idea that acquires people, a meme that propagates in our culture like an adaptive gene. Biomimicry contributes, both practically and philosophically to many of the eco-design paradigms devised in the last 30 years, including Ecological Design, Natural Capitalism and Cradle to Cradle. (Benyus et al. 2011) Essentially biomimicry is a development of sustainable design, it offers a new design paradigm that is ecologically focused. That, if integrated into current thinking could transform the way we live and the way human presence contributes to the world. (Benyus 1997, PedersenZari 2007)

Using analogies to biological systems, ie organisms and ecosystems, to develop solutions for human problems biomimicry often stimulates creative innovation (Benyus 1997, Vincent 2006). It is increasingly well established in the fields of industrial design, engineering and manufacturing, and even in medicine and fashion. The profession of architecture, is now beginning to incorporate such design principles. (Pawlyn 2011) An example of this is the Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe. Typifiying the best of green architecture and ecologically sensitive adaptation. Designed by architect Mick Pearce in conjunction with engineers at Arup Associates, uses an unconventional system for regulating air temperature inspired by indigenous Zimbabwean masonry and the self-cooling mounds of African termites, which regulate temperature using natural air flows. (Figs. 020 - 023)

Fig. 020

Fig. 021

Fig. 022

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Fig. 023

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In The Prodigious Builders (1977), the Viennese emigré collected images of bower bird nests, termite hills, and beehives alongside photographs of Dogon cliff dwellings and wind-scoop structures in Pakistan, warning that if modern hominids wanted to preserve their “humaneness,” they “had better be informed about the finer points of animal architecture and engineering.” (Rudofsky 1977 pp 9-10) Biomimetics is the relearning of these finer points. In the past few decades it has catalysed innovation in a number of fields and has inspired the invention of a numnber of products. To name but a few; whale flipper-inspired drag reduction for wind turbines blades, bat-inspired cane for the blind, algae-inspired non-toxic antifouling paint for boats, beetleinspired fog harvester for building skins, carbon-sequestering cement inspired by coral reefs and self healing cement.

Fig. 031

Fig. 032

Beetle-inspired fog capture that is 10 X better than fog-catching nets

The Namibian desert beetle, stenocara is a fine example of biomimicry. (Garrod et al., 2007 cited by Pederson Zari 2007).

Fig. 027

Fig. 024 Fig. 028

This beetle lives in a desert eco system with neglible rainfall. However, this beetle is able to capture moisture from fog that moves over the desert. By tilting its body into the wind the alternating hydrophilic – hydrophobic rough surface of the beetle’s back and wings cause droplets to form on the hydrophilic bumps. The beetle simply angles his back so that the droplets roll down into its mouth (Parker and Lawrence, 2001).

Fig. 025

Fig. 029

This technology has been translated into more efficient fog catching nets. This, and the other examples listed to the left are examples of Biology looking to Design. The Biomimicry Guild (2007) state that biomimicry can be split into two categories:

Fig. 026

Shark-inspired antibacterials that don’t encourage resistance

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Fig. 030

Bone-inspired self-healing and self-assembling cement

1 BIOLOGY LOOKING TO DESIGN 2 DESIGN LOOKING TO BIOLOGY


Fig. 033

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BIOLOGY LOOKING TO DESIGN Identifying a particular behaviour, characteristic or function in an organism or ecosystem and translating that into human designs, referred to as biology influencing design. It is a solution driven approach. When biological knowledge influences human design, the collaborative design process is initially dependant on prior knowledge of relevant biological or ecological systems.

Fig. 034

The lotus flowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to emerge clean from swampy waters, which led to a number of design innovations, including Stoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lotusan paint which enables buildings to be self cleaning. (Pederson Zari 2007) Such an approach - using biological tactics - may influence designers in ways that reach beyond a predetermined design problem or brief. Potentially resulting in previously unthoughtof technologies or systems or even aproaches to design. Fig. 035

This is where the true potential lies with Biomimetic Design. It could lead to the pervasive shift needed in to enter the Ecological Age. (Vincent et al., 2005). The disadvantage from a design point of view with this approach is that biological knowledge must be first identified as relevant to a design context, and collated in such a way that designers can easily access and understand the information. AskNature.com set up by the Biomimetic Intitute provides the beginnings of such an Encyclopaedia.

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Fig. 036

Fig. 037


DESIGN LOOKING TO BIOLOGY Defining a human need or design problem and looking to the ways other organisms or ecosystems solve this. It is a problem driven approach. The Bionic Car a concept car designed by Mercedes Benz (fig. ) is an example of ‘Design Looking to Biology’. The brief was to create a large volume, small wheel base car. The aerodynamic design for the shape of the car was adapted from the boxfish (ostracion meleagris), a surprisingly aerodynamic fish given its box like shape. The chassis and structure of the car are also biomimetic, having been derived from the methods that trees grow in order to minimise stress concentration from growth and outwide pressures such as wind. Material is used sparingly as in nature, only being utlized in the places where it is most needed (Vincent et al., 2006).

Fig. 038

Fig. 042 Fig. 039 Fig. 040

Fig. 043 Fig. 044 Fig. 041

Consequently, the car is more efficient in terms of fuel use because the body is more aerodynamic due to the mimicking of the box fish. It is also more materials efficient due to the mimicking of tree growth patterns therefore reducing the amount of materials used. However, as McDonough points out “less bad, is no good” (2009). This design although an improvement on typical technology of car design, is still bound to the existing parameters of improving car design. The cars relationship with its environment is not addressed. The underlying causes of a nonsustainable or even degenerative design were not addressed.

Fig. 045

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METHODS & APPROAC


CHES TO BIOMIMICRY

The application of biomimetic design has been explored by a number of bodies. Biomimicry 3.8, Pederson Zari, and BioTriz provide three different methodologies which will be explored in this next chapter.


BIOMIMICRY 3.8 DESIGN SPIRAL There is a lack of a clearly defined approach to biomimicry that designers of the built environment can initially employ (Vincent et al., 2006). When it comes to landscape architecture the employment of biomimicry becomes more complex. The human environment, public space, a park or street, are not singularities, but are pluralities; complex systems and networks, which hold separate parts together as a unified whole. It would be far too reductive to design a masterplan for an urban landscape that did but one thing. The landscape of a city has many functions and a design must incorporate this. It would seem there are two options available; 1: Design the site as an abstraction of a chosen ecosystem. 2: Adapt the function or process of a number of organisms each suited to the design solution needed for that particular element of the design - each working in cohesion with the rest - much like an ecosystem

Fig. 046

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In either case, biology’s solution to landscape design relies on looking at ecosystems and abstracting and adapting accordingly. That is not to say that the adaptation of a singular function of an organism will never be appropriate for landscape design. Rather it should be determined by the scale of a project. The design of a small fragment of urban space - a pocket park, or an accessible rooftop could take inspiration from one particular function of an organism.

The design spirals, introduced by Carl Hastrich, enables designers to progress from a design sensibility to a process. (Zanowick 2011) This process assists innovators to respond to design challenges by thinking in biological terms, by questioning the natural world for inspiration and then evaluating the results to ensure that the final design emulates nature at all levels: form, process and ecosystem (Biomimicry Institute 2007). The two “Design Spirals” Biology to Design and Challenge to Biology. The outcomes of which are then evalutated against their set of “lifes principles”. The Biology to Design spiral, is too reductive to be useful to the design of a landscape, and would work better for product design. Challenge to Biology Spiral provides a basic framework for landscape architecture as both function and context serve as primary starting points for the design process.


Fig. 047

CHALLENGE TO BIOLOGY APPLIED TO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE IDENTIFY (research) The existing site, location, history, functions, landuse, movement, visual quality. DEFINE (analyse) The context, the challenges, the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities present. BIOLOGISE (conceptualise) Reconceptualise the site under the lense of Biomimetic design. How might nature solve the problem?

DISCOVER Research natural models, designs and processes that can be applied to the site to suit its needs. ABSTRACT Reform nature’s design principles and apply them to a re-envisioning of the site. EMULATE Mimic nature’s strategies, processes and designs to create a masterplan and vision for the site. EVALUATE Analyse and criticize the success of the design against “Life’s Principles”

Table 01

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BIOMIMICRY 3.8 LIFE’S PRINCIPLES The Biomimicry Institute and the Biomimicry Guild, along with many partners, have distilled a collection of scientific research to create a summary of the most fundamental principles conductive to life. Life’s Principles Sustainability Wheel (Fig.050) illustrates the holistic overriding principles, patterns and solutions utlized by nature to create conditions conductive to life, or in other words, to create highly sustainable, non-intrusive environments. The aim of Life’s Principles is to create products, processes, and policies inspired by nature to create a new way of living (Biomimicry 3.8, 2011). Marie Zanowick identifies and summarizes the six principles in ‘Biomimicry: Nature’s Time-Tested Framework for Sustainability’ (2011). This method helps identify a problem, to explain it, to find a suitable solution (see AskNature on the following page) and concludes with a biomimetic design.

Table 02 1. EVOLVE TO SURVIVE Continually incorporate and embody information to ensure enduring performance. A biological example of this is how virus strains adapt to synthetic chemicals.

2. BE RESOURCE (ENERGY & MATERIAL) EFFICIENT Skillfully and conservatively take advantage of resources and opportunities. A biological example of this is how birds have evolved hollow bones to minimise weight.

3. ADAPT TO CHANGING CONDITIONS Appropriately respond to dynamic context. A biological example of this is how arctic foxes change their fur colour from white in winter, to brown in summer.

4. INTEGRATE DEVELOPMENT WITH GROWTH Invest optimally in strategies that promote both development and growth. A biological example of this is how embryos divide and grow into different types of cells.

5. BE LOCALLY ATTUNED & RESPONSIVE Fit into and integrate with the surrounding environment. A biological example of this is how dune beetles collect water in an arid climate. They survive by collecting fog in the early morning that forms as water particles on their abdomen and is drawn down to its mouth.

6. USE LIFE-FRIENDLY CHEMISTRY Use chemistry that supports life’s processes. A biological example of this is how butterflies wings refract light to produce colour.

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Fig. 048

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BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY AskNature is an online inspiration source for the biomimicry community set up by the biomimicry institute. Nature’s most elegant ideas organized by design and engineering function, so you can enter “filter salt from water” and see how mangroves, penguins, and shorebirds desalinate without fossil fuels. Information organized on AskNature uses a classification system known as the Biomimicry Taxonomy. In order to organize how organisms meet different challenges.

CHALLENGE: You are designing a building in an area of low rainfall. You want your building to collect rainwater and store it for future use. 1. Find the verb: Move away from any predetermined ideas of what you want to design, and think more about what you want your design to do. Try to pull out single functional words in the form of verbs. The questions you might pose through the Search or Browse options might be:

How would Nature… Capture rainwater? Store water? 2. Try a different angle. Some organisms live in areas that don't experience any rain, yet they still get all of the water they need. So other questions to pose might be:

How would Nature… Capture water? Capture fog? Absorb water? Manage humidity? Move water? 3. Turn the question around. Instead of asking how Nature stores water, you might think about how Nature protects against excess water or keeps water out:

How would Nature… Remove water? Stay dry?

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License Version 5.0 © 2012 Biomimicry 3.8 Institute


TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH Pederson Zari, offers an alternative approach. Realising the benefit of splitting biomimicry into three levels he developed a Typological Approach. The three levels identified are; organism, behaviour and ecosystem.

TABLE 03

EXAMPLE: A LANDSCAPE THAT EMULATES A BEAVER

ORGANISM: Specific flora or fauna, mimicking either the whole organism, or a particular feature. BEHAVIOUR: Translation of an aspect of how an organism relates to its environment, or larger context. ECOSYSTEM: Emultating or recreating the common principles that allow an ecosystem to successfully function.

ORGAN

Fig. 050

Each level is broken down into five possible means for mimicry. Form: shape Material : properties Construction: arrangement or composition Process: mechanism Function: application Hyde and Gamage (2012) recognise the Typological Approach as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;(clarification of the potential of using Biomimicry as a tool to increase the regenerative capacity of the built environment. This can be used by designers to utilize Biomimicry as a methodology for improving the sustainability of the environment as an effective approach. Table 3 shows a framework for the application of biomimicry using this methodology. The orginal table was applied to a building that emulates a termite. This example looks at a emulating the beaver. The beaver works as a keystone species in an ecosystem by creating wetlands that are used by many other species. Next to humans, no other animal appears to do more to shape its landscape. (national geographic)

40

BEHAV

Fig. 051

ECOSY

Fig. 052


NISM

VIOUR

Table3

FORM MATERIAL

A Framework for the Application of Biomimicry (adapted from Pedersen Zari, 2007

The site is shaped like a beaver The site is made from a material that mimicks a beavers skin or hair

CONSTRUCTION

The site is constructed in the same way as a beaver, ie it goes through various growth cycles.

PROCESS

The site works in the same way as an individual beaver, ie it is semiaquatic and functions in both dry and aquatic environments

FUNCTION

The site functions like a beaver in a larger context; their excrement is re introduced to the environment providing nutrients for plantlife

FORM

The site looks like it was made by a beaver: a replica of the beavers dam

MATERIAL

The site is made from the same materials that a beaver builds with, using twigs and mud as the primary material

CONSTRUCTION

The site is made in the same way a beaver would build his lodge or dam, working at night and self built

PROCESS

The site works in the same way as a beavers dam would; covering their lodges with fresh mud, when frozen in winter it becomes hardened

FUNCTION

The site functions in the same way that it would if made by beavers; providing both protection against predators and access to food in winter

FORM

The site looks like an ecosystem that a termite would live in ie. a riparian zone with stream bed.

MATERIAL

The site is made from the same kind of materials found in riparian ecosystems; woodland and water.

CONSTRUCTION

The site is assembled in the same way as a (beaver’s) ecosystem; principles of succession and increasing complexity over time

PROCESS

The site works in the same way as a (beaver’s) ecosystem; it captures and converts energy from the sun, and stores water

FUNCTION

The site is able to function in the same way that a (beaver’s) ecosystem would and forms part of a complex system by utilising the relationships between processes; it is able to participate in the hydrological, carbon, nitrogen cycles.

YSTEM

41


BIOTRIZ APPROACH BioTriz is an adaptation of the Russian problem solving methodology TRIZ (Atshuller 2009). Translated from Russian the Aronym stands for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving. It was developed to create a defined procedure for the transference of biological solutions to human design and technology. Julien vincent et al state that “Biomimetics is currently empirical in its approach. If it is to build on current successes, and to be able to serve our technological society, then it needs some sort of regularizing, best introduced as a set of common principles. Such principles exist in TRIZ, and it is in this area that there seems to be the most promise for establishing a transparent method for technologists to access biology, TRIZ is based on a Hegel’s dialectic of thesis , antithesis and synthesis. The method begins with identifying a pair of opposing or conflicting characteristics: ‘ what do I want ?’ ‘ what is stopping me getting it ? ’ A simple and direct replica of the biological prototype is rarely successful. As engineers and scientists, they posited that a procedure should be developed in order to systematically and simply translate human identified problems into biolocial solutions. A list of 40 principles of biologically derived solutions were conceived from analysing some 500 biological phenomena, covering over 270 functions, (Vincent et al. 2005). These have been arranged into the BioTRIZ Contradictions Matrix which lists how nature would solve problem caused by the contradictions. Each number refers to one of the 40 principles which are listed in the Appendicies.

42

A precise framework was set up in which each challenge or problem is identified, and then reduced and simplified in order to be categorized. The process can be broken down into 5 stages: DEFINE the problem in the most general, yet precise way. LIST both desirable and undesirable properties and functions. ANALYSE and Understand the problem and so uncover the main conflicts or contradictions. FIND the functional analogy in biology see contradiction matrix Table 5. BRIDGE from natural to technical design 40 principles Appendix 2. To aid in the reduction of the problem to its simplest form the FISSST table was created (Table 4). This helps the user to break down the problem into the BioTRIZ components of contradiction in order to use the Contradiction Matrix (PRIZM). For example the design of a park that functions as both a space for human recreation as well as comfortable and a suitable habitat for Bumble Bees has many design problems some of which have been organised into a list of contrdictions (Table 6). From my understanding the five contradictions listed can be reduced down to: SPACE/SPACE, SUBSTANCE/SUBSTANCE, TIME/TIME, SPACE/INFO, INFO/INFO.

The PRIZM then allocates a number of soltuions from the 40 principles for each contradiction. Therefore: space/space = 4, 5, 36, 14, 17 substance/substance = 13, 15, 17, 20, 31, 40 time/time = 2, 3, 11, 20, 26 space/info = 3, 15, 21, 24 info/info = 3, 10, 16, 23, 25 Numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 36, 40 are looked up in Altshuller’s 40 Inventive Principles with biological examples. Below are the first five of the 20 identified solutions the process reccommends: 2: TAKING OUT OR EXTRACTION Extract the disturbing part or property from an object; extract only the necessary part (or property) of an object. 3: LOCAL QUALITY Change an object’s structure, action, environment, or external influence/impact from uniform to non-uniform; make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operation; make each part of an object fulfil a different and/or complementary useful function. 4: ASYMMETRY Change the shape or properties of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical; change its shape to suit external asymmetries (e.g. ergonomic features); or if it is asymmetrical, increase its asymmetry. 5: MERGING/CONSOLIDATION Bring identical or similar objects, or operations in space, closer together (or merge them); make them contiguous or parallel. 10: PRELIMINARY ACTION Perform the required change of an object in advance; arrange objects in such a way that they will come into action.


FIELD/ENERGY

What is the driver? Why it all works? What energy does it use? How does Energy affect the target?

Make it Inert / conductive. Change energy source or type of acting field ( gravity, sunlight, geo-magnetic, electric, acoustic, heat, illumination, pressure ) Long life/expensive/short life/cheap

INFORMATION

What is it for? How it works? How much information is processed and controlled?

Strict/Flexible programs, hierarchy, stability/adaptability. Affect knowlege, experience, attitudes, feelings. Use or modify the regulation. Feedback, feedforward.

SUBSTANCE

What is it? What is it made of? What does it contain? What does it produce?

Use, add/remove, compose/decompose, homogenize/distinguish, make inert/conductive, make resilient/flexible. Operate with material properties (mass density etc. ) Environment, air, water, void

STRUCTURE

How is it structured? What are itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s components? What is it connected by, and how? How is it supported?

Regular/irregular, heretical/fractal, homogenous or with gradient of features. compatible/incompatible, modular, replaceable/ irreplaceable. Scalable. using, adding, removing or regrouping

SPACE

Where is it? What space does it occupy? How does it utilize space? Shape?Distance? Height depth, width?

Use or modify the spatial position/form/shape/parts. symmetrical/ asymmetrical. merge/separate. increase/decrease spatial parameters (length, area, volume, shape)

TIME

When and how does it change over time? Long or short term damage? Immediate /postponed damage?

Modify the speed of process (retardation/acceleration), change order or rhythm of process. Continue, periodic, synchronous/ asynchronous, fast/slow regular/irregular

Table 4

Contradictions Matrix (PRIZM) derived from biological effects: BioTRIZ

Table 5

43


List of Contradictions BioTRIZ Living Machine

This example appears to show that half of Altshuller’s 40 Inventive Principles should be addressed in oder to solve the five listed contradictions for creating the bumble bee and human park. However, this study was carried out by Olga and Nickolay Bogatyrev of BioTRIZ and they designed and implemented “BOMBORETUM” a biomimetic machine. It is based on both the biological and ecological requirements of bumblebees, principles of sustainability and methods of TRIZ.

Table 6

BUMBLE BEE HABITAT REQUIREMENTS

HUMAN GREENSPACE REQUIREMENTS

INDIVIDUAL FORAGING PATCHES NOT MORE THAN 100M2

DESIGNED TO PROCESS LARGE UNIFORM AREAS

A VARIETY OF PLANTS PROVIDING DIFFERENT LENGTHS OF NECTAR TUBES SUITING DIFFERENT SPECIES OF POLLINATORS

LESS PLANT DIVERSITY IS PREFERABLE AS AGRICULTURAL MACHINARY IS ADAPTED TO MONOCULTURES

BLOOMING PLANTS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR

SINGLE HARVESTING PROCESS - SEASONAL BLOOMING PERIOD

ISOLATED NESTING ZONE FOR WILD POLLINATORS

A PARK IS A BUSY PLACE

UNDISTURBED, QUIET ENVIRONMENT

PARKS ARE NOISY ENVIRONMENTS

The main function of this machine is to sustain bumblebee colonies for the pollination of flowers. The machine was designed in order to make this reserve more predictable and deterministic like a technical system: simple, predictable, manageable, with the increased effectiveness performance. Nickolay explains his process; “To minimize the borderline of the reserve and nesting zone, the space was designed to be circular. - TRIZ principle of “spheroidalitycurvature”. The whole territory was sub-divided into nesting zone and foraging zone (principle of “local quality”). The most undisturbed zone is the nesting zone, which is inserted in the centre of BOMBORETUM – away from the foraging zone and outer territories (TRIZ “principle of taking out” and “nested doll – matrjoshka”). To superpose radial and concentric designs (principle of “nested doll”). After that a fragmented spiral appears automatically.” To divide the foraging zone into spots suitable for foraging of individual bumblebees, as preliminary action (principle of “segmentation” and “preliminary action”)

(Bogatyrev N.R 2004 p. 79-87)

Fig. 053 44


SEASONALLY VARYING BLOOMS These two diagrams illustrate two possible outcome of the biotriz method as it applies to landscape architecture. The diagram above is based on a version used in a workshop presented by Nickolay and Olga. According to Olga and Nickolay the park â&#x20AC;&#x153;worksâ&#x20AC;? for the bees; at least one type of flower is in bloom throughout the year, and the beds are arranged in such a way that each flower is visited. However, in terms of human use, the design is limited.

BEE HABITAT

GRASSED AREA

Julien Vincent reccommends BioTRIZ as the most appropriate method available for the transferrance of biological solutions to technology and design (Vincent 2006, p. 481). There are however, many faults especially with the reductionist manner of breaking the problems down. With regards to landscape architecture, it would be a huge feat to use BioTriz in the context of an urban lanscape design; with so many factors and contradictions to consider this method would prove too simplistic. It is better suited to product design, or engineering.

Fig. 054

BEE HABITAT

Fig. 055 45


BIOMIMICRY THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The Biomimicry Theoretical Model is based around how a particular organism is sustained within an ecosystem. It was developed by Hyde and Gamage after their study of the usefulness of BioTRIZ, the Design Sprials, and the Typological Approach and their relavance to providing a sound methodology in creating biomimetic architecture. In this model categorization of species occurs at an ecosystem level, whilst additionally attempting to understand the system as it connects at a micro level in both process and form. Their model requires an understanding of how a specific organism takes a specific form in order to perform its processes and function within the ecosystem. Environmental adaptation involves the process of how an organism is shaped in terms of colours, textures, patterns and sizes to adapt to its habitat. Gamage and Hyde 2012) Table 7 is based on Gamage and Hydeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s framework for architecture, but slightly amended for the use of landscape architects. (Gamage and Hyde 2012 Table 2 p.231) It has the simplicity of the Typological approach but still keeps the holistic outlook. I could see this model working for landscape architecture. Perhaps with less emphasis on form, and more sway toward Functional Integration and Environmental Adaptation. I would also assume that the Indirect Approach: General Mimicking would work to a landscape architects advantage.

Table 7

SCALE OF APPLICATION

ECOSYSTEM How does it fit with the whole?

PROCESS How does it perform and how is it made?

DESIGN PRO

CATEGORIS What is the of classifica

FUNCTIONA INTEGRATIO What are th innovative s

ENVIRONME ADAPTATIO What are th innovative strategies?

FORM What is the shape?

46

Biomimicry Framework for

INNOVATIO FORM What is the expression?


Fig. 056 BIOMIMICRY THEORETICAL MODEL FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

ECOLOSYSTEM BASED DESIGN PROCESS

ECOSYSTEM PROCESS

CATEGORIZATION

FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION/ ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATION

FORM INNOVATIVE FORM

r Landscape Architecture DIRECT APPROACH: SPECIFIC MIMICKING

INDIRECT APPROACH: GENERAL MIMICKING

TYPE OF SPECIES, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, climatic zones <----> Relationship between species, size and form variations

IDENTIFICATION OF LANDSCAPE TYPE, types of users, size variations, form variations, relationship with users and organisms, climatic zones

HIERARCHY OF FUNCTIONS: primary, secondary, techniques physical characteristics <----> Mechanisms, Patterns, behavioural patterns, needs, communication, organization

USERS AND USER NEEDS, hierarchy of functions: primary, secondary functions, techniques, physical characteristics, mechanisms, user behaviour, patterns, needs, occupancy, communication

ENTAL ON he

MACRO AND MICRO <----> environment, physical characteristics, habitat, topography, macro and micro climate: wind, sun path, temperature, humidity, rainfall

MACRO AND MICRO ENVIRONMENT, physical characteristics, habitat topography, macro and micro climate: wind, sun path, temperature, humidity, rainfall

ON OF

DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS: lines, shape, texture, colour, patterns, geometric progression: module, unit to whole, scale and proportions

DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS: lines, shape, texture, colour, patterns, geometric progression: module, unit to whole, scale and proportions

OCESS

SATION type ation?

AL ON he strategies?

?

47


Fig. 057

48


BIOMIMESIS & SUSTAINABILITY Biomimicry is not analogous with sustainability. There are differing levels of emulation, and much like “sustainable” design, and many Design Looking to Biology methdologies, biomimetic design is not neccessarily self-sustaining, green, or zero carbon. So why do we need Biomimicry when we have these other “green” practices? The last few decades have seen a resurgence of environmental consciousness. As Jonathon Porrit articulates in Biomimicry In Architecture; “Happily, we do at last seem to be waking up after these dismal decades of life-destroying arrogance. Illusions of the ‘limitlessness’ of the planet are evaporating as the ineluctable physical reality of scarcity impacts on more and more aspects of our economy. People no longer dismiss out of hand concerns about ‘peak oil’ or about diminishing supplies of critical raw materials.” (2011 p.iv) Since the late 1980’s sustainable approaches to design and manufacture have been developed by encouraging an efficient use of resources and energy, and by reducing waste or developing techniques for recycling. (McDonough, Braungart 2009) William McDonough and Michael Braungart state that “(the sustainable) approach has its own vocabulary, with which most of us are familiar: reduce, avoid, minimize, sustain, limit, halt. The agenda of such practices is in the words of McDonaugh is to be “less bad”. (2009 p. 45) To reduce the negative human impact on the natural environment, rather than eradicate such an impact or even to have a positive, regenerative impact. Such mitigative measures are half measures. Reduction is the central concept

of eco-efficiency. Reduction may reduce costs and make people less fearful for the future, and allow industries to shift responsibility, reduction does not halt depletion and destruction - it simply slows it. Allowing the impact to take place over a longer period of time. Current studies show that over time, even minute amounts of dangerous emissions have disastrous effects on biological systems. “Plainly put, eco-effieciency only works to make the old destructive system a bit less so.” (McDonough and Braungart 2009 pp.53-55) In the 1990’s the editorial staff of a publication of the National Academy Sciences, proclaimed that Sustainability had “no useful meaning.”(J.G. Frazier, 1997 p. 190) There is an abundance of terminology whose meaning has been lost in modern rhetoric and marketing and commercial jargon; green environmentally friendly, eco-friendly and so forth. These words have become dangerously ambiguous and indeterminate. Often exploited and for proliferation and economic gain. Sustainable and green design (once rid of the marketing jargon and connotations) do denote meaning inclusive of conservation, endurance and robustness. As design practices they consider the ethics of carbon production and have integrated a number of initiatives to mitigate this; sourcing materials locally, renewableenergy use or production, with their aim of reduction. However as McDonough stated, reduction is merely temporary avoidance, and delaying the problem. Even “green’ design at its most basic level (colour) merely implies the use of planting in design, (Wines 2000 p.8) an aesthetic to soften the built environment, which sadly is sometimes of little

use to the environment, and in certain cases, where large amounts of irrigation are needed, often to its detriment. However, there are a number of design disicplines that do effectively reduce environmental impact and improve efficiency of energy usage; eco-design, bioclimatic design, climate sensitive design, low-energy design etc., (Gamage 2012) “Green” or “sustainable” constructed landscapes generally are a product of performance-driven agendas of environmental policies (like BREEAM) and qualify by reaching benchmarks and rating systems. These constructions functioning solely as an amalgamation of eco technologies such as photovoltaic panels or locally sourced materials. (Yeang 2006, p. 23) usually are aimed at saving clients money whislt reducing carbon and raising a profile of a commercial organisation. Most sustainable and green designs lack inherent integration or sythesis with their surrounding environments and ecosystems. These are a number of limitations and issues that biomimicry addresses - when applied at the level of an eco-system. Eco-mimesis is a type of Biomimesis that focuses on understanding the relationship between the built environment and nature. It applies principles found in these natural systems that generate life, provide habitable conditions, and sit comfortably in their surroundings. The mimicking of ecosystems is an integral part of biomimicry as described by Benyus (1997) and Vincent (2007). ‘Ecomimicry’ was coined to describe the mimicking of ecosystems in design.

49


“We must find a way to live more harmoniously with the natural world.” Head (2008, p. 41)

“The world will not evolve past its current state of crisis by using the same thinking that created the situation.” – Albert Einstein

50


Fig. 058

Marshall (2007, as cited by Pedesen Zari 2007) uses the term to mean a sustainable form of biomimicry where the objective is the wellbeing of ecosystems and people. Van der Ryn and Cowan suggest that an ecological design revolution spanning the many disciplines must undertake a design approach in which the study of the relationship of flora and fauna in their environment is at the core (1996 cited bu Gamage and Hyde 2012 p225). Thus promoting the development of a set of principles based on ecology. Theologian Thomas Berry articulates that the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Great Workâ&#x20AC;? of our age is the endeavor to harmonize the human enterprise with how the world works as a physical system (Orr 2002 p3). Perhaps biomimicry will offer the slow, bottom up approach needed to reform and regenerate the urban landscape and how it functions. Landscape architects today along with other design disciplines face an ecological design challenge. The challenge is to design and develop optimal processes of landscaping that go beyond simply meeting the measures of policies - but seek to create new human systems that work like natural systems.

It has been suggested that biomimetic landscape design is really just bio-utilization, that a biomimetic landscape is not an imitation of nature, but an actualization of nature; implementing actual biological process for human benefit. However, eco-mimesis calls for an interactive relationship with plants, in which their processes are synergized as part of a system. (Pawlyn 2011 p.2) The function of planting takes precedent over their aesthetic value when biomimicry is applied to the practice of landscape architecture. The qualities that make plants useful to humans, in addition to their ability to improve and promote health and wellbeing (CABE). Recent progressive trends in landscape architecture point to a more functional utilization of planting in the urban realm. Rain gardens, green walls and roofs, and well as urban forests are increasingly integrated into the Green Infrastructure of cities. (Dunnett, Clayden (2007) Dunnett, Kingsbury 2008). It has been noted that for these methods to have any real effect on the urban environment they must be implemented on a wide scale, and wholly integrated.

Emultating an ecosystem can offer the design solutions needed. A eco-mimetic landscape would not only conserve habtitats and allow them to endure, but grow, adapt, regenerate, and self-sustain. Biomimicry points toward the pervasive shift needed in societal priorities; toward economy of scale, toward closed-loop systems, toward truely sustainable design.

51


ECOSY

PRINCIPLES &

52


YSTEMS

& PROCESSES

53


ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Ecology is defined as a branch of science which is concerned with the relations of organisms to one another and their physical surroundings (Rottle, Yocom 2010 p14). It is a stable functioning system of biological organisation that is composed of systematic interactions of abiotic and biotic elements within its environment (Yeang and Woo 2010). Large ecosystems like forests consist of subsystems such as trees and organisms. (Meadows 2009 p.11) Any system must consist of these three things; Elements, Interconnections and Functions. Systems can exhibit adaptive, dynamic, self-preserving and evolutionary behavior. (Meadows 2009 p11-12). Donella Meadows suggests that systems work so well because of three characteristics; Resilience, Self-Organisation, and Hierarchy. Meadows summarizes Systems Principles as the following: - A system is more than the sum of its parts. - Many of the interconnections in systems operate through the flow of information. - A systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s function or purpose is the determinant of its behaviour. - System structure is the source of system behaviour - which is revealed over time. Ecological systems create cyclical rather than linear flows of energy and seek to maximise environmental integrity from the massive scale of the planet - ie. Gaia Theory - to a pond or woodland. A healthy ecosystem is self-renewing and regenerative. (Rottle, Yocom 2010 p16)

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Systems theory can provide a general method for studying the ecosystem, incorporating organizational patterns. A system is defined as a collection of interrelated parts that work as a whole by some driving force. Functional relationships that exist between the parts suggest the flow and transfer of energy and matter. These parts and processes of a system have functional as well a material and structural connection between each other (Von Bertalanffy 1974 as cited by Gamage, Hyde 2012 p232). Propelled by theorists, Charles Wadheim and James Corner, Landscape Urbanism promotes a theoretical approach to understanding the connections between nature and humans in the system of an urban environment (Corner, Wadheim 2006). It offers landscape-based urban design strategies to help cities adapt to the rapid pace of urbanization. They argue a dynamic perspective accounting for dynamic and interconnected facets of the city. It is a step towards holistic, ecological thinking. Many design and disciplines are beginning to explore the possibilties that ecological thinking can offer and integrate such principles into practice. Such disciplines include industrial ecology, construction ecology, urban ecology, biophilia design, regenerative design, biomimicry, ecomimicry (Gamage 2012), and ecological urbanism. These diciplines are beginning to understand methods of biointegration, and the functions that natural systems can offer in connection to human performances, processes and needs. (Kibert et al. 2002, p. 1) Perhaps the most advanced, at least in terms of theory, is Ecological Urbanism as it extemporizes upon

theories presented by Landscape Urbanism. In Ecological Urbanism, emphasis is placed upon the need to open social process and design skill in imagining ethical, ecologically conscious futures for our human environment. (ed. Mohsen Mostafavi, Gareth Doherty 2010) Practical application of ecological mimicking in the urban sphere lays emphasis on the performative abilities and functionalities that ar integrated landscape design can offer the urban field. Landscape can become an essential part of the urban infrastructure. In such a regards, infrastructure is no longer limited to streets and underground services; but would include urban forests, open spaces, closedloop hydrological systems and constructed wetlands where plants are used to filter grey and black water. This would result in an integrated, high performance landscape that provides both economically, socially and environmentally.


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;An ecosystem approach is about the application of systems thinking to the analysis and design of biophysical mass and energy transformation systemsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Kay (2002, p. 73)

Fig. 059

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ECOSYSTEM PRINCIPLES

BROADLEAVED WOODLAND ECOSYSTEM DIAGRAM OF CYCLICAL PROCESSES PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY

USE SOL TO P ENE

REUSE OVER RECYCLE

PRESERVE AND MAINTAIN HEALTHY WATER SUPPLY

WASTE EQUALS

Fig. 060

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E CURRENT LAR INCOME PRODUCE ERGY

S FOOD

Yeang and Woo rightly posit that the structure, function and the relationship between organisms and their environment in nature need to be understood in order for ecomimetic or biomimetic design to be successfully initiated and implemented into design and construction. (2010, p. 81). Systems in nature recycle waste, utilize available solar energy and other resources efficiently. whilst the “waste” of an organism becomes food for another (Hui 2005, p. 10 as cited by Gamage and Hyde). Ecological integration prioritizes such aspects of design as efficiency of material usage and forms that set out to minimize the impact on the natural environment. Summarising and extending McDonough’s Cradle to Cradle design strategy (2009)- where materials are perpetually circulated in closed loops - below is a summary of ecological principles that should be present in all Ecomimetic Design Strategies: REUSE OVER RECYCLE PRESERVE AND MAINTAIN HEALTHY WATER SUPPLY USE CURRENT SOLAR INCOME PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY

ECOMIMETIC PRINCIPLES REUSE OVER RECYCLE As recycling requires additional energy and materials it often results in “downcycling” of valuable materials. Re-use does not devalue the material and means it can be continuosly recycled by natural systems: PRESERVE AND MAINTAIN HEALTHY WATER SUPPLY Store and filter water locally and naturally and recycle through the system. USE CURRENT SOLAR INCOME Rely on renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels. PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY A diverse culture of animals and plantlife is the sign of a healthy ecosystem. Integrate biodiversity for optimized health. WASTE EQUALS FOOD Design materials and products that are food for other systems. This means designing materials and products to be used over and over in either technical or biological systems. Create and participate in systems to collect and recover the value of these materials and products.

WASTE EQUALS FOOD

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WASTE EQU

58


UALS FOOD

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THE MOBIUS PROJECT Exploration, an architectural firm led by Michael Pawlyn have conceptualized a project that performs the ecological function of transforming waste into nutrients. The Mobius Project brings together a number of components which each perform a function within three cycles: food production, energy generation and water treatment. The Mobius Project allows inputs and outputs to be connected up to form a closedloop model. The innovative aspect of this project is that it integrates these processes in synegistic cycles in situ. The components of the site and its cylical processes are: 1 // A productive greenhouse, including community allotments growing a range of crops 2 // A restaurant serving seasonal food grown inside and locally to the green house

The building handles most of the biodegradable waste from a local urban area using composting and anaerobic digestion. The methane derived from this process can be used to generate electricity and heat for the greenhouse, while some of the flue gases can be captured by accelerated carbonation while some of the flue gases can be captured by accelerated carbonation and turned into building materials. The restaurant, apart from being supplied with fruit, vegetable and fish from the on site greenhouse can operate at close to zero waste as food waste can be fed to fish or composted. Solid wastes from waste water can be diverted to anaerobic digesters while the remaining water can be treated for re-use by the living machine. (Pawlyn 2011)

3 // A fish farm rearing a range of edible fish 4 // A food market 5 // A wormery composting system 6 // Mushroom cultivation using waste coffee grains 7 // An anaerobic digester and biomass CHP 8 // A â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Living Machineâ&#x20AC;? water treatment system 9 // Artificial limestone formation from waste CO2 using accelerated carbon technology.

Fig. 061

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Fig. 062

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RE-APPROPRIATING MATERIALS The caddis fly larvae - a small winged insect, closely related to the butterfly, as a larvae reuse their environments for their own benefit. This species is an aquatic larvae that protect their developing bodies by manufacturing sheaths, or cases, spun from silk and incorporating substances; grains of sand, particles of mineral or plant material, bits of fish bone or crustacean shell that are readily available in their benthic ecosystem.

Fig. 063

The larvae are remarkably adaptable: if other suitable materials are introduced into their environment, they will often incorporate those as well. Figs (.....) illustrate french artist Hubert Duprat’s collaborative sculpture making with the caddis fly larvae. By removing the larvae from their natural habitat and providing them with precious materials, french artist Hubert Duprat prompts them to manufacture their protective cases from the available materials within their immediate environment or eco system. “Insect Hotels” (Fig XXX) can also be made from reappropriated materials and products, natural or synthetic. These wildlife stacks replicate natural features sought by wildlife particularly by invertebrates such as ladybirds and also can provide refuges for frogs, toads and hedgehogs. By providing the right habitats we can greatly increase the number of beneficial insects. Some wild invertebrates, such as bumblebees and solitary bees, are declining in numbers so by providing homes we can contribute to their conservation.(The Wildlife Trust)

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Fig. 064 Fig. 065

Fig. 066


Fig. 067

Fig. 068

Waste Landscape, an installation by Elise Morin and Clémence Eliard, is a monumental art work that took up the “Halle d’Aubervilliers” space in the CENTQUATRE. “WasteLandscape” is a 500 square meters artificial undulating landscape covered by an armor of 65,000 unsold or collected CDs, which were sorted and hand-sewn. CDs are condemned to gradually disappear from our daily life, and to potentially participate in the construction of immense open-air, floating or buried toxic waste reception centers. Over the course of multiple exhibitions, WasteLandscape will go through a number of transformations before being entirely recycled into polycarbonate.

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URBAN OUTFITTERS HEAD QUARTERS


Fig. 069


URBAN OUTFITTERS HEADQUARTERS Situated in Philadelphia, DIRT studio reconfigured the Historic Core of the Yard. Demolition debris was reused and converted into a new patterned porous pavement and planted landscape. Innovating the usual “hog and haul” demolition approach, a salvaging strategy breaks up the detruis or waste and reappropriates it in a novel manner. This new approach was initiated with “site forensics” which were conceived as an examination process of the existing ground as a stratified surface. The process unearthed their material palette; lenths of old, rusted, steel rail tracks, stained expanses of concrete rusted metal grates and industrial residue. Large pieces of broken up concrete were arranged as an irregular paving pattern - reflecting the aesthetic entropy of a woodland floor, and stone dust was used to fill the crevices. Black Locust trees were interspersed across the site.

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DIRT studio call this re-use method “Barney Rubble”. The process reused 100% demolition material that typically ends up in landfill. - Remove bituminour veneer - Break up concrete into 0.6 -1.2 m pieces -Examine soils sub-grade for proper drainage and engineer soil as neccessary - Lay out concrete pieces - Plant black locusts incrementally inbetween broken concrete in tight two foot clumps with open ten foot gaps. - Taper the depth around the tree trunks - Compact stone dust into crevices (Margolis, Robinson 2007)


Fig. 070

Fig. 071

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PRESERVE & HEALTHY WA

John Todds work has shown how grey and blac plants and micro-organisms. Employing plant div filtration systems that require less energy, aeration are ideal environments for bacterial communities

Enhanced nitrification in treatment cells covere waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes.Some plants of mustard, Brassica juncea, has been found t accumulating up to 60% of its dry weight as lead

The following examples show the application of L the urban environment.

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& MAINTAIN ATER SUPPLY

ck water from urban areas can be treated using versity in constructed wetlands can produce water n and chemical management. Root zones of plants s that can break down wastematter.

ed with pennywort, Hydrocotyle umbellata, and s can even sequester heavy metals. One species to remove metals from flowing waste streams, (Nanda Kumar et al., 1995 as cited by Todd 1996).

Living Technologies and Constructed Wetlands in

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LIVING MACHINES Living Machine is a trademark and brand name for a patented form of ecological wastewater treatment designed to mimick the cleansing functions of wetlands. The latest generation of the technology is based on fixed-film ecology and the ecological processes of a natural tidal wetland, one of nature’s most productive ecosystems. This system recreates an ecological, closed loop cycle in which resources - like water and waste - are re-used and recycled continuously, and locally. Using a complex ecosystem of plants and micro-organisms cultivated in wetland beds, the system treats sewage or industrial waste water to a level that allows it to be re-used for toilet flushing, irrigation, or re-introduction into the environment. Instead of relying on chemicals to treat wastewater, a Living Machine lets nature do the dirty work. Wastewater is screened for solids befrore entering a series of ‘tidal-flow’ wetland cells, which alternately fill and drain to move water through the system. As each cell empties and water is pumped to the next cell. Incoming air helps bacteria oxidize ammonia, forming nitrate. As a cell begins to refill, other microbes break the nitrate into carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas. At the end of the one-day process, 60 percent of the water is recirculated; 40 percent is disinfected for toilet flushing, irrigation and other uses. These systems are highly effective and can control pathogens and odour to such a level that they can be installed in reception areas of commercial buildings.

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The Port of Portland had multiple objectives for the wastewater system in their new 200,000 square foot state-of-the-art headquarters building. It had to be sustainable, cost-effective, attractive, but above all, it had to provide advanced wastewater treatment for reuse. The Living Machine® system was the only approach to wastewater treatment that could meet all the criteria.

BENEFITS The building has demonstrated a 75% reduction in water use. The system provides interior and exterior foliage and safely integrates into public space. Accepts all wastewater generated by the building’s 500 employees and produces high quality water that is reused to flush toilets and supply the cooling towers in the building.

SYSTEM A Tidal Flow Wetland Living Machine® is the central design feature in the lobby and along the exterior front walkway of the Port of Portland Administrative Office Building. After collection and initial treatment of the wastewater in a primary equalization tank, the water flows to the Living Machine®. This system, utilized for secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment, is composed of six tidal flow cells and one vertical flow cell. The high quality treated effluent is filtered and disinfected with ultraviolet light and chlorine.

The Living Machine® system was cited as a key innovative feature on Forbes.com’s list of the world’s greenest buildings. The project attained a LEED Platinum certification by the U.S. Green Building Council.

Fig. 072


PORT OF PORTLAND HEADQUARTERS Fig. 073

Fig. 074

http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/4239381 75


HOUTAN PARK, SHANGHAI

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Fig. 075

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HOUTAN PARK, SHANGHAI A former industrial site located on the Huangpu River, Houtan park now serves as an ecological infrastructure cleaning polluted river water, whilst providing flood protection and creating spaces for food production, habitat, education and public recreation all within the context of the rapidly urbanizing city of Shanghai. The park consists of a constructed wetland, ecological flood control, urban agriculture and reclaimed industrial structures and materials. All integral components of an overall restorative design strategy which mimicks many principles of an eco-system.

Fig. 076

Fig. 077

The linear constructed wetland runs through the center of the park 1.7 kilometers long and 5- 30 meters wide. It was designed to create a reinvigorated waterfront as a living machine to treat contaminated water from the Huangpu River. Cascades and terraces are used to oxygenate the nutrient rich water, remove and retain nutrients and reduce suspended sediments while creating pleasant water features; Different species of wetland plants were selected and designed to absorb different pollutants from the water. Field testing indicates that 2,400 cubic meters (500,000 gallons) per day of water can be treated from Lower Grade V to Grade III. The treated water can be used safely throughout the Expo for non-potable uses, and save half a million US dollars in comparison with conventional water treatment. The wetland also acts as a flood protection buffer between the 20and 1000-year flood control levees. The existing concrete floodwall was replaced by a more habitat friendly riprap that allows native species to grow along the riverbank while protecting the shoreline from erosion.

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Fig. 078

The reclaimed steel panels hail the site's former industrial spirit. Situated throughout the wetland valley, the folded steel panels are used to frame views of Shanghai's skyline and highlight the industrial past. The materials are reconfigured to create artful forms, new paving material for the boardwalk, and shelters.


Fig. 079

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USE CURRENT S

Solar energy offers a clean, climate-friendly, abundant and inexh In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical ene is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water produce glucose, oxygen, and water. The chemical equation for

6CO2 + 12H2O + LIGHT

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Organisms that are capable of absorbing energy from sunlight u other organic compounds such as lipids and proteins. The sugar energy for the organism.

The following examples show the way that solar energ effect, not only in the creation of energy and growth of h in more tangental respects such as heat responsive mate

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SOLAR ENERGY

haustible energy resource. ergy. The chemical energy r, and sunlight are used to r this process is:

O

use it to produce sugar and rs are then used to provide

gy can be used to great healthy plants, but also erials and their use.

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METAL THAT BREATHES Architect Doris Kim Sung explores architecture as an extension of the body, challenging the notion that buildings ought to be static and climate-controlled. She posits that rather, they should be able to adapt to their environment through selfventilation much like human skin.

Fig. 080

"Bloom" a sculptural installation in Silver Lake, Los Angeles displays the biomimetic sculptural shade structure. The installation is around 7m tall and composed of 14,000 completely unique pieces of the thermo-bimetal, which is made of two different metals laminated together. This metal is dynamic and responsive, curling as the temperature rises, letting air flow through the gaps to provide ventillation. This material could potentially be used as an architectural skin, as a ventilating system that regulates airflow and temperature. In a landscape the potential applications could be to provide shade and shelter.

Fig. 081

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Fig. 082

“[Skin is] the first line of defense for the body. … Our building skins should be more similar to human skin.”

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SUPER TREES 84


Fig. 083

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SUPER TREES - GARDENS BY THE BAY Designed by Grant Associates, the client had a vision of creating a “city in a garden”. The 54 hectare site was tranformed into a showcase of the best of tropical horticulture and garden artistry with mass displays of tropical flowers and coloured foliage, sculptural theme gardens, two coled conservatories, and 18 “Supertrees”. The design for the masterplan is biomorphic as it is based on the organisation and physiology of the orchid - the national flower of Singapore. However the site itself was conceptualized as an eco system.

Fig. 084 Fig. 085

The towering vertical garden “supertrees” are biomimetic as their functions mimick a trees processes of collecting sunlight for photosynthesis, water absorption and transpiration. They are the environmental engines for the gardens, equipped with photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, rainwater harvesting devices and venting ducts. Ranging in height from 25 metres and 50 metres in height (9 to 16 stories) these vertical gardens covered with tropical flowering climbers, epiphytes and ferns. During the day, the trees and their huge canopies will provide shade, shelter and help moderate temperatures. In much the same way as tall canopy trees do in a natural ecosystem.

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Fig. 086


Fig. 087

Fig. 088

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PROMOTE BI

Biodiversity - the diversity among living organism essential role in ensuring the survival of life on water, foodstuffs, medicines and quality of life are the services which biodiversity offers to cities. Rec importance of biodiversity and healthy ecosyste survival, cities today undertake many initiatives to conserve their surroundings efficiently. These actio far beyond the boundaries of the city, affecting biod global scale. - UNEP

The following examples show how biodiversity can various different ways in the urban context. Not only connecting habitats, but forming structures, lighting signage.

88


IODIVERSITY

ms - plays an earth. Clean just a few of cognising the ems for their o utilize and ons can reach diversity on a

be utilized in y creating and g streets and

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Fig. 089

90


THE HIGHLINE The High Line's planting design was inspired by the self-seeded landscape that grew on the outof-use elevated rail tracks during the 25 years after trains stopped running. With a focus on the local ecology, native species were chosen. The perennials, grasses, shrubs and trees were chosen for their hardiness, sustainability, as well as textural and color variation. Many of the species that originally grew on the High Line's rail bed were incorporated into the park's landscape. Piet Oudolf’s planting design included over a hundred different plant and tree species, essentially restoring the native ecology of the area. The design translates the biodiversity that took root after the structure fell into ruin. Creating a string of site-specific urban microclimates along the stretch of railway that include sunny, shady, wet, dry, windy, and sheltered spaces. Additionally, according to research carried out by the Manhattan Project, the pioneer species, Betula populifolia planted along the stretch of the highline hark back to the native ecology of the site pre 1609, before Europeans ever set foot in the area. This diverse landscape has created new habitat in the city. Birdlife sighted include; juncos, song sparrows, catbirds, house sparrows, robins, barn swallows and a few warblers as well as Peregrine Falcons. The maintainance team utilize natural-use compost tea; a concoction of compost, natural fish fertilizer, and food for bacteria and fungi, such as molasses or flour. This promotes microbial growth. In an interview for the New York Times, James Corner, the landscape

Fig. 090

“You accept death. You don’t take the plants out, because they still look good. And brown is also a color.”

architect and landsape urbanism theorist said that one reason he asked Mr. Oudolf to do the project’s planting design is that his planting design “is thought through not only in terms of summer, but also in terms of winter — all 12 months are (productive).”

benefits to the human environment, it is in some respects bio-mimetic. The High Line it is essentially a long green roof that uses plants to slow and capture rainwater, therefore reducing stormwater runoff and aleviating pressure on sewage systems.

Although the Highline does not claim to be bio-mimetic, When looked at from an eco-mimetic standpoint, their approach in recreating the native habitat that initally took root and extending and expanding the species list, providing a perpetual ecosystem, whilst providing many additional

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Fig. 091

VEGETAL STRUCTURE “Over the course of many years, the architecture and living materials are envisioned to swop structural roles; the architecture recedes, while conceding structural support to the living materials it originally supported.” The collaborative creation of landscape architect and architect, the MAK t6 VACANT project asked that the typical functions attributed to each medium to expand and extemporize their roles. The architecture is based on the cytoskeleton, a cellular scaffolding and dynamic structure that maintains cell shape and cellular components. In this concept, nature, specifically plantlife, assumes the role of the architecture in structuring the human environment. Initially the architectural structure would support the growing plant, but gradually, over the course of 30 years, a growing vine would slowly gain structural autonomy. Utilizing a vine species of Strangler Fig of the Ficus genus, which attaches itself to trees and will grow without direct interface with the ground. A hybrid vine/scaffold hybrid would create a new habitat in the urban environment, encouraging other species to take root, and wildlife to take up residence. “The vine eventually grafts itself to the inirganic structure, forming a compound organic/non-organic system that will collectively take on different characteristics and properties that neither system can individually” - Fletcher and Azulay (Margolis, Robinson 2007, p34-35)

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BIOLUMINESCENT ALGAE A somewhat tangental use of plantlife in the urban spehere; this concept developed by Eduardo Mayoral, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain. The concept proposes the design and fabrication of glowing devices that do not consume electricity but through the manipulation of bioluminescent populations of microorganisms. A species of algae that glows when excited by movement, Pyrocystis Fusiformis.

Fig. 092

The bioluminescent devices could be used for public ambient lighting, natural park illumination, signs, and billboards. It proposes a radical shift in the uses of plantlife in the urban realm.

Fig. 093

Fig. 094

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Fig. 095

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“LANDSCAPE OR BU GOAL OF RETURNIN THE SITE TO PREDEV

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UILDINGS ALONE CANNOT ACHIEVE THE NG THE ECOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF VELOPMENT LEVELS”

Fig. 096

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LLOYDS CROSSING This design exemplifies the remarkable notion that intense urban redevelopment does not have to be detrimental to the environment. That in fact it can reverse environmental impact and return many of the ecological qualities of the site, similar to those once offered by the 54 acre mature, mixed conifer forest to which this site was once host. Situated in Portland Oregon, the basis of this project was centered around the pre-development perameters of the site. An historical ecological profile before human presence was created. This formed the basis of the concept which was to recreate the native habitat and aim to fulfill the functions and processes of the pre-development ecosystem whilst maintaining a comfortable habitable human environment. The designers state that in such a high-density urban context such as Lloyd Crossing, it is evident that “landscape or buildings alone cannot achieve the goal of returning the ecological performance of the site to pre-development levels”. To achieve this, the design had to be based on ecological systems. A systematic strategy creating an interconnected system between habitat, water, energy and carbon use was developed. Research was carried out to explore the ecological history or the site, the pre-development habitat. The research into biodiversity and wildlife showed that there was once a mixed conifer forest with 90% tree cover and broad diversity of wildlife species. The new landscape design set out goals to increase native tree cover to 25-30%, create structurally diverse planting schemes both the ground plane and on vertical

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Fig. 097 was stormwater runoff, 50% was infiltrated into the ground, 15% transpired and 5% evaporated. The plan envisioned a “water neutral” site that lives within the average annual rainfall budget that falls on site. The design would use buildings, landscapes and engineered systems to closely mimic the pre-development conditions while accommodating a five-fold increase in urban density. Solar energy and carbon cycles were also calculated to determine pre-development energy cycles. The resulting energy design goals were to exceed pre-development solar utilization conditions and reduce carbon emission to predevelopment levels. This would be achieved through a number of means such as maximizing renewable on-site energy generation, district energy and water systems, and utilization of the carbon sink potential of green spaces.

The study concluded that energy and water systems could provide a clear return-on-investment, while habitat provides intangible value. To demonstrate the benefits of investing in the whole system, the design team suggested the use of a new type of financial model, a Resource Management Association, which gave property and systems owners an ongoing source of funds for achieving water, energy, carbon and habitat goals, while also providing funds for adopting new technologies. (Hayter 2005)


Fig. 098

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ECO-MIMESIS BIOMIMETIC DESIGN FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS Organisms that are able to directly or indirectly control the flow of resources in an environment and who may cause changes in biotic or abiotic materials or systems and therefore habitats are called ecosystem engineers (Pedersen Zari 2007)). Humans are undoubtedly effective ecosystem engineers, but have much to gain by learning how other species are able to change their environments while creating more capacity for life in that system, whilst maintaining a thriving, sustainable eco-system. This essay proposes that landscape architects need to become ecosystem engineers, or rather ecosystem designers. Our urban spaces should be emulating ecosystems and centered on their principles of cycles and inherent sustainability. Perhaps the most applicable approach to biomimetic landscape design would be the Biomimicry 3.8 Design Spiral Challenge to Biology. However, the process would need to be undertaken a number of times for the various elements of a site. Additionally, each biomimetic design solution, based on either organism, eco-system would have to be integrated into a cyclical system on site, or feed into another off site, much like the Mobius Project. The change would have to take effect on a much wider scale, including many other disciplines outside of the field of landscape in order to achieve the ecological goals. Much like the Lloyds Crossing example.

100

Materials from demolition, or found materials, pehaps with the help of structural planting could be utilized to make seating and walls around a site. The walls, or perhaps specifically designed structures would create conditions that would encourage habitation from insects and other wildlife. The planting on site would be chosen to suit the needs. If there is need to filter and reuse water then living systems or constructed wetlands could be utilized to great effect. If pollution was a problem then the landscape architect could chose tree types that have the greatest capacity to sequester carbon and other pollutants. A structure in the landscape, like a supertree, or perhaps even on a smaller scale, could be used to generate energy. Each part of the whole must be considered in terms of its processes and how it benefits the system itself and the wider environment. As Geoffrey West et al. have proven, that despite our best efforts an urban infrastructure is analogous with a biological system. We need to start treating the city as a cyclical ecosystem, rather than a machine that is there for arbitrary economic gain.

As Fig XXX shows the micro environment of the site is simply an area within the larger whole (which itself is part of a larger system and so forth. The pink circles represent architectural elements, and the yellow the landscape, the blue arrows indicate processes and feedback functions. It is a simplification of a complex model, as any diagram is, but it represents the basic model I propose for the Ecomimetic design of a landscape.


Fig. 099

ECOSYSTEM (MACRO)

SITE

ECOSTYTEM (MICRO)

1: PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY 2: REUSE OVER RECYCLE 3: PRESERVE AND MAINTAIN HEALTHY WATER SUPPLY 4: USE CURRENT SOLAR INCOME 5: WASTE EQUALS FOOD 101


BIBLIOGRAPHY Benyus, Janine "Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature" Harper Collins, 1997 Pawlyn, Michael "Biomimicry in Architecture" RIBA publishing 2011 Pohl, H. (2011), Ecological Urbanism , Mohsen Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Myers, William "Bio Design: Nature Science Creativity" Thames and Hudson, 2012 Wadheim, Charles Ed. "The Princeton Architectural Press, 2006

Landscape

Urbanism

Reader"

Sach, Angeli, "Nature Design: From Inspiration to Innovation : exhibition, Museum Für Gestaltung Zürich" Lars Müller Publishers, 2007 Merchant, Carolyn "The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution" Harper San Francisco: A division of HarperCollins Publications, 1990 Orr, David W. "The Nature of Design: Ecology, Culture, and Human Intention" Oxford University Press 2002 Margolis, Liat, Alexander Robinson "Living Systems: Innovative Materials and Technologies for Landscape Architecture" Johnson, B.R, K Hill Eds. "Ecology and Design: Frameworks for Learning" Washington DC Island Press, 2002 Bettencourt, Luís M. A., Jose´ Lobo, Dirk Helbing, Christian Kühnert, Geoffrey B. West "Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities" Clark, Andy Edge: World Question Centre, Edge Foundation Inc. 2011 http://www.edge.org/q2011/q11_6.html Barry Oshry, Seeing Systems: Unlocking the Mysteries of Organizational Life, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2008 Foucault 1970, Michel “The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences” Tavistock Publications 1970 Rurskin Stones of Venice Digistize by the Internet Archive 2008 Microsoft Corporation p211 www.archive.org/details/stonesofvenice01rusk Morris, William. Textiles in Arts and Crafts Essays by Members of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society (1893) http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arts_ and_Crafts_Essays/Textiles   Dalrymple, Theodore. 'The Architect as Totalitarian: Le Corbusier’s baleful influence', City Journal, Autumn 2009, vol. 19, no. 4 Codrington, Andrea “Modernist Malice” Cabinet Issue 5 Evil Winter 2001/02 http://themannahattaproject.org/home/

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Salvador Dali, Dali on Modern Art: The Cuckolds of Antiquated Modern Art (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1996), p. 45. This edition reprints the English translation from the bilingual edition published by the Dial Press in 1957. pp. 29-31. Geoffrey West: The surprising math of cities and corporations FILMED JUL 2011 TEDGlobal 2011 Kibert, C.J., Sendzimir, J., and Guy, G.B., eds., 2002. Construction ecology: nature as the basis for green buildings. London: Spon Press. Mazria, E., 2010. Architects and climate change.Washington, DC: AIA (The American Institute of Architects). Available from: http://www.aia.org/ aiaucmp/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aias 078740.pdf [Accessed 5 June 2010]. Doughty, M. & Hammond, G. (2004) Sustainability and the Built Environment at and Beyond the City Scale. Building and Environment, 39, 1223-1233. (Vincent et al., 2006, Vogel, 1998). Luís M. A. Bettencourt, Jose´ Lobo, Dirk Helbing§, Christian Ku¨ hnert, and Geoffrey B. West “Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities” PNAS April 24, 2007 vol. 104 no. 17 UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision (2004) (United Nations, New York). Head, P., 2008. Entering the ecological age: the engineers role. Brunel international lectures. London: Institution of Civil Engineers. Available from: http://www.arup.com/_assets/_ download / 72B9BD7D-19BB-316E40000ADE36037C13. pdf Miller JG “Living Systems” McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. 1978 Lovelock, J.E. "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere". Atmospheric Environment 1967 Elsevier vol. 6 issue 8 pp. 579–580. Julian F. V. Vincent*, Olga A. Bogatyreva, Nikolaj R. Bogatyrev, Adrian Bowyer and Anja-Karina Pahl “Biomimetics: its practice and theory”J. R. Soc. Interface (2006) 3, pp 471–482 Cheng, Irene “The Beavers and the Bees” Cabinet Issue 23 Fruits Fall 2006 Janine M. Benyus The Biomimicry Institute and the Biomimicry Guild, 2011 “Biomimicry Primer” Rudofsky, Bernard “The Prodigious Builders: Notes Toward a Natural History of Architecture with Special Regard to those Species that are Traditionally Neglected or Downright Ignored” Irvington Publishers(1977) pp. 9–10. Parker, A. R. & Lawrence, C. R. (2001) Water capture by a desert beetle. Nature, 414, 33. PedersenZari, Maibritt 2007 “Biomimetic Approaches to Architectural Design for Increased Sustainability” SB07 New Zealand Paper number: 033

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Vincent, J. F. V., Bogatyrev, O., Pahl, A.-K., Bogatyrev, N. R. & Bowyer, A. (2005) Putting Biology into TRIZ: A Database of Biological Effects. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14, 66-72. Altshuller, G. 1999 The innovation algorithm, TRIZ, systematic innovation and technical creativity. Worcester, MA: Technical Innovation Center Inc. Arosha Gamage & Richard Hyde (2012): A model based on Biomimicry to enhance ecologically sustainable design, Architectural Science Review, 55:3, 224-235 Bogatyrev N.R. The living machine. The Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2004, N2, 2004 p. 79-87. Braungart, Michael, William McDonough “Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the way we make things” Vintage UK 2009 J.G. Frazier, “Sustainable Development: Modern Elixir or Sack Dress?” Environmental Conservation, Vol. 24, No. 2 (1997), p.190 Yeang, K. and Woo, L., 2010. Dictionary of ecodesign: an illustrated reference. New York: Routledge. Basics. Ladscape architecture. Ecological design by N. Rottle; K. Yocom (AVA publishing, sa) 2010 Meadows, Donnela H. ed Diana Wright. “Thinking in Systems - A Primer” Earthscan UK 2009 Todd, John. Beth Josephson. The design of Living Technologies for waste treatment” Engineering 6 (1996) 109-136 Hayter, Jason Alexander “Lloyd Crossing Sustainable Urban Design Plan and Catalyst Project - Portland, Oregon” Places, issue 17, vol 3. UC Berkeley 2005 Zanowick, Marie ‘Biomimicry: Nature’s Time-Tested Framework for Sustainability’ (2011). Dunnet, Nigel. Andy Clayden “Rain Gardens” Timeber Press 2007 Dunnett, Nigel, Noel Kingsbury “Planting green roofs and living walls” Timber press 2008 National Geographic Beaver Castor canadensis nationalgeographic.co.uk/animals/mammals/beaver/

http://animals.

www.AskNature.com http://biomimicry.net/about/biomimicry38/institute/ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/31/garden/31piet.html?sq=piet%20ou dolf&st=nyt&scp=1&pagewanted=all&_r=0

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig 001: Wasp Nest http://littlecrumcreek.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/img_6920-2.jpg Fig 002: Chandelier by Henry Van de Velde http://www.kmkg-mrah.be/sites/default/files/imagecache/image_big/images/chandelier_ van_de_velde_web_0.jpg Fig 003: Ruskin Stones of Venice 1851-53, vol II. The seastories with illustrations by the author. Illustration 23, The Acanthus of Torcello, Detail. Fig 004: Ernst Haeckel Kunstformen der Natur (1904), plate 98: Trachomedusae. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Haeckel_Discomedusae_98.jpg Fig 005: William Morris, Snakeshead printed textile, 1876 (credit William Morris Gallery) http://katysaustin.wordpress.com/2012/08/01/danny-boyle-the-refurbished-william-morrisgallery-and-grayson-perry/ Fig 006: Le Corbusier Olivetti Headquarters http://www.quondam.com/19/1964i11.jpg Fig 007: Bruno Taut Glass Pavillion http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-34apSBqJD0Y/T-RiOlG0vPI/AAAAAAAABlE/uNdXeYcKz6M/s1600/ Glass+pavilion+for+the+werkbund+exhibition+at+cologne+1914+designed+by+bruna+taut. jpg Fig. 008: Bruno Taut, Alpine Architecture http://jessicamairs.blogspot.co.uk/2010/12/alpine-architecture-bruno-taut.html Fig. 009: Eero Saarinenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s TWA Terminal at JFK Airport (1962) http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/1278041174-nycarchitecture3. jpg Fig. 010: Le Corbusier, La Ville Radieuse Model1924 http://www.brianmicklethwait.com/culture/VilleRadieuse.jpg Fig 011: Metropolis Poster http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/06/Metropolisposter.jpg/220pxMetropolisposter.jpg Fig. 012: La Ville Radieuse Le Corbusier Concept drawing,1924 http://www.worldchanging.com/postimages/article/10967_largearticlephoto.jpg Fig. 013: The City of London http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8e/The_City_Of_London.jpg Fig. 014 Engineering TRIZ solutions arranged according to size/hierarchy http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/9/471.full Fig. 015: Biological effects arranged according to size/hierarchy http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/9/471.full Fig16: Mamilian Heart Rate Measured Against Metabolism Bettencourt et al. pp7304 Fig. 017 Leaf http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/nsw100411/n22_volution.jpg

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Fig. 018 Common Burdock Seed http://www.awalkaroundbritain.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/common_burdock_seed. jpg Fig. 019 Leonardo Da Vinci Flying Machine Illustration http://www.geekpreneur.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/drw-man-wing-600w-300x191. jpg Fig. 020 Termite Mound http://www.asknature.org/uploads/article/195cebc22eac637c8e8b11d292673bf0/med_ termite_mound.jpg Fig. 021 Termite Mound Airflow Diagram http://assets.inhabitat.com/files/termitemound_cross3.jpg Fig. 022 East Gate Centre http://assets.inhabitat.com/files/eastgateharare.jpg Fig. 023 East Gate Centre http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/2216491.jpg Fig. 024 Shark http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/images/wildlife-ecosystems/grey_nurse_shark.jpg Fig. 025 Sharkskin Detail http://www.robaid.com/wp-content/gallery/tech1/sharklet1.jpg Fig. 026 Sharklet antibacterial smart material http://www.asknature.org/images/uploads/product/3c21a56f0ba2ae549894a2bf79372bda/45 degreesharklet.jpg Fig. 027 Femur Bones http://lucidminds.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/femur.jpg Fig. 028: Self-Healing Bones Diagram http://home.hccnet.nl/mj.devries/Image/bones.gif Fig. 029: Self Healing Concrete Cylinders http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-HYI9r5h3vF0/Tl-v5YgG7BI/AAAAAAAAAHk/IIeS80SzhyM/s1600/ porcon1.jpg Fig. 030: Self Healing Concrete http://www.bu.edu/sjmag/scimag2008/images/Texture__Concrete_Cracked_by_ivelt_ resources.jpg Fig. 031: Fog Beetle Diagram http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2010/07/dew_bank_beetle.jpg Fig. 032: Fog Harvesting Smart Material http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-X9kFzKkZ5T4/Tb0geVgJ1II/AAAAAAAAAQA/ImON8_IrlnQ/s1600/ fog-harvesting_IFPq4_69.jpg Fig. 033: Namib Desert Beetle http://2.bp.blogspot.com/__ihs4Cg2g-o/S0p7iUCUA2I/AAAAAAAAAHA/uIzddk9iY3E/s320/1. jpg

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Fig. 034: Hydrophobic Lotus Leaf http://www.asknature.org/images/uploads/strategy/714e970954253ace485abf1cee376ad8/5f 61d74eb061d5fc4fd6dd4fad042089.jpg Fig. 035: Computer graphic of lotus leaf surface http://www.asknature.org/images/uploads/strategy/714e970954253ace485abf1cee376ad8/ lotus3.jpg Fig. 036: Lotusan Self-Cleaning Paint http://www.asknature.org/images/uploads/product/6b8342fc3e784201e4950dbd80510455/ stocoatlotusanrollon2.jpg Fig. 037: Lotusan Self-Cleaning Paint http://www.paintpro.net/images/Feature_Photos/PP705/pp705pp_lotusan01.jpg Fig. 038: Box Fish http://www.speedace.info/solar_cars/solar_car_images/boxfish_streamliningjpg.jpg Fig. 039 Bionic Car wind tunnel graphic http://www.mercedesclass.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/96666105c2545_84.jpg Fig. 040: Bionic Car Aerodynaic Illustration http://www.mercedesclass.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/96665005c2545_45.jpg Fig. 041: Bionic Car Concept http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v724/NeilBlanchard/CarBEN%20EV%20Concept/ Screenshot2010-09-07at74121AM.png Fig. 042: Fractal Tree http://www.gweep.net/~goom/wedding/abouttrees/0218-goodtree2-l.gif Fig. 043: Leonardo Da Vinci Tree Rule http://deskarati.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/leonardodavincitreerule.jpg Fig. 044: Body structure: natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s construction principles for rigidity and light weight http://www.mercedesclass.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/96668305c2545_86.jpg Fig. 045: Bionic Car http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/medium/media/2010/02/ car_jpg_68831.jpg Fig. 046: Biology to Design Spiral http://ben.biomimicry.net/curricula-and-resources/university-curricula/reading-materials/ Fig. 047: Challenge to Biology Spiral http://ben.biomimicry.net/curricula-and-resources/university-curricula/reading-materials/ Fig. 048: Lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Principles http://biomimicry.net/about/biomimicry/lifes-principles/ Fig: 049: Biomimicry Taxonomy Fig. 050: Beaver Illustration http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Beaver_(PSF).jpg/575pxBeaver_(PSF).jpg

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Fig. 051: Beaver photo http://www.desibucket.com/db2/01/21155/21155.jpg Fig. 052: Beaver Dam http://3993cutephotos.pavithraguru.com/plog-content/images/1600_1200/nature___ animals/beaver_dam__tikchik_state_park__alaska.jpg Fig. 053: Fragmented planting plan options for Bomboretum (BioTRIZ) Bogatyrev N.R. The living machine. The Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2004, N2, 2004 p. 79-87. Fig. 054: Spiral bee garden diagram seasonal planting, derived from Bomboretum BioTRIZ Fig. 055: Annual bloom planting plan diagram, derived from Bomboretum BioTRIZ Fig. 056: Biomimicry Theoretical Model for Landscape Architecture, derived from Biomimicry Theoretical Model for Architecture Arosha Gamage & Richard Hyde (2012): A model based on Biomimicry to enhance ecologically sustainable design, Architectural Science Review, 55:3, 224-235 Fig. 057: Green Ideas http://www.greenideasnow.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Green-Ideas-Green-Program. jpg Fig. 058: Urban/Rural Tension http://img398.imageshack.us/img398/1550/gurgaonhirughoshob1.jpg Fig. 059: Integra Natura fpeculum Artisque Robert Fludd, Integra Natura fpeculum Artisque imago (The Mirror of the Whole of Nature and the Image of Art) published in 1617 http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Lgu-VMrYw4E/TsYExfbxf8I/AAAAAAAADEg/xNdG3vlDjb4/s1600/ fludd%2Bcolor.jpg Fig. 060: Broadleaved Woodland Ecosystem Diagram of Cyclical Processes Fig. 061: The Mobius Project Concept Pawlyn, Michael “Biomimicry in Architecture” RIBA publishing 2011 Fig. 062: Insect Hotel, Recycled Materials (Detail) http://www.screensavers4free.co.uk/Insect%20House.jpg Fig. 063: Caddis Fly Larvae Illustration http://www.cabraghwetlands.ie/Caddis%20fly%20larvae.jpg Fig. 064: Caddis Fly Larvae http://www.rspb.org.uk/community/cfs-filesystemfile.ashx/__key/communityserverdiscussions-components-files/904/6428.Caddis-Fly-Larva-005-Small.jpg Fig. 065 / Fig. 066: Hubert Duprat’s aquatic caddis fly larvae, with cases incorporating gold, opal, and turquoise, among other materials. Photos Jean-Luc Fournier. http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/25/duprat.php Fig. 067: Insect Hotel http://www.dragonfli.co.uk/userfiles/images/wildlife-trust-insect-hotel-1024x727.jpg Fig. 068: Waste Landscape http://www.dezeen.com/2011/08/02/wastelandscape-by-elise-morin-and-clemence-eliard/

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Fig. 069 / Fig. 70 / Fig. 71: Urban Outfitters Headquarters by DIRT Studios http://www.dirtstudio.com/#urbnhq Fig. 072: Living Machine Illustration http://www.wired.com/science/planetearth/magazine/17-06/st_sewagegrid Fig. 073: Port of Portland Living Machine http://www.livingmachines.com/Portfolio/Municipal-Government/Port-of-PortlandHeadquarters,-Portland,-OR.aspx Fig. 074: Living Machine Illustration 2 http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/4239381 Fig. 075: Houtan Park terraced lake edge http://hdka.hr/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Zhongshan-shipyard-parkturenscape-19-the-terraced-lake-edge.jpg Fig. 076 / Fig. 077 / Fig. 078 / Fig. 079: Houtan Park http://www.turenscape.com/english/projects/project.php?id=443 Fig. 080 / Fig. 081 / Fig. 082: Doris Kim Sung “Bloom” http://dosustudioarchitecture.blogspot.co.uk/ Fig. 083: Super Trees Panorama at Gardens By the Bay, Harry Tan. http://harrytanphoto.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/gbtb002_stitchweb1.jpg Fig. 084 / Fig. 085 / Fig. 086 / Fig. 087 / Fig. 088: Grant Associates Gardens by the Bay / SuperTrees http://www.grant-associates.uk.com/projects/85-gardens-by-the-bay/4777-gardens-by-thebay.aspx Fig. 089: View of Highline (section 2) http://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2011/06/dezeen_High-Line-Section-2-by-Diller-Scofidioand-Renfro-6.jpg Fig. 090: The highline before reconstruction http://touchmybuzz.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/highline-before-reconstruction.jpg Fig. 091: Vegetal Structure http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_WxJri7MfNBk/RzlXAh20E-I/AAAAAAAAARc/JMQEfp1DgUw/s400/ Fletcher.jpg Fig. 092 / Fig. 093 / Fig. 094 / Fig.95: Bioluminescent devices for zero-electricity lighting http://www.holcimfoundation.org/T1337/A11EUng3ES.htm Fig. 096 / Fig. 097 / Fig. 098: Lloyds Crossing Concept http://landscapeurbanism.com/article/mithun/ Fig. 099: Ecomimesis Diagram

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Ecomimesis  

Biomimetic Design for Landscape Architecture

Ecomimesis  

Biomimetic Design for Landscape Architecture

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