Journal of alternate energy sources & technologies (vol5, issue3)

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Editorial Board Dr. Sundara Ramaprabhu Professor, Nurture Earth R&D Pvt. Ltd. MIT Campus, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Ramasare Prasad Yadav Indian Institute of Technology Rorkee, India.

Dr. Atul Sharma Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Rae Bareli, U.P., India.

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Animesh Dutta University of Guelph, Canada.

Sudhagar Mani University of Georgia, Athens , USA, United States.

Dr. Shrikant Balkisan Dhoot Head Research & Development, Nurture Earth R&D Pvt. Ltd. MIT Campus, Aurangabad, India.

Dr. Raghubir Singh Anand Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

Dr. P.K. Bhargava Chief Scientist & Scientist Coordinator (Efficiency of Buildings Division) Central Building Research Institute Roorkee.

T Hussain National Center For Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Complex, Islamabad, Pakistan.


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Dr. Tushar Jash

Associate Professor department of Energy science and Engineering IIT Bombay

Assistant Professor School of Energy Studies Jadhavpur University

Dr. A. Jagadeesh

Dr. Apurba Gosh

Director at Nayudamma Centre for Development Alternatives

Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Burdwan West Bengal India.

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Dr. Asma Ahmed

Associate Professor Centre of Excellence for Energy and Environmental Studies Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology Haryana,India.

Assistant Professor Department of Chemical Engineering BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad India.


Director's Desk

STM JOURNALS

I take the privilege to present the hard copy compilation for the [Volume 5 Issue (3)] of Journal of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies (JoAEST). The intension of JoAEST is to create an atmosphere that stimulates creativeness, research and growth in the area of Alternate Energy Sources. The development and growth of the mankind is the consequence of brilliant Research done by eminent Scientists and Engineers in every field. JoAEST provides an outlet for Research findings and reviews in areas of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies found to be relevant for National and International recent developments and research initiative. The aim and scope of the Journal is to provide an academic medium and an important reference for the advancement and dissemination of Research results that support high level learning, teaching and research in the domain of Alternate Energy Sources. Finally, I express my sincere gratitude and thanks to our Editorial/ Reviewer board and Authors for their continued support and invaluable contributions and suggestions in the form of authoring writeups/ reviewing and providing constructive comments for the advancement of the journals. With regards to their due continuous support and co-operation, we have been able to publish quality Research/Review findings for our customers base. I hope you will enjoy reading this issue and we welcome your feedback on any aspect of the Journal.

Dr. Archana Mehrotra Director STM Journals


Journal of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies

Contents

1. Gas Hydrates: A Review Sudeep Varma Namburi, M S N Prasad Reddy

1

2. Screening Sweetpotato Breeding Clones [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] as a Suitable Potential Source of Feedstock for Bioethanol Production Karine Z. Nyiawung, Desmond G. Mortley, Abukari Issah, Marceline Egnin, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Barrett T. Vaughan

6

3. Wind-Solar Hybrid Energy Powered for Drip Irrigation System R. Akhila, Y. Sai Manohar, J. Bangarraju, V. Rajagopal

13

4. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Controller for Dam Reservoir Water Level Control using Hydro Power Plant Generation Requirement Kavita Jain, Peeyush Garg

19

5. Performance Improvement of Solar Photo-Voltaic Panel Shanmuga Priya, Siddharth Bishnoi, M. Premalatha, I. Thirunavukkarasu

23


Journal of Alternate Energy Sources and Technologies ISSN: 2230-7982 (online), ISSN: 2321-5186 (print) Volume 5, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com

Gas Hydrates: A Review Sudeep Varma Namburi1*, M S N Prasad Reddy2 1

Officer, Operation and Maintenance, Gujarat State Petronet Ltd., Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India 2 Assistant Professor, Aditya Engineering college

Abstract Gas-Hydrate; considered to be the most clean energy fuel among the all energy resources. My article describes about the Gas hydrates occurrence and their formation criteria. It illustrates how exploration of the Gas-hydrates can be done by using different techniques by analyzing a suite of logs such as; Gamma ray, Resistivity, Acoustic and Mud logs. In addition, the new technology involves for the production of Hydrates i.e. Carbon dioxide injection techniques and Thermal Stimulation Technique. Moreover, Indian scenario, which describes about the distribution of Gas Hydrates across India, particularly in KG basin, their estimated volume and how they can help to fulfill future country demands.

Keywords: Gas-Hydrate, Carbon dioxide, Gas-hydrate stability zone

JoAEST (2014) Š STM Journals 2014. All Rights Reserved


Journal of Alternate Energy Sources and Technologies ISSN: 2230-7982 (online), ISSN: 2321-5186 (print) Volume 5, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com

Screening Sweetpotato Breeding Clones [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] as a Suitable Potential Source of Feedstock for Bioethanol Production Karine Z. Nyiawung, Desmond G. Mortley*, Abukari Issah, Marceline Egnin, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Barrett T. Vaughan G.W. Carver Agricultural Experiment Station and Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee AL, USA

Abstract Experiments were conducted to evaluate white and orange fleshed sweetpotatoes as a feedstock for bioethanol production, based on dry matter (DM), extractable starch, amylose-amylopectin ratio, fermentation times and ethanol yields. Ten sweetpotato cultivars viz., W308, TU0002, WS149 05, BM8342119 TU090W009, DMOI158096, DMOI158204, TIB4008, TIB4085 and, Beauregard, were planted in replicated field variety trials. Plants were established from 30 cm long vine cuttings and N was applied (P and K were sufficient) at 90 kg ha-1 based on soil test recommendations. Twenty-four storage roots were collected from each cultivar at harvest, 120 days after planting, and randomly divided into three groups of eight which served as replicates. Samples were collected and contents of dry matter (DM), extractable starch and amylose/amylopectin were determined. Ethanol (EtOH), concentration was determined by HPLC analysis from samples prepared using a solids:liquid ratio 0.13, which were hydrolyzed at 66°C for 90 min and fermented under anaerobic conditions using pure cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) at 30°C for 20 or 40 h. DM ranged from 19.6 to 35.9% and extractable starch from 10.9 to 25.3%, for Beauregard and W308, respectively. Amylose/amylopectin ranged from 19.5% for BM8342119 to 30.8% for TU0002, with ratios of 0.24 and 0.46, respectively. EtOH content ranged from 34.4 g L-1 for Beauregard to 66.6 g L-1 for TIB085 at 20 h and from 34.0 g L-1 for Beauregard to 71.0 g L-1 for TIB085 at 40 h of fermentation time. Increases in EtOH content with an additional 20 h fermentation time ranged from marginal to 9.0 g L-1. Significant correlations existed between DM and EtOH, and starch and EtOH. These data suggest that seven of the sweetpotato cultivars can serve as potential feedstocks for bioethanol production, the higher the DM and starch, the greater the yield and a 40 h fermentation time will increase production.

Keywords: Sweetpotato, Alternative Energy, Fermentation

JoAEST (2014)© STM Journals 2014. All Rights Reserved


Journal of Alternate Energy Sources and Technologies ISSN: 2230-7982 (online), ISSN: 2321-5186 (print) Volume 5, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com

Wind-Solar Hybrid Energy Powered for Drip Irrigation System R. Akhila*, Y. Sai Manohar, J. Bangarraju, V. Rajagopal Department of EEE, B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narsapur, Medak (Distt.), Telangana, India Abstract This paper explains cost analysis of drip irrigation system using wind-solar hybrid system. The power generated through the interconnected solar and wind hybrid system is fed to the submersible pump for drip irrigation and is examined continuously for reliability. The drip irrigation system described here consists of a submersible pump that consumes 1.18 kW of electrical energy per day on an average, which can drip irrigate mango crop planted over 1.5 acres of land. The corresponding cost analysis curves for solar and wind systems are drawn.

Keywords: Solar power generation, Wind power generation, Hybrid systems, Drip irrigation system

JoAEST (2014)Š STM Journals 2014. All Rights Reserved


Journal of Alternate Energy Sources and Technologies ISSN: 2230-7982 (online), ISSN: 2321-5186 (print) Volume 5, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com

Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Controller for Dam Reservoir Water Level Control using Hydro Power Plant Generation Requirement Kavita Jain*, Peeyush Garg Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Abstract A Hydro power plant is established for the production of electricity as well as flood control in the areas lying along the course of the river on which dam is constructed. So the water level control in the reservoir and generation of required amount of power are equally important. In this paper a fuzzy logic has been developed using power generation requirement from power plant to control level of reservoir and thus maintaining required water level for power generation and to avoid over flowing as well as flood conditions. The controller so developed gives more automated system in the field of Dam Automation for hydro power plant.

Keywords: Spillway gates, PID, PLC, Fuzzification, defuzzification

JoAEST (2014)Š STM Journals 2014. All Rights Reserved


Journal of Alternate Energy Sources and Technologies ISSN: 2230-7982 (online), ISSN: 2321-5186 (print) Volume 5, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com

Performance Improvement of Solar Photo-Voltaic Panel Shanmuga Priya1*, Siddharth Bishnoi1, M. Premalatha2, I. Thirunavukkarasu3 1

Department of Chemical Eng., Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, India 2 CEESAT, NIT, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of I&CE, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Abstract The study of solar photovoltaic panels was carried out with the main objective of increasing their performance efficiency. Methods studied include cooling effect (using liquid, generally water) on Solar P.V. panel, cooling effect (using air) on Solar P.V. panel, Shading effect of a Photo-Voltaic panel and Reflection and focusing of sunlight on Photo-Voltaic panel. It deals with the idea of reducing the temperature of solar panel using water or air as a cooling medium. An increment of around 20% in case of cooling with air and 26% in case of cooling with water is observed. The shading effect uses a bypass diode in the circuit of photovoltaic panel to cut-off the supply of one partially or completely shaded solar cell due to obstruction. The concept of focusing more sunlight on the solar panel by means of placing mirrors around it was also done.

Keywords: Solar photovoltaic panel, Cooling effect, Shading effect, Reflection, Focusing effect

JoAEST (2014)Š STM Journals 2014. All Rights Reserved