THE MAGAZINE FOR DESIGNERS WITH LIGHT
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Front Cover: Dan FlavinÂ untitled (to Virginia Dwan) 2, 1971 blue, yellow, pink, and red fluorescent light ÂŠ 2015 Stephen Flavin/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; courtesy David Zwirner, New York/London
LIGHT : ART INTERNATIONAL ARTISTS: JAMES TURRELL • DAN FLAVIN • LIGHTING DESIGN COLLECTIVE LIGHT COLLECTIVE• CINIMOD • MRI • MICHAEL BOSANKO INDIAN ARTISTS: SHEBA CHHACHHI • SHILPA GUPTA • DEEPTI MALLA DATT PUNEET KAUSHIK PHOTOGRAPHERS: DAYANITA SINGH • SHAHID DATAWALA ARUN BHAT • SUDHANSHU VERMA • TAPATI GUHA THAKURTA
GALLERIES & MUSEUMS GALLERY ESPACE • GALLERY MASKARA • GALLERY CHATTERJEE & LAL GALLERY CHEMOULD • DELHI ART GALLERY KIRAN NADAR MUSEUM OF ART • DEVI ART FOUNDATION • APEEJAY ARTS KIMBELL ART MUSEUM • MAXXI MUSEUM • NELSON-ATKINS MUSEUM OF ART CENTRE POMPIDOU-METZ • BMW MUSEUM FEATURING: RENZO PIANO + ARUP • ZAHA HADID + GIA EQUATIONS STEVEN HOLL + RENFRO DESIGN GROUP SHIGERU BAN + JEAN DE GASTINES • ATELIER BRÜCKNER
INTERVIEWS OF TED FERREIRA AND SHIMUL JAVERI • STUDIO LOTUS • SAMAR SINGH JODHA ART COLLECTORS ROOHI AND RAJIV SAVARA WITH LYLE LOPEZ • HOWARD M. BRANDSTON
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[jul/aug] 102 Gallery Maskara, Mumbai
details 010 Editorial Comment Editor’s Note. 012 Contributors Professionals that contributed to the issue. 016 Tribute In memory of industry visionaries. 018 Eye Opener Waterlicht, Museumplein Amsterdam 020 Focal Point Rocksalt Bistro & Wine Bar, Silema, Malta. 022 Drawing Board Our preview of proposed projects. 026 Spotlight A selection of brand new projects from around the world. 030 Briefing Dr. Amardeep M. Dugar, IALD, IES, SIL 032 Snapshot Introducing Oculus Light Studio. 034 Folio Studio Lotus. 038 Lighting Talk In conversation with Shimul Javeri. 044 Interview Ted Ferreira of CD+M talks about transforming spaces using unconventional lighting.
FEATURE STORY 052 Light : Art 054 Light Art 056 James Turrell 062 Dan Flavin 068 Light Art and Light Graffiti 074 Women Artists Working with Light 080 Shadow Play with Puneet Kaushik 084 Light in Indian Festivites 090 Liberty Cinema in Photographs 096 Walking Through Bhagirath Palace 100 Interacting with Light 102 Lighting Art Galleries 110 Lighting a Private Collection 112 Future of Lighting
PROJECTS 116 Apeejay Arts, New Delhi A walk through Samar Jodha’s exhibit, Outpost, lit by Jatinder Marwaha. 120 Kimbell Art Museum, Texas Arup and Renzo Piano create a daylight integrating roof structure for the museum. 128 Maxxi Museum, Rome GI Equations describes the lighting scheme for Zaha Hadid’s museum design. 134 Devi Art Foundation, Gurgaon Landscape India and Studio Lotus design a sculptural building to house contemporary art. 138 Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City Stevel Holl Architects provides a counterpoint to the 1933 Bloch Building, lit by Renfro Design Group. 142 Kiran Nadar Museum of Art, New Delhi Space Matrix and Vision Design combine sensible design and intelligent lighting to cater to contemporary Indian art. 146 Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz I.C.O.N illuminates the iconic French translucent cultural lantern.
* The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various authors in this magazine do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs, viewpoints or official policies of mondo*arc india.
[jul/aug] 038 Lighting Talk
PROJECTS 150 BMW Museum, Munich A spectacular light based centerpiece creates dramatic effects in the space.
ART & DESIGN 156 Six Stages of Product Design Six designers, six products and the process behind creating these works. 170 UK Pavilion, Milan Expo BDP Lighting illuminates Wolfgang Buttress’ Beehive. 174 French Pavilion, Milan Expo Licht Kunst Licht delicately accentuates a series of spaces and exhibits with its lighting scheme. 176 Parking Garage at Vermont Residences, Los Angeles A new public sculpture in Koreatown is brought to life by Lightswitch’s dynamic lighting scheme. 178 Code 2015, Gurgaon An international COnference on DEsign, dedicated to lighting in the retail environment.
TECHNOLOGY 180 Case Study: Louvre Lens, Paris Innovative lighting technology by ERCO. 184 Lightfair International - IALD Awards Winning projects from around the world. 188 Comment Howard M. Brandston talks about the 2015 Lightfair Institute program. 190 Bench Test David Morgan reviews Cooledge’s new SQUARE snap and trim LED system. 192 Lightfair International 2015 Review New products on show this year. 196 Event Calendar Your global show and conference guide.
In Issue 2, we featured the launch event of mondo*arc india, and showcased our esteemed guests through a series of photographs. We mistakenly captioned one photograph as ‘Ashwin Deo & wife,’ whereas the guests featured in actuality are Mr. Ashwin Deo and Mrs. Devieka Bhojwani. We apologize for the error.
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light modulation and physical transformation as in nature
KineturaÂŽ brings ďŹ‚exibility to life
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[editorial] I cannot begin with anything but grief for the loss of one of the greatest masters of architecture and urban design in post-independent India – Charles Correa. His work with spaces, volumes and perspectives has been a distinguished form of art and an inimitable source of inspiration. From his work we derive an exhilarating glow In his passing we seek the light to follow Prof. KT Ravindran recalls his protracted association with Charles Correa, and pens a most befitting tribute for the architect extraordinaire. With the end of an era, come the rains. With the changing season we get a whiff of what lies in store for us in the coming months. The latter half of the year is peppered with art shows, design exhibitions, conventions, workshops and festivities. To mark the beginning of the creative season, we dedicate Issue #03 to LIGHT : ART. And what better way to commemorate this, than celebrating some of the most illustrious luminaries of design. As master light artist James Turrells’s retrospective at the National Gallery of Australia wraps up, we get a first hand account of the remarkable experience of his illusionary spaces. Consecrating the cover to virtuoso Dan Flavin, we pay homage to the progressive artist whose astoundingly forthright philosophy of what you see is what you get, resulted in an awe-inspiring collection of works. Our feature story pans the art world, showcasing works by Indian as well as international artists and photographers. While Michael Bosanko, Lighting Design Collective, Cinimod Studio, Sheba Chhachhi and Shilpa Gupta work with light to create art; artists like Puneet Kaushik, use light as an additional layer to their artworks. Photographers such as Dayanita Singh and Shahid Datawala capture light through their lens to freeze artistic moments in time. The other side of the story talks about the science of lighting art, wherein a multitude of galleries like Gallery Espace, Gallery Chemould and Delhi Art Gallery, host variable artworks and ingeniously engage intelligent lighting solutions. We take you through a plethora of exciting museums across the world, exploring their designs and lighting concepts; from the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art and Devi Art Foundation in New Delhi, to Zaha Hadid’s Maxxi Museum in Rome, Renzo Piano’s Kimbell Art Museum in Texas and Steven Holl’s Bloch Building in Kansas. We also get invited into the home of eminent art collectors, Roohi and Rajiv Savara, who tell us about living life surrounded by art. This issue has been particularly challenging - to address the incessant subject of art, and to do so through the perspective of light. While we have touched upon some beguiling topics pertaining to LIGHT : ART, and the SCIENCE of it, there is no saying that we have been able to chronicle its ceaseless impressions. It shall remain our endeavour to slowly discover the profusion of notions this subject has to offer. We hope to bring to you more art, and more light very soon. Illuminating your mondo world! Mrinalini Ghadiok
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[contributors] ANDRE TAMMES Andre Tammes is a lighting designer and visual planner with over 50 years of experience in stage production and architectural lighting. Having established Lighting Design Partnership in 1996 in Sydney, he has since worked on many distinguished projects such as the Sydney Opera House, the lighting strategy for Putrajaya in Malaysia, Sant Nirankari water sculpture in Delhi, and the Golden Temple in Amritsar. In this issue: Andre gives us a first hand account of his experience at the National Gallery of Australia’s latest exhibit, in ‘James Turrell – A Retrospective.’
GEORGINA MADDOX Georgina Maddox works as a freelance writer for pieces on art, culture, lifestyle and travel. She is currently the Editorial Coordinator at TAKE ON INDIA, and Project Head for digitizing TAKE on Art. She also contributes a regular column in BL Ink, and formerly was a columnist for Time Out. Her writing has been published in Open Magazine, Tehelka, India Today, Harpers Bazaar, Man’s World and Elle. She has also been part of creating text for the book and weblog of the Mumbai International Airport. In this issue: Georgina describes light as a spectacle, in ‘The Festivals of Lights;’ illustrates Satadru Sovan’s walk through Bhagirath Palace, in ‘At The Palace of Lights;’ and discusses Apeejay Arts as it housed Samar Jodha’s Outpost, in ‘In The Mood For Light.’
PROF K.T. RAVINDRAN Prof. Ravindran is at present the Dean Emeritus at the RICS School of Built Environment-Amity University, Noida. He was the Former Dean and Head of Urban Design at the School of Planning and Architecture of New Delhi, and the founder and former President of the Institute of Urban Designers – India. His work focused on the development of Indian cities, and more specifically on the inclusion and conservation of heritage buildings in modern urban spaces as well as Architecture and Interior Design. He succeeded Charles Correa as the Chairman of Delhi Urban Art Commission. In this issue: Prof. Ravindran gives an earnest tribute to the legendary Charles Correa.
LYLE LOPEZ In 2004, M/S Lirio Lopez, the electrical consulting firm of which Lyle Lopez is a partner, formally decided to add lighting design to its business portfolio. Although Lyle trained in Control and Instrumentation systems and worked briefly in the aviation industry, he and his brother Linus always wanted to explore and develop the creative side they believed they had. Presently, the firm has a varied basket of projects and they are always looking for opportunities that challenge their creative side. In this issue: Lyle was an inimitable force that guided us through the art of lighting art for our feature story, ‘Light : Art.’
MRIDU SAHAI PATNAIK Mridu is an interdisciplinary designer with interests driven by cross cultural interactions, architecture, product design, travel and writing. Working with Archohm, she co-authored the book – Architecture and Attitude. She was the editor of the in-house newsletter, Archohmeter, and also contributed to various design magazines. In this issue: Mridu was part of the editorial team for the Ted Ferreira interview, ‘New Roles For New Times’ and ‘The White Box vs. A Contrived Space.’
SHAHID DATAWALA Shahid is a Mumbai based photographer and has shot extensively for various publications. He has had solo and group exhibitions across the country, as well as internationally. He was the chief designer for Pallate, a furniture design store in Mumbai, for 7 years. Elle Décor awarded him the Edida Furniture Category Award in 2009, and the Edida Designer of the Year in 2010. Currently he is working on his next solo exhibition and a series of photography book projects on various aspects of Mumbai. In this issue: Shahid walks us through the Liberty Cinema in Mumbai, capturing his perspective in photographs, in ‘A Legendary Liberty.’
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MYNA MUKHERJEE Myna is a cultural producer, curator, and the founder / director of Engendered, a New York/New Delhi based Transnational Arts and Human rights organization. She founded Nayikas, NY’s acclaimed first feminist Odissi Dance theatre company and was the Director of the I-View Film festival, North America’s biggest South Asian film festival on gender and sexuality for 3 years. She has curated internationally at the Lincoln Center, Asia Society, Tribeca Film Center, Queens Museum, and with the education department head at the MOMA. In this issue: Myna interviews MRI, New York, in ‘New Roles for New Times;’ speaks with women artists of three generations, in ‘Light Women Ahead;’ and profiles artist, Puneet Kaushik, in ‘Shadow Play or The Shadow Master.’
SHAILIN SMITH Shailin is a museologist, art writer and curator. She is currently curating an exhibition that brings artists and carpet weavers together to create pieces. In this issue: Shailin gives an insightful view of human interaction with light, in ‘A Perspective.’
SAMAR JODHA Samar is an artist who uses photography and film to address development, human rights and conservation. His work has shown in India and abroad. His project on ageing in India remains the biggest social communication project in terms of outputs and outreach. Along with art projects and editorial work, he has worked with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, BBC World Service Trust and the UN. He is a regular speaker at TEDx. In this issue: Samar takes us through his exhibition titled Outpost at Apeejay Arts, in ‘In The Mood For Light.’
PAROMA MUKHERJEE Paroma is a photographer/photo editor who has worked for BBC GoodFood, OPEN, Tehelka, Marie Claire, National Geographic Traveller, Outlook Traveller, Rolling Stone and Man’s World. She is the photo editor at Blouin ArtInfo International and formerly was at Time Out, Delhi. Her works are in the permanent collection of the Kiyosato Museum of Photographic Arts, Japan and have been exhibited at the Angkor Photography Festival. In this issue: Paroma photographs Satadru Sovan as he walks through Bhagirath Palace for ‘At The Palace of Lights.’
SUNITA IQBAL Sunita assists programming in the Arts and Cultural Heritage program at The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. She previously worked at Chanel (legal department), and has served as the event and programming coordinator for Engendered, a New York/New Delhi based Transnational Arts and Human rights organization. She has a BA in sociology-anthropology with a minor in Middle Eastern studies from Pace University, and an MPS in arts and cultural management from Pratt Institute. In this issue: Sunita assists Myna in the article about MRI, New York, in ‘New Roles for New Times.’
SATADRU SOVAN BANDURI Satadru is a multi-disciplinary artist and has been researching social changes in global society post the cyber movement. He is a Fulbright Fellow alumnus and has been awarded numerous residencies. His projects have been showcased internationally. In this issue: Satadru walks through Bhagirath Palace exploring the vibrant local culture of the busy Indian light market, in ‘At The Palace Of Lights.’
TAPIO ROSENIUS Tapio is the founder and design director of Lighting Design Collective (LDC). The company operates globally with a network of collaborators stretching from Miami to Mexico and Hong Kong to Helsinki. LDC specializes in customized architectural lighting solutions and light art with a uniquely integrated portfolio covering services such as digital content creation, software development and design strategies. His work with light has been recognized in numerous awards from the fields of lighting design, architecture and art. In this issue: Tapio shares his predictions for light in the future, in ‘Future of Lighting is in the Art of Light.’
LIGHT COLLECTIVE Light Collective comprises of Sharon Stammers and Martin Lupton, who have no office, all their work is on the cloud, and they work wherever they find themselves for other projects. They started as architectural lighting designers and whilst wanting to continue to design, they also thought that there was more to life (and light) than this. Natural Light, light art, technology, exhibitions, events, films and books also make up important parts of their current portfolio. In this issue: Light Collective introduces the idea of light in art and art with light, in ‘Light Art.’
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[tribute] Eminent architect and urban designer, KT Ravindran pays tribute to Charles Correa, describing the architect who was doubtlessly the most influential force in modern archictecture of post-independent India.
Charles Correa 01 September 1930 - 16 june 2015
The month of June was cruel to Indian Urbanism. We lost three most consequential people starting with Dr. Sivaramakrishnan, who authored the 74th Constitutional Amendment, followed within a week by Mr. Buch who as a bureaucrat dominated the architectural landscape of Bhopal and Delhi, and Charles Correa, whose contribution to Indian Urbanism is only matched by his own outstanding contribution to world architecture. Correa was undoubtedly the most creative architect India has produced this century. His contribution spans six decades after India’s independence and his significance lies in his first executed design to the last. From the humility of form and clarity in spatial order in the Gandhi Memorial Museum in Sabarmati Ashram (1958 - 1963) to the still spectacle of the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (2007 - 2010) in Lisbon, Correa has traversed an unusual terrain across continents. One iconic building after another, Correa’s imagery in light, colour and form have been the most consequential across national boundaries. As a man committed to the lived aesthetic experience and quality of life, Correa was anti-tall building and an enemy of the modern glass box. The 1970s departure into violative skyline through the LIC building in Delhi’s Connaught Place, he completely disowned in the later years. He took a consistent position against the commercialised glass tower and in characteristic style, opposed them wherever he could. As a public intellectual and a powerful communicator of ideas, Charles Correa is easily the most influential role model India’s young architects have emulated. As the Chairman of the Delhi Urban Art Commission, Correa set new benchmarks for urban design discourse in Delhi, while by setting up the Urban Design research Institute in Mumbai; he raised the bar on
Pic: KT Ravindran 2010
research, public art and urban design interventions in public space. As far as his personal skills in Urban design and public architecture is concerned, Correa’s city Centre in Salt Lake City - Calcutta, is the most successful example. With low slung, endearingly detailed and skilfully delineated buildings across flowing spaces, the city centre in Salt Lake is loved by the users as much as by the urban designers who visit it. Restrained sensual colouring is combined by Correa, using his stock repertory, qualified by Bengal Paintings and a deep understanding of the archetypal Bengali institution of ‘Adda’, the City Centre is the most successful example of an anti-mall! He had a quick temper and an acid tongue when confronting mediocrity. A man of good looks, great charm, wit and intelligence, Correa was the best mascot Indian architecture could wield internationally. Charles Correa’s public projects, proposals for Mumbai’s Mill Lands Redevelopment, New Bombay as a New Town and the quaint townships he created are examples of the man’s dexterity in Urbanism that is informed by a deep commitment to modernity. As the Chair of India’s last National Urbanisation Report (1988), Correa coined some very potent concepts and terminologies which still remain the language of discourse in India’s urbanisation. His presence in innumerable juries and conferences across the world, his protracted interactions with the Aga Khan Foundation as well as his highly perceptive and readable writings or even the setting up of the Correa Foundation at the end of his life in Goa, set him apart from any other professional in India. From June 16th, without Charles Correa, we are now a poorer nation.
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eye opener Waterlicht, Museumplein Amsterdam As a country underwater, internationally renowned Daan Roosegaarde’s Waterlicht perfectly captures what The Netherlands would look like without the innovation in flood prevention and waterworks prevalent throughout Dutch history; a submerged seabed home to millions. Waterlicht consists of wavy lines of light made with the latest LED technology, software and lenses, appearing as ocean waves overhead. Free for all to experience, Waterlicht is on show between 10pm and midnight at Museumplein, adjacent to the Amsterdam’s Rijksmuseum. Inspired by the Rijksmuseum’s recent acquisition of Dutch painter Jan Asselijn’s 17th Century depiction of the 1651 Amsterdam flood, both works reflect The Netherlands’ interaction between man, nature and technology. The classic painting joins in conversation with the modern Waterlicht that spans across the grass plane in the heart of Amsterdam. Waterlicht serves as an immersive exhibition for the Dutch to experience the potential of their landscape, receiving high appraisal from the Amsterdam waterboard and the Rijksmuseum. Known for his social design and energetic appearance, Waterlicht is no exception to Roosegaarde’s pool of technopoetry with interaction, technological innovation and beauty at the centre of his designs. www.studioroosegaarde.net Pic: Pim Hendriksen
focal point rocksalt silema, malta Rocksalt bistro & wine bar is aimed at those loving good wine, traditional food and fine cuisine. A 165 sq metre space that includes a bar, shop and living spaces, the interiors - designed by architectural studio Daaa Haus - are directed in a minimalist style with clean lines and dark tones; features that are reflected in furniture pieces chosen from Italian design company Pedrali. To light the space mostly recessed LED fittings are used. However the feature lights have been handmade by local artisan designer Roberto Tweraser using resin and real rocksalt. www.daaahaus.com www.robertotweraser.com
Pic: Sean Mallia
[drawing board] The latest exciting works in progress from the worldâ€™s most imaginative designers.
SUSTAINING AN ECOSYSTEM Designed by James Law Cybertecture for Wadhwa Developers, the Cybertecture Egg takes inspiration from the world as a planet, a self-sustaining vessel, encompassing an ecosystem that allows life to exist, grow and evolve. James Law extruded the spherical mass to create a unique, iconic building which serves as a nucleus for the immediate central business district of the Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai. The design scheme includes 33,000 square metres of office space stacked across thirteen storeys, and a three level basement that provides 400 car parking
spaces. The Cybertecture Egg stands on a diagrid exo-skeleton framework, which creates a rigid structural system allowing for large column-free, flexible floor plates. The ingenuity of this form, reduces approximately 15% of construction material used as compared to a conventional orthogonal building. The environmental technologies used in this project, will make it one of the most sustainably advanced designs in the world. Oriented to respond to the sun path, the building is designed to minimize solar heat. Green areas are incorprated in the design
to allow sun shading as well as to provide a visual and spatial respite for the users of the facility. Photovoltaics integrated into the faĂ§ade provide an alternative source of electricity, and intelligent BMS (Building Management Systems) reduce the overall consumption of energy. Anticipated to be lit using advanced dynamic LED technology, the faĂ§ade will see a complex system of computer controls. And owning to its glass clad skin, the interior spaces will respond to a controlled penetration of desirable daylight. www.jameslawcybertecture.com
TRANSPORTATION WAVES Designed by James Law Cybertecture for the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), the transportation hub is a 17,000 square metres complex that uses their signature style of pushing innovation and challenging typology. Located near the bustling international airport, the multifunctional structure houses various levels of office and commercial spaces, parking and multifarious public facilities. Outdoor courtyards and roof terraces at different levels create opportunities for diverse public interaction. These areas are designed to cater to the possibility of future expansion and enclosing spaces to create further privacy. Sitting at the edge of the city, the DMRC complex is rendered in cutting edge technology, reflective of the intricacy of the transportation network. The eye-catching lighting scheme that highlights the wavelike silhouette, eases the heftiness of the building function, and establishes its prominence in the otherwise austere skyline. The steel framed, glass clad edifice glows in all its glory, underlining the culmination of a complex network of people and connections in its belly. www.jameslawcybertecture.com
SUBTRACTING ADDITIONS Steven Holl Architects recently won the international competition to design an extension to one of India’s leading cultural institutions, the Mumbai City Museum, also known as the Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum. Creating a dynamic new identity as the cultural hub of the city, the proposed North Wing is to house permanent as well as temporary galleries and facilities. Designed in response to Mumbai’s tropical climate, the building incorporates various measures to minimize energy consumption and establish itself as an exemplar of sustainable design. Advance photovoltaic
technology and low energy climate control systems are installed in conjunction with international museum standards. These include hydro-based radiant floors, complex ventilation techniques, integrated deep recess shading, an orientation-specific façade and evaporative cooling through the courtyard and rooftop water features. The 12,500 square metre extension is envisioned with the concept of ‘Addition as Subtraction’ and developed in white concrete with sculpted diffused light in the 6,500 square metre new gallery spaces. A simple volume, enlivened by deep
subtracting cuts, creates dramatic effects of light and shade in the interiors. Besides giving a sense of flow and spatial overlap to the orthogonal spaces, these calculated architectural cuts render each gallery in exactly twenty-five lumens of natural light. Juxtaposed elegantly against the Palladian architecture of the original museum building, the proposed concrete edifice stands munificently in the museum garden, reminiscent of an inexorably complacent sculptural and calligraphic quality. www.stevenholl.com
[spotlight] The latest projects with the wow factor from around the world. Pics: The Purple Turtles
Crystal Cave, Jenny Pinto Jenny Pinto was fascinated by the random and myriad shapes, facets and reflections of natural crystals that come together to make infinite and beautiful formations, and gave rise to the term ‘an idea is a crystallized thought.’ Imagining many ideas together as a beautiful crystal formation, led to collective thinking, collaborative endeavour and people working hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder. Working with a large team, the piece was designed to be viewed from a distance, as well as experienced from within. Thus was created the ‘crystal cave.’ Facing the challenge of constructing a large self-supporting structure, hand-wrapped in paper and fitted with lights, the installation was assembled in record time. The internally glowing whale like form took centre stage at India Design 2015 in New Delhi. www.thepurpleturtles.com
Pics: Shailan Parker
Webbing in space, Vibhor Sogani Suspended in the large glass clad atrium of Cairn India Ltd., spanning the verticality of six storeys, Vibhor Soganiâ€™s light installation is a complex network of interconnected elements. Following an organic pattern of growth, the numerous metal bars lit from both ends form a 50â€™ long LED based piece of art. The delicate intricacy of the light feature softens the hefty steel framework of the building. Juxtaposed exquisitely against the rigid and robust exposed steel structure, the fine and precise spokes of the Web draws the eye not only from the mutiple lobbies that it crosses; but also commands compelling attention from the Gurgaon highway that wraps around the building. Looking up into the atrium, the sharp shards of light seem like an illuminated explosion of the perfect crystal. www.vibhorsogani.com
Pics: Lance Gerber All artwork courtesy of Royale Projects : contemporary art.
triple tricks, Phillip K Smith Continuing American artist Phillip K Smith III’s dialogue with light and shadow, colour theory, and perception, Bent Parallel recently featured as his latest large-scale installation at Untitled International Art Fair, Miami. As part of the Californian art gallery Royale Projects’ booth, Bent Parallel stood out as one of the most sizeable offerings at the fair with two monumental hinge-like mirrored parallel LED surfaces creating a third reflected, material-less floating plane of colour. Royale Projects owner Rick Royale worked closely with Smith III to create an installation for Untitled that would operate at both the scale of the show and the intimate scale of the individual. As viewers stepped up to the piece’s mirrored surface,
they became draped in coloured LED light simultaneously as they would grapple to decipher the spatial realities that stood before them. The piece elicited visitors to question whether they were looking through a transparent coloured field to an actual space beyond or whether the visible space was real or reflected space. Smith III commented: “Obviously people are affected by the Bent Parallel installation when faced with a 9 by 21ft mirrored surface of colour. Going a step deeper, it is most likely one of the first times that they have ever been a direct part of the surface or medium of such a substantial work of art.” A less predictable consequence of the installation was the influx of selfie-crazed
art fanatics with a proliferation of selfie commentary attributed to the artwork. Visitors couldn’t help but stop while passing the Royale Projects booth to pose for an #artselfie. Smith III responded to it as an exciting reality to witness: “Selfies have become a generational reality of how we record ourselves in places of moments that excite and affect us. Ultimately the camera invites discovery of the work through one’s own interpretive eye.” The dynamic installation impacted across generations, as an immersive experience that brought together colour perception through light and change to bring the otherwise stationary installation to life with movement and depth. www.pks3.com
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Twiggy, design: Marc Sadler
ad: designwork / photo: Massimo Gardone
Excerpts from a lecture titled ‘Poetics as a Universal Language of Communication in Lighting’ presented at the IALD Enlighten Europe Conference, Berlin / Germany in November 2014, by Dr. Amardeep M. Dugar, IALD, IES, SLL
Poetics, A LANGUAGE TO COMMUNICATE LIGHTING Introduction Poetry is used as a basis for investigating the role of light as a medium of communication between architecture, culture and people. People seek experiential qualities beyond functionality when interacting with architecture, which are very much aligned with poetry. Architecture has been considered an important means of expressing and communicating the ideas, values, and beliefs of a culture, as culture tends to shape architecture. It is the product of a collaborative process between the different requirements of culture: it has to express the collective psyche of a culture while meeting the physical requirements of its people (Hendrix 2010). Light plays a key role in this collaborative process as it exposes the architectural characteristics of a building that express its culture, while simultaneously meeting requirements for visibility. Boyce (2003) argues that every lighting scheme sends a “message” about its designers, clients and location; people interpret this “message” according to its context, and their own culture and expectations. As a result, two different issues may arise with respect to the message communicated by lighting and people’s interpretation of it. Firstly, as lighting designers tend to focus more on descriptive lighting standards, new legislation, quantitative evaluation models and technical requirements, there is the danger of providing similar treatment to different building types without further investigating
the meaning of their architectural and cultural messages. Secondly, as people respond differently to similar stimulations depending upon their cultural background, there is the innate danger that they might interpret the meaning of lighting in architecture differently. Papakammenou (2012) argues that people seek experiential qualities beyond functionality when interacting with a piece of architecture, which are very much aligned with poetry: expressing the psychological, symbolic, perceptual, artistic, creative, imaginative, kinaesthetic, aesthetic and emotional. Poetics in architecture deal with the concept and all the sensory elements that it might involve so as to provoke people’s emotions, feelings and reactions. One of these elements is light, and the experiential qualities it creates can be described by the term “poetics”. The poetic character of natural light has been discussed at length with reference to matter, space and time by Plummer and Nakamura (1987). Although poetics can be successfully used to express the meaning of lighting in architecture, the need is for tools that can be used to design poetic architecture and lighting. Zabetas (2007) attempts to provide such tools by delving into the classical-original meaning of poetry and deriving the principles of poetic architecture. Poetic architecture is considered the art of transforming simple and reasonably priced construction
materials into a living and aesthetically satisfying building. It also involves imparting guidance to ordinary yet competent craftsmen at an affordable cost in order to achieve this transformation successfully. These principles are used to formulate a set of universal tools for designing lighting that can help people interpret the underlying architectural and cultural messages in a unanimous fashion. The principles can be read as elemental values with which lighting can universally communicate between architecture, culture and people. Principles of poetic lighting design 1. Logically analysing the meaning of the environment, thereby creating an emotive relationship with people. The meaning of nature in terms of topography, microclimate and ecology should be logically analysed and incorporated into the lighted environment so as to create an emotive relationship with people. For exteriors, the position of the sun as a light source anchors the composition of light and shadows to provide spatial orientation. For interiors, although viewing points may differ, the logical pattern of light and shadows reflect the quality of the environment and preserve spatial orientation. The quantity and spectrum of interior lighting during the entire course of the day should reflect the characteristics of exterior daylight, besides meeting minimum visual requirements.
The lighting design intent is to mimic nature through the transition from day to night based on the time of day. The colour-changing LED coves are programmed to create ambient scenes that simulate the various times of day and then fade between those scenes over a 24-hour period. Project: Mindtree NOC, Bangalore. Lighting Design: Oculus Light Studio (in association with Lighting Research & Design). Photo courtesy: Amardeep M. Dugar.
The aim was to design a work atmosphere that provides multiple experiences and enhances creativity while being energy conscious. Therefore, both daylight and electric light played a key role. Basic daylight design principles such as north-facing picture windows and sun-shading devices on west faces along with 100% SSL technology enabled an overall lighting load of only 0.4W/sq. ft. Project: Pencil & Monk Design Studio, Chennai. Lighting Design: Lighting Research & Design. Photo courtesy: Pencil & Monk Design Studio.
Lighting scenes or emotions should be set to provide bright, cool coloured light during the morning with gradual changes in brightness and colour temperature as the day progresses. The passage of time should be depicted by a continuous and gradual transition from one lighting scene or emotion to another providing enough time for people to perceive and adapt, while avoiding any abrupt changes. The duration of each lighting scene should be long enough to activate the right kind of emotion or mood required by the users of the space. For every change in a lighting scene, the new light settings should present hints of familiarity to support the transition. The success of the skilful application of poetic lighting depends on the presence of abstract images of the environment such as colour, texture, shapes and symbols. The result of the analysis is to create a visual link between the interior and the exterior, which transforms the initial introvert sense of protection and safety into a final extrovert sense of friendliness towards nature. This extrovert sense of friendliness can urge people to participate and return to the emotional basis. Thus, poetic lighting design can create an emotive relationship between architecture and people. 2. Sensitively incorporating everyday living requirements and the desires of people, thereby enhancing their quality of life. The everyday living requirements and the desires of people should be sensitively incorporated into the lighted environment, so as to enhance their quality of life. The entire lighted environment can be realised as a composition with multiple layers of light, which in turn results in an aggregate of lighted spaces that simultaneously formulate a three-dimensional narrative, descriptive and suggestive theme. Spaces that determine peopleâ€™s past preferences
form a narrative theme; present daily needs form a descriptive theme; and desires about the future form a suggestive theme. Narrative lighting can be expressed using elements with an identifiable morphology, which remind people of their native places. Descriptive lighting can be expressed through elements with unmistakable functionality, which ensures visual ambience and comfort. Suggestive lighting can be expressed through elements with nonrepresentational complexity, which creates obscure spots in the affirmation of past morphology and present functionality. Thus, poetic lighting design can provide people with an enhanced quality of life. 3. Subtly combining advanced technology with traditional techniques, thereby creating a unified building fully integrated into its historical setting. Advanced lighting technologies should be subtly combined with traditional lighting techniques, so as to create a unified lighted environment fully integrated into its historical setting. This lends the lighted environment with two properties: historical time realised in the present through old techniques, and a global reference that is apparent through the new technology. The resulting environment although lighted using various methods, can acquire a single architectural character when it communicates intangible nostalgia to people either through memories of their past, or by relating it with their present, or through places they wish to visit in the future. Thus, poetic lighting design can seamlessly integrate the past, the present and the future. 4. Tactfully administering every feature of the project, thereby imparting timeless humanitarian values to the building. Lighted environments should be inscribed
with humanitarian values by insightfully administering its energy behaviour and cooperative connections with the urban infrastructure networks and services. This inspired technical assembly of systems and procedures has a lifecycle that greatly exceeds the time limits of the design period, the life of the people using them, and the current perception of the lighted environment. Thus, poetic lighting design hands down worthy values to future generations. 5. Judiciously improvising the proposed design, thereby ensuring that peopleâ€™s activities are harmoniously adjusted to the environment. The lighted environment should be able to judiciously improvise its characteristics so as to adapt and respond to different individuals and their varied activities. Lighting controls lend two properties to the lighted environment, namely flexibility and plurality with prior consideration to peopleâ€™s activities that may occur after project delivery. This precaution is rewarded after project delivery, when people can successfully sense and modify the lighted environment based on their specific personal activities. Thus, poetic lighting design gracefully accommodates different activities. email@example.com
References Boyce, P. R. (2003). Human Factors in Lighting. New York, NY, USA, Taylor & Francis. Hendrix, J. S. (2010). Architecture as the Psyche of a Culture. Cultural Role of Architecture, Lincoln, UK. Papakammenou, V. (2012). Cross-cultural difference in the perception of facade lighting, CIBSE. Plummer, H. and T. Nakamura (1987). Poetics of Light. Tokyo, JAPAN, A&U Publishing Co. Zabetas, K. (2007). The Poetry of Space - Creating quality space. Poetic Architecture: A spiritualized way for making architecture.
[snapshot] Known for their practical and pragmatic approach to lighting design, with great attention to energy usage, budgets and schedules; Oculus Light Studio provides their service and expertise to a wide range of projects, including mixed-use developments, retail stores, hotels, offices, restaurants, and private custom residential homes. Having won numerous accolades in a short span of time, including an IALD award, the studio enjoys much appreciation from their peers for their design sensibilities. AKA BEVERLY HILLS Nestled in the heart of the city overlooking the famous Hollywood Hills, Oculus sought to give the property a distinguished nighttime presence. The design scheme includes custom details for backlighting a tall concrete screen at the entry, flanked by two gobo-illuminated green walls. The facades at the upper levels are uplit and give the guests a sense of arrival when they reach the port-cochère. The lobby, graced with large, glowing, circular oculi, gives a sense of space within the low ceilings, while the Venetian plaster walls are illuminated with concealed wall-grazers to visually expand the space. At the terrace level, small-scale LED lights on a staggered grid adorn the trellis to provide a sparkle and soft glow to complement the softly uplit palm trees. Reflecting sophistication and livability, interior spaces are fitted with warm LED downlights to maintain the intimate hospitality of the AKA brand.
CONILL Designed in a white palette with splashes of color, this creative office uses 3500K luminaires in T5 fluorescent fixtures and LED downlight cylinders. With a low budget available for lighting, a small selection of luminaires is utilized in multiple ways—for down lighting, and for ‘grazing’ undulating vertical screens. Dimensional walls are highlighted with T5 wall washers, and linear fixtures are suspended within floating ceiling ribbons, creating a ‘flow of light’ over the open workstations. Workspaces are designed to achieve 215 lux to minimize energy and installed costs, while the clean-body exposed-lamp fluorescent luminaires create the perception of a much brighter space. The desire for a lounge-like ambience in the break area was fulfilled with dynamic lighting, obtained with off-the-shelf, residential grade, Wi-Fi enabled retrofit LED color-changing lamps in downlights and pendants. Controlled by personal handheld devices and phones, the scheme provides a fun and simple to use interactive system that fits the firm’s creative vibe.
MURAD OFFICE The Murad Skincare and Health Corporate office has the same hexagonal panels as earlier designed for their flagship retail store, undulating over the corridors and walking track. Oculus specified LED pendants for these areas, with a glowing version punctuating the panels, and a solid metal shade version in the corridors, allowing an aesthetic consistency while highlighting the ceiling patterns. A grid of linear fluorescent up/down fixtures over the workstations, maximize efficiency and minimize cost. Workout equipment located at certain points along the walking track is accentuated by a cluster of decorative pendants, which break visual regularity and help attract attention to the workout stations. Similarly, larger-scale pendants in the Break Room visually separate the space from the open workstations. The central treatment room, which doubles as an educational room, has a flexible system of LED recessed adjustables, perimeter cove light, and a ‘starry night’ scene; which allows the staff to adapt the lighting scheme to the use of the room.
PIRCH GLENDALE Based on and updated from a successful prototype design, the lighting design for Pirch Glendale uses metal halide adjustables located in linear ceiling elements, fluorescent wall washers, and LED accents. The linear ceiling troughs created a flexible system with a clean look; spaced at approximately 14’ feet on center. The lines of adjustable fixtures meant that display fixtures anywhere on the floor below were covered within their range. Architectural fixtures were carefully selected to ensure that only 39-watt CMH lamps and 28-watt T5 lamps were used to keep maintenance at a minimum. Coordination with the design team resulted in a layout that not only highlighted the home fittings, fixtures and appliances on display, but they were also arranged in a way to provide maximum impact in a clean gypsum ceiling.
OCULUS LIGHT STUDIO • PARTNERS: Archit Jain and Scott Hatton, HEAD OFFICE: Los Angeles, California, USA • ESTABLISHED: 2012 • EMPLOYEES: Ten • CURRENT PROJECTS: Saks Fifth Avenue retail Stores in Houston, TX and Miami, FL, USA; Nike and Cole Haan retail store prototypes, USA; The Bloc Retail Development in Los Angeles, CA, USA; Jingfeng Mixed Use Development in Nanjing, China; Offices for Google, Uber and TrueCar in Irvine, Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA, USA; Mindtree Network Operation Centers in Bangalore and Hyderabad, India; Sea Lion Exhibit, Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, GA, USA; Amazon developments in Seattle, WA; Andaz Hotel Palm Springs, CA, USA; Several custom residences in Beverly Hills and Bel Air, CA, USA www.oculuslightstudio.com
[folio] Our regular feature highlighting the importance of lighting in the work of a design practice. This issue, we present Studio Lotus.
Studio Lotus is a multidisciplinary design
environment, which brings out the best
the World Holiday Building at WAF 2011
practice whose work seamlessly weaves
from within a team of fifty talented and
(Barcelona), a nomination in the Aga Khan
interior and exterior spaces, from large
highly committed individuals; hailing from
Awards 2013 cycle, DFA Grand Jury Award
architectural ideas to the smallest of
multiple disciplines, working together in the
2012 (Hong Kong), IIID Design Practice of the
furniture details. They work on the
domain of interior design and architecture.
year 2009 and 2011, awards in Hospitality
principles of ‘conscious design,’ an
Their projects have been published
Design and Commercial Architecture at
approach that celebrates local resources,
extensively in Indian and international
Perspective Global Awards (Hong Kong),
cultural influences and a keen sensitivity
publications, such as Wallpaper* - Indian
silver at the Asia Pacific Interior Design
to the impact on all stakeholders. The
architectural practices of the future. They
Awards, and Inside Outside - Designer
firm prides itself on its collaborative work
have won numerous accolades, including
of the Year.
Jodhpur, Rajasthan Located in the heart of the walled city of Jodhpur and at the base of the Mehrangarh fort, RAAS was designed as an ongoing dialogue between the old and new. Working with three historic buildings to create a luxury boutique hotel, Lotus collaborated with Praxis to restore and design an experience that is tactile and sensual. Framing the visual and spatial relation between the hotel complex and the fort, the three buildings are wrapped in intricate stone jaali work; rendering them as glowing lanterns in the night. Candles housed in niches, and chaste fittings splashing dramatic light across wall surfaces, enables the visitor to experience the space in amorous candour. As the sun rises before the fort, and daylight trickles through the jaali faรงade, the rooms are bathed in a warm hue of orange. Folding back the latticed slabs, one can invoke the sun into their day or choose to lie in the besprinkling light. The theatrics of the handcrafted stone jaali is juxtaposed against the simplicity of the spatial planning. The large central courtyard encashes on the fact that Jodhpur is one of the sunniest cities in India, while the veiled interiors sit in reticence, enjoying their shaded tranquility.
Café Lota, National Crafts Museum New Delhi
Studio Lotus was appointed by the National Crafts Museum to renovate parts of its complex and inject a new life into the buildings that had fallen to despair. A natural extension to the museum shop, Café Lota was designed to retain the use of humble materials in the building framework, and craft to elevate the spirit of the space. Building openings were reconfigured to connect the inside to the external landscape, and the internal courtyard was used to pull daylight into the interiors. The outdoor café space veiled by an open bamboo canopy creates a calm and inviting ambience for diners. With sunlight filtering through the varying density of the bamboo trellis, the space is bathed with a dappling of light and shade. Negative spaces filled with plants create a light and airy, yet shaded enclosure that makes full use of the beautiful trees and painted walls that surround the eatery. Perfect for a winter afternoon, the café becomes a haven for diners as the warmth seeps into their experience. As the sun goes down, the space is enlivened with the flickering of candles and pools of soft light over every table. The austere charm of the day slowly gives way to casual romance in the evening.
Zerruco New Delhi
Catering to the unique brief of wanting to create a dynamic space, that transforms from fresh and casual dining in the day, to a lounge and bar space in the evening, and further to a nightclub later on; Lotus was faced with the challenge to design multiple visual, acoustic and functional zones. With over 5000 sq.ft. to play with, the restaurant was conceived with a definitive indoor space, flanked with a semi covered verandah that bled onto an outdoor space; each offering a distinct experience. To maintain visual transparency and acoustic isolation simultaneously, custom designed frameworks were used to partition the spaces. Experimenting with multiple levels also helped establish visual hierarchies and connections through important nodes across the restaurant. A customised 3-dimensional ash-wood wall, forming the backdrop for the indoor space played a pivotal role in defining the mood and ambience. While the white ash-wood is perceived as fresh and natural during the day, it is washed in a warm white for diners in the evening. As time progresses the wall is backlit with dramatic coloured LEDs to imbibe a sense of youthfulness in the lounge. Deep into the dark of the night, the 4”x4” tiles are individually mapped as pixels through a complex system of projectors to transform the space into a nightclub.
Keya and Kainoosh New Delhi Envisioned as the twin functions of a bar and restaurant, Keya and Kainoosh were designed to be chic, sophisticated and reflective of Indian sensibilities. Walking through a 20 feet long tunnel illuminated with vintage chandeliers, the mood is set for what lies ahead. The circular restaurant space is embraced by a Taj Mahal-inspired lattice that is grazed to show the detailed CNC cut jaali work. Designed in collaboration with fashion designer, Rajesh Pratap Singh, the jaali establishes an Indian rhythm and forms a backdrop for the beautifully beaten copper fittings by Tom Dixon that are suspended above every table. An interesting assortment of these signature light fuxtures, that hover above the diners, adds to the oldworld charm of Kainoosh, and yet maintains a contemporary and sleek look. Keya or flower, on the other hand derives its aesthetics from the meaning of its name. Focusing attention on the bar, the internally lit corian island is inlaid with floral motifs. Similarly glowing tables and counters demand focus and draw attention to the functional areas within the space. Carved and decorated wall surfaces are subtly highlighted and repeatedly reflected in the myriad mirrors of the ceiling. The dark floors and ceiling sandwhich the illuminated elements, creating a silent aura of intrigue and exquisiteness. www.studiolotus.in
[lighting talk] Mrinalini Ghadiok talks to Shimul Javeri, architect extraordinaire, who is as sensitive to daylight as she is passionate about the dark.
Could you tell us… …what made you become an architect. My love for science and a passion for art, brought me to the inevitable crossroads in grade 8, of having to decide my future. Reluctant to pick one over the other, I was advised that there was indeed an area of study that formed a wonderful synthesis of the two subjects. I was introduced to architecture, a field that was far removed from me, or my family. Delving into the subject, I soon realised what an amazing mix of culture, technology and art, the profession was. It was a heady time in India, with Ahmedabad at the epicenter of the changing tide of architecture. My family is from Ahmedabad and we visited at least every winter. The combination of ‘vavs’ and ‘pols’, and Corbusier and Kahn was a strong inspiration. …what excites you about light and lighting. I gravitate towards sunlight, and I literally wilt in its absence. I wait for the occasion to play with sunlight. I welcome it or block it out when necessary,
modulate it to create an emotion, or to perform a function. It is the very basis of our work. It is like any medium - if you understand it, it works with you, aiding, abetting and enhancing. And if you don’t, it is problematic and requires complicated solutions, such as mirrored and tinted glass, double blinds etc. During the day most of our projects don’t require artificial light, but we revel in the opportunity for night lighting. What I love most, is the joy in hiding the fixture and enjoying its beam of light; the right temperature, the correct cone, it is all very exciting. …how important is light in your designs. We begin all our work with a thorough analysis of the climate, understanding the prevalent wind conditions and the sun path. Our buildings get designed around the central idea of the orientation, making a conscious effort to capture good light and to avoid harsh light. Design detailing and innovations are generally created around
light in our office. Moving screens, vertical louvers, skylights and clear storeys, often form the back bone of our design; all in an effort to make the most of the light conditions on our site. …how important is the night for you. We are as passionate about the dark. The changing state of our environment driven by the fact that day turns to night on a daily basis, shifting our entire perception of light as the sun goes down, is fascinating. I believe in celebrating the night. Our work sees very subtle use of artificial light after dark. We do not believe in flooding our spaces with light, instead we add light where it is needed and on what needs to be seen. …how does light affect your environment and designs.I believe that night-light should be like stars in the sky, where one can see the shimmering effect but not the source of light. Our project in Karur is designed with a series
The Leaf House, Alibaug
of courtyards linking various spaces together. The open courts, some big, some small, catch the sun, pulling light into the building. Water bodies in each open space, act like reflectors, rendering the small courtyards into big light bulbs. The dispersed light captures interesting details – a beautiful wall, joinery of well-crafted wood, colours and textures. Everything comes alive if one is able to bring in beautiful filtered light from the right direction, at the right time. And it is not a difficult task, as long as you follow the laws of nature. …about your projects like the Jain Museum and Nirvana. They are wonderful examples of spaces that allow interplay between the inside and outside. The Jain museum is an apt example of a modulated relationship between the outside and inside. It is diametrically opposite to curtain glass buildings, which allow and encourage everything to hang out. Here, the museum building is inward looking and
lifted on stilts. While the exterior façade is predominantly blank with white lime araish work, with very few openings; a central courtyard that frames the existing Neem tree, acts as a filter for light and air. This prevents heat from entering and helps modulate light and air in the space,
drastically reducing the consumption of electricity. The openings were designed based on exhaustive computer analysis and simulations of the sun path, keeping in mind the location, time of year, quantity of sunlight etc. The building is actually a very controlled
Nirvana Films Studio, Bengaluru
interface between the in and the out. The Nirvana project on the other hand, is designed for this interplay between the inside and outside. While there are large openings, floor to ceiling glass walls and doors that are fitted with moveable louvers to allow a controlled passage of air and light, the relationship is inverted. The walls are transparent glass and the windows are solid. The tight plot left us with little room for play. Facing west and south, the design was choreographed with the conscious decision to bring light into the space and from certain defined opportunities. Openings were therefore framed towards existing large trees that provide ample shade to the building. The two projects have a definitive response to natural light, but distinctive approaches to the relationship between the outside and inside. â€Śhow do your spaces transform from daylight to artificial light. How does your passion for the night inform your response to space after dark?
The Dasavatara Hotel, Tirupati
For me, the day is all about natural light, modulating it and bringing it into the building, to the extent that it is desired in that space. The night on the other hand, is about highlighting aspects of the building and accentuating what we desire to see or show. The interesting and fun part about the night is that one can choose what to hide, what to show, what to sparkle or even spotlight. In Nirvana, the space is lit very subtly at night. Being an office building, there isn’t a need for functional lighting at night. Thus, only the structural elements are accentuated by up lighting the thin round columns and highlighting the staircase. In Tirupati, the Dasavatar Hotel is well used after dark. So the approach to lighting is very different. Here too the effects are kept subtle, but what transforms drastically by night is the beautiful water body at the centre of the space. All peripheral areas and elements are kept dimly lit to highlight the water, injecting a sense of drama and keeping ones focus on it. Night lighting has that potential of playing with elements and creating theatrical settings.
…about the role lighting plays in the life of a city. How do you contribute to it through your work? As architects we love to believe that we have a huge impact on our cities. Unfortunately most of us deal with single buildings or building complexes, which play a role in the city but don’t eventually change the way a city works. A beautifully lit building is one in which architectural elements are highlighted with a profound gentleness. The building does not stand like a scorching beacon within the city fabric. It does not shout out for attention, but attracts the eye in a sophisticated manner. Instead of flooding the city with light and adding to the menace of light pollution, lit buildings can celebrate the beauty of the night in an understated way. …about the importance of shadow, and the balance of darkness and light in your work. We work with assessing sun paths, in-depth analysis of site conditions and modulating light through courtyards. The minute light hits a form; it creates a graphic in the space around it – adjacent walls, floors and other surfaces. It is essential to design
the courtyard to a correct scale in order to bring in just enough light and plenty of shadow. The masters have used this to create phenomenal spaces. While Correa used the drama of light in most of his buildings, Kahn’s work was a delight to photograph due to an intrinsic play of light and shadow. Light and shadow is almost the basic hygiene of architecture – we all use it, we all love it, and the masters taught us amazing ways to work with it. …why there seems to be an inherent lack in awareness about lighting, and its importance in architecture. What is the role of a lighting designer in your work? Light, for us, is the starting point. If one has conceptual clarity on any project, the clarity on light just follows. In any project, if we have the design clarity; we know how the building should look and how we want to light it, then the lighting designer’s role gets limited to technical inputs; product specifications, lenses, beam angles, degrees, and how to get the correct optics. When we know what we want to achieve, they help us find the optics that will achieve it. There are lighting designers who work as
Mahindra Automobile Design Studio, Mumbai
collaborators by introducing ideas that we did not imagine and that takes the building to another level. While we cannot isolate lighting as an independent design tool, the idea of design as a whole needs rethinking. We have reached a stage where more is more. There is too much of everything, too many choices, too many inputs, and too many images in our minds. This leads to a cut-paste approach to design and therefore an inherent lack of soul in the work. Without a central thematic idea, one wouldn’t know how to light the space. The result is that the lighting also becomes a vestige of many thoughts and ideas. While lighting may be quite simple, the technology has become complex. The challenge lies in the understanding of what is available where. A lack of streamlined vendor data makes it difficult to navigate the process. The Indian lighting industry being so nascent has an abundance of quality compromising products, which is terrifying. Their rock bottom prices play the perfect bait for clients; however, their output and efficiency are highly questionable. This makes us dependent on international products, which then are available at a hefty premium.
New technology is also becoming more easily available, however, the dearth of awareness and availability of quality leaves us high and dry. While we love the new LED, we are also aware that if the optics and the chip do not match standards, there are reasonably high chances of failure. LED runs on quality and if one can manage the perfect diodes, drivers and optics, it would make for a great fitting. Some brands such as ERCO can happily claim a switch to 100% LED, but they are backed with their sophisticated technology and come with a price tag to match. Like any great technology, it has a following of poor quality knock offs. There are various instances where LED might not be the most efficient form of lighting. For a residence in which lighting is not the dominant consumer of electricity, an incandescent bulb would provide good quality of light, and even over a period of 10 years, its cost implications would be marginal compared to LED lighting. Some of these ideas are a little over the top and need to be reconsidered. …about the best and the worst illuminated places you have visited.
The best-illuminated spaces I have visited have been sacred spaces - churches and temples. The need to create the transition from the material to the profane has led to one of the most incredible architectural sciences in the design of the Hindu temple. The light quality that filters finally into darkness in the garbagriha, illuminated by a diya is impactful and transformative. I also recall Herzog and de Meuron’s Laban Dance Centre in London as an incredible space for its light filtering through the polycarbonate skin. Louis Kahn and Corbusier were masters in their use of tropical light. Mumbai’s older regenerated areas have afforded some wonderful sky lit spaces such as Cafe Zoe in the Todi Mill Compound, and Kala Ghoda Cafe in the old Fort area. I also love the design of Blue Frog and its night illumination - befitting a nightclub and yet so understated. The worst illuminated spaces are malls, call centers and hospitals. They do not respect the Circadian rhythms of the body and create uniformly illuminated spaces irrespective of the time of day and nature of activity. www.sjkarchitect.com
THE THEATRe OF ILLUMINATION, LIGHTING ACROSS CULTURES In conversation with Ted Ferreira, Principal of CD+M Lighting Design Group, one of the largest firms in the world of lighting design. Mrinalini Ghadiok and Mridu Sahai Patnaik enquire about his twenty-five year long journey with light, inherited entrepreneurial skills, and his metaphorical design approach, that has successfully led CD+M to work on some of the most trendsetting projects around the world. Encouraged by his school counselor to add an extra-curricular activity in order to make a more promising application for college, Ted joined the high school drama club. “I was spending a bit too much time with computers; and my best friend at the time teased me that it was also because that’s where all the pretty girls could be found,” he quips in jest. Being fairly sharp with computers and quite awful at acting, his tryst with light began by being asked to operate the lighting console for the drama club when no one else could figure it out. Little did he know, that this accidental exposure to theatre would prove to be such a strong inspiration in his life, and how greatly it would influence his work and his approach, in the two and a half decades of his prolific career. Back in the early seventies, with the lack of any formal programs in this sphere of design – lighting, specifically, many designers came to working with light very circumstantially. Often, it would be an architect, who in due course of time, realized the importance of lighting in projects; or an expatriate from theatre who understood light and could see lighting design as an interesting unexplored, opportunity. Ted came from the latter,
but an education in industrial engineering complimented by an early exposure to theatre served as a sound foundation for his foray into lighting. His ardent interest in theatre has always served as a guiding muse. Ted remarks, “Within the toolkit for creating great spaces, a certain amount of theatricality is appealing to most people. It makes it exciting, gives it variety, and a bit of over-the-top character draws both visual interest and makes for an emotional experience.” Recalling his initial visit to the Trident hotel in Gurgaon, Ted explains that creating an experiential environment and/or an unusual setting such as placing dramatic fire torches in water is fascinating, and it gets etched into one’s memory. For him, from the very beginning, design had always been about creating an experience and leaving an impression; and that is something that theatre can fulfill, beautifully. “Variety, in many ways, is the true engine of design… and I have always been fascinated with what you can do with design… today you can find people integrating lighting technology into both spatial environments and physical objects such as furniture, cars, ball point pens, cellular phones, kitchen
tools; these kind of opportunities intrigue me, and that is what drew me into the field of lighting design.” Raised in an enterprising family, Ted’s father was a successful businessman who encouraged his children to work hard; and this led Ted, and both of his siblings, to start their own companies at an early age. After college, he became involved in the manufacturing and sales end of the business to understand the commercial side of lighting. A few years later, he joined the Department of Theatre, Film and Television at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was an instructor in the technical theatre program, a compulsory design course about lighting, taught to young students who primarily wanted to become directors, actors and writers. While at UCLA, Ted met his wife, Lara, who currently serves as the Chief Financial Officer and a partner at CD+M. “In my opinion, the most successful people in business are the ones who are able to know their industry from all sides. The more facets you understand, the better you can become. In lighting, in architecture, as well in many other disciplines, you should have a well-rounded exposure to the way the industry works.” He recalls that a few years
Top left and right Nemours Children's Hospital
Pics: Jonathan Hillyer
Pics: Forrec Limited
Bottom left and right Happy Magic Watercube
after leaving UCLA, he received a letter from one of his former and talented students – whose desire to perform took her from LA to New York City. The only job that she could find, which was even remotely related to theatre was that of a stage electrician at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Owing to her coursework at UCLA and her brief hands-on experiences in technical lighting, she grasped the opportunity. With one foot in the door and time on her side, she was soon offered a role in the theatre company, which finally launched her career as an actress. Maybe this is one of the reasons that CD+M Lighting today has become a global name. From the mid-1990s, Ted has been focused on creating new opportunities, and so in 2006, a new partnership with his colleagues and fellow designers Terry Bell and Marc Rosenberg followed shortly thereafter with the opening of new offices in Beijing, by Patrick Yu in 2007, and in Dubai, by Bill Johnson in 2008, launched CD+M fully into
the global lighting design field. Ted notes that “while America has some fantastic design programs and great lighting designers, we are geographically a bit isolated from the rest of the world.” Therefore, a focus on global design has helped to differentiate their practice from others in the US. “We continue to see the international market as a wonderful opportunity to practice our craft. It makes good business sense because as we all have discovered in the last decade, no economy remains entirely stable, not even for a defined period of time. You always have economies going up and down. Even within the US, different states have different economies and all of them experience cycles.” CD+M has become one of the larger consulting practices within the relatively small world of lighting design, and Ted credits this to success to “great clients, cool projects and an amazing team.” Reflecting on the realities of the industry, he tells us,
“Lighting design is far more a pursuit of happiness than a pursuit of fame. In that respect, it is actually quite similar to the theatre business.” Sharing his experience of design by drawing analogies between theatre and lighting, Ted professes that he isn’t partial to any project typology, “Every project type can be special to me, and I enjoy finding new ways of adding drama to a space.” The award-winning Nemours Children’s Hospital in Orlando, designed by CD+M Associate Principal Anjan Sarkar, is one such memorable project that is unique in that it can make “a sick child smile because of the experiences that the lighting helps to create.” “Lighting has always possessed the power to transform a space. Combine lighting with a good understanding of spatial planning, color, interior finishes, graphics and wayfinding signage, and you can create some really interesting environments. But first,
Pics: Daniel Cheong and Catalin Marin
Top and bottom The Beach at JBR
you have to have a clear vision… That is why theatre provides such a critical foundation of a good design process; because in theatre, multiple team members come together to create a common vision, to create an environment; and for at least a short period of time, you immerse people in that environment. It draws you in, it engages you, it challenges you and these are all design principles used in theatre.” When it comes to creating a successful experience, he metaphorically draws parallels to a symphony orchestra; where the architect could be considered the conductor, who understands and organizes the mix of creatives, and playing on their strengths, forms a cohesive project. This means to include the façade designer, the audiovideo consultant, the interior designer, the structural engineer, graphics designer, and of course, the lighting designer, right from the prelude. Given this analogy, Ted remarks, “It is a bit strange that in our industry, we
(as lighting designers) are often invited to the theatre only after the symphony is half over.” We should be part of the design process from the very beginning and not just be invited to adorn the building with light fittings. From his experience he believes that, when we are involved from the start, the signature ideas of many projects, have sprung up with lighting in mind. Early interaction with the client can lead to an interesting design charette with the entire team and unique, one-of-a-kind solutions can arise. CD+M’s projects dot the globe - in the Middle East, the Americas, SE Asia and China. CD+M designed the conceptual lighting for Worlds of Wonder, New Delhi and several other prominent projects including Mumbai’s largest mall, the Neptune Magnet Mall, yet he is cautious at the moment about doing more work in the Indian subcontinent. Ted adds reticently, “We wouldn’t shy away from new opportunities of working in the country,
however we haven’t pursued many projects there recently, partially because we’re a bit too busy in other markets such as the Middle East and partially because we’ve found the economy seems to have limited the number of clients who understand the value of lighting consultants and are willing to take design risks.” Having worked in numerous countries worldwide, dealing with cultural differences has been an intriguing part of the journey for Ted. Instead of functioning entirely remotely from the US., CD+M chose to open offices in different parts of the world and staff them locally, so as to better understand the cultural nuances in each market. Regardless of the challenges of working across multiple time zones, CD+M puts a significant effort into understanding the design culture in the countries they are working in; the habits, preferences and lifestyles of the people. Even the use of color
Top and bottom The Dubai Mall Aquarium
Pics: Daniel Cheong
and intensity of light is specified with some of these ideas in mind. In certain countries, high levels of cool, white light signifies a clean and prosperous environment, in other regions it may be considered uncomfortable and lifeless. While lower ambient levels may be commonly accepted in tropical climates with an abundance of natural light, people in northern climates with shorter days and darker skies might not appreciate more dimly lit spaces. There are many regional, cultural and personal reasons for lighting preferences, and these can only be examined by asking a lot of questions. Of course, an enthusiastic, receptive and open-minded client is always critical to the success of any lighting design effort.
One great example of a client’s appetite in taking chances can be found with The Beach at JBR project in Dubai, built by Meraas and designed by Benoy, BSBG and Cracknell. With lighting design led by CD+M Principal Bill Johnson, Senior Associates Waleed Fakousa and Baiju Chaliyil, “this project successfully demonstrated to the public what great lighting could do to transform a space,” says Ted. Unlike most other outdoor shopping malls, the design team chose not to use a multitude of light poles, but instead illuminated the various building forms onsite with indirect lighting. The landscape plan was considered especially carefully, allowing the limited usage of light to be maximized, with the water pool acting as a strong mirror
reflector. “Good lighting design doesn’t have to be expensive; rather, it first has to be complementary to the character of the space. In this case, it was a luxury shopping mall; right on the waterfront in a very busy district of Dubai. I realize that such projects can be done with more traditional solutions, but then this space would have suffered.” declares Ted. The project has received multiple awards from Light Middle East and Retail & Leisure International, among others. Another interesting project in the Middle East has been the lighting of the aquarium within the massive Dubai Mall, perhaps the world’s most-visited shopping and leisure destination, attracting record-
Pics: Daniel Cheong
Top left and right Ferrari World Theme Park
Centre and bottom Sykes Chapel
Projects that you would like to change: The Georgia Aquarium, when we discovered that penguins don’t look as clean under cool white fluorescent lamps as we thought they would. They smell pretty awful too (Hint: it’s their diet). Projects that you admire: Any project that causes people to stop, look and learn to appreciate lighting as a design element. Projects that you dislike: Any project that uses direct view LEDs or saturated color effects without a purposeful design strategy. Pics: Anthony John Coletti Photography
Lighting hero: Tharon Musser, one of the most prolific lighting designers in American theatre history. “Lighting design is learning how to see,” she said in an interview with The New York Times in 1977. Notable projects by CD+M: Ferrari World (Abu Dhabi), King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (Thuwal), Dubai Aquarium (Dubai), International Financial Center (Seoul), Universal Studios Islands of Adventure (Orlando). Memorable projects: Georgia Aquarium (Atlanta), Caesar’s Forum Shops (Las Vegas), Star Trek: The Experience (Las Vegas), Legoland Malaysia (Johor), Worlds of Wonder Amusement Park (New Delhi). Current projects: Lenovo Global Headquarters (Beijing), Presidential Palace (Abu Dhabi), Dubai Mall Expansion (Dubai), JW Marriott (Taiyuan), Coca Cola World Headquarters (Atlanta). Awards: Light Middle East Awards (Best Public/Exterior Retail), IESNA Guth Award of Excellence (Interiors), GE Edison Awards (Merit), Themed Entertainment Association Awards (THEA), IALD Awards (Merit).
breaking crowds to its wide array of retail, gastronomical and entertainment facilities. The Mall’s eight million gallon indoor aquarium, featuring one of the world’s largest viewing windows and more than 30,000 species of fish, has been lit with undeniable drama by Ted and his team at CD+M. The light fittings iridescently play with the skin and scales of the many schools of fish, exuberating gleaming streaks of light that mesmerize and captivate the audience. From their understated design scheme at Jumeirah Beach, to the theatrical lighting of the Dubai Mall Aquarium; the subtle and romanticized lighting of the Sykes Chapel, to the popular and vibrant Happy Water Magic Cube in Beijing and the swanky
monochromatic Ferrari World in Abu Dhabi; the extensive lighting portfolio of CD+M is a fascinating and eclectic mix. After experimenting and pushing the lighting envelope into new horizons for over two decades, Ted envisions a more interactive future for the company; one which speaks of a convergence of all media, to enable an interface between building design and people. He endeavors to make light a more self-aware discipline, which is further responsive, and creating something that gives people added controls over their use of a space. “In the future, there will be a growing awareness by clients of design opportunities in ‘responsiveness lighting’. What’s that? We have already seen it
happen with other technologies such as air conditioning and transportation. Even though lighting tends to lag behind a little, I still think many more opportunities exist. And that will probably prove to be one of the most exciting and unique aspects of lighting in the next twenty years. We should realize that lighting is transitional - nothing these days is likely to last more than ten years, until someone comes to take it down and re-define the space. However, this is still nine years and several hundred days longer than most theatrical productions. Our work still has a certain longevity, and the fun part is, that a lot more people get to see it and enjoy it.” www.cdmlight.com
[darc awards] The darc awards, organised by mondo*arc and its sister publication darc in collaboration with Light Collective, entry period has now been completed. All entries are being displayed on the website www.darcawards.com. So the entries are in and now it’s time to choose your favourites. The website (www. darcawards.com) is now displaying project and product entries that have come in from as far afield as Iran, Australia, New Zealand, Iceland, Peru, USA, UK and UAE. Paul James, awards director and publishing editor of mondo*arc and darc, commented: “I’m absolutely delighted with the response so far. With our database of over 1,000 international lighting design practices, as well as interior designers and architects, there is a unique opportunity for every practice to get involved in the awards process. We intend to make the darc awards the most accessible and global awards programme ever. After the shortlists have been chosen by an expert panel of international lighting designers, each of the 1,000+ lighting design practices and their designers will be invited to vote on their favourite projects via our specially developed website. Using the model developed by the Oscars where all members vote on the work of their peers, the darc awards will give every independent lighting designer a vote, making this the only truly peer-to-peer lighting design awards in the world.” Each award is split into low and high budgets, thus allowing the smaller projects
a chance to compete and not just given a token ‘Special Projects’ award. Martin Lupton and Sharon Stammers of Light Collective are excited by the prospect of a pluralistic awards event: “Having been involved in many lighting awards programs over many years, this is a great opportunity to build on all of those experiences and try to create a different version of celebrating the best of lighting design where the judging is in the hands of everybody. Helping to shape darc night in collaboration with mondo*arc and darc has given us a chance to create an awards ceremony that is by the people, for the people – it’s the Oscars of lighting design!” All the projects and the companies who have submitted them will be present on the website so that, over time, www.darcawards.com will become a comprehensive online lighting design resource that can be used by designers and clients alike for inspiration. There are also product categories (two architectural and one decorative) that follow the same philosophy resulting in a comprehensive online database of products. Following the voting process the awards ceremony will take place as part of darc night on September 24th, 2015 during London Design Festival. This will be an
atmospheric party in a unique venue in London. Imagine light art, street food, lighting installations… this breaks all the awards rules and will be unlike any other awards ceremony to date. Each commercial partner will be able to show off the capabilities of their product via a series of light installations from collaborations with lighting designers. Currently the manufacturer partners consist of Lucent, Megaman, Innermost, LSE Lighting, KKDC, Concord, L&L Luce&Light, Reggiani, Cooledge, Griven, Zumtobel and Lumino. Technical partner is XL Video. The sponsors will create a dozen inspiration spaces at the specially selected venue in London next September. Lighting design practices who will be involved include Speirs+Major, dpa, Light Bureau, Michael Grubb Studio, Elektra, Paul Nulty Lighting Design, BDP, Arup, Design In Progress, LDI and Troup Bywaters + Anders. darc night will be part of the IYL2015 (International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies 2015 ) related activities program and will be promoted by the L-RO (Lighting-Related Organizations) to raise awareness for the lighting design profession and showcase the importance and beauty of light. www.darcawards.com
Just three of the entries to the darc awards - Indian Heritage Centre, Singapore by ONG&ONG; KPMG Manchester, UK by Troup Bywaters & Anders, Light + Lighting Solutions; and Frozen Desert in Linköping, Sweden by Luxera
DARC AWARDS CATEGORIES 1 Best interior scheme - low / high budget 2 Best exterior scheme - low / high budget 3 Best landscape scheme - low / high budget 4 Best decorative lighting installation 5 Best light art installation 6 Best architectural lighting product interior / exterior 7 Best decorative lighting product 8 Best lighting concept
LIGHT : ART
Art and light have an intrinsic relationship, one cannot be perceived without the other and the other lays blanched without the first. We speak with artists who adopt light to create their artworks, artists who add light to complete their artworks, photographers who capture light to compose their artworks, and designers who handle light to light the artworks. We talk about art, light in art, and the science of lighting art. â€œScience is spectral analysis, art is light synthesis.â€? - Karl Kraus
Photograph: Flow by Michael Bosanko Captured in the very heart of Wales, UK. Minimal light tools to capture fluidity of light, using water as inspiration and how it interacts with the harsh metal bridge structure to give it beauty and presence. Original photograph with no post editing, captured in one long exposure. www.michaelbosanko.com
LIGHT : ART / ART INCORPORATING LIGHT
LIGHT ART Sharon Stammers and Martin Lupton, the UK creative consultancy called Light Collective, talk about Light and Light Art; its inception, acceptance, propagation and relevance.
Guerrilla Lighting, Social Light Movement Workshop, Sclessin
Art incorporating light has its roots in the Material Paintings of Constructivism and Cubism of the 1920s. Their work introduced the use of steel, aluminium, plexiglass and mirror into artworks in order to refract and reflect light. This evolved with the merging of kinetic art and light in the 1930s pioneered by the likes of Laslo Maholy-Nagy. Through engaging with new materials and technology and new media such as film and photography, artists began to expand and form the genre which we now refer to as light art. This was a dramatic move away from art that had previously only depicted natural light and marked the change from representation of natural light to the actual use of electric light as an independent means for artistic images and material. The development of light art has co-existed with the advance of technical innovations and has evolved alongside the inventions of the tungsten lamp, neon, lasers, ultra-violet, electroluminescent and more recently LEDs. LED technology continues to develop rapidly in tandem with programmable technology that is easy to integrate into many other
materials and has therefore revolutionised the way that light is able to be used, providing an opportunity for a new sub-genre of interactive light art. Light Art has flourished into a popular and independent genre with 1960s artists like James Turrell, Dan Flavin and Nancy Holt becoming international successes and also household names. Art using light has proved itself to be a popular medium that is accessible for all types of people spanning all ages and across all cultures. Why is it something that everybody can easily engage with? “Everybody thinks they know what light is. I have spent my whole life trying to find out what light is and I still do not know.” — Albert Einstein The worship of light is woven into the whole of human existence. Light is as intertwined with our very being as is air. It controls our sleep patterns, our digestion, mood, productivity and our vision; Light is an elixir vitae, our bodies are calibrated to the oscillations of the sky and the patterns of luminous change.
Light has always had strong symbolic and mythical associations with the divine throughout the history of mankind and across many cultures. In secular terms, light represents power and wealth and economies can be measured on how much light is owned. Light generates activity and without it, economies and human beings suffer. The plethora of Light Festivals and the recent popularity of galleries hosting light based artworks are proving an opportunity for people to interact with light in an accessible format. Any work of art that uses light in some way allows the viewer or participant to take time to contemplate the wonder of light and the role it has in our lives. Human beings are essentially phototropic and are drawn to light like moths and can exercise this human need whenever they encounter Light Art. Light Art offers an opportunity to displace a memory of colour, participate in an experience of movement and light, allow time to be spent contemplating light and space or a moment to try and understand the raw impact of what light actually is. Long may it flourish…
Circular by White Void and Disco Disco by Haberdashery - Play of Brilliants Exhibition, Elephant Panama Gallery, Paris. Photo: Emmanuel Donny.
Light Collective is an unusual company. Sharon Stammers and Martin Lupton have no office, all their work is on the cloud, and they work wherever they find themselves for other projects. This has resulted in some amazing work experiences from overlooking Mexico City to running away from monkeys in Kenya. They started out as architectural lighting designers and whilst wanting to continue to design, they also thought that there was more to life (and light) than this. Natural Light, Light Art, Technology, Exhibitions, Events, Films and Books also make up important parts of their current portfolio. Aiming to be evangelical about light, to spread the word about light and what light can do, Light Collective keeps themselves involved with lectures and exhibitions across the world. They innovate and constantly aim to do something with light that no one else has tried. This could easily translate into activities such as a pop up colour dinner that allows guests to experience a colour spectrum meal. They inspire people using the medium of light, through initiatives like the global photography project called One Beam of Light. They engage the audience by leading exciting ventures such as Guerrilla Lighting exercises, where they set out with a local community to change their environment using light. They find ways to educate people about light and believe that one should always explain what they are doing and why. Light Collective involved 250 school children in Singapore to create a giant pixelated heart. Each child wired up and decorated his/her own light box and learnt how to make light. They encourage collectivism through an app they created for collecting images of light, and working together to make a shared resource. They share knowledge through the international group called Social Light Movement, founded to promote good lighting in poor urban areas. They promote daylight and have started a festival celebrating natural light in Mexico City; and they embrace darkness by collaborating on a conference in the Atacama Desert. Most importantly Light Collective wants to challenge convention, to create the ultimate experiences using light, whether it is throwing a Holi party in Copenhagen, giving away balloons in Madrid, or making chandeliers out of sweetsâ€Ś
light : ART / james turrell
JAMES TURRELL – A RETROSPECTIVE Andre Tammes reviews this exceptionally popular and successful exhibition at the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, which drew crowds from across Australia and internationally. This was a unique opportunity to experience and understand the work of the world’s leading artist and explorer in light.
Top and Bottom James Turrell. Virtuality Squared 2014. Ganzfeld: built space, LED lights. 800 x 1400 x 1940.5 cm (overall). Collection James Turrell. Image: National Gallery of Australia.
In writing this I recognise that many readers engage with light on a professional basis. When considered in the context of James Turrell’s’ work, this is both a benefit and a handicap. The benefit lies in the reality that most lighting people will want to know the facts and come to understand the technique of his art; the handicap is that this very quest for the apparent certainty of knowledge, rather than the uncertainty of experience, negates Turrell’s central objective. I visited this major exhibition in Canberra twice. On the first occasion I was part of a group of Australian lighting designers; much of the discussion over dinner dwelt on questions and potential answers – what is the technology used, why do things appear to
be what they are not and how much of what one sees is actually there rather than being a product of one’s mind? Being forewarned and forearmed, I conducted my second visit on a less analytic and more immersive basis. My belief is that this is the only fulfilling way in which to experience Turrell’s work. In some ways this makes it challenging to write about; perhaps there should only be one enjoinder – place a personal immersion in his work high on your priority list! This exhibition reached back some five decades and, with its three 2013 counterparts which ran concurrently at the Los Angeles County Museum of Arts, the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum New York, it reflected Turrell’s’ development as an artist,
perceptual psychologist, aviator, scientist, mathematician and historian. This heady mix of knowledge, investigation, research and creativity delivers an ineffable outcome to those who are fortunate enough to connect with it; little can prepare one for either the experience or one’s reactions. The exhibition comprised 20 exhibits. These included wall hung pieces such as four small holograms, a series of paper based prints and drawings, projected and constructed exhibits, the ‘dark’ exhibit rooms, the single person occupancy Bindu shards (2010) sphere and, at an extreme opposite scale, Within Without (2010), the example of Turrell’s Skyspace series which is permanently located in the grounds of the Gallery. A section was also dedicated to the long-term development
James Turrell. Within Without 2010. Skyspace: lighting installation, concrete and basalt stupa, water, earth, landscaping. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. ÂŠ James Turrell. Photograph: John Gollings.
light : ART / james turrell
James Turrell. Afrum (white) 1966. Cross-corner projection: projected light. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. © James Turrell. Photograph © Florian Holzherr.
of his ‘masterwork’ – at the Roden Crater in Arizona. The one certainty that underpins all of Turrell’s work lies in his use of light to unlock his medium. To quote: “For me, it’s about using light as a material to influence or affect the medium of perception.” His reference to the materiality of light or, as he also refers to it, the ‘thingness’ of light, introduces a paradox or a duality of thought. On the one hand and, as powerfully evidenced in ‘Virtuality squared’ (2014), one of the series of Ganzfeld built spaces, the light itself has a palpable tangibility, whereas the exceptionally low level of light in ‘Orca’ (1984) verges on the subliminal in its pursuit to test the boundaries of human sight and the accuracy, or dependability, of the seeing process. I think that much of the reaction to Turrell
lies in the temptation to try to unpack the seeming simplicity of his work. How can there be complexity in an art that lacks imagery, depiction, symbolism, offers no focus, is not an object in the material sense and cannot be defined as an expression of reality or, indeed, illusion? How is one meant to interpret such work, which does not even venture into the realm of abstraction? Perhaps one answer to this paradox is to realise that one does not ‘see’ the work in the conventional sense of that word. This means that one has to consciously abandon a faculty upon which we are innately dependent – losing sight is neither easy nor comfortable – and in this regard Turrell is demanding. He requires your immersion, your time and a blend of subjectivity cut with heightened receptivity. Fail to deliver on
any of these and you run the danger of not getting what it’s all about. However, providing that you were prepared to go for total immersion, this show allowed as full an understanding of Turrell’s thinking and creativity as has been offered to date. The chronology starts with Turrell’s birth into Quakerism. Quakers are known as ‘the children of light’ and seek to reach inside to greet light, literally and metaphorically. It is notable that much of his work has created internal spaces into which he brings light to allow one to meet and meditate with it. In 1966 he started to explore this process by renting a studio in a hotel in Santa Monica. The result was a series of early works centred on, and named after, the Mendota Hotel. Within various rooms, Turrell constructed a series of walls with apertures to allow the controlled entry of both natural and electric light projections and discovered ‘…a universe of possibilities in light and ideas for a lifetime’s work.’ It was at this time that he created a series of ‘cross corner’ projections – the projection of a highly defined beam of light diagonally across an enclosed rectilinear space, to the walls comprising the opposite corner or directly ‘flat on’ to a single wall. An alternative, non-projection, technique, based on the construction of a ‘cross corner’ aperture was also developed. Ultimately, the series comprised 25 works, including three shown in this exhibition, Afrum (white) (1966), Shanta II (blue) (1970) and Joecar (red) (1968). Afrum (white) (1966) creates the impression that one is looking at either a solid white cube, appearing to float well in front of the walls that bound it or, equally conceivably, an aperture in the walls from which radiates white light. Either appears credible. Most viewers succumb to the need for confirmation – which is it? One way to be sure is to simply look up and locate the projector – the other (I noted several people doing this) is to walk into the corner to confirm the absence of an aperture. During my second visit I happily switched off and entertained the ambiguity. A seemingly similar floating cube, radiating a deep primary blue light, forms the Shanta II (blue) (1970) exhibit. Again, ambiguity abounds; this time close inspection reveals that a concisely dimensioned, and cut, aperture in the walls bounding the image is a window into a light filled rear chamber. Curiously, even the certain knowledge of this failed to dispel the lingering feeling that, from afar, I was nevertheless observing a ‘solid’. The other cross corner projection, Joecar (red) (1968), spans a soft edged band of low intensity red / orange light from floor to ceiling. In this case the bounding walls
James Turrell. Shanta II (blue) 1970. Cross-corner construction: fluorescent light, built space. Dimensions variable: 106.6cm (max height of aperture). Image: National Gallery of Australia.
appear to give way to a furnace like interior, which lies beyond the space from which one views it. Additionally, I found that, after some seven to eight minutes, the colour started to desaturate and be replaced with a central band of brown / grey. It occurred to me that my vision had perhaps partially switched from cone to rod processing and had entered the mesopic region. The low luminance value would support this theory. These pieces demonstrate a constant in Turrell’s work. He rarely reveals the source of light. For him light itself is his material; when you work with light: ‘you end up forming everything but it.’ The early days at the Mendota Hotel studio created foundations which have not changed in anything other than, in some instances, scale. The artist’s dedication to the process of bringing light to the ‘within’ and the collateral creation of ambiguity, questioning and the invitation to abandon preconception remain his hallmark. Many commentators have grappled with words to describe this process, and one’s responses to it, but perhaps Nancy Spector, Deputy Director and Chief Curator of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, puts it particularly well: ‘Turrell’s light works give form to perception.’
After viewing the initial cross-corner projection and construction based exhibits, the 45-year-old Raemar pink white (1969) is almost overwhelming in its simplicity and scale (1070 x 440 cm). This panel of pure pinkness floats within a frame of white light escaping from behind the rectangle. It invites you to plunge and dwell in it. Perhaps inevitably one makes parallels with large-scale contemporary monochromatic paintings, such as those by Yves Klein, but the difference is the radiance. This exhibit floats the rectangle into your space and compels immersion. After some minutes I gained the impression that the rectangle was flexing to form a slightly concave image. The big surprise was to come at the point of exit when, upon entering the adjacent gallery, the world became vividly green as a result my retinal response to the after image from immersion in a pink bath! Again, the origins of this Shallow Space Construction can be traced back to the Mendota period where Turrell constructed a panel in front of an existing window and then allowed daylight to radiate around the perimeter of the panel. Once more, the inference is the bringing of outer light to the inner space and that of self. Arguably, one of the most testing exhibits was that which requires the viewer to
become fully dark adapted and invest at least ten minutes thereafter. One of the questions that came to mind relates to the diminution of the eye’s performance through the ageing process. When establishing light levels, particularly for these ‘dark’ exhibits how does Turrell, at age 72, judge such critically low levels? In conversation with the exhibition curator, Lucina Ward, it became clear that the artist works in close collaboration with his production team, which includes those with younger eyes! The ‘dark’ exhibit, After green (1993), is an example of Turrell’s Wedgework series. These works are strongly influenced by his experiences as a pilot. Having gained his licence at the age of 16, he has since spent much time in a plane, which he once described as being his ‘studio’. Connection with horizon and its omission are primary to his work, in many cases leading to the construction of celestial vaults in which horizon is absent but sky remains. All his Skyspace constructions and his work at the Roden Crater are founded on this principle. In the case of this exhibit and the influence of flying Turrell states: ‘Wedging’ occurs with a cold front and ‘shallow wedging’ occurs with a warm front. As you approach a front there is a change in visibility, which
light : ART / james turrell
Top and Bottom James Turrell. Raemar pink white 1969. Shallow space construction: fluorescent light. 440 x 1070 x 300 cm. Kayne Griffin Corcoran, Los Angeles, California. Image: National Gallery of Australia.
happens very quickly if you fly towards it. When flying, this differentiation of vision happens through weather and water vapour. In Wedgework similar qualities of opacity, translucency and transparency are created by light simply inhabiting space. The approach to the exhibit is dramatic, as one is guided
into a near black tunnel that then opens into a chamber, totally dark other than the glowing exhibit which takes up a full wall. Here Turrell’s exercises his knowledge of retinal after-imaging and the associated shifts in colour perception. Time spent here induces a compelling blend of meditative
James Turrell.After Green 1993. Wedgework: fluorescent, LED and fibre-optic lights. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. © James Turrell. photograph © Florian Holzherr.
calm and visual insecurity as the eye switches its focus from one plane of light and material to another or, as the artist would put it, from one front to another. There is a total temptation to enter the exhibit (not allowed!) to seek its depth and embrace. Even if this were allowed, it would be potentially dangerous as evidenced by an earlier version of a Wedgework, which resulted in Turrell being sued by a viewer who suffered injury after having leaned against a non-existent ‘wall.’ Many of the visitors to this exceptionally popular exhibition were those whose first contact with Turrell’s work was a visit to the Within without structure, completed in 2010. This is one of 89 Skyspace structures throughout the world. Located permanently in the Gallery’s Sculpture Garden the architecture of this space draws from many influences – the artist’s Quaker ethos of ‘coming inside to greet the light,’ gaining access to the sky by taking the roof off a building, the early work at the Mendota Hotel studio where external light was leaked to the interior and his early appreciation of the stupa form, gained from time spent in his 20’s in Asia, particularly at Borobudur in Java. He retains a liking of roofless temples. Within without is entered down an inclined
ramp which draws one downward into the interior of a landscaped pyramid, surrounded on two sides by reflecting pools. Water continues internally, with a stupa centred in a surrounding turquoise pool bounded by walls of Australian red ochre. A narrow bridge brings one to the final destination within the stupa. A circular bench (heated to allow for cold Canberra nights!) allows the viewer to incline against a slightly sloping wall and look upward to the oculus or ‘sky eye’ at the top of the dome. Although the architecture of the entire structure is inherently dramatic and intriguing at any time, it is during the transition between day and night that one comes to understand the central purpose of the exhibit. At this time Turrell captures the viewer for some 45 minutes whilst the sky progressively darkens (or, at dawn, lightens) in contrast with slowly unfolding layers of softly tinted uplighting to the dome that gently progress towards saturated colours. In discussion with lighting technologist, Richard Cale, who collaborates with Turrell to realise the artist’s aims in his Australian work, he describes the requirement to totally let go any consideration of what is actually happening or how it is being achieved; rather, says Cale, one has to inhale the experience. There is no doubt that each of the, up to 24, people that can be accommodated within the stupa will experience their 45 minutes differently and that those have inhaled will struggle to describe their experience. I can only say that, for me, the oculus did not maintain a steady diameter and that the sky colour and intensity shifted constantly in both directions. It is interesting to see how the Skyspace installation was engineered and programmed. Discussion with Richard Cale reveals that the uplighting to the dome comprises a continuous, concealed, circular run of RGB LED, with the blue being a royal blue, plus a warm and a cool white. Programming was an arduous process involving multiple pre-dawn and dusk sessions as a range of cues and fade times were established. A long-term astronomic timing programme is used to recall these in relation to the solstices and equinoxes. In total there are four seasonal ‘shows,’ which respond to the differing natural light and sky characteristics; these are advanced every second day in terms of timing. Bindu shards (2010) and Virtuality squared (2014) have nothing in common in terms of physical construction. The former is a 6-metre diameter sphere, one of Turrell’s series of perceptual cells, and the latter a large room entered through a rectangular window. The common factor is ‘Ganzfeld’ – the German word meaning ‘complete field.’ In these exhibits this is taken to mean a field
of nothingness – akin to being in a whiteout where all visual reference is removed and all becomes indeterminate. Being in either space calls into question one’s visual faculties. Bindu shards (2010) requires that one signs a disclaimer, are provided with an emergency call button and put on earphones. One then lies on a trolley and are fed into the sphere in a similar way to entering an MRI machine. At this stage one parts with normality and is plunged into a 15 minute submersion described as, like the jot or the spin that you see when you begin meditation; you stare at it or look at it like a visual mantra, and then it dissolves and will come back as you centre on it again. This work takes that effect and breaks it apart …. It is physiologically what we are. That’s why it is so invasive. Turrell describes the experience as ‘behind the eyes’ seeing whilst the astronomer Dr EC Krupp speaks of what people see is not the dome but in the brain … intricate manipulation of retinal afterimages, as an effect generated by the retina’s photoreceptors. My recollection of submitting to this profoundly isolating experience leaves me with the feeling that I entered an intensely vivid dream – one so powerful that it created its own reality. This is Turrell’s intention when he talks of light joining together our dream world with our ‘eyes open’ awakened state. Re-entry to the ‘real world’ was difficult. Virtuality squared (2014) shares the same intense sense of disorientation – of the impression that there is just slowly dissolving light itself, no edge, no horizon, nothing to focus upon and only the ‘window’ through which one has entered, seemingly shifting colour in response to retinal after imaging. The difference between these two works is that in this case one shares the space with other viewers – but, again, it is like sharing space with others in a dream. Finally, in this exhibition Turrell provides much information about his master work in progress – the 1.6 kilometre diameter Roden Crater in Arizona. This naked eye observatory and monumental work of art is undoubtedly his culminating project. It contains and reflects all that has guided and inspired his work to date. Thus far 6 of the 20 chambers and spaces excavated into the inner cone of the 200 metre high crater have been completed. A visit to rodencrater.com provides an interesting summary of the project. This exhibition came at a time when the world continues to erupt in a celebration of light. No city is worthy without a light festival, light art is a burgeoning newcomer to the established arts scene and millions have opened their eyes to what appears to be a new art form. Turrell has spent the past
James Turrell in front of Roden Crater. Project at sunset. October 2001. Photograph © Florian Holzherr.
To quote Turrell:
At Roden Crater I was interested in taking the cultural artifice of art out into the natural surround. I did not want the work to be a mark upon nature, but I wanted the work to be enfolded in nature in such a way that light from the sun, moon and stars empowered the spaces…I wanted an area of exposed geology like the Grand Canyon or the Painted Desert, where you could feel geologic time. Then in this stage set of geologic time, I wanted to make spaces that engaged celestial events in light so that the spaces performed a ‘music of the spheres’ in light. 50 years going beyond this largely image or object based approach in favour of an art where: There is, first of all, no object; there is no image, nor any place of focus. What are you then looking at? Well, I’m hoping that you then have the self-reflective act of looking at your looking, so that you’re actually seeing yourself see to some degree, so that it actually does reveal something about your seeing as opposed to being a journal of my seeing. We thank Lucina Ward, Curator, International Painting and Sculpture, National Gallery of Australia, Darryl Cowie of DCG Design and Richard Cale, Director, Xenian Pty Ltd for their time and providing essential information. All quotations are reproduced from the ‘James Turrell – A Retrospective’ and ‘James Turrell – Within Without’ exhibition catalogues / online sources and interviews.
www.nga.gov.au/jamesturrell www. jamesturrell.com
light : ART / Dan Flavin
DAN FLAVIN - IT IS WHAT IT IS Having read and researched, and discussed and debated extensively over Dan Flavin, it is tedious to categorize him as a painter, a sculptor or an artist. With help from the David Zwirner gallery, New York/ London, Mrinalini Ghadiok grapples with words to attempt to define his journey, with light, through light and into light.
untitled (to Virginia Dwan) 1, 1971
Dan Flavin’s story can best be described as a thesis of antitheses. An eminent American artist, sought after by collectors worldwide; is questioned whether his art is real art. A young child coerced into parochial school before attending preparatory school for the seminary; he enlists himself in the US Air Force. Enrolls into the national military; he finds himself strolling through art galleries and museums. An enthusiastic learner registers with coveted institutions to study art; he decides to leave after just
a few sessions. A humble worker takes the position of an elevator operator at the Museum of Modern Art, New York; he meets and befriends celebrated artists. Switches employment to become a guard at the American Museum of Natural History, New York; he has his first solo show at the Judson Gallery in New York. Dan Flavin, a man with a vibrant life, prismatic work, and kaleidoscopic legacy. Flavin’s tryst with art began early with drawings and sketches, and in 1961, at
the age of 28, he was already exhibiting his works in a gallery. His fervor deepened as he started to experiment with small constructions incorporating found objects. He began making compositions by combining electric lights with canvas and plainly painted square blocks of wood, calling them ‘icons.’ These pieces carried uncanny religious undertones, which were perhaps reflective of a satirical response to his childhood. Within a span of a couple of years, Flavin dropped the canvas and wood
the diagonal of May 25, 1963 (to Constantin Brancusi), 1963
light : ART / Dan Flavin
Top left "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1966. Top right "monument" for V. Tatlin, 196 Bottom monument 4 for those who have been killed in ambush (to P. K. who reminded me about death), 1966
Top untitled (to Ward Jackson, an old friend and colleague who, when, during Fall, 1957, I finally returned to New York from Washington and joined him to work together in this museum, kindly communicated), 1971. Bottom untitled (to Tracy, to celebrate the love of a lifetime), 1992
and concentrated his work solely on the light. This initiated him into what would soon become his signature style – creating evocative masterpieces of light in space, using commercially available readymade fluorescent tubing. His choice of medium extricated the clichéd use of this form from its utilitarian milieu, and implanted it into the world of high art. The resulting body of work was immediately rendered in a sense of direct honesty and acute artistry. Positioning a single, unadorned, yellow fluorescent tube against a gallery wall at 45 degrees, Flavin realised that he had struck ‘gold’ with the diagonal of May 25, 1963 (to Constantin Brancusi), 1963. Describing the installation as his “diagonal of personal ecstasy,” Flavin surrendered to the simplicity
of the work that excused the physicality of the object, and instead established itself as a cultivated image. His series of ‘homages’ to Vladimir Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International, used fluorescent segments as luminescent light-lines that literally drew upon the architecture; while monument 4 for those who have been killed in ambush (to P.K. who reminded me about death), 1966, impregnated the room in an acute and aggressive red blaze, diminishing the sense of scale in space. As his art became increasingly complex, it founded for itself a vocabulary of ‘corners,’ ‘barriers,’ and ‘corridors.’ The 1970s and 1980s saw his work embracing edges, sprawled along walls, clambering
up, slithering along, or protruding out; the fluorescent tubes in myriad configurations began to define seminal light compositions in intersecting and parallel lines of vivid colours and glows. They adorned the space and permeated the volume, dissolving the architecture and becoming an authentic part of it. Engaging the space it occupied and actively interacting with the architecture that held it, Flavin preferred to refer to his installations as ‘situations’ or site specific ‘proposals.’ The use of elementary media like light and colour, in a rudimentary manner through simplistic geometric placement, is what characterized Flavin’s work as Minimal art. Fellow artist Mel Bochner described him as “one of the first artists to make use of a basically progressional procedure.” The candor in Flavin’s work was compensated by his convoluted titles, usually tales of who and why he dedicated his pieces to selected people. The artist’s installation at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, in 1971 was named untitled (to Ward Jackson, an old friend and colleague who, during the Fall of 1957 when I finally returned to New York from Washington and joined him to work together in this museum, kindly communicated). It initially occupied one full turn of the museum’s ramps and critically responded to the irregular architecture. In 1992, Flavin extended untitled (to Ward Jackson…) into a new piece dedicated to his fiancée, untitled (to Tracy, to celebrate the love of a lifetime), which featured a column of radiant tubes rising skyward from the rotunda floor celebrating the volume in a warm pink glow. Equated to other Minimalists such as James Turrell, who also experimented with the rotunda at Guggenheim, Flavin’s work was well distinguished. While Turrell countered the space by substantiating it with a surreptitious fill of light, hiding the source and creating a sense of disoriented illusion, Flavin demonstrated sculptural forms that were reconfigured as viewers moved through a definitive physical context, almost as an offering of orientation in the space. Both artists identified with Frank Lloyd Wright’s spatial conformation and intensified its experience through color and light. However, the principal of engagement in each case was established on a different range of artistic ambitions. With Flavin, it was straightforward; what you
light : ART / Dan Flavin
untitled (to Helga and Carlo, with respect and affection), 1974
saw was what you got. His idea of art was transparent and perfunctorily experiential. While skeptics dug deep to find profounder meaning in his work, Flavin’s philosophy was grounded in a peculiar romanticised idea of wanting his art to be new, to be overwhelming in perception, and to achieve this in the simplest and most direct manner. He urged visitors to come, look and leave, and discouraged patrons from lingering, contemplating, meditating and inventing weighty connotations that did not exist. “(My work) is what it is,” the artist once said, “and it ain’t anything else.” Some have questioned whether Flavin even was an artist, or his work even art. Taking fluorescent tubes and lining them up on the floor or wall may not constitute art for many. Although, works that were priced at $1000 during his first solo exhibition of luminescent tubes at the Green Gallery in 1964, today command more than $2 million. All original pieces are also accompanied by a signed certificate, which institutes
authenticity of the work. So while skeptics can continue to whine about the banality of his ‘situations,’ aficionados applaud and appreciate how Flavin weds medium, message and space; where light becomes the form that relates art in diffusing spatial parameters. He remains one of the simplest yet irreducible, austere yet motley, and an astutely visual modern artist. His work is best described in his own words, “One might not think of light as a matter of fact, but I do. And it is, as I said, as plain and open and direct an art as you will ever find.” (Dan Flavin, 1987) David Zwirner gallery, New York/London, represents the Dan Flavin Estate. They have held multiple exhibitions in the past and will soon be inaugurating the next show, Dan Flavin: Corners, Barriers, and Corridors, September 10 - October 24, 2015. Besides his iconic artworks pertaining to architectural spaces of corners, barriers and corridors, other works that exemplify the Flavin’s
Top left untitled (in honor of Harold Joachim) 3, 1977 Top right untitled, 1996. Centre a primary picture, 1964. Bottom right Flavin installing fluorescent light, etc from dan flavin National Gallery of Canada, Ottowa, 1969
lesser-known use of circular fluorescent bulbs will also be included. All images © 2015 Stephen Flavin/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; courtesy David Zwirner, New York/London www.davidzwirner.com
LIGHT : ART / LIGHT ART AND LIGHT GRAFFITI
LIGHT ART: NEW ROLES FOR NEW TIMES Using Light Art as an interesting multifunctional tool of public engagement, Mrinalini Ghadiok and Mridu Sahai Patnaik talk to some of the most prominent light artists of today, namely- Lighting Design Collective and Cinimod Studio. Myna Mukherjee with special correspondent Sunita Iqbal interviews light graffiti artists MRI, to discover the latest trends. Over time, from being just a source of illumination that stimulates sight and makes things visible, light has significantly adapted various roles, which radically alter the way it is interpreted and consumed. Light has always been susceptive to art; has played a significant role in the perception of it and has served as an important inspiration for it. However, particularly with the advent of Modernism in photography, motion films and the invention of artificial light, many artists started experimenting with light as a primary means of expression. With the advances in technology, new artificial light sources, right from the electric light bulb to LED computer monitor screens, artists have played creatively with light as a material and as a muse. Thus came about Light Art. Today, light art has little to do with illumination and more to do with its other interdisciplinary functions. It is multifaceted. Light can influence how you feel, it can perform, it can interact, it can deceive, and it is dynamic. Springing alongside light art is light graffiti. Silo 468
From Pablo Picasso & Henry Matisse in the late 1800s to urban Berlin street collectives in the early 2000s, light graffiti (also called light painting, photo bombing and light writing) has had a long history. In its simplest form, light painting is essentially long exposure photography using lights to create objects and add effects into the image. However, modern day light painters combine elements ranging from photography, design, the graffiti movement, media-art and light animation to jugglery, performance, music and dance and blend it into an exciting urban art form that communicates on a global level and is most popularly known as Light Graffiti. Bridging the distance between high and popular art, and increasingly seen at corporate product launches, or album launches, light graffiti is a 21st century phenomenon. Often produced as performance art, and often to just create incredible images, light graffiti takes what one knows about graffiti and turns it on its head. Created sometimes in studios,
sometimes amidst nature, but mostly on the streets atop urban facades and architectural elements like buildings and bridges, light graffiti is for artists whose creative impulses transcend traditional media and who can manipulate, calibrate and use light to create forms and write graffiti. Unlike traditional graffiti, light graffiti does not involve vandalism since it is just lights in long exposures. However, its connect and resonance to the urban graffiti movement is undeniable. Its increasing popularity in the 21st century, is as much due to the increasing availability of dSLR cameras, advances in portable light sources such as LEDs, as it is due to the advent of social media and websites where practitioners exchange and share images, ideas and techniques. Within the interesting realm of public engagement through light art and light graffiti, we talk about some of the most influential light artists of today - Lighting Design Collective, Cinimod Studio and MRI Light Painting. Pic: Tuomas Uusheimo
LIGHTING DESIGN COLLECTIVE BY TAPIO ROSENIUS “Lighting can be an ambient communicator, an explicit communicator, a way-finding device; it can be a lot of things, it can be entertainment – and that aspect is quite exciting.” – Tapio Rosenius Realizing the multifunctional potential of light, lighting designer Tapio Rosenius started his own practice - Lighting Design Collective. With an interdisciplinary approach to lighting to understand new possibilities for light, Tapio dismantled the classic design studio concept that focused on a narrow set of skills, to open a studio with a wider model. LDC now has an eclectic mix of digital and light artists, coders, motion graphics designers, architects and even a sociologist! And this can be seen in LDC’s incredible light works that deal with communication, identity, art, ambience, living architecture and interaction. Perhaps, it is no surprise that the award winning Silo 468 project has been the most fulfilling one for Tapio till date. The project was won as a competition organized by the city of Helsinki that required rejuvenating a disused oil silo. The LDC team transformed it into an incredible light art piece and a public space, beautifully respecting the waterfront and natural light. Prevalent wind conditions and the shimmering movement of light on the water surface shaped the lighting concept of the silo’s facade. Bespoke software was created using algorithms that simulate nature, responding to parameters such as wind speed and directions, temperature, bright light and snow. The patterns vary in relation to these parameters, creating constantly changing light murals. The software creates a fragmented system that also combines activity from birds, insects and fish, to produce organic animations using current data from the local weather. “I am interested in mixing different technologies, old and new, to create something meaningful in the lighting context. There’s an ongoing co-evolution between technology and society, which is a relevant topic for any designer. Our role, social behaviour and ability to accept new technologies change all the time, we need to be able to respond to it,” says Tapio. The silo is now a landmark attraction for the city. Helsinki was the World Design Capital (WDC) in 2012; and the facade of the silo is perforated by 2012 holes, respecting the year. Silo 468, thoughtfully justified the WDC status of the city with its responsive and responsible light art. Speaking of the dialogue between the
Pic: Tapio Rosenius
Pic: Hannu Iso-oja
natural and the artificial, Tapio remarks, “Natural light affects everything, your lifestyle, mood and personality.” Another project, Lusintesis by LDC uses biomimicry as its muse, and serves as a reminder of nature and the various opportunities that it offers. Designed as a permanent light intervention for the Biofore House, Lusintesis incorporates twenty-six vertical fin structures, embedded with LEDs. These architectural fins play with movement and constantly create patterns that remind one of the dappling light on a forest floor. Since the algorithm fed in takes data from biomimicry, there is no repetition in the movement of the fins in any format. Spatially, the pieces seek an interesting dialogue between natural light and artificial light that speaks of change and adaption. Tapio explains, “Generally speaking, artificial light is very unnatural, it is one directional, it is static, it doesn’t shift, it doesn’t change, it doesn’t do anything. It is utilitarian and if you put it in comparison with natural light - that we are completely accustomed to, very positively, there is a big gap. And how do we bridge that gap, even a little bit, without mimicking it, but by bringing in a sense of it, that is important.”
Lusintesis – Biofore House
Lusintesis – Biofore House
LIGHT : ART / LIGHT ART AND LIGHT GRAFFITI
CINIMOD STUDIO BY DOMINIC HARRIS In 2012, the year of the London Olympics, some fascinating light art projects were done that really reinvented the way particular landmark spaces were perceived. London based cross-discipline lighting practice; Cinimod Studio created a Mood Conductor for EDF Energy, which enabled participants to use gestural control and heart rate to display their mood through the lighting on the EDF Energy London Eye. Commissioned by Ignite London, the Mood Conductor formed a part of the Energy of the Nation activation that took place at the London Eye throughout the 2012 Olympic games. Dominic Harris created this experience that lent an unforgettable architectural scale to the power of expression at a human level. Harris too, credits this creativity to the multidisciplinary nature of his firm that enables its creative solutions. “Eight
years ago I founded Cinimod Studio, which is essentially a multidisciplinary design firm combining interaction design, lighting, architecture and art. I have a team of 25 designers, who come from a mix of different environments – architecture, lighting design, product design, 3d artists, product managers…” Encouraging, including and encompassing the public to interact with light has been effectively seen by Cinimod’s enticing performance light art called the Ice Angel. It gives the participants a glimpse of themselves depicted in an angelic form. The human performance serves as an input that makes a public visual statement through light, making it a stimulating story. Cinimod Studio introduces the digital twist of being a performance portrait device that unites the participant with their winged identity. The result is a surreal image revealing display. Another illusive and ethereal light sculpture by Cinimod Studio is the Emergence, which is
installed at Terminal II of Heathrow airport. Claiming the Special Projects Award at the Lighting Design Awards 2015, it was designed in close collaboration with Caviar House & Prunier. A unique landmark, the installation takes its inspiration from the movement of a school of fish underwater, a playful reference to Caviar House. It is a sculptural expression of the light patterns and shimmers that are created to reflect the way schools of fish swim iridescently. The complex structure comprises of LED arcs spiraling thirteen metres up to the ceiling. Made from the latest engineered carbon fiber composites, it manifests a kinetic moment in sync with interactive digital lighting. “I am someone who is very much motivated by challenges. If someone comes to me with an ambitious project, which has constraints and limitations, the project is particularly exciting for me. We try to use technology to get truly innovative design projects…” says Harris.
LIGHT : ART / LIGHT ART AND LIGHT GRAFFITI
Light up playlist
MRI LIGHT PAINTING BY RYAN WARNBERG AND MICHELLE MCSWAIN The urban sprawl of New York City has long been both an epicenter as well as an inspiration to a generation of light writers (graffiti artists). One of the most exciting names in light graffiti in contemporary times are that of NYC duo MRI Ryan Warnberg and Michelle McSwain, who pioneered into new territories of expression by starting a trend eight years ago that has now developed into an open source app used to create ‘light paintings’ by millions of people on their smart phones. Now working as a team to create long exposure light-painting photographs, Michelle recalls their foray into the field, “It was just purely for fun when we started out, but from there we floated our light paintings
on Flicker and spread our art among friends. Ryan had a lot of musician friends in the unusual underground scene in Brooklyn, this was before Brooklyn became what it is today. Soon they invited us to come and set up our tripod and camera, and shoot photos of Rave parties since there was all this crazy lighting.” Initially people did not understand what they did and they would be invited to shoot portraits. Realising the need to incorporate light painting in a social set up, they ended up creating a light-painting Photobooth at these parties. They’d set it up in a dark corner, with their tripod and a couple of colorful lights. Slowly, the trend caught on and before long they had their name and links on promotional flyers. While their growth was totally organic, ten years later the Photobooth began catering
to huge corporate brands like Microsoft in Seattle, Nike in Portland, and even Saudi Aramco Oil in Saudi Arabia. As a result they traveled all over the world and their audience grew from a group of kids at Bar Mitzvahs to corporate clients. Among their many achievements, the light painting duo, are most proud of the apps that they’ve created. “The main idea that tied this all together was the intention to bring more people into this. We wanted to make light painting more accessible to everyone,” says Ryan. Michelle adds, “Light painting is so much fun, everyone sees and wonders how to reproduce the ‘magic.’ ‘How do we do this?’ is the most frequently asked question we are faced with. Now with this Photobooth we can involve people and get their ideas and create work with them.” At a time when photo apps were still nascent
One of our first photos
Shot with the app
Light up playlist
and not yet big, Ryan and Michelle, inspired by an app that made photos shot on a 3G phone look like Polaroids, decided to make one for light painting. “So we made LightBomber. It took us really a long time to perfect it, it was a lot of work and we didn’t know what we were getting into,” says Ryan. They managed to create the long exposure / light painting app, LightBomber for iPhones as well as Androids. MRI’s art is deepening with layers of purpose, moving from spreading fun to the masses to a design-product perspective. While graffiti art is ephemeral protest art, Ryan and Michelle now have a corporate version of light painting, where they cater to corporate ads. They have also worked with schools and school-kids, with volunteers and teachers for non-profit events, they have found a sponsor in Spotlight and sometimes send the kids
boxes of various lights, that can be used for creating art with LightBomber. LightBomber is also about creating a business around art and learning from the ground up. “We have filled out every role from creative director to intern, we’ve got the best education in building a business around art and we feel lucky to have been able to monetize it. We got these products out, now we are moving on to partnering with other companies or device manufactures and creating more Apps,” says Ryan. For Michelle it’s always been graffiti over painting: “I think no matter what, we will always light-paint and do that kind of photography. As for the company LightBomber, it is looking for the next step,” concludes Michelle. From rejuvenating spaces, redefining places, to rebelling for causes; light combined with
technological advances, social and mix media, is seen to play various compelling new roles. Light art and light graffitti, creatively play numerous parts which are becoming widely and successfully adapted for public engagment, entertainment and expression. As seen in the works of Light Collective, Lighting Design Collective, Cinimond Studio as well as MRI, surprisingly, light, even in socio-political context, can communicate, influence and alter perception. In today’s exhausted visual material culture, the unintentional delicacy and the inaudible intimacy of light, makes it a rather unique element, that still possesses unexplored, enchanting dimensions, yet to be discovered. www.ldcol.com www.cinimodstudio.com www.mrilightpainting.com
LIGHT : ART / WOMEN ARTISTS WORKING WITH LIGHT
LIGHT WOMEN AHEAD Light art is still a relatively nascent art practice; tracing the evolution of light art through the works of three generations of women artists, Myna Mukherjee unravels their adventures with light. Despite their varied backgrounds and influences, there is a shared consciousness of sorts. All three bodies of work have the quality of poetic reveries in silent rooms, one catches fleeting glimpses of rich inner lives and introspective selves that lend to the making of their art. Through very diverse oeuvres each of them explore intersectional themes of femininity, empowerment, marginalization, multiplicity of selves, and the politics of representations, in a complex climate of hyper urbanisation, consumerism, and environmental decline.
SHEBA CHHACHHI Myth, metaphor and allegory proliferate Sheba Chhachhi’s light works with as much frequency as do personal and social histories. A long time chronicler of the women’s movement, Sheba is one of the few who embraces her multiple identities as both ‘activist’ and ‘artist’. She is also arguably one of India’s most prolific light
The Mermaid's Mirror, 2013
artists. Her engagement with the medium of light is both tangible and corporeal since the very inception of her work as photographer, sculptor and installation artist. It is the year 2001, imagine being enveloped by a saturation of coloured light, within the environs of a 21 feet wide x 15 feet high tent, in the middle of Pragati Maidan. Imagine traversing through a series of seven such translucent structures, contemplating life, death and healing; memory, perception and mirage. It is now 2015, we are at Sheba Chhachhi’s studio in South Delhi where one is discussing her experiments and encounters with light. Recalling one of her earliest and largest public art projects that focused on experiencing light as a sensory immersion rather than just an optical phenomenon, Sheba Chhachhi traces the genesis of her work Tejaskaya/Bodies of Light. “I wanted to explore the physical experience of light, where it would act on the entire body and where the body in turn would
also respond to light.” Drawing from several texts, especially Tibetan narratives around sub-consciousness and light, Sheba identified seven selves - each related to the seven psychological states that could be triggered by light. She created large tent-like structures arranged closely around the abstract geometry of a Mandala, where the viewer was invited to pass through deep saturations of different colors - from a very deep red, to yellow, then blue, travelling through a harsh white and finally emerging into the glow of a warm orange. Moving through the structure, conventional ways of relating to light were disrupted, creating instead instability that allowed the viewer to experience other nuances like intensity, spatial volume, gradations and modulations. Mapping each color to a stage in human existence from pre-natal to near-death, the artist invited the viewer to “re-journey within the Mandala,” simulating a process of healing and renewal. Collapsing notions of high art and public
Tejaskaya (Bodies of Light), 2002
LIGHT : ART / WOMEN ARTISTS WORKING WITH LIGHT
Top The Water Diviner, 2008 Bottom Locust Time, 2009
consumption, the work was viewed by thousands of non-gallery everyday folk. “It was very interesting to me that the kind of metaphysical connections I had made in the work, though not explicit, were being made by the people as well,” she says, a long time proponent of public art projects. The work was highly experimental and ambitious in scale. She faced several issues, including a restriction on the lights offered by the electrical companies that had commissioned the work. The biggest blow was to come later though, when the work was dismantled and scavenged for its parts, after it was donated as a permanent exhibit to the Trade Fair Authority (IITF). “I saw this is the death of the work and it was time to let it go. Yet it moved one out of the realm of the
absolutely material.” Talking about another set of works, Sheba recalls a device that she developed. “It was inspired by street toys that I found, to be precise, tiny toy TVs that I discovered earlier when I was working on my Cinema project,” says Sheba whose background in theatre and cinema fuels much of her work. The toy TVs were made out of cardboard boxes with a light bulb in the center and a rotating cylinder. The heat of the light bulb would make the cylinder rotate and make images on the screen move. “It was ingenious, simple and low cost. I used that in a large installation called the Mermaid’s Mirror which was around the figure of Bollywood actress Meena Kumari,” Sheba says. The work examined femininity, death,
love, desire and abjection. “Meena Kumari was a poet so you would expect her poetry to be outside the trope, but it almost reproduces her dialogues, in terms of the sentiment—she really embodies that abjection and a sense of dying for love, which is also how she eventually did die.” The TVs proved to be wonderful little objects and Sheba recreated 32 tiny TVs, about a foot and half in size, out of sturdier material, powered by normal incandescent light bulbs. Interestingly this heat driven rotation created a slight distortion and Sheba exaggerated this distortion, to the point that it became grotesque. “If it’s an image of a couple about to kiss, the lips get exaggerated and they morph into each other losing their shape— it creates a very interesting effect,” she comments. The rotation is governed by simple physics, as the heat builds up the spinning of the cylinder slows down and as it cools the rotation goes faster. Another iconic work The Water Diviner, saw two renditions, first at the Delhi Public Library, in 2008 and later by the KNMA in 2013. An experiential site installation in saturated blue light, simulating a deep underwater submersion and a world between spaces; the work was populated by a collection of illuminated books arranged in piles, and an extraordinary video installation of a swimming elephant. “For the original installation I used an abandoned swimming pool near the Delhi Public Library that had been turned into a dump, with rotting mattresses, fans and piles and piles of books that were going to be burnt. Because my project was examining the history of the city, these forgotten objects and location were perfect,” says Sheba. The installation required the viewer to descend into a 60 x 40 feet long space in an attempt to dissolve the separation between the viewing subject and the work. “The experiential work was meant to open up critical questions and think about the history of our relationship with water and how we have turned into mere consumers,” says Sheeba. Sheba’s most ‘conventional’ use of light, according to her, is her light boxes that have been quite critical to her work. “I have been interested in palimpsests, in layering and drawing from pre-modern and contemporary images, while building dense layers of images. The use of light and movement enables this, and light boxes are quite special because they are animated,” says Sheba who creates movement by layering translucent and transparent images that move across each other. The motion in the animated light boxes, create an illusion of movement, a form of disruption as a means
Top Today Will End, 2012 © Einzweidrei 012, the artist and Yvon Lambert Gallery Bottom left BlindStars StarsBlind, 2008 Bottom right I live under your sky too, 2011
to engage. The purpose then becomes to point out, and not necessarily define. To aid in contemplating and navigating the complex and often deeply rooted cultural and sociopolitical stances that envelop us. Taking on environmental concerns, her 2008 Locust Time, an animated lightbox draws an analogy between the 1,000-year (AD 957–1956) Chinese history of the migratory oriental locust, and climate change in Asia. The times when locusts swarm, leaving devastation in their wake, coincide with a high frequency of both floods and droughts. The lightbox is a futurist landscape of the floodplains of the Yamuna, encompassing Delhi and its environs, and including Agra and the Taj Mahal. There are many references and layers - satellite images,
toxic brown clouds of pollution hanging over women bathing in the river, seven mythical nag kanyas (snakewomen) in slow descent from the skies, women in shalabhasana (yogic locust pose), a singer on the riverbank like a jewel-like memory surviving only in the notes of ragas, mutant observers, survivors, scavengers and more. All the layers accentuate details of a densely worked map, and several are in motion, their shadows animated in slow endless repeated loops, which meet the ground anew at each cyclical rotation.
SHILPA GUPTA ‘Today will End’ - The words glow in cold neon light sprawled across the billboard breadth of an urban complex of buildings
against a night sky. They appear like a statement from the collective unconscious, disconnected from the immediacy of life, yet tenably real. The photo is taken a fair distance away from the building complex and includes the blurred hurtle of a speeding train that cuts the cityscape adding the perspective of both space and time rushing by. The image documents Shilpa Gupta’s first outdoor text and light installation in Vevey, Switzerland. Regarded as one of India’s most nonformulaic contemporary artists, Mumbai based Shilpa Gupta uses several interdisciplinary practices ranging from video, interactive light, computer based installations, photography and manipulated found objects. However, some of her most
LIGHT : ART / WOMEN ARTISTS WORKING WITH LIGHT
My East is Your West, 2014
distinctive works are from her body of text and light installations that occupy a delicate and often melancholic space between poetry and aphorisms. Following the tradition of conceptual art they are mostly iterative investigations around complex themes of culture, its consumption, of desire and personal agency. She describes her 2008 ‘Blind Stars Star Blind,’ indoor installation as being about “desire and vulnerability, attraction and deception, of power/ stars/ beauty and the temporality in these structures. It is a multilayered comment on imagination and deception at one hand and on greed and desire on the other. As the lights fade in and fade out slowly, a melancholy sets in. Desires and imagination may not be what they seem to - how does one perceive the truth, is it within the object or the understanding of it?” Shilpa started working with text and light in indoor spaces in 2004. Over the years her works have presented words as a living part of art environments and brought a poetic voice to the discourse of text art. They are like poignant archives of shared moments that articulate, reprehend and simultaneously celebrate our collective experience of modern life. Works like her 2012 neon installation ‘Where do I end and you begin’ are simple on the surface but have a tendency to linger in our memory like the residue of some interior hurt, or a subconscious ache of unfulfilled desire perhaps. Borrowing from public interventionist strategies and unexpected counter-cultural
traditions like graffiti, her outdoor light installations extend her text art aesthetics to real life and politics. Her 2011 ‘I live under your sky too’ was a massive (32-feet wide) site specific outdoor light installation erected by the sea on Carter Road in Bandra, Mumbai. Animated in LED lights and incorporating three different languages (English, Hindi and Urdu), the installation stretched out like a hijacked advertising billboard. Resembling old school bamboo lines used to dry fish in fishing communities, the installation was a metaphoric extension of the lines that divide our cities - class, gender, religion, poverty, and, the fragilities of existence associated with each of those divides. Wanting to engage with communities beyond the contemporary art audience, Gupta chose this particular public site carefully. In her words, “the sea has been a symbol for movement and migration over centuries. And Bandra, my neighbourhood, is immersed in diversity - people of all faiths, languages, and communities. That diversity has affected my sensibility in my overall practice as an artist over the last 15 years.” Speaking of the reactions to her work, she revels, “overwhelming with wonderful feedback from people across age groups and backgrounds. The most memorable was just after I had installed the work; this 60-year-old woman from my neighbourhood revealed how she loves my work showing up through her windows even after she draws the curtains at night!” Gupta’s most recent text art works moves away from the local, to span the geo-
political. Her 2014 ‘My East is your West,’ is a 10 metres long outdoor light installation. The title of her current Venice Biennale show is based on this work. Incorporating ‘light,’ a very primal element associated with vision, the artwork deals with “perception and ways of looking from different sites of being, be it physiological or geographical. In a world where distances and contexts can generate non homogeneous selves, the work celebrates multiplicity while also suggesting an ever present possible deception in the any permanent / singular kind of positing.” Gupta’s work reminds us of what it feels like to live in our cities and our worlds, our privilege of wealth and material goods and our poverty of time and reflection. They continue to provide a reflective space, a respite from the relentless static and consumerist daze of the modern world.
DEEPTI MALLA DATT Birthing through light the creation of functional artworks featuring the archetypes of the 64 Yoginis, Deepti Malla Datt’s work explores the Goddess in every woman. Artist Deepti straddles many worlds; that of advertising and fine art. She has been the creative producer on some of the betterknown events and campaigns in fashion and music; and as an artist she creates functional art, light boxes with paintings and photographs that feature women as the central protagonist. Her most recent project has been the creation of 64 light boxes, featuring the 64
Yoginis. As a student of women’s studies, Deepti always has been interested in the depiction of the feminine in the public forum. The Yognini’s are imagined as everyday women, engaged in daily pursuits. However, placed in context with the fifteen thousand year old spiritual lineage of India the works take on a deeper conceptual vocabulary, that emerges from her as objects of history and aesthetics. Her engagement with light springs from an artistic preference, “I find great beauty in light. As an aesthete, my appreciation for light to transform space is what brought me to merge photography and lighting into the functional-art form,” says Malla Datt. The creation of this body of work goes back many years when Malla Datt was engaged in sketching, drawing and giving shape to her vision. “I found myself renovating a 180 year-old, Portuguese palazzo in Assagao. Mural-artist Meera Dabeer helped translate my visions of ‘saris, floating underwater’ onto the walls. When it was all done, I stood one day in that huge, old, royal space transformed into a magical retro-futuristic realm of sensory perception, and realized I was standing in my dreams,” recalls the artist. The second time around her approach was of a matured visionary that recognized the process better. It took a while, more than a decade, to finally capitulate to the obsession that unexpressed visions become inside the mind, inside the being, of an artist. “It is the most sacred of processes, to be medium to the visions that come from the ethereal, become denser into form as thoughts, even denser then as words and sound, more dense then finally in physical form manifested,” says Malla Datt. The series that was created after this intense process features artworks like Sakini Mitrarupini (The Friend), which captures one of the artist’s friends relaxing on a bench that overlooks the sea. The serene nature of the image sets a contemplative and reflective mood. In Jvalamalini Nagini, (The Snake Goddess), viewers are presented with another image of a woman this time looking out the window of her apartment at lush coconut palm trees watched over by a snake like plant that sits coiled in the flower pot like hidden potential. In a third, titled Ghana Maha Jagadamba (The Great Mother of The World,) the work-worn hands of the ‘mother figure’ pats into place a collection of dried leaves. The hands are adorned with green glass bangles, gold amulets and gold rings, indicating that the woman possess a certain amount of status in society, her act of nurturing hinting to a larger dimension.
Top left Jvalamalini Nagini Snake Goddess, Top right Sakini Mitrarupini The Friend, Bottom Ghana MahaJagadamba Great Mother of the World. 2014-2015
Malla Datt approaches her work as Sādhanā, a daily practice - something, to which one can dedicate a disciplined commitment. This body of work is inspired by the Chausatth Yogini, and the profound implications of this ancient feminine paradigm that pre-dates what became Hinduism. “The resonance with my own belief-systems and geneticmemory was too vibrant to miss. After this ‘recognition,’ my work was to figure out how to make art my practice - and so the 64 Yogini series. Creating these 64 images of antiquity in a translationcontext of modernity is my sādhanā - this is my geetanjali, my offering - it feels authentic and in alignment. In my art, in
my sādhanā, is where I connect into my source,” says Datta of the light boxes that have been displayed at the Beethoven Gallery in Goa and internationally as well. While creating her work, Malla Datt does not focus only on technique or form but mostly on feeling. The work is only complete or satisfactory when it evokes that feeling that matches with her vision. “My job is as doula, to birth the conceptual from the ether into the material. From idea to incarnation, from selection to execution, I am guided purely by instinct as the means of engagement with energy as it emerges, expressing into density,” she says. For Malla Datt, the artist is chosen by the art form rather than the artist choosing it.
LIGHT : ART / SHADOW PLAY WITH PUNEET KAUSHIK
SHADOW PLAY or THE SHADOW MASTER Myna Mukherjee talks about interesting interplay of light in the works of artist, Puneet Kaushik. The prolific and versatile Puneet Kaushik creates work that cusps tradition and antiquity with the modern and contemporary. Balancing high art and indigenous craft-techniques, Kaushik’s works are depictions of aesthetic and material cracks underlying the visible reality of urban life. They are abstract, neo-expressionist, collages of kaleidoscopic materials and techniques - wire mesh, paint, sewing, embroidery, tufting, line drawings and organic dyes that bring to the surface histories of tension that exist just beneath the ordinariness of everyday lived humanity. Through his work Puneet captures the spirit of human fragility and the ability to transcend it. Kaushik began his artistic journey from Jamia in Delhi (1992-1996), to Berkely in California (1998 -2000), where he studied mixed media art. Subsequently he has been showing consistently in India and across the globe with more than 20 solo exhibitions and over 15 group shows. Light and shadow are vital to Puneet’s work, in fact one would go as far as to say Puneet’s sculptures and installations are incomplete without their shadows which are created by a play of incandescent light. Puneet uses a profusion of tactile material to create intangible illusions of the matter within. The absence of light plays as much role in his creations as light itself. “I was inspired to create works with fabric and woven material from an early age when I was exposed to my grandmother’s crotchet work that covered our furniture, was used as tapestry and table cloths. Part of my lived history, and synonymous with my earliest memories of home, it was almost as if it was part of our family identity,” says Puneet. The tradition was continued by his mother who does tatting, and even his wife who is a textile designer. Born and brought up in Delhi, Puneet was surrounded by oldworld charm and nostalgia. So much so that he wanted to give the memories a more permanent manifestation. Consequently Puneet’s formative years as an artist were marked by a desire to use these traditional methods towards a more enduring form in his artwork. After studying textiles, Puneet began to explore the possibilities of creating sculptural works
Emotional Sacs, 2001
Take it or leave it, 2009
with crochet and fabric. His early influences were woven handloom, basket weaving and crocheting - he travelled to visit textile loom factories and outlets, and he combined the weaving processes with the patterns for crotchet. The first manifestation of this may be seen in his work Emotional Sacs; an organic sculpture created in 2001 combined his love for textile weaving and sculpture. The work was lit by yellow LED light. Each sac contained letters, personal memoirs, physical fragments of intimacies - like hair, nails cut lovingly; and like little prayers - red thread was wrapped around these emotional sacks and because they had associations with past pain and pleasure, the work harkened back to previous relationships; the new phase in his life was embraced through a spiritual light. Puneetâ€™s experiments with LED light were nascent and his peers had not attempted to light an artwork in this manner, where the light itself was part of the work. This was soon followed by another work titled The Embryo, done in 2003. The throbbing, pulsating embryonic creature made of fabric and red threads came to life with red LED light that was woven and wrapped around the sculptural form. Puneetâ€™s inquisitive mind soon led him to access wire from Chandni Chowk. He was drawn to the intricate networks and shadows that were cast on the walls and streets. The play of light in a work like Take it or Leave it (2009) introduced metallic cords woven with steel. Once again light played an important role in creating the shadow patterns. The use of light and shadow may be linked to the geometric patterns created by some of the intricate jali-work seen in Islamic architecture, although the patterns are more spontaneous rather than calculated. Always hungry to experiment with different material, Puneet introduced latex with woven material and light in his works in 2010. He further enhanced the work by adding another dimension and fusing in elements - metallic cords and red beads that he sourced from Dariyaganj in the old quarters of Delhi. He had seen the metallic cords and red beads being used for embroidering, and he wanted to repurpose and refashion them into installations with dense lights illuminating them, this time from within. Recurring motifs can be seen in his recent works Ensnare (2013), a rendition of an earlier body of work that has been in development since 2009. Created using steel cords, that refer back to the crotchet
LIGHT : ART / SHADOW PLAY WITH PUNEET KAUSHIK
patterns in his early works, Ensnare is a hyper sized installation of metallic cobwebs that shimmer and shade on the framing walls, much like dimming and intensifying of lucid memories in time and space. Directly referring to the adage â€˜cobwebs of the mind,â€™ Ensnare is a metaphor for the density of woven memories as well as their fragility. In 2014 Puneet created another version of Ensnare as part of his solo booth at the India Art Fair. This time the material was woven copper wire and suede beads, and the sculpture was airier with a gentler play of light and subsequently fainter shadows. His other range of works, from the robust sculptural wire-mesh pieces to the delicate paperwork stained with tea, hibiscus and natural materials were all well received at the India Art Fair. Puneet is one of the few artists with in depth and hands on skill with indigenous folk and material crafts of India. He continues to use traditional techniques to create very urban and contemporary ensemble pieces. www.puneetkaushik.com Top Ensnare, 2009 bottom Ensnare Copper, 2014
Agni, metallic cords, led & steel installation, 2004
lIGHT : ART / LIGHT IN INDIAN FESTIVITIES
The festival of Lights The spectacle and carnivalesque nature of light in the context of India’s festivals and marriages may be seen as a form of public art. Georgina Maddox explores the curated experience of various forms of pop and kitsch art that transcend into moments of High-Art through the photographs of a select group of photographers. Focusing on the way in which artificial light has changed the lives of the common person on the street; it has revolutionized the everydayness of life and defined our experience of urban spaces. The light bulb in comparison to the spaceship is a small revolution and yet it touches the manner in which we experience the everydayness of our lives. No matter how squalid and cramped the urban sprawl, the spectacle of the festival brings the city alive, with the throbbing of lights in all sizes, hue and temperature, creating a dizzying world that transforms reality into a dream-state. The festival, whether it is Dev Diwali, Durga Puja or the marriage season in the capital, creates an aura of a secular celebration. Though strong in its religious moorings, the pageantry of any Indian festival captures the topography of the city that remains ‘very contemporary in nature.’
Dayanita Singh A building draped in blue fairy lights, appears festive, that is until the viewer’s eyes catch the ambulance parked meaningfully outside the building. Does the ambulance indicate a horrible accident amid the festivity of a marriage? There are deliberately no explanations to guide the viewer through Dayanita Singh’s 2010 photo-book “House of Love,” since one of Singh’s intends is to mystify her viewer. Singh explores the relationship between photography, memory, and writing. These and other images appear in this photo-book, a veritable work of fiction divided into nine short stories. This story could be one of lost loves amid the pageantry and pomp of the wedding… the men wandering the streets, a kind of insomniac who stumbles through a vivid dreamscape and collides with other images in the book. In another frame she captures the surreal, absurd and yet touchingly naïve image of a blue mountainside constructed out of paper, bamboo and thermocol for the oncoming Shivaratri celebrations. And in another image a leafless tree is transformed into a flaming red halcyon, a character in an absurd play. This body of work is characterized by long-exposure images shot in a slow ballet between silent blues and fiery reds. Dayanita’s two bodies of work House of Love and Dream Villa are primarily
Pics: Dayanita Singh
night photography documenting urban phenomenon and interestingly, Dayanita has the distinction of never using a flash in any of her photography, especially these that were shot in really low light. For someone who has shot primarily in classic black-and-white, Dayanita’s tryst with colour photography may be likened to a psychedelic explosion, as if she were seeing colour for the first time ever. Her choice of Fauvist colours of a Matisse palette are accentuated if not created by the available light during the night when all is lit by artificial light and the moon is just ornamentation. Dream Villa risks this lunacy as it records, with a relentlessness that dispenses with comfort, how the modern moon quietly withdraws the tenderness of her protection from the brilliant cruelties of artificial light. Singh’s series of colour photographs presents a landscape, which exists as much in the artist’s imagination as in the real world. They explore a language of colour, darkness and light that is disturbingly at odds with one’s normal, waking memories of the night. Dayanita’s lusciously reproduced images play the primary role in conveying her voice, where her photographic books demand to be read, not just seen; and her ‘texts’ create their own sensory worlds. Dayanita describes herself as an artist whose medium is photography and the book is her primary form. She was born in 1961 in New Delhi. She studied Visual Communication at the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad, and Documentary Photography at the International Center of Photography in New York.
Pics: Arun Bhat
It is sunset on the steps of Dasaswamedh Ghat leading to the river Ganga in Varanasi. The Ghat is lit with a combination of lights small and large. The powerful streetlights define the ambience while the oil lamps bring in the much-needed character to the space. Combined with the darkness of the night, they create a wide range of lighting that is often difficult to capture in one frame. Arun Bhat is an itinerant photographer, who spends an entire year hopping from festival to festival without ever getting to visit and photograph every one of them. Photographing Varanasi during Dev Diwali,
lIGHT : ART / LIGHT IN INDIAN FESTIVITIES
perched above the Ghats camera in hand is an annual ‘ritual’ for Bhat. He is looking to capture that ‘unseen depth’ of Varanasi that is rarely understood by its visitors. He relies on the night and the spectacle of artificial light it brings with it to create this transformation. The Puja takes another dimension during Dev Diwali, a festival celebrated in Varanasi by lighting thousands of oil lamps that is a delight to the eyes. During the day, Varanasi is a busy mix of pilgrims hoping to earn merit in the other world, businesses that depend on them and tourists who are looking to witness all this. As the night falls, the dimly lit alleys grow quiet and everyone congregates at an explosion of lights at the Dasaswamedh Ghat, where the evening ritual of the Ganga Aarti is performed by priests swaying torches under floodlit steps leading to the river. Behind all this is a belief that moves the city and an energy that holds its constructs together. “My motive has always been to capture this belief and energy that serves as the city’s foundation,” says Bhat. “I attempt go behind the faces and their interactions, trying to catch an unseen flow of otherworldly forces that appear to define the city’s way of life. The people, the lights and the rituals form manifestations of
this internal energy through which I try to represent the ethereal mystery of the city.” Some of the challenges of shooting at night are the thronging crowds, the dominating darkness and a thousand hotspots in the frame. The night-sky creates empty spaces that appear stark and unwieldy against the dramatic light below. “These factors make it extremely hard to balance the light and create a soothing effect in the photographs. It takes careful assessment of lightdistribution to understand what compositions work, what needs to be included and what has to be kept out of the frame,” says Bhat sharing some of his process. Adding, “Photographing in Varanasi has been an important part of my evolution in becoming confident at capturing the essence of a place in most diverse lighting conditions.”
Sudhanshu Verma As a native of the Pink City, Sudhanshu Varma has a view of the city that is extremely different from that of the tourist; his photographer’s eye moves to capture surreal and conceptual images. Part of his image making process is one of self-discovery, while the other is about unraveling the layers of a city and its people. “The Pink City is wonderful and is known
for its heritage and ethnic culture. Of course there are factors that make Jaipur a generic city, even then I feel really lucky to be here as a photographer,” says Verma. Despite the proliferation of imagery in a city like Jaipur, with its majestic buildings and postcard moments, Verma has chosen to explore the back-lanes of the city where a string of fairy-lights brings life to a destitute street. The warm shades of yellow and red. Capturing urban graffiti in a city square or the poignant image of a rag-and-bone garbage collector cleaning up after the festivities is what draws Verma’s attention, rather than just the splendor of the festivities. “Understanding light has always been the key factors to create a great photograph, though it is not the only thing that matters, it definitely is one of the most essential things indeed. There are different types of lighting techniques and equipments used by professional photographers to control and manipulate the available light, like reflectors, strobes, flashes etc. But I love shooting in natural and available light, that is my kind of thing.” For Verma working in low light conditions was overcome by using a high ISO to get the right exposure, though the fallout is a grainy image when enlarged. “One of the major
Pics: Sudhanshu Verma
lIGHT : ART / LIGHT IN INDIAN FESTIVITIES
Pic: Sudhanshu Verma
problems I face is the ‘camera focusing’ in low light, especially in weddings,” says Verma who does resort to using a flash once in a while especially for his more commercial wedding photographs. However, he loves the challenge of shooting during festivals since that allows him to operate under ‘tricky’ circumstances and conditions. “I usually use ‘fill flash’ or the trick of bouncing the flash light off the ceiling or walls on the full frame body to capture natural looking pictures,” he reveals. While he believes that every festival has its own stories and reasons held behind each ritual, the festival also presents itself as a learning ground for discovering new techniques.
Tapati Guha Thakurta The city of Kolkata, erstwhile Calcutta, is largely defined by the autumnal festival of Durga Puja. While the slaying of the buffalo demon Mahishasura by goddess Durga in her role as Mahishasuramardini, astride her lion, is cardinal and key to the festival, many aspects of the festival have developed to include a secular pageantry. This usually involves food, stalls, musical nights, plays and family outings, and crossclass, cross-religious groups that mingle during the festival. The Puja pandals have
also undergone a change over the years and have moved from more traditional tropes to include modern manifestations that move beyond cultural and geographical boundaries. One of the key innovations of the pandals is the creative use of light. From the psychedelic LED lights and halogen spotlights to a swan-shaped barge covered in light bulbs, the variety of lighting employed is quite staggering. Art historian Tapati Guha Thakurta explores in-depth the evolving phenomenon of Durga Puja in her yet-to-be published book, In the Name of the Goddess. “It has led me from my training in history into my untrained foray into urban ethnography, from the field of art history into that messy space of production and practices that fall under the rubric of popular visual culture, from the secure enclave of libraries, archives and museums into the chaos and crowds of a street festival. Without realizing it, I also found myself flung from the role of writer to that of amateur photographer and book designer.” As an exhibitionary event spread across the entire metropolis, the Durga Puja also lays out for mass viewing a vast display of architectural and archaeological sites, craft tableaux, tribal art villages, and new orders
of public art light installations. “Every year, the small electrical firms of the district town of Chandannagar, who came to monopolize the work of the illumination of the metropolitan festival, vied with the pandals to keep up with the times. Hundreds of tiny coloured bulbs, wired on to bamboo frames, brought to life dinosaurs and beauty queens, train accidents and literacy drives. It was routine to see, in these lighted panels leading into the pandals, events ranging from the very local to the global—from the garlanding of a tiger by a drunken man in the Kolkata zoo, the assassinations of Rajiv Gandhi or Phoolan Devi, the parallel deification of Princess Diana and Mother Teresa in the year of their deaths (1997) and the destruction of the World Trade Center towers in 2001,” writes Guha-Thakurta. Anything, it seems, can go in this field of Durga Puja pandals and lighting. For a festival that has, for several decades now, geared itself to the production of spectacles, there has always been unfettered local license to copy, reproduce and reinvent whichever monument or contemporary event caught the fancy of producers and the public. www.dayanitasingh.com www.paintedstork.com www.sudhanshuverma.com
Pics: Tapati Guha Thakurta
LIGHT : ART / LIBERTY CINEMA in photographs
THE LEGENDARY LIBERTY Shahid Datawala, designer, photographer and contemplator of details; talks to Mrinalini Ghadiok; and walks us through one of Mumbaiâ€™s most luscious art deco theatres, the Liberty Cinema.
LIGHT : ART / LIBERTY CINEMA in photographs
With his camera clutched ambitiously in one hand and distant dreams floating copiously in his glimmering eyes, Shahid made countless trips to the Liberty over the span of a year to understand, assimilate and capture the ceaseless pulchritude of the timeless edifice. Spending hours on end walking the space, breathing the enigma and painting meticulously mediated images in his mind; Datawala chose to capture the brilliance of this chichi theatre, lavishly doused in art deco, opulently characterized by Canadian cedar and Burma teak paneling, curvaceous handrails sliding smoothly down the stepwells, bedecked ceiling configurations, with cascading velveteen stage curtains; in a stark composition of desaturated, almost pagan boldness. His collection stands as an unflinching sonata of silver and grey against the kaleidoscopic reality of the 1940’s art deco erections in Mumbai. A busy man, with few words to share, Shahid lets his photographs do more of the talking. Yet, we ask and he tells; about his journey,
his experience and rebuilding the legendary Liberty. Why did you choose to photograph the Liberty Cinema? I have always been fascinated by art deco architecture. I tend to get drawn to it. And to add to that, it is a cinema. Cinema spaces fascinate me, and inspire me.
It was quite a surreal experience wandering the space. It is extremely majestic and grand. Even though it is absolutely lifeless, you can still feel the energy of people there. Sometimes I would just sit and stare, and imagine what this cinema would have been like, in its heyday. Sadly, it is not a functional cinema anymore.
It took a year for you to shoot and put this series together. I imagine that your experience at the Liberty would have been different every time you visited. It was very different indeed. Each time was a different experience; I saw it in an entirely new light. The space offered me a new perspective every time I was there.
How do you see the space through your lens, observing details and composing images? Very often, I would go and just spend time at the Liberty – looking, and feeling, and observing the space, waiting for an image to develop in my head. There was so much to see in all the detailing, that it was a process to compose an aesthetically pleasing frame.
What was your experience walking through that space? What struck you about it and made you want to photograph it? Walking around the Liberty was like being a part of Stanley Kubrick’s ‘The Shining’.
Did you always visit when it was empty? Do you find it sanctimonious or satirical, photographing a cinema space, which is meant to be filled with people? The Liberty was empty every time I visited.
LIGHT : ART / LIBERTY CINEMA in photographs
I wanted to see it in its calmness; I feel a sense of serenity in the space without the people. The grandeur is more visually appealing, and it speaks to me more when it is empty. The space begins to get distracting when it is filled with people. I find people distracting in my work of such nature. How do you establish a certain mood in your work? Does light play a pivotal role? Light is one of the most important elements in my work. Light gives life to an image. Lighting either makes or breaks an image. There seems to be a surreal glow in your photographs. Did you experiment with different light levels to choreograph the series? I only shoot with available light. I never use additional lights in my works; it destroys the emotion of the space. All the photographs at the Liberty were captured using long exposures. The only light was from existing
sources, those used in the cinema when it was functional. Your images carry a certain peculiarity, of being dark, stark and hard hitting. Is this intentional or consequential of the space? It is very much intentional. This is the way I experienced the space, and for me it was to give it the respect that it deserves in its own character. The architecture had that feeling and it demanded to be seen in that light. High contrast, bright light and deepened shadows; it is a very intentional depiction of the contextuality of the space. The lighting in almost all cinemas from this era was very dark and mysterious. My endeavour was to bring it alive in the way the naked eye saw it and experienced it. And so he does. Shahid Datawala shoots the iconic Liberty Cinema in Mumbai, capturing a stealthy obscurity in an enchanting continuance of intensity. firstname.lastname@example.org
LIGHT : ART / WALKING THROUGH BHAGIRATH PALACE
the Palace of Lights Artist Satadru Sovan takes us shopping at one of India’s biggest wholesale market for everything luminous. Georgina Maddox describes the zestful expedition as Paroma Mukherjee captures intriguing moments through her lens.
The ‘gates’ to Bhagirath Palace, in Chandni Chowk, are guarded by two sentinels of popular culture—Mc Donald’s and Kumar Multiplex Cinema Hall; in fact one may almost miss the right turn into a small lane in the throng of crowds. However, when you do turn, you enter into what is known as India’s largest wholesale market for electrical lights and other electronic goods. Built over what once used to be an actual Palace, commissioned by Begum Samru—a courtesan who became powerful during the fading Mughal era - it was bought over by Seth Bhagirath after whom it is now named. Now it is a bustling market where goats, tea stalls and shop owners jostle with set designers and artists, for here you can buy anything at a rate that even the South Delhi hotspot for sourcing, Mubarakpur Kotla, cannot offer. Everything from chandeliers that resemble Swarovski crystals, to strobe lights, halogens, LEDs, spot lights and all manner of decorative lighting that comes in all shapes and colours, is available for those willing to trundle the lanes and walk the talk. Besides being a main supplier and source for industry dealers, Bhagirath Palace is the Mecca for all artists who work with light. Today, artist Satadru Sovan Banduri has made the trip from his studio in a transYamuna suburb of Delhi, to the Palace of
Lights to investigate what new inspiration it has in store for him. Sovan, a Fulbright Research Scholar who is affiliated with the Digital Arts and New Media Master’s degree program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, is a multimedia artist whose work ranges from dexterously executed paintings to light-boxes, LED lit panels and cylinders. “While I was studying in California my subject was light: It was divided into theatrical light, cinematographic light, performance or 360 degree light, animation light and still-image light. I also studied how light can work with software and I got to know about LED lights before they actually came to India,” says Sovan. While his content is grounded in the local with a vast repertoire of imagery referencing Indian architectural wonders like the Qutab Minar and the Taj Mahal, juxtaposed against the latent and suppressed sexuality of India’s denizens; Sovan has a wide global appeal. Having studied light and its effects on the human psyche, Sovan creates an atmospheric ambience through his use of blue, LED light, a signature style that marks many of his light boxes. “My subject is gender-sexuality and I think of it as hidden pockets in the larger society. The metaphor I have chosen to convey
the hidden yet apparent nature of India’s metropolitan youth, is blue…it is a kind of crystal blue, that is bright yet dreamy,” says the artist. Creating work with light is not an inexpensive affair, which is why artists like Sovan often make the trip to Bhagirath Palace. Here fabricators and shop owners have to be cajoled to work with artists since they mainly cater to bulk markets, but Sovan has managed to strike a deal with shop owners to buy not just LED lights, but crystals, lighting tracks and glow-in-the dark phosphorescence strips that he often works with. “Over time I encountered many areas in the city where I could source local lights since importing them from abroad was not feasible. I roamed around Bhagirath, Karol Bagh, looking for kitsch items like crystals and glow in the dark lights, panels and so on,” says Sovan whose journey from his home to the metro, through the crowded lanes with its kitschy shop window displays provides him with an ample amount of inspiration on how light affects the life of the common people. Now Sovan is a regular at Bhagirath and an asset to take you on a guided tour of all things that blink and wink. www.satadrusovan.wordpress.com www.paromamukherjee.wordpress.com
LIGHT : ART / WALKING THROUGH BHAGIRATH PALACE
LIGHT : Art / INTERACTING WITH LIGHT
A perspective A radiant perspetive by Shailin Smith on the interaction of light, human behaviour, culture and design practice. “The eyes may be confused in two ways - by a change from light to darkness or from darkness to light; and the wise will recognise that the same thing happens to the soul.” - Extract from a quote by Plato. Light is an intrinsic part of our lives, and the thought that there may be an absence of it, never occurs. According to the third verse of The Book of the Genesis, when God said, “Let there be light” ~ (The Book of Genesis, The First Book of the Old Testament in The Bible), maybe all darkness in every sense, ceased to exist and the world commenced as we know it. This attraction towards light is much like ‘the attraction of a moth to the flame,’ though we might not risk smouldering ourselves, but somewhere that part of us, that is groaning in darkness, suddenly ceases to exist. Human beings also move towards light, respond to it, interact with it and react to it. Different light sources have direct impacts on our mood, which in turn regulate our behavioural pattern. This conscious and subconscious dependence guides the level of activity and the type of emotion we should carry into a space. These effects
Sainte Chapelle Choeur
Hubble's Wide View of 'Mystic Mountain' in Infrared
Silverdale Rock Pool
likely relate back to light qualities that we associate with at different times of day, as well as light qualities of different seasons. Human beings rely on light to inform them of the time of day and consequently, the mood and activities that should follow. These directly impact our psychology, our cognizance and our reactions. By simply putting light in the right place, it directs the path of experience and encourages interaction either with a space or an object. It perhaps, gives life to another perspective. Designers, artists, architects and such, use this premise to mobilize attraction, interaction and perception, with their spaces, artworks and environments. Since time immemorial exemplary monuments have been erected by diverse cultures, winning the praise of succeeding generations. Why do individuals living in the modern world experience the feeling of enthusiasm when visiting a well-designed architectural environment produced by another culture that is otherwise far removed by centuries, language, and customs? It would also be interesting to then ask, why present-day travelers step
Museum of Islamic arts SOP
inside the Gothic cathedrals of Europe and stand in awe before the splendor of colored light streaming through the stained glass? Or why does a child gasp at the functioning of a simple light infused toy? A garden during daylight, a well lit building at night, an art exhibition oriented through light, a museum with defined light fixtures, are all perhaps a few examples of the relevance, importance and the experience of why human beings are attracted to light. A sixth-century chronicler once documented the experiences of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul with the words, “One would declare that the
Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology Textile Machinery Pavilion
place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within,” and years later when visitors enter that same building and continue to praise its interior mystical light, it is good reason to believe that light definitely shares the most innate relationship with human existence and culture. When we investigate all emotional and behavioral effects that are unique to light, we can see that there is much more to light than just sufficient quantity. In the realm of art and design, we can do much more than simply add light to a space or an
object. Anything we introduce thereafter is identified through the existence or absence of light. In this process lighting design then becomes the process of conceptualizing what lighting should accomplish and how and where that light should be delivered. In the interaction of the arts with light there exists a space for experimentation and for exploration of new possibilities, and within it lies a meditative space in which one is held briefly in the present moment. This encounter affords insights into human responses towards creativity and its access to cognitive movements, and the ways of knowing and unravelling. Light not only transfigures the ordinary, but also integrates collective responses of the intellect with the body, emotions, desires, and will. The intervention in using light as a tool to enhance experiences makes light a significant part of every space, artwork and element of design. The use of natural light by sourcing and directioning sunlight or the use of artificial sources of light, either path is chosen as a premise to define the nature of human interaction. Through this practice and conditioning, communication with the audience becomes unspoken and experiential. These experiences in turn create a pattern that kindles memory and designs a condition and an emotion that stays on as part of the interaction process. Today we are, because of the existence of light and we are able to mobilize it according to our needs. But as progressive as we are, there will always be the need to develop new ways of coexisting with and harnessing the technology of light to our advantage, and perhaps this is what will continue to sustain our attraction to light.
LIGHT : ART / LIGHTING ART GALLERIES
The White Box vs. A Contrived Space Mrinalini Ghadiok and Mridu Sahai Patnaik in conversation with leading Indian lighting designer, Lyle Lopez, and some of the most coveted gallery owners in the country; explore the art of lighting art.
Gallery Maskara, Mumbai
The Indian art scene seems to be in an interesting state of flux. Not long ago, there were just a few galleries. Now there is a biennale, an art fair, an international auction house representation, a gallery scene with the help of bulletins like the Mumbai art map, local auction houses, Indian artists being represented through galleries, international museums featuring their works around the world and much more. In essence it has become rather spirited. In recent years, the numbers of private and public art galleries in India have risen considerably, and usually are in close proximity to art districts of the city they are in. Mumbai has seen the Kala Ghoda district evolve into its art quarter, whereas Delhi has the Lado Sarai locale. This has helped create an integrated eco system of art within the city itself. Over the years, even the architecture and design of such public spaces has evolved, thereby altering the perception of the art
they house. Art today, has come to be more acknowledged and appreciated by civilians and not just aficionados. The spatial design and display of art has undergone significant transformations. Exhibitions in galleries do not focus only on presenting the artwork; they also aspire to influence the way the piece is perceived, and this is achieved by creating a gratifying experience for the art viewer. Lighting plays a vital role in this context and is one of the most decisive attributes of any art space. However, to create an ideal ambience for art houses and galleries, it is imperative to control the light. Traditionally, this was done by limiting the lighting to artificial sources. Whereas many art houses of today like the Kunsthaus in Bregenz, Graz effectively and sensitively maximize the appropriate use of natural as well as artificial light in conjunction, to create desirable environs. A controlled lighting environment often leads gallery
owners and curators to want a White Box solution, where lighting is uniform and presumably ideal for presenting art. Understanding this landscape and challenging the prevailing White Box lighting ideology, we initiated a series of conversations between eminent gallery owners and prolific lighting designer Lyle Lopez, who has given engineered solutions to several of these galleries across the country. We look at how his intervention has not only enhanced but also transformed the perception of art displayed in these spaces. The array of galleries discussed in this issue, ranges from young to old, representing mid-career to established artists, exhibiting everything from cutting edge new media to sculpture to art, displayed at varying scales and volumes of spaces â€“ all lit, essentially with a particular light kit, designed by Lyle, yet adapted and used contrastingly by all galleries, as per the individual needs of their collection, audience and spatiality.
Gallery Espace New Delhi
GALLERY ESPACE NEW DELHI Well-known Indian modern artist, MF Husain inspired and encouraged veteran, Renu Modi to open an art gallery in Delhi, twenty-five years ago. Over time, the gallery’s name became synonymous with representing artists who held the forefront of art in India in the eighties like Jagdish Swaminathan, Manjit Bawa, Krishen Khanna, Bhupen Khakkar and Vishwanathan. Back then, art circulation in India was limited to informal means, and Espace became one of the foremost galleries to give the Indian art world, a paramount platform, that spotted and exhibited quiescent talent, including some of the most celebrated artists of today, like Subodh Gupta and Ashim Purkayastha. Since its inception, the then modest space of the gallery is now transformed into an extensive three level display. Renu describes, that at that time, the concept
of lighting art was non-existent in India. Lighting a gallery that showed various interdisciplinary mediums of art needed an open and flexible lighting solution. In 2005, when Renu added a basement space to the gallery, a friend recommended that she engage Lyle, a professional lighting designer to give his expertise on the project. He simply explained his intent to her and said, “Every work can be lit in the gallery.” Reminiscing the time before she met Lyle, Renu quips, “Now when I look back, from 1989 till 2005, there was hardly any lighting. It was such an amateurish thing to do – putting tracks and adjusting the light accordingly without realizing that a scallop is being formed around the painting; and we really didn’t know how to light sculptures at that time.” She explains that artists too, weren’t as particular about lighting. Now with the advent of new mix media in art, everything requires special lighting, and even artists inquire about it specifically.
Lyle, with his electrical engineering background understood the science of lighting and with his exposure to art, thought of putting together an interesting lighting kit that could be used to create various ambiences and light effects. The kit was designed to give enhanced flexibility to the curators. “I didn’t have access to lights to play around with in 2005. I saw myself as being more of a technical selector of a kit – where I kept thinking that we needed some tracks, or some lighting heads. In halogens, I learnt that it was the only lamp that gave 100% color rendition and at that time, it came with four different beam angles. I kept wondering how many 12 degree ones do we need, how many twenty-four or thirty six? Are these safe as far as UV is concerned? I thought, lets put together a kit, but after putting it together, I wondered who was going to be able to use it. I’ll put different fixtures, a controller and a three-circuit track with different
LIGHT : ART / LIGHTING ART GALLERIES
Gallery Maskara, Mumbai
angled spotlights and filters, which can then be broken into control groups for creating different ambiences. All this, without knowing what would happen once a curator stepped in.” However, in the case of Espace, someone of Lyle’s office would come down to the gallery and set up the lights from this very kit, as per the requirements of the show. Eventually, the gallery assistant Bahadur, learnt about the controls and by the end of it, even had angle details of fixtures on his fingertips. “I never realized that lighting art was also an art,” Renu adds. Due to the flexibility in design, even challenging lighting solutions of complete darkness and focused spots were achieved for artists like Manjunath Kamath, Nilima Sheikh and Jehangir Jani. When Manjunath Kamath’s terracotta sculptures were on display at Espace, Renu stated that he wanted an all-dark space, with light illuminating only the art pieces. The lighting kit made this possible with ease. Lyle recollects that Jehangir Jani’s Saints gold-
leaf exhibition, comprising of sculptures and paintings, required a peculiar setting, “I want the effect to be sepulchral, where it is really dark and one can only see the white and gold artworks," was the brief given to Lyle. So he used white light with amber filters from the kit and beautifully achieved a somber effect of a halo, which complimented the artworks unconditionally. As Lyle puts it, the takeaway from this particular exchange was a change in mindset, where the designer and the gallery owner, managed to achieve new neutrality, a versatile vocabulary of illumination. “Every bit of it was worth it. The gallery’s biggest asset after its space, is light. Lighting makes an artwork magical,” says Renu.
Gallery Maskara Mumbai Eight years ago, curator and gallery owner Abhay Maskara, founded Gallery Maskara, which, at the time, was synonymous with works that were at the ‘edge of
the art world.’ Today, Gallery Maskara is essentially the pre-eminent gallery for art that in actual sense rejects preconceived notions of art, in terms of medium, scale and materiality. It houses art that is often ephemeral, unconventional, revolves around performances and displays what people usually cannot own. Located in the heart of downtown Mumbai, in a neighborhood of modest size spaces, the gallery is amply capacious. The soaring roof permits enormous exhibits like the floating pieces of Canadian sculptor, Max Streicher. The spatiality of this gallery responds rather flatteringly to the philosophy of the art it contains. A cotton warehouse during colonial times, it is an independent building that has been renovated by notable architect Rahul Mehrotra. On entering, the volume of the 50 feet high ceiling dawns quite intimidatingly over the viewer, making the building envelope almost more overwhelming than the art display walls it encompasses. However, it also provides an extra
Chatterjee and Lal, Mumbai
verticality, which proves to be a special topup for contemporary art practices that the gallery exhibits. Interestingly, concrete fasteners have been used on a grid, along the space, which serve as good punctuations on the walls, aesthetically as well as functionally, for mounted artworks. The usage of Gallery Maskara draws some similarities with the Schaulager in Basel, designed by Herzog & de Meuron architects, which is an art storage as well as display space. Understanding the dynamics of the space, Lyle recommended an interesting truss system for lighting the volume. Even though it took two years before the trusses were installed, they proved to be an ideal solution for the gallery, offering great flexibility. Light fixtures mounted on the truss system enabled the art to be lit at different heights. Architecturally, they helped to divide and scale the space. “It worked beautifully for specific lighting as well as flexible lighting. We needed to divide the gallery into independent grids, as
we didn’t know the nature of artwork that it would house. The trusses work well with this,” remarks Abhay. Along the trusses, a track system was mounted and lined with spotlights. These spots could rotate in various angles and came with multiple accessories that could be added to their lenses. Another interesting addition, owing to the immense volume of the structure, was arranging powerful floodlights in rows. Arena lights as they are christened, were used atop the high ceiling, to mimic daylight. “It was one of the best decisions; for anyone who comes into the space, the lighting is a talking point because it has added so much to the gallery.” remarks Abhay. Artists like Monali Meher have used the gallery’s spatiality effectively to heighten the visual drama of their performance artwork. The current exhibition, My Lunatic Instinct by Narendra Yadav, stimulates and projects a live moon experience on the convex floor of the gallery, over which, the
audience can walk. The illumination of the moon is a beautiful comment on how one perceives reality. Abhay being the curator of the space plays with the illumination of the space and artworks of each show specifically. Experimenting with the given kit, he adds, “Lighting plays a key role here. It gives a sense of urgency, immediacy and dimensionality that art requires.”
Chatterjee & Lal gallery Mumbai In 2003, Mortimer Chatterjee and his wife Tara Lal, founded Gallery Chatterjee and Lal, representing emerging artists, mid-career artists and, increasingly, historical material. Mortimer and Tara worked worked alongside at Bowring’s, an India-based auction house, prior to forming their own gallery. Patel, Nikhil Chopra, Rashid Rana and the estate of Richard Bartholomew are some names that Chatterjee and Lal represent. Their space, which at one point in time served as a brothel and a bar, now has been
LIGHT : ART / LIGHTING ART GALLERIES
Chemould Prescott Road, Mumbai
reinvented by them into a forward-looking gallery. The flavor of the colorful historical narrative has been somehow salvaged with its neat interior refurbishment done by Delhi based Rajeev Agarwal architects. Retaining the industrial and structural iron columns, exposed brick window and door arches, and contrasting them with an overall matured white palette, lends a charming aesthetic to the gallery. Natural light from external windows lights the space when there is no exhibition on display. The space-saving, 360-degree swiveling partitions designed around the iron columns are a place-making delight for the gallery. Normally a gallery would be forced to erect temporary walls for space division in each show, however these partitions can easily be unhinged and stowed inside a seemingly hidden storage, which doubles up as a back office. Floating the walls was an ingenious method to hide all the unwanted wires and power sockets, so that the gallery could exhibit complex installation art with ease.
Lyle recollects that Chatterjee and Lal was the first gallery where he proposed the use of indirect light with fluorescent tubes. The ceiling had preserved the rafters and beams of the roof, and it lent an interesting aesthetic to the character of the space when lit. This was in line with the vocabulary of exposing the original columns and arches. Along with this, trusses with attached tracks had versatile spots, which could be turned off between shows. The controller of the track lighting kit, served as a blessing for creating various ambient moods as well as spots for the space. The gallery’s first show with artist Sophie Ernst challenged every possibility of the facility. She included video, installation and digital prints. The centerpiece of the exhibition revolved around a nineteen-foot large installation of large cutouts of the word ‘welcome’ inside the gallery space and a video projected on the letters. The placement of projectors, the imagery, and screens embedded in walls, all helped
shape key decisions at its inception stage. This greatly helped the gallery transform and adapt to the works of artists like Nalini Malini, Richard Bartholomew and Rashid Rana, who were also very careful with their lighting details. It was rather refreshing to experience first hand, the intimate relationship between the gallery owner and the artist, which Mort explained, was the foundation of the Chatterjee and Lal Gallery particularly. “We function like a mom and pop store. It is very direct and personal. And we want to keep it that way.”
Chemould Prescott Road Mumbai Founded in 1963, Gallery Chemould is one of the oldest commercial art galleries of India. Back then it even served as a salon where the creative illuminati would meet from time to time. In 2007, it moved to its current location from its original home at the Jehangir Art gallery.
Chemould Prescott Road, Mumbai
Chemould has been credited in establishing the reputations of many Indian modern artists like MF Husain, Tyeb Mehta and SH Raza, amongst many others who emerged on India’s modernist and contemporary art movements. The very French sounding gallery, Chemould, got its name from abbreviating the framing company that its promoter, Mr. Kekoo Gandhy had floated. Chemical Moulding Manufacturing Company was therefore later abridged to Chemould Gallery, where Gandhy displayed paintings alongside the frames he manufactured. Shireen Gandhy Jungalwala is now spearheading Chemound, with fresh dynamics for experimental, interdisciplinary flavors in practice and media. The new space of the gallery - Chemould Prescott Road, is an interesting expanse with stateof-the-art facilities, atop the third floor of an old British colonial building with high ceilings and an open layout retaining its structural essence. Natural light penetrates the gallery from
its front façade, which houses the office. This also enables the gallery to control the lighting effectively in the interior display spaces. Lyle explained that the gallery already had an existing lighting scheme with the conventional track installation that stopped short in the central part of walls. “It was assumed that the artwork will only be displayed in the center of the wall,” says Lyle. The gallery therefore, needed some transformation and flexibility. In order to maximize the scope of lighting by making it uniform and customizable, Lyle engineered and repositioned the track to the edge of the ceiling and gave movable wall washers for uniformity. This enabled the display to be exhibited from edge to edge of the wall. It opened up many new possibilities of display, from miniatures to sculptures, which could even make use of the corners of the gallery. “Sometimes we experiment with layers of butter paper on the wall washers, and it gives a cool angelic look; no one really notices it but it is path breaking
for us” mentions Sandra Khare, director at Chemould. Sandra explains that with the gallery assistant, Vithal, she has experimented with all the possible combinations of the lighting kit. “The artist’s requirement has to be kept in mind, as often, artists know exactly what they want.” She remarks, “Some artists, before their shows keep looking up and saying - we need more light, more light; and I keep telling them, its like using a perfume, one shouldn’t overdo it.” Lyle adds, “I think it is really important to be an apostle of darkness as well, because of two things – one is that the sense of mystery and anticipation is heightened when one enters a dark space, and the only lighting you are doing is to enhance a sense of drama of the artwork. Secondly, if we are seeing a value of 250 lux for each light and if this lighting is on for a long duration of time, it will fade the artwork. That is why people are asking for archival quality prints with UV protected glass, that are very expensive.”
LIGHT : ART / LIGHTING ART GALLERIES
Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
It is impossible to understand gallery lighting without understanding light and its interaction with materials and at the same time, it is equally impossible to light art without understanding art and how people view it. The entire experience of designing a display comes together as a common effort where the gallerist, the artist, the lighting designer and the gallery crew play a collaborative role.
Delhi Art Gallery New Delhi Two decades ago, Delhi Art Gallery, was established by Rama Anand to represent collections of various early modern, modern and contemporary artists. Today, under the leadership of Ashish Anand, DAG spans a visual feat with artworks from all decades of the 20th century - artists from the preindependence era such as Raja Ravi Varma, Nandalal Bose, Rabindranath Tagore, Binode Behari Mukherjee, Chittaprosad, Gopal Ghose to early post-independent artists namely MF Husain, SH Raza, FN Souza,
Satish Gujral and the next generation works of Himmat Shah, Ambadas, Gogi Saroj Pal, Sunil Das, Jyoti Bhatt and Amitava Das. DAG is located in Hauz Khas Village, the creative hub of South Delhi. The gallery has grown leaps and bounds from 3000 square feet to a 9000 square feet facility today, due to its ever-increasing requirement of space. In 2011, Architect Abhhay Narkar revitalized the entire gallery. A complete restructuring of interior spaces as well as the external façade was done. “Apart from the physicality of the space, a specific brief on lighting was also given by Ashish,” exclaims Abhhay. “The building was very haphazard in terms of structuring. One option was to give a flexible industrial aesthetic to the gallery where structural details could be exposed. However, given the modern collection that DAG houses, Ashish requested for a simple, straightforward gallery that wouldn’t take away the focus from the artworks.” The new minimal metal façade of the DAG, stands apart from today’s chaotic urban fabric around it, yet resonates the
region’s strong historic reference. The interiors of the gallery had limitations as the space was fragmented into various sections across multiple buildings. It was essentially a challenging site. The creative task was to carve a cohesive volume that connected all the gallery spaces visually across the three levels of the main gallery. The natural roughness of the stone walls inside is accentuated by the discipline of the delicate metal skin of the exterior. The surprising discovery of the multi level display spaces makes up for its low height ceilings. “The lighting for a space of this nature needed a specific lighting designer. Once Lyle came on board, he told us about the kind of lighting that could be done and what effects it could give, we tried to inculcate the maximum into our drawings. This was my first detailed lighting exercise. He taught me a lot about customizing the lighting, and lighting became an integral part of the space,” explains Abhhay. “The kind of flexibility and filters that Lyle brought in was
Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
commendable. From individual filters for individual fixtures to having an electronic setup, one could do multiple ambient mood lighting with the click of a button.” “Lighting plays a key role in art galleries and one should include the lighting consultant from the initial stages of the project,” mentions Kishore Singh, the director of DAG. He points out that lighting art as well as the gallery, both need to be considered. “For the opening of shows, many times, we have to be dramatic, where we light the artworks and tone down the gallery lights, so that the former are more visible. However, on several occasions, we noticed that people were not very comfortable, because the lights were too dim. We realized that people also come for an opening to socialize. So In order to create an impact for the collection, we had to vary the lighting a bit, so that it is adequate enough for people to be able to engage and socialize as well.” Lyle explains the lighting concept, “Here, on the tracks, we have used the Reggiani
Sunny lights – the MR 16. I am partial to these and have used them extensively… they have been tested extensively in terms of failure rates, not being able to hold their angles and other factors. The controller is a Philips Dynalite, which can be used over a huge number of channels. Indirect cove lighting has also been done. I managed to convince Ashish to buy a projection screen which serves as a good communication tool, as well as adds to the interactivity of the space.” Some notable works that have been lit dramatically here are those of Chittaprosad Bhattacharya and Rabin Mondal. While the former artist’s work were in white and had to be highlighted; the latter, a rather dark artist, was given a separate room where the walls were painted maroon and his works were selectively accentuated. Lighting such spaces and exhibits are particularly challenging. Lighting the gallery has been a dialogue - between the architect, the lighting designer, the curator, the artist and the man
Friday. Lyle is usually entrusted with the responsibility to either sift from the within the staff or identify a person in whom he can to ignite the spark to handover the baton of the lighting kit. He is the Bahadur or Vithal, the one who takes charge of the daily functioning and predominant lighting needs of the gallery. The whole argument between the white box vs. the contrived space draws to a close as Lyle says, “Instead of making everything white, gallery owners are beginning to understand that light grey walls could be better. Instead of using light reflecting surfaces, one could use light absorbing ones. And controlling light is more essential than lighting up spaces entirely.” That is the level of sensitivity and understanding desired in the art of lighting art. email@example.com www.galleryespace.com www.gallerymaskara.com www.chatterjeeandlal.com www.gallerychemould.com www.dagmodern.com
LIGHT : ART / LIGHTING A PRIVATE COLLECTION
PASSION IN REPOSE Private art collectors, Roohi and Rajiv Savara open their home to Mrinalini Ghadiok, for an evening of invigorating conversation about their enthralling art collection, and bespoke lighting scheme by lighting designer, Lyle Lopez.
Tejshree Savara and Lyle Lopez, stand beside the striking painting by Raja Ravi Varma, Sita in Ashoka Grove (1894)
Turning off a busy main road in Delhi, I drive into a narrow lane, knowing not where I am going or what may lie ahead. In the distance, among a row of plain houses, I spot a pristine colonial bungalow, glimmering in the teasing drizzle of the warm summer evening. Hurriedly I park my car and stagger through the gates, jumping over recently amassed puddles of the season’s initial
Pic: Pravin Talan
rainfall. The perfectly manicured lawn guarded by a sturdy topiary sentinel is dotted with sparkling tea lights, and lays effortlessly sprawled before the splendidly whitewashed edifice. Before I can assimilate the air around me, I am greeted by an impressively firm handshake and a soft voice that pronounces my name impeccably. I am here to meet the Savaras, a couple
which has dedicated more than two decades to collecting art. Working with the experienced husband wife team of Rajiv and Rekha Goel, they designed an abode for their collection; with interior designer and architect Rajiv Goyal having held responsibility for the ‘look and feel,’ and with the expert advise of lighting designer Lyle Lopez, they breathed life into it. Lyle
was involved with the design of the house from the very beginning. He recalls one of his initial meetings with the Savaras, “I so admired the Okimono figurine in Rajiv’s office that I realised how much I would enjoy working with someone who had such a fine sense of taste and the erudition to collect with discernment.” Imperative to distinguish between lighting art for a museum and illuminating a private collection inside a home, Lyle worked his magic with delicate ease, creating an ambience of affable comfort, yet rendering the works in timelessness. As we walk into what can only be described as otherworldly, I am formally introduced by Lyle to Roohi Savara and her husband, my earlier acquaintance, Rajiv Savara. They happen to be the proud owners of one of the most significant collections of Pre Modern and Modern Indian art in the country; and at that moment, I happen to be surrounded by it. An outrageously spectacular pair by VS Gaitonde adorns the wall in front, flanked by a couple of undeniably poignant MF Husains in the corner, and turning the other way, I am faced with a striking woman bathed in an ethereal glow; Raja Ravi Varma’s Sita sits pining for her lover in the 1894 painting titled Sita in Ashoka Grove. The Savaras are a self made couple, Roohi a lawyer and Rajiv a Chartered Accountant, who interestingly stumbled into the world of Modern Indian Art one day on a visit to buy furniture. Returning with an enthralling Husain, that day marked the beginning of a resolute journey of devotion and commitment to their newfound passion. And since then, there has been no looking back. Today Rajiv claims to work hard and earn monies for the sole purpose of their next conquest. Roohi, equally impassioned tells me about how their lives have turned, and art has seeped into every aspect of their being. They have relinquished to it, solely and completely. Looking around, I realise the care with which each piece has been considered, curated and appointed its own space in the room. The art doesn’t merely become a part of the house, instead the house seems to be built around it. With museum grade lighting conditions, obtained through precisely controlled dimmable solutions,
each masterpiece is individually accentuated. The unassuming false ceiling designed by the eminent architect Rajiv Agarwal, houses a series of recessed fittings; QR-CBC 50 dichroic reflector halogen lamps, specified in varying beam angles between 12 and 60 degrees. Accessories such as beam softeners and elliptical lenses illuminate the artwork with accuracy. The overall colour temperature is maintained between 2950K and 3150K; however, the crystal works and vitrines are lit with 4700K lamps to emphasize their brilliance. While vibrant paintings claim the walls, sculptures by Meera Mukherjee, Somnath Hore, Bhupen Khakhar and Ram Kinker Baij assert their stately presence in perfect illumination. I am offered a quick tour of the house, and I waste not a moment to agree. Walking into the dining room, I see a fascinating collection by Rabindranath Tagore and his nephews Gaganendranath and Abanindranath housed on one wall. On questioning how he managed to train his eye for art, Rajiv explains the necessity of a strong mentor and the invaluable importance of knowledge. An avid reader with an insatiable hunger for learning, Rajiv spends a considerable amount of time buried in his enormous assemblage of books and videos. The Savara study exudes the warm intellect of a contented library. Furnished with an exquisite timber study table and an ornate antique easel, the room is lined with books from floor to ceiling, tagged, flagged and waiting in anticipation to be explored further. I encounter a stack of paintings shrouded in bubble wrap, yet to be discovered, only to learn that there are stacks more that have not yet been revealed. The circular stairwell pinned with a sky gazing oculus leads to an open hallway dedicated to Benode Behari Mukherjee; which includes Trees, a tribute by Atul Dodiya, his portrait by MF Husain, and Mukherjee’s own works. The spirituality of this immensely surreal space is captured in a humble wash of elusive light. As we walk through what I call the museumhouse, in fact a Collection Museum, I inquire about the internment of living in such a space. Roohi and Rajiv, along with their daughters Tejshree and Taarini have surrendered to art. However, Roohi admits to the strain of thriving in low light conditions,
expressing her concern for needing brighter spaces, especially when the children were studying. Her requests were inevitably reasoned by Rajiv and Lyle, but she confesses to times when the kids read with attached book-lights. That is the precise difference between a Museum and a Collection Museum, wherein the audience and the art become one. They co-exist in the same environment, thriving for protracted periods of time. While a museum caters to transient visitors and accommodates au courant technology, a private collector nurtures his art as an intrinsic part of his being. The Savaras’ subliminal interaction translates to a deep devotion to the masters, the master artists and the masterpieces. And they are rendered in an intricately woven network of emotive light that enhances and accentuates the perception of the artwork. Light and lighting become crucial and transcend the typical tools of flexibility and adaptability. It becomes a medium through which the art is brought to life. For the Savaras, their art is paramount. It is a source of energy and synergy; it is the channel of their consecration and a personification of their fervor. Their erudite ardor is evident in the manner in which they refer to their collection. Rajiv declares, “Once we wrap up the evening and our guests leave, the works will be put to ‘rest’ for the next 18 hours.” As I do leave the Savara house in a gentle spattering of rain, I am severely aware of the last three hours spent immersed in vicarious rumination. Enfolded by boundless wealth of antiquity and culture, I am astounded by the humility and profundity of not only my company, but the abode of consummate art that stands behind me. It has been an experience to witness technology matched with creativity, control amalgamated with devotion and insight complemented by proficiency. What appears to be a humble home, houses masterpieces of Indian art; what seems to be an empyrean ambience is in reality a precisely choreographed design of light; and what is most striking is that this is not a contrived house of artistry, but is in actuality a home for virtuosity. It has been a truly delightful evening of introspection, elucidation and inspiration. www.savarafoundation.org
LIGHT : ART / FUTURE OF LIGHTING
FUTURE OF LIGHTING IS IN THE ART OF LIGHT Tapio Rosenius of Lighting Design Collective talks about how the future of lighting lies in communication, creating an interactive environment and provoking response.
When considering the future of architectural lighting design one should see the art of light as the driver. The same way as Walter Gropius based his 1919 vision for Bauhaus on theoretical curriculum of an art academy combined with practical curriculum of an arts and craft school; lighting design must now embrace deep understanding of new technologies applied with a sensitivity and flair of an artist. Famously, Bauhaus led to modernism, a form of aesthetic pervasive in every part of our lives still today. The unity of art and technology are as central to good lighting design as they are to modernism. Following in the footsteps of architecture, we must now elevate architectural lighting from a technology driven craft to a sociocultural art.
LIGHT AS SOCIOCULTURAL ART The notion that architecture is the art of building was implied by Alberti in the
first published treatise on the theory of architecture, De re aedificatoria in 1485 (English: Ten Books on Architecture). Although he was a layman writing for other lay scholars, he rejected, by his title, the idea that architecture was simply applied mathematics, as had been claimed by Vitruvius (Gowans 2014). The art of light, however achieved meaning over four hundred years later in the 1920’s presumably due to general ignorance towards daylight design as a discipline of its own, and the excitement surrounding the new material qualities associated with electric light. Indeed, since the momentous popularization of electric light, the design of it has been primarily explained, marketed and researched simply as technology. This same approach continues today, possibly more feverously than ever before. In the meanwhile psychological studies have shown that well-designed lighting positively
affects humans’ cognitive performance [Wojcik, 2012], mood [Keller et al., 2006], learning ability [Mott et al., 2012], health [Veitch and Gifford, 1996], and perception of waiting time [Baker and Cameron, 1996]. Moreover, lighting can affect user behavior [Flynn et al., 1973], shopping behavior [Areni and Kim, 1994], and even social interaction [Baron et al., 1992]. So even the hardened skeptic should begin to accept that the design of lighting has indeed a direct effect on us humans and should not be considered merely as technology. The importance of lighting design for sociocultural environments is less studied, yet not without some convincing and interesting cases such as the “Create the Liveable City” research program [Bevolo and Rosenius 2014]. The “Urban Futures Matrix” developed for Philips and deployed for this study includes socio-cultural drivers such as identity, exploration, belonging and sustainability. These conceptual constructs
of evolution permit a good insight into forthcoming developments within lighting design and demonstrate socio-cultural and sociological relevance, further supporting the validity of light as sociocultural art.
WHAT IS LIGHT ART? The emergence of light art can be traced back to El Lissitzky’s 1923 Prounenraum (Proun Room) installation which is considered to be the first time an artist incorporated architectural lighting elements as an integral component of their work. However, it has only been during the last four decades that the art form has started to achieve prominence. Artists such as László Moholy-Nagy, himself one of the teachers at Bauhaus, Dan Flavin, Bruce Naumann, Robert Irwin, James Turrell and more recently Olafur Eliasson and Pablo Valbuena have demonstrated the captivating emotional power that light has. [Shrum 2012].
In particular the work of Turrell has captured the dialogue between light and space and increased the public awareness of light art. In his work Turrell references Plato’s ‘Allegory of the Cave’, in which heightened awareness of the visual field follows a period of sensory deprivation, as a point of departure for his approach to viewer experience. His work features no visible lighting hardware, as it would interrupt the dreamlike experience of the participant, a detail much appreciated and imitated by many lighting designers and architects today. The advances in digital lighting technologies have started bringing many of the concepts created by these early pioneers into permanent lighting installations both in public and in private context. In addition, interactivity and the notion of participatory art have entered the realm of lighting, both of which appear a natural fit, given the public nature of many lighting projects.
In the words of Marcel Duchamp, “The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator adds his contribution to the creative act.” This is true for many contemporary light art interventions and will, I believe, become one of the key drivers for lighting as a whole. In our own work we seek to derive a tangible and fascinating interaction between human expression and light. The light re-interprets behaviour, distorts it and sends it back in ripples and waves. Light creates a visual echo. Human gestures act as parameters, which are in turn tied into randomised, timed events connected to different visual patches and algorithms. The outcome is lighting that is full of surprises yet feels natural. Like in nature, the variations are endless, non-repetitive and unpredictable. Light, and through it the environment itself, expresses its willingness to interact and invites the spectator to ‘complete’ it.
LIGHT : ART / FUTURE OF LIGHTING
Pic: Jussi Ratilainen
Pic: Jussi Ratilainen
Pic: Minna Hatinen
I see a future where our built environment will connect with us through light, eventually leading to what is known as cyber-physical spaces.
DIGITAL LIGHT FOR CYBER-PHYSICAL SPACES One of the most interesting lighting applications of the future that clearly underlines the need for the deeply creative approach are cyber-physical spaces with connected light, advanced sensing and printed electronics. Such spaces sense the presence, actions and attention of their humans, effortlessly offering them information that is customised to their situations. They inform, soothe, entertain, relax, comfort, and provide high-quality light when and where needed. This, in turn, can have many significant effects – more independence for the elderly, positive health influences, energy savings and not least: the creation of a new platform for light art. Novel applications and new
services are arising in important industrial areas, including the hospitality industry, architecture, and the public realm. Modern lighting should be viewed as a combination of input/output systems, intelligent control, and the people inside the space. In other words: as cyber-physical spaces. All the light sources in the room – LEDs, windows, displays, and projectors, are connected. They form a sparse display that allows coordinated use of light at various places in the space. Varying lighting resolutions allow information or function to be allocated to the foreground or the background of the users’ attention. Whilst this is an interesting technological concept, the secret will be in the emotive, humanistic and artistic application. Light systems that react to people and situations also create meaningfulness; light adapts to personal preferences, taste, moments, lifestyle and function. In addition it creates mood, branding, prestige, and indeed art. In the architectural context this approach
can deliver previously unattainable levels of flexibility and adaptability for architects, lighting designers and other building professionals. The systems can be adjusted cost effectively and quickly, responding to architectural and interior design trends, personal preferences, ever-changing building regulations, planning laws and environmental scoring systems. In this way, connected light becomes more than light; it becomes technological solutions, services, and through artistic application: meaningfulness.
TIME FOR NEW KIND OF LIGHTING MASTERPLANS The final piece of the puzzle that requires art positioned as the driver is a ubiquitous lighting master plan. The current information technologies support the development of a new integrated digital layer of the built environment in a complex merge of material and immaterial space that redefine the function of digital light
and light art. Artists with cultural content are broadening the current use of urban lighting and related infrastructure in urban space. This work addresses cultural fields such as digital media culture, urbanism, architecture and art in a completely new way. The new found possibilities of using digital light and infrastructure for contributing to a lively urban society, binding the technology to the communal context of the space, and therefore creating local identity and engagement are set to change the way our cities look and function after dark. Digitalization of light equals openness, participation, adaptation, health and civic activism. Re-imagining deteriorated or re-purposed parts of cities are a necessary development trend. Lighting is currently underutilized as a tool in this context. Comparatively speaking, light is the cheapest and the fastest tool for regeneration projects but only when done with clear collective vision. The utilitarian principals of ‘imageability’
and other simplifications popular amongst the Kevin Lynch disciples are hopelessly unimaginative when it comes to lighting master planning. It is true that a good ‘Lynchian’ lighting master plan allows the stakeholders to anticipate the basic nighttime functionality and can help to solve important questions about sustainability. However, to truly utilize the power of digital light, the night-time experience must be designed as an adaptable and changeable digital infrastructure. Architecture and urbanism of the night are no longer about utility and hierarchy. Instead they are about staying relevant and actively connecting with people and with the culture as a whole. Through digital content management, architecture and urban environment remains pertinent year after year without extra investment. Now is the time for imagination. What could the so-called ‘third spaces’ of the immediate future be like? I think: Digital, Connected, Active and Participatory.
SUMMA SUMMARUM Emotional power and beauty of light provides real opportunities for developers and cities for tangible return for investment. It promotes civic pride and offers differentiation. Creative lighting is communication, both ambient and explicit, and is guaranteed to provoke response. I believe the time is right for a new kind of creative lighting design starting from a re-think of the master plans and moving all the way to cyber-physical spaces where we live and work. Art with its immense power to harness human creative skill and imagination must become the driver supported by new technologies from diverse fields. To light is art. www.ldcol.com
project / Apeejay arts, new delhi
Vakratunda Swaha, 2010
In the mood for Light Apeejay Arts is a dynamic space that ‘brings to light’ a variety of artworks and atmosphere; a case in point being Samar Jodha’s stunning exhibition, ‘Outpost’, handsomely lit by Jatinder Marwaha. Georgina Maddox takes us through the space, and the exhibit, defining an experience par excellence. To visit Apeejay Arts you have to set aside at least half a day, given that it is located on the cusp of Delhi and Faridabad. Attracting viewers with the big ‘A’ logo, lit up by Neon lights, Apeejay Arts was founded by Priti Paul and the Apeejay Surrendra Group. It was dedicated to New Media and was the first of its kind when it opened in 2005. Perhaps it was before its time, because the gallery soon shut down. It was renovated and re-opened, after a period of almost ten years. By then the art frat had access to spaces like the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art (KNMA) and were better aware of international trends having seen a lot of art fairs both nationally and internationally. Which is why when Apeejay Arts returned it had its work cut out for it. “India was colliding with change and we realized our space would have to be more dynamic, it would have to evolve into something more than the free-flowing space it used to be,” says Paul over the telephone from England. Paul rolled her sleeves up and got hands on with the renovation, consulting with many distinguished architects, designers
and lighting technicians to create a space that could adapt to any exhibition. The renovated Apeejay Arts complex can now showcase cutting edge multimedia art, from video work, installations, performance photography and photo-sculptures. The gallery space is complemented by an Artist Lounge, Oxford Bookstore, a ‘Cha Bar’ serving fine boutique teas, an outdoor performance space, a dedicated children’s activity space, a sculpture courtyard, Artist Residencies and a full-fledged Resource Centre, charged with technology and information. Above all the extra facilities, the state of the art galleries, on the rooftop, ground floor and basement—equipped with special lighting— have participating artists excited. “While creating the new gallery spaces we made sure that the lighting could be adapted to any exhibition, which is why each gallery is equipped with a massive grid so that lights could be moved around to suite a variety of situations. Besides the ambient light which is mostly white, we also have yellow posts and dimmers,” says Paul.
The opening exhibition titled ‘Carnival of Dissent’ utilized the gallery and the surrounding lobby area, some of the works becoming permanent exhibits. It featured a group show of young generation Indian and international artists, and filmmakers who position themselves between political activism and creative practice. Next a solo exhibition by artist/photographer Samar Jodha followed, and he utilized all three spaces – the main gallery, the rooftop, as well as the basement, which otherwise is used as employee parking. Jodha’s exhibition titled ‘Outpost;’ was a tribute to coal mine workers in the North-East, and his approach to light this artwork was evocative and experiential. Architect and lighting designer Jatinder Marwaha, was instrumental in creating the mood through low-key lighting in the basement with power lamps used for architectural buildings; spot lights used in cinema and theatre on the terrace and rooftop; and LED lighting in the gallery, where he used only 10 percent of the lights
Katho Upanishad, 2011
Scooters with LCD Screens painted by multiple artists
Carnival of Dissent
available, to create a more intimate viewing. To go back to the genesis of ‘Outpost,’ Jodha had visited the North-East and documented the dwellings of the coal mine workers as a photographer in the 1990s. He was fascinated by their thrift and innovation where the hammered corrugated sheets of tar barrels were used to build their homes. Ten years later after he quit advertising and devoted his entire time to being a fine art photographer and installation artist, Jodha revisited the photographs. “By this time I had moved into a different sphere and was making art that was interactive and beyond simple photography. What I wanted to do with Outpost was to create an experiential and immersive environment where the images became photo-sculptures,” says Jodha who printed the earlier images on mild steel and precious metals like copper and brass, salvaged from a dockyard in Mumbai. To evoke the worn out metal textures of his Arunanchal experience, Jodha worked on the metal with lime and copper wire, polishing and creating a distressed texture, before printing the images upon it. The photographs and metallic sheets came together organically, evoking the texture of the worn metal surface, the graffiti and tar stained metal rusted with time and exposure to the elements. The works were mounted in a variety of ways— one extremely evocative way was an assemblage of metal strips that resembled the human spine—like human carcasses stripped of their flesh.
project / Apeejay arts, new delhi
Lighting these photo-sculptures, in relation to the space was a particularly important part of the work. For the basement gallery, Jodha wanted to evoke the airless, low lighting conditions that coal miners work in. Hemp bags with coal were left around, along with a strong smell of coal and with burnt engine oil. The walls were painted black and a sound piece captured the constant drip of water. The works were then hung in dim light resembling the acetylene gas miner’s lamp that barely allowed viewers to discern their contours. Torches were also provided as one went down to the basement and the viewer was encouraged to ‘discover’ the work, much in the manner coalmine workers find their way in the tunnels of the earth. “My approach was to bring in the ambience of where the concept was coming from. The brief I had given Jatinder, who I really enjoyed working with was to recreate a similar experience like the Venice Biennale (2013) showing of ‘Outpost.’ In the basement particularly, I wanted the viewer to not just get into a mining experience, but also with the feeling of uneasiness and uncomfortable environment they work in, since the ‘spines’ were not all well lit up, they evoked a sense of mystery and a journey of self discovery,” says Jodha. Marwaha, with over three decades of experience in photography, design and lighting, has distinguished himself in the field. “Most galleries do not care as much about lighting as they should, they use harmful Ultra Violet light. However, when Samar approached me to light-up his work, Apeejay Arts was most cooperative about acquiring special lights for the exhibition,” says Marwaha who took over four days just to get the lighting right. “While the gallery on the ground floor was pretty conventional with LED lights, we wanted the roof top lighting to have lots of theatrics, which is why I used the Fresnel spots,” says Marwaha who treated each artwork as if it were an actor in a play. The dark tones of the works were teased out beautifully by this dramatic lighting and the effect was quite different from the experience in the basement. While the latter created an atmosphere of pathos and empathy the former lionized the coal mine workers in pure aesthetic terms. “I felt really stimulated to work with Samar,” concludes Marwaha who continues to spread awareness about the importance and potential of lighting, while Apeejay Arts remains committed to their mission to create a dynamic, playful and innovative space where artists and light designers like Jodha and Marwaha can continue to create hair-raising experiences for art viewers across the metropolis. www.apeejayarts.com www.samarsinghjodha.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Samar says… The main gallery space on the ground floor is a large open space draped in white; white vinyl flooring, white painted walls and a flat white ceiling fitted with a white metal grid. Taking advantage of the available space, Jodha’s panels were displayed luxuriously against the stark emptiness of the room. “Here each panel had its own space and was displayed in isolation without competing with any other panel. Here we showcased Precious Metal, brass and copper.” The terrace above offered its own character, exposed concrete and steel, and with unfinished walls framed between weather beaten structures. “This space was most appropriate for the mild steel panels, catering to more of a post industrial or factory kind of sensibility. In the nighttime we wanted very dim but warm light, and only on the panels. The beams and other space was going to be lit up separately, but the metro station lights came to our rescue to give that dirty yellow lighting, and the light pollution from the streets gave us the perfect setting.” The final experience was yet another adventure. Walking into a dark basement with flashlights to discover the staircase and floor covered in burnt engine oil, doused in the smell of charcoal, one was involuntarily transported into the mysterious realm of a mine. “Once inside, you see the spine panels, which were more like a metaphoric experience of human lives permanently destined to hang from the ceiling. This was very dark work and the idea was to make the audience feel uneasy within the space. I had recorded sounds of the rain in the North East mines, and we brought this into the experience as well. Slow droplets beading down, almost like Chinese torture. The attempt was to make people feel the emptiness and not be able to connect to the reality of the world above. The works were very dimly lit and created long shadows of the spines on the floor.”
project / Renzo Piano Pavilion, Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA
playing with piano’s forte Arup has once again joined forces with Renzo Piano Building Workshop to create a daylighting system within the roof structure to make Piano’s Pavilion an instant classic.
All photography © Nic Lehoux unless stated
project / Renzo Piano Pavilion, Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA
Designed by the Renzo Piano Building Workshop (RPBW) and Kendall/Heaton Associates, the highly anticipated expansion of the Kimbell Art Museum has achieved much critical acclaim. Subtly echoing Louis I. Kahn’s classic building (with lighting design by Richard Kelly) in height, scale and general layout, the RPBW building has a more open, transparent character. Light, discreet (half the footprint hidden underground), yet with its own character, setting up a dialogue between old and new. A highlight of the design is the top-lit east wing with its innovative light-controlling and power-generating roof system thanks to the work of Arup’s UK office who provided the lighting consultancy services (as well as mechanical and electrical engineering). Addressing the severe lack of space for the museum’s exhibition and education programmes, the new building provides gallery space for temporary exhibitions, classrooms and studios for the museum’s education department, a large auditorium
of 299 seats, an expanded library and underground parking. The expansion roughly doubles the Museum’s gallery space. The 9,400sqm colonnaded pavilion stands as an expression of simplicity and lightness - glass, concrete and wood - some 60 metres to the west of Kahn’s signature cycloid-vaulted museum of 1972. The Piano Pavilion is made up of two structures connected by two glazed passageways. The front, or east wing, opens into a glass-enclosed lobby leading to two simply expressed galleries: here, coupled wood beams run north and south, the floors are oak, and the walls are perfect, long expanses of light-grey concrete or curtain glass. The beams support an elegant roof structure of steel and glass, fitted above with louvers that control the flow of sunlight and below with scrims that filter the light before it enters the gallery. As spaces for viewing art, both galleries benefit from the presence of this natural
illumination and, through their window walls, from the changing impressions of exterior weather and light. The principal function of the south gallery is to display temporary exhibitions; the north gallery, to show works from the collection. The West Wing is tucked under an accessible green roof flanked by light wells that allow daylight to spaces below. Glimpsed from the porch of the Kahn Building, the Piano Pavilion’s east wing conveys an impression of weightlessness: its recessed glass entrance is centered between crisp concrete walls that define the galleries to the north and south; a wafer-thin layer of glass hovers over the heavy steel and wood roof system; and the overhanging coupled wood beams appear to float above the exterior walls. Approaching the Piano Pavilion, a visitor is aware of its transparency: through the glass lobby the eye moves to the walls of the west wing, sheltered beneath a green roof. Here, in the second of the two
Bottom, centre and right Canted walls channel light in the stairwells connecting the upper and lower levels. Left and Top The view to the auditorium from the first floor.
structures, unfolds the pavilion’s surprise: an auditorium with bright-red, raked seating plunges below ground to a stage, which itself is set against the backdrop of a deep and broad light well animated by shifting patterns of natural illumination, which shine through the whole structure towards the east. As always in their museum designs, Piano and Arup continues to experiment with ways to animate and direct natural light, here with a roof system that is notable for its integration of the wood beams as the support for a system of north-opening aluminum louvers and solar cells, mounted above fritted glass and stretched, silk-like scrims. “The Kahn building is famous for its natural light,” Piano said. “But that was a natural lighting system designed in the late ’60s and ’70s. Technologies have advanced considerably since then. We needed to capitalise on the new technologies and make a design that is more flexible and
responsive to the issues of today, like sustainability.” Within and outside the building, they have manipulated light and provided unexpected sightlines by dramatically slanting some of the building’s walls. Canted walls also channel light in two sets of stairwells connecting the upper and lower levels: one leading from the main entrance to the underground garage, and the other descending from the upper level to the lower auditorium entrance. Arup developed and designed bespoke systems to conserve and display the art in the most appropriate environmental conditions, whilst seeking to reduce carbon emissions. The roof system above the southeast and northeast gallery and lobby spaces was key to this. A system of motorised photovoltaic louvre elements, constructed from glass and aluminium, generate enough power to offset up to 70 per cent of the carbon emissions relating to the gallery lighting and
environmental control systems. The louvres filter daylight to the galleries below and can be adjusted to control daylight levels. This highly integrated design performs three functions in a single element, controlling daylight, excluding direct sunlight and generating power. “Our collaboration with Renzo began in spring 2007, shortly after he accepted the challenge set by the Kimbell Trustees to construct the extension,” states Arfon Davies, Associate Director of Lighting at Arup. “The client brief was clear, that new galleries were to be daylit, and it was immediately clear that we had a huge challenge responding to what many refer to as the pinnacle of daylight design, sitting just 200 feet away from our project. It was the presence of the Kahn building and its magical use of daylight that formed the first of three ingredients that informed our early daylight design thoughts and discussions.” The second ingredient was the large
project / Renzo Piano Pavilion, Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA
Pic © Robert Laprelle
Top and bottom right LSi LED spotlights, suspended from tracks positioned in between the wood beams, supplement the daylight from the façade. Top right WE-EF 20W CDM-T metal halide uplights illuminate the glass canopy at night.
body of work they had already created together, especially the museum projects in Texas (the Menil Collection and Cy Twombly Pavilion in Houston and the Nasher Sculpture Centre in Dallas). The brief from Piano to the team was to be inspired by but not restricted by their past work: the solution for the Kimbell project was to be a new chapter and innovation in their 25 year journey of design together. The third ingredient was the desire to generate a project that minimised carbon emissions and energy consumption. Early studies with the wider Arup design team clearly identified daylight as a key driver to achieving carbon and energy reduction targets. It was the first ingredient that was focused on initially. What was it about daylighting at the Kimbell that made it so special to so many people? Arup undertook a thorough study and assessment of daylight conditions at the Kahn to understand the quantity and distribution of daylight within the galleries. Interior illuminance levels were logged and High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging was used to capture daylight conditions at different times of the day, and under
different sky conditions. It quickly became apparent that the quantity of daylight within the Kahn galleries was much lower than was expected; the presence of artificial light in the space is much more. Further study and discussion with the museum also showed that there was a preference for a mix of light, the use of both electric light and daylight at all times, something that low levels of daylight can accommodate. “The museum was keen to maintain this ability to have a mix of light on objects, with electric lighting being the primary source of light on objects,” recalls Davies. These early discussions with the museum also showed that there was a keen interest in exploring the potential to make the new building as ‘low carbon’ as possible. Electric lighting is a major source of carbon emissions in most museum buildings. Even with the significant potential of LED light sources, it was found that using daylight as the primary source of light within the galleries for most museum hours, with a minimum electric lighting at these times, would be a major step in reducing the carbon footprint for the new building.
A low carbon strategy encourages the use of daylight over electric light, which leads to a regime where, for much of the year, the art is displayed under natural light alone, and electric light is used only in the winter and towards the end of the day when daylight levels fall. This approach was somewhat different to the existing Kahn building, with relatively low levels of daylight and electric light used during all museum open hours. The museum were keen to maintain the ability to recreate this mix of light – their brief was “The new building should likewise seek to set a new standard in the sensitive use of natural and artificial light in a way that enhances the appreciation of both architecture and art”. At the same time the museum were keen to be as efficient and as low carbon as possible, and to create an exhibition space that can be flexible and adapt its lighting conditions based on exhibition needs. The final brief for the gallery daylight systems was: • To provide a condition where daylight is the primary source of light for the display of art • To have the ability to tune daylight
Pic © Arup
Extensive testing by Arup revealed that there was not as much daylighting in the existing Kahn building as first thought, relying on a mix of natural and electric light.
Top Arup sketches of the lighting integration within the louver and roof assemblies. Bottom RPBW’s section drawings of the new space and its relationship with the Kahn original.
transmission, and therefore change the mix of daylight and electric light within the gallery. • To be able to reduce daylight levels within the gallery to allow the display of sensitive objects requiring 50 lux or less. • To be able to reduce daylight into the galleries to a minimum when the museum is closed. To this end, supplementary electric lighting has been delicately combined with daylight within the skylight galleries, ensuring that
project / Renzo Piano Pavilion, Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA
triple glazing Arup used a three-pronged approach to the control of the Pavilion’s daylighting system. The need to provide control of daylight levels required the use of a moving, adaptable element in the daylight system. Initial ideas focused on interior motorised louver elements, similar to those used in past projects at the Beyeler and Cy Twombly. This resulted in a system with three layers: 1, Exterior motorised PV louvers This single layer combines four functions in one layer: - Keeps sunlight out of the gallery space; - Keeps sunlight off the glass surface, providing shading and reducing heat gain; - Regulation of daylight levels by adjusting rotation angle of louvers; - PV energy generation. The 2,322 extruded aluminium louvers each contains 13 PV cells. 30,186 PV cells in total and are organised into panels, 6 louvers per panel. One panel is 5’ x 10’. Each individual panel can be individually controlled from the others, and can be organised and grouped together to provide larger
areas of dedicated control e.g. a 40’ x 40’ gallery space with different daylight conditions to the remainder of the gallery. The louvers have a number of pre-set positions: - 0 degrees, fully closed; - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20 & 30 degrees open; - Hail mode – louvers fully rotated with PV facing skylight glass. This has a dual purpose, to protect the PV cells during hail storms (which can produce hail the size of golf balls), and primarily to protect the skylight glass below. The louvers are controlled by a custom designed web interface, which automatically position them based on timeclock events moving twice a day, once when the museum opens to a pre-set position, and once to a fully closed position once the museum is closed. The louvers are not actively controlled. They do not try and respond to changing daylight conditions based on photocell measurements. This is intentional as it was desired to keep the variability of daylight, in a similar way to what is experienced
in the Kahn building. The museum has a lookup table, which allows them on a month by month basis to select the appropriate louver open angle when the museum is open, and based on the exhibition requirements. 2, Curved double glazed skylight glass Krypton-filled with PVB laminations to filter out harmful UV radiation. The glass has a low-e coating on surface 2, an acid etch on surface 3, and a simulated acid etch frit on surface 6. The etching treatments were extensively tested to provide some diffusion, whilst maintaining some view of the louvers above. 3, Fabric scrim panels Panels span the entire 40m length of the gallery space, and provide final diffusion of light. The material is a custom woven fabric material consisting of 100% Trevira CS yarn, selected to provide transparency to allow visitors to read the volume above the fabric ceiling.
Pic © Arup
Top Even the seemingly most mundane of spaces were given the design treatment. The underground parking space benefits from graphics on the floor and walls and Axis Wet Beam 35W T5 suspended frosted lens luminaires. “A very nice space which exceeded our expectations,” according to Giulio Antonutto of Arup. Centre Theatrical lighting includes Piano’s very own designed Le Perroquet luminaires from iGuzzini. Bottom The motorised roof louvers have a number of pre-set positions that are controlled by a web interface, moving twice a day.
Project Details Renzo Piano Pavilion, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas Client: Kimbell Art Foundation Architects: Renzo Piano Building Workshop in collaboration with Kendall/Heaton Associates Lighting Design: Arup M & E services: Arup with Summit Consultants
Pic © Arup
the correct balance of daylight and electric light can be achieved for all types of art exhibition. All lighting within the gallery spaces is from carefully selected LED sources, a first for the RPBW-Arup team. Using LED lighting within the galleries provides significant energy savings: lighting energy consumption is estimated to be 75% less compared to the existing Kimbell galleries. In fact, the LED lighting, building and system design and photovoltaic power generation reduce the carbon emissions per sqft of the new building to approximately 50% of those from the existing Kahn Building.
Just as Kahn and Kelly made a perfect partnership for the original design back in 1972, Renzo Piano and Arup have created an a scheme for the 21st century. Yes, it is very energy efficient. But it doesn’t achieve this at the expense of great design. As Piano says: “It is the overall design, as well as the solar technology built into the roof system, that yields important energy savings. This is the way it should be: designing for energy savings is not an ‘add on,’ but, rather, the proper way to build.” www.rpbw.com www.arup.com
Gotham 4” & 6” Ecos Square LED downlight ERCO 99406.023 recessed CFL downlight/wallwasher iGuzzini / Sistemalux IROLL 2x26W CFL ceiling mounted tripod iGuzzini / Sistemalux Le Perroquet pendant (with Xicato XSM8030 LED module) iGuzzini / Sistemalux MiniWoody 20W T4 floodlight iGuzzini / Sistemalux 54W T5HO Linear System iGuzzini / Sistemalux Lingotto Ceiling 35W G12 luminaire iGuzzini / Sistemalux Seat Light 3W LED custom fixture iGuzzini / Sistemalux Zip-Plus Round 18W CFL recessed downlight BEGA 8643P 54W T5HO drive-over in-grade floodlight BEGA 8856HM 39W T4 drive-over in-grade luminaire BEGA 2221P 9W CFL recessed wall luminaire with shield BEGA 7593P.537 54W FL floodlight WE-EF 611-3050 20W CDM-T inground uplight Targetti Phenix 12W/6LED inground uplight LSi MHLX2004 35W T6 CDM-T recessed downlight, with custom stem / mounting LSi LX2044 – Gallery Lighting Fixtures with custom stems (with Xicato modules) LSi Busway – Lighting track in all locations Hydrel M9420/M9440 35W CDM-T modular in-grade luminaire Philips Gardco 90W Cosmopolis streetlight LED Linear VarioLED Flex Venus IP67 LED Linear XOOLUM LED IP67 (with Mean Well HLG- 240-24-A remote power supply) Selux M100 28W T5 recessed linear fluorescent Axis Wet Beam 35W T5 suspended frosted lens luminaire io Lighting raye Gen 2 LED downlight eldoLED Linear 100/S driver
project / maxxi museum, rome, italy
MAxXIMUM IMPACT The Stirling Prize winning MAXXI Museum in Rome, designed by Zaha Hadid, is one of the most startling pieces of architecture to emerge in modern times. Mark Hensman of GIA Equation explains the concept of the lighting design
Pic: Iwan Baan
â€œIt is rare, as a lighting designer, that one gets the opportunity to work on a project with the genuine mixture of complexities contained within the MAXXI project â€“ a mixture of complexities that resulted in what was such a significant architectural statement. There is little doubt that Zaha Hadid Architects has a reputation for producing distinctive and iconic architectural forms but MAXXI, as was the case with BMW
Leipzig, (a previous project that we worked on with the same practice) is founded on strong and relatively straightforward functional principles. So, for the lighting designer fortunate enough to be conceiving a lighting approach for MAXXI, this was our natural starting point; one that supported the primary architectural and functional philosophies being developed for the project. This is our concept...â€?
project / maxxi museum, rome, italy
Pic: Iwan Baan
The Building Form Much has been written and spoken about the shape and form of the MAXXI building, its derivation and whether the inherent architectural style of the architect is too present in the final result. The simple fact is that it owes much of its dynamic expression and fluidity because of a simple response to the urban grain and fabric of its particular location in Rome. As a design team member that was around early in the process, GIA Equation was fortunate enough to witness this process in action. Therefore, the development of a clear
architectural response within the lighting presentation to reinforce the sinuous nature of the building, to accentuate the building lines and geometries, is solidly founded in this initial principle that was being developed by Zaha Hadid Architects. An obvious expression in this respect is the high level linear lighting treatment that was developed as part of the daylight and roof light design. Not only did this treatment provide artificial light in a manner that was cognisant of the character of the daylight performance, it immediately created the benefit of accentuating building lines and
forms. It is thus a direct expression of the urban response of the building. Another major benefit of this element is that is it provided an integrated, primary platform within the lighting installation. This was another important principle of our approach; to simplify the lighting presentation and pare it back to core functions and applications across the scheme. Circulation The basis of this â€˜stripped backâ€™ approach was again about allowing the building to
In parallel, rows of BEGA recessed wall luminaires and matching BEGA bollards provide the same contrast of material and colour to the bright swinging surfaces and elements of architecture outside. An impressive architectural detail by day, they become a convenient lighting system by night. They create glare free light on ground surfaces. BEGA installation housings and plaster frames guarantee perfect installation in sophisticated exposed concrete surfaces
clearly express itself, but it was also to do with the development of a lighting response within MAXXI that would aid and communicate circulation. This indeed, became one of the primary thrusts of the lighting concept. Clearly, as a public gallery and arts based building, one of the key requirements is that way-finding and direction should be relatively easy, ensuring a positive and responsive experience for gallery visitors. The creation of a specific lighting language around the building’s circulation was therefore a natural development of the
lighting design – it is the simple use of light as a communication medium. This conceptual principle emerged as a sequence of back illuminated panels and integrated details around the various circulation elements within the building, clearly defining a desired circulation methodology. Technical Performance In addition to dealing with these primary, functional aspects of the building, there was of course the need to provide optimal lighting conditions for the display and
illumination of art. There is a nice overlap in this area with some of the ‘ambient’ treatments described above, in particular the high level artificial roof lighting, providing a diffused base upon which to build these lighting functions. The nature of these ‘building’ lighting treatments provided good basic gallery illuminance, particularly when coupled with other direct lighting arrangements. From very early on, a design intent developed to combine lighting functions wherever possible. Again this was a response to the paring down of the
project / maxxi museum, rome, italy
The soft light from Zumtobel Tecton continuousrow luminaires not only radiates downwards through the Barrisol Lumière translucent sheet, but also diffuses upwards through the grating of the steps and pathways. Light bands hidden in the handrails follow the stairs as a source of indirect illumination Pic: Iwan Baan
installation and the retention of a cleanness to the design and building presentation. An example of this was the provision of a supplementary technical lighting element within the roof lights themselves, adding a third lighting function within these components. This took the form of a track on the underside of the trusses to enable focused, targeted light onto three dimensional pieces or indeed onto specific wall displays. Other supplementary technical lighting elements included linear direct wall washing and the introduction of an opal diffusing panel arrangement to areas where daylight supplementation was required. The physical expression of both of these
elements once again helped to ‘join-up’ the lighting/architectural/functional expression of the MAXXI building. Linear washlight treatments flow and move though the building, accentuating building lines in much the same manner as the roof lighting and these lines are also present in the large opal panel arrangements, making the building geometry clear and evident. It should also be noted that the performance required from this ‘technical’ lighting component embraced all of the design requirements normally associated with an international gallery of this standing. The lighting installation needed to incorporate all of the key optical performance characteristics (hang
uniformity, colour rendering, modelling etc.) together with the very important conservation requirements that included illuminance level management, ultraviolet control, infra-red filtration, lux hour monitoring and so on. Sustainability The duration of this design process is also perhaps worth noting, particularly within the context of another key design philosophy; the provision of an energy efficient, low running-cost building. GIA Equation started work on this project at the beginning of 2001 when the term ‘sustainability’ was firmly associated with the Green Movement and placed in the
Pic: Roland Halbe
Pic: Helene Binet
Pic: Helene Binet
Pic: Roland Halbe
Pic: Helene Binet
Pic: Roland Halbe
realm of the ‘tree-hugging’ fraternity. However, for us, sustainability has always been a central part of our design approach with the recognition that a lighting installation is a living, breathing part of a building that places a demand on building operators long after we have left the project. The requirement therefore, to provide that much overused phrase ‘a sustainable design’ is deep within our DNA – we have been doing it since our inception back in the mid ‘80s. Within MAXXI, this philosophy is clearly in evidence, tying in with the broader design philosophy of the team and indeed other elements of the building design. The artificial design solutions that were first conceived nearly a decade ago were inherently efficient and pointed in the direction of anticipated product development. The result of this is a building that employs current technology, despite the duration of its delivery period, and therefore has what would be termed in today’s language a sustainable, energy and maintenance efficient lighting solution.
DURATION A footnote to everything written above relating to this project had some significance for us as lighting designers, but substantially more for the core members of the MAXXI design team and in particular Zaha Hadid Architects. We have now delivered a number of projects in Italy, some of them in the public sector. The process is long, drawn out and bureaucratic to say the least. The movement and sign-off through the preliminare, definitivo and esecutivo design stages can take a long time with periods of inactivity between stages being considerable. It is interesting then that MAXXI, in its delivered form, so clearly resembles its earliest design concepts. This is something that I think can only be attributed to the strength, robustness and quality of the original design vision and, if you ever get the opportunity to go and visit this wonderful piece of architecture, is worth keeping in the back of your mind. www.giaequation.co.uk
General illumination is provided by light bands with dimmable fluorescent lamps fitted behind light-scattering translucent acrylic glass. Spots offer additional point illumination. Focused spots highlight the sculptures and make them come to life by the interplay of light and shade
Project Details MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy Client: Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities, Rome Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects Lighting Design: GIA Equation Electrical Design: Max Fordham, The OK Design Group Roland Halbe pics courtesy of Zumtobel
lighting specified Foyer: Zumtobel Tecton continuous-row luminaires, ERCO Stella Projector Spotlights (with framing devices), Barrisol Lumière system Exhibition Areas: Zumtobel Tecton continuous-row luminaires, Zumtobel Vivo L spotlights, Zumtobel Panos downlights, Luxmate Litenet light management system Exterior: BEGA in-ground luminaires, BEGA recessed wall luminaires, BEGA bollards, BEGA pole-top luminaires
project / Devi Art foundation, gurgaon, haryana
SCULPTED TREASURE The Devi Art Foundation is a welcome respite in the concrete jungle of Gurgaon as a crafted piece of architecture by Landscape India. Studio Lotus and Lyle Lopez breathe life into this sculpturesque form to create a delightfully designed destination of contemporary art; discovers Mrinalini Ghadiok.
Tediously sifting through the precariously towering, insipid and desiccated overgrowth of concrete, glass and steel of Gurgaon, there lies a tiny visual oasis of chromaticity; a bracing auburn peeping through the vapid landscape. Come closer and what seemed to be dwarfed by soaring reflective monstrosities, is actually a meticulously sculpted structure rising from the ground in burnt scarlet overtones of exposed brick and Cor-ten steel. Designed by the Ahmedabad based architect, Aniket Bhagwat, of Landsape India, this anomaly is called the Sirpur House. Constructed prudently over 8 years, the Poddars intended for the
building to be the corporate headquarters of their boutique hotel commerce and paper business. However, eventually not only did it accommodate their anticipated office requirements, but also catered to their increasing interest in collecting art, which ultimately resulted in establishing the countryâ€™s first private contemporary art museum, the Devi Art Foundation. With an impassioned zeal for valuable aesthetics, private art collectors Lekha Poddar and her son Anupam were the perfect clients for Aniket, a detail and craft driven architect; to design and get built an exquisitely crafted, ludicrously
detailed and stupendously constructed piece of art. With floating walls in exposed handcrafted brickwork, juxtaposed with sagaciously weathered Cor-ten sheets, the building breathes life into the fiery redness of its form. Veiled behind the sturdy steel, perforated only by a hundred eyelets, the structure turns its back to the main street to confess its actuality to a courtyard within. Flanked on both sides by two characteristically diametric facades, the courtyard becomes the point where everything gets tied together. On one hand stands the stoic triteness of a conventional
wall, on the other an undulating artistry of rippling brickwork. The wafer like brick wall mimics a leaf of paper floating through the air as it gently touches ground. Similarly, the wall delicately hovers over the courtyard, but is magically held in place; what appear to be tenuous strands of vicious confidence are really tie cables of structural strength. Bhagwat seems to have enjoyed this playful choreography between spaces and planes, which carries through to the inside as well. Collaborating with Studio Lotus, the interiors reflect the ideologies of the architecture, where an honest
approach is taken towards using material in its natural and naked state. Extending the architectâ€™s palette, mild steel, saw cut local wood, stacked plywood and paper furnish the skillfully organized offices in the long narrow space. While cuffed workstations sit atop a raised floor embracing the outer edge, the open work areas overlook the courtyard, inviting natural light and ventilation through the building skin. Lighting designer, Lyle Lopez who conceptualised the lighting scheme, placed extracted aluminium profiles fitted with T5 fluorescent tubes from Osram and Philips to supplement the lighting quotient
in the offices. Studio Lotus ensured that nothing was concealed or cladded; the ceiling lays bare, the floor comprises of a naked concrete slab, the walls are free of paneling and one can find no traces of veneers, laminates or paint. On the contrary, varied construction techniques were explored to create a warm and intimate ambience. The other floor was also intended for offices, however, during the course of constructing the building, the Poddars realised a striking potential to display their growing collection of artworks in the 7,500 square feet area. Thus, emerged a tranquil
project / Devi Art foundation, gurgaon, haryana
abode for exquisite art. The unadorned finish of polished floors, exposed ceilings and uninterrupted lengths of wall rendered the space in definitive severity, offering the ideal contrast for a contemporary art museum. With periodically changing exhibitions, the gallery demanded flexibility and adaptability, which Lyle Lopez achieved by incorporating a series of surface and track mounted projectors that could cater to varying needs of lighting artworks. While fixtures used halogen lamps, many were fitted with dichroic filters to accommodate desired colour tones. Adjustable recessed fittings with invisible bezels aided illumination, reducing glare. Choosing the technical range from Reggiani, the display space was lit with intent circumspection.
The gallery extends itself further beyond this space. A similar line of thought spans the basement as well, where one may expect the rawness of a dowdy underground; but what they are faced with is the pristine finery of thoughtful craft. The exposed cast concrete is handsomely complimented by metalwork, which instinctively renders the space suitable for more than mere parking. Today, it is used for events and displaying additional artworks. Ceiling mounted fixtures flood the space in a uniform glow, while textured walls are accentuated with narrow beam uplights in metal halide source. Aniket Bhagwat, Studio Lotus and Lyle Lopez worked together from the time of inception of the design to create a building that
straddles the dichotomy of banal corporate work and exhilarating artistic ingenuity. The resulting structure illustrates this in its contextual environs, daily functionality as well as phenomenal aesthetics. The Sirpur House or Devi Art Foundation stands meticulously sculpted within an obscurity of normality. The architecture of the building is determined by the preordained love for craft and technique, both on the part of the designers as well as the clients. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that within the conundrum of glass clad offices in Gurgaon, the Foundation not only houses art, but becomes an artistic relief in itself. www.deviartfoundation.org www.landscapeindia.net www.studiolotus.in
project / Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, usa
THE MAGIC LANTERN The Bloch Building expansion to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City by Steven Holl Architects provides a counterpoint to the original 1933 Beaux-Arts building. Five lenses of glass walls emerge from the ground and create a luminous, undulating interplay between architecture, landscape and art. Here Rebecca Malkin and Richard Renfro of Renfro Design Group give a personal account of their involvement in the lighting design.
All photographs of the museum Courtesy of Roland Halbe/ The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
The new Visitor Services Desk in Lens One of the Bloch Building - daylighting, as well as artificial light, is a vital element to the design
We knew from the first design meeting at Steven Holl Architects in the summer of 2000, that the Bloch Building expansion to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art would be a special lighting project – and a challenging one. Steven Holl’s competition design was selected by the Museum for its unique approach of integrating the building into the landscape on the east side of the building. The five glass volumes (called “lenses”) were the complimentary contrast to the existing 1933 Nelson-Atkins Building made of stone. Holl’s design challenged the conventional ideology of museum as a “temple of art,” in order to make the Nelson-Atkins more accessible to Kansas
City. Our goals for the lighting design were to support those architectural concepts, provide lighting appropriate for the art and make the Bloch Building a source of pride for the city. In Holl’s design, light is a fundamental element – a material – that shapes the interior and exterior spaces during the day and at night. With a building composed primarily of glass, one of our tasks was to work with the materials and forms to design a system that would balance the available daylight entering the galleries during the day to give form to the architecture, but still maintain an environment that was sensitive to the conservation needs of the
art. The illumination of public spaces and art support areas needed to address the functional requirements of the Museum’s programme. The concept for the nighttime image of the building was to create glowing lanterns of the glass volumes (“lenses”) protruding from the landscape which would illuminate the exterior space and sculptures between the lenses. The success of any of our projects hinges upon collaboration. Our office worked closely with SHA, the Museum and other members of the design team in exemplary fashion to challenge and rethink “the norm.” There was a constant distilling and refinement of the essential function
of each idea and building component to ensure that the lighting clarified and enriched the architecture and the art viewer’s experience. This effort was most intensely exercised in our teamwork with SHA to develop the art lighting system for the galleries. The intent in terms of natural light was to allow one to experience its variation – whether it is the time of day, season or sky condition – rather than control it to the extent that one would have no
sense of what was happening outside. To allow these variations in the intensity of daylight, daylight could not be the primary light source for the art and maintain the narrow range of light levels to meet the Museum’s conservation requirements. The electric lighting system would serve to light the art and balance the brightness of the art walls with the natural light at the ‘T-walls’. This provided a base level of accent light for each art piece while allowing the daylight to
provide an acceptable level of variation to the overall light on the art. We began by reviewing architectural models in order to better understand how the building form would manipulate the daylight entering the gallery spaces. Each suite of galleries (most of which are below grade) are centred on a double-walled glass lens, which serves to gather and admit daylight. The lens glass is supported by a “T-wall” which not only functions as a structural
Top Both buildings at night from the J.C. Nichols Plaza (north). High-output T5’s illuminate the inner glass layer to transform the building into a glowing lantern Bottom Conceptual diagrams of the lighting and daylighting systems
project / Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, usa
Top All the art, including Deborah Butterfield’s sculpture Horse is highlighted by track lighting in the contemporary galleries of the Bloch Building
element, but reflects and filters the daylight into the gallery space below. We discovered that by carving sculpted openings in these walls, we could mix the cool light of the northern sky with the warm light of the southern exposures resulting in a more interesting and dynamic space in galleries that would otherwise have only seen one type of light. A series of studies were required to evaluate the properties of the glass “sandwich” of the lenses in order to determine a “glass factor” that could be applied to subsequent computer calculations. The lenses are comprised of two layers of glass, separated by a one metre cavity. Interlocking low iron sandblasted and textured glass U-planks with Okalux insulating material form the outer layer, while the laminated, acidetched inner glass contains a white PVB UV interlayer. Our process of evaluating these layers included: - Transmission measurements for each component of the glass system; - Physical mockups of gallery sections at 1” = 1’-0” and half full size; - Many hours of computer calculations. Further evaluation of the building form, for various times of year was accomplished via 3D computer model calculations, using Lightscape and Radiance software. We discovered that the geometry of the building reduced the high angle, more intense light of the summer sun, and that the spring and fall seasons had the potential of providing the “worst case” scenarios in terms of daylight within the galleries. Consequential computer calculations (some taking days to complete a single calculation) focused on these key times of year. Shades located within the lens cavity provide a final level of control for the amount of light entering the galleries from the available light on the exterior. The optimal combination of shade fabric transmissions were determined to meet the light level requirements of the art and shade fabrics tested to verify their performance. The resulting shade program allows the Museum to change the configuration on a seasonal basis, providing a multi-tier passive daylighting system. The electric art lighting system is an essential component for the galleries and was devised in a manner so as to be sympathetic to the folding, sloping planes of the ceiling and to provide adequate flexibility for changing artwork locations. Rather than use continuous track, which would be perceived as long slits in the ceiling, a series of short track sections or “stitches” were located based upon studies of each gallery in section. Track fixtures
Top The interior of the Bloch Building Left Steven Holl’s award-winning parking garage of the Nelson-Atkins features light filtered through the “moons” of Walter De Maria’s One Sun / 34 Moons in the reflecting pool above
can be located and aimed as required to illuminate the art. A second component of the electric lighting system were the architectural fluorescent coves in the ceiling located along selected art walls to provide balance to the daylight in each gallery. Multiple levels of switching the lamps in each cove allow the Museum staff to adjust the coves based upon the specific exhibit requirements. Public spaces are illuminated with fixtures that are strategically integrated into the architecture. The lobby spaces are primarily
illuminated by fluorescent coves for general light. In areas where focal light is required, such as the Museum Store, adjustable track fixtures are provided, incorporated into ceiling slots. A custom recessed ceiling fixture with a textured glass lens was designed to conceal adjustable downlights and accent lights for special events in the lobby. A high-output T5 fluorescent uplight within the fixture provides an ambient glow. Preset dimming systems allow for individual room control for special events and day to day functional lighting requirements.
As luminous as the building is during the day, it is equally magical at night. As the sun sets, the electric light within the Bloch Building lenses transforms the building into glowing lanterns. High-output T5 fluorescent fixtures located at grade and on horizontal structural catwalks within the lens cavities illuminate the inner glass layer. The reflected light, seen through the outer glass wall, provides a soft glow for the surrounding site and sculptures located between the lenses. The “lanterns” on the lawn have become an iconic image for the Nelson-Atkins and Kansas City. www.renfrodesign.com www.stevenholl.com
Lighting suppliers Edison Price Lighting Nulux Elliptipar C.W. Cole & Company Winona Lighting Bartco Lighting Bega H.E. Williams Cathode Lighting Systems Litecontrol Corporation
project / Kiran Nadar Museum of Art, new delhi
ART MATRIX India’s first private art museum, the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art stands as an examplar of sensitive design, intelligent lighting and exacting controls. Mrinalini Ghadiok takes a lone jaunt through this gossamer of art to discover a ‘unity in diversity’ of the the design by Space Matrix and lighting scheme by Vision Design.
The Kiran Nadar Museum of Art is situated in one of the most prominent and debonair districts of south Delhi. However, try locating it without knowing the area very well, and you will probably end up circling the multitude of malls in Saket. One does not expect a gallery, let alone a museum, to be located near a bustling shopping area, let alone inside it. The KNMA breaks all these stereotypes, and more - stationed within one of the seven malls in Saket, it is one of the first private museums exhibiting Modern and Contemorary Art from India and the subcontinent. Established by the avid art collector Kiran Nadar, KNMA intends to exemplify the dynamic relationship between art and culture through its exhibitions, publications, educational and public programs. In Kiran Nadar’s words, “Though the idea of opening a private art museum
occurred with the intention of sharing my art collection with the larger public, I was also acutely aware of the existing dearth of institutional spaces that could bring visibility to modern and contemporary art from India and the subcontinent.” Conceptualised by architectural design firm, Space Matrix, KNMA was envisioned as an opportunity to look, sit, admire, contemplate, and become one with the art. Responding to its immediate surrounding, the gallery fully embraces the space and energy of the urban context. The architects intentionally opened the gallery to the public mall lobby, creating an opportunity to engage with passers by. Utilizing the large glass façade, the museum was made more inviting and dynamic. The unassuming entrance to KNMA does no justice to the space that lies ahead. Walking through the antediluvian
metal detector, one starts their odyssey expecting disappointment; but enter the doors, look down the corridor, and what you see is the beginning of a promising journey. Walking past the sizable reception desk and a modest museum shop, you are faced with a glazed opening, which mysteriously slides apart to pull you into an unusually bright cubical space. The luminous cube, with a considerably intimate ceiling acts like a foot-bath before you enter the pristine flawlessness of the gallery space. By now you have been squeezed through the cube, pallete cleansed and ready for a taste of some of the most exquisite artwork prevalent in the country. The cube disturbingly opens from a corner, and leads you straight into a large rectilinear hall. Home to the famous prostrate elephant by Bharti Kher titled
project / Kiran Nadar Museum of Art, new delhi
â€˜Skin Speaks a Language Not Its Own,â€™ this space usually harbours the more capacious pieces. The rest of the museum is a series of rectangular rooms, leading from one to another, devising a labirynthian expedition for the visitor. As you walk deeper into the maze, every step leaves you further distant from the outside world. The stark white walls, punctuated with artworks embrace installations in their austerity. The delicately laid white terazzo floor in the larger rooms is offset with ash coloured wooden stripped flooring in other spaces. The chalky ceiling is periodically interrupted with exposed ductwork painted white, or dropped gypsum panels that astutely conceal services behind them. Drawing attention to the artwork is the key function of the architectural design philosohpy. While all other elements are intentionally made to fade into oblivion,
the singular medium used to accentuate the art is light. Space Matrix worked in close conjunction with Australia based lighting consultants, Vision Design, for whom the execution was supported by the integrated lighting solutions company, vis a vis. Working as a team from the beginning of the process, togethey they were able to translate the spatial design ideology into their lighting program seamlessly. The museum commands a complete and exacting control of prevalent light. Daylight is limited in the space by running a solid wall parallel to the exterior glass faĂ§ade. Aiming for an overall subtle, yet uniform look, the gallery spaces are mostly bathed in the calmness of a perfectly warm white light. However, while some art pieces demand for the room to be replete with light, others lie in demure obscurity. The complex lighting scheme is achieved by
apportioning the space into separate rooms. Each room is fitted with an independent lighting track that circles the perphery of the ceiling. Varying fittings are plugged into the track to accommodate differing lighting schemes and needs as per the artwork on display. When the museum was being commissioned in 2010, an extensive system of low voltage halogen fixtures from the Optec family by ERCO was employed to shed light in the space. Available in various beam optics, such as narrow, medium, flood as well as wall washers; gave the designer a much needed flexibility in their lighting scheme. Variable light distribution coupled with a competent selection of accessories, such as sculpture lenses, colour filters, framing projectors, barn doors and honeycomb louvres added to the diversity of the fittings. Each spotlight was commissioned
with an inbuilt potentiometer that allowed dimming from 100% to an impressive 10%. Lighting at the KNMA, as any other museum plays a critical role in the display of artwork, and more so in the perception of the work. Creating a perfect balance of direct and indirect light, as well as diffused and accented light was imperative. Ensuring that the lighting does not add to the visual clutter while viewing the artowrk, the designers kept the system discreet. Soft uniform wall washes with high color renditions and accent spots of variable beams were used to avoid any secondary beams and scallops on the walls. The comprehensive set of lighting tools, equipped with pertinent trimmings ensured that it catered to the adaptability required in the museum. With periodically changing exhibitions, artworks of varying scales, typology and media; it was critical to allow
for the lighting to cater to a multitude of situations. Five years hence, the original lighting layout still functions and addresses each exhibition impeccably. While the walls of one room are draped in the meticulous geometries of Raza, requiring the fragile nuances of romantic lighting; another room is left unlit, guarded by Tushar Joag’s sentinels made of pespex and halogens. While Srinivas Prasad’s bamboo house splatters the walls in frantic shadows emerging from a single source of light within; Hema Upadhay’s metallic city glimmers in the soft glow of a spotlight. The ongoing exhibition titled ‘Constructs Constructions’ stands witness to time and the diversity of a lighting design scheme that caters to over 30 artists’ works within one museum space. Although there are a number of private art galleries and museums that have
cropped up across the country in the past few years, KNMA continues to hold the mantle of one of the most sensitively maintained and curated houses of art. Focusing on constantly reaching out to a larger audience and connecting people to the Indian art scene, Director and Chief Curator of the museum, Roobina Karode exclaims, “KNMA is premised on the belief that art museums today are not merely repositories of art objects or sites of display, but can be mobilized as spaces for dialogue and sustained interaction.” And light plays a crucial role in defining the space and ambience befitting for dialogue and sustained interaction, while adapting to varied presenations of art forms. www.knma.in www.spacematrix.com www.wspgroup.com www.visavisindia.com
project / Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France
pomp and ceremony Designed by renowned architects, Shigeru Ban and Jean de Gastines, Centre Pompidou-Metz stands firm as a cultural beacon illuminated by I.C.O.N.
In May 2010, the Centre Pompidou in Paris opened its long awaited satellite gallery in the city of Metz. Positioned close to the German, Luxembourg and Belgian borders, the Centre Pompidou-Metz (CPM) is seen as an opportunity to bring French art and culture closer to an international audience, as well as create a high profile tourist destination in the host city. Though operating independently from the original Centre Pompidou, this new institution is able to draw on the Parisbased collection of over 65,000 works of contemporary art, as well as utilising the expertise and reputation of the original. The move echoes the Guggenheim template of establishing offshoot museums around the world – a programme started in
Bilbao with the titanium sheathed galleries designed by Frank Gehry. The Centre Pompidou is no stranger to landmark architecture, its design by Rogers and Piano caused a stir among Parisians when it opened in 1977 and, while the board didn’t want a direct copy, it was important that the new CPM shared a flavour of the original’s adventurous architecture. The building, by architects Shigeru Ban and Jean de Gastines, is a vast modular structure set around a central spire that rises 77 metres above ground. As well as 5,000sqm of gallery spaces – designed to accommodate large-scale installations – the museum incorporates a studio for live performances, an auditorium,
a resource centre, reception areas, a shop, a restaurant and a café. Outside, a restaurant terrace and gardens provide further opportunities to exhibit works. The centre’s main structure is formed from three rectangular tubes – the main gallery spaces – stacked one on top of the other, each rotated 45º from the one below. Above this floats a white membrane roof, held up by a hexagonal latticework of wooden beams that sprout from the ground at four points around the base of the building. It took ten months to prepare and four months to install this wooden mesh: constructed from 18 kilometres of gluelaminated timber beams. Each beam was uniquely CNC–machined to the required
proportions, with multi-directional curves, and all the holes needed for final assembly (node points, pins and braces) pre formed. Inspired by a traditional Chinese hat, the entire geometry was modelled using proprietary form-finding software. Ban and de Gastines were clear on the impact they felt the Centre should have. “As visitors make their way across the terrace and through the gardens that connect the Centre Pompidou-Metz with the town centre and the railway station, they will see a bright, luminous building that appears to be both strong yet light, and which seems to invite them to take shelter under its protecting roof. We wanted the architecture to convey a sense of well-being, openness and multi-cultural
mix in a building that has a direct, sensory relationship with its surroundings.” I.C.O.N. were given responsibility for designing all lighting visible from the exterior. “Viewing it from the urban tissue of Metz, this new eye-catching architecture is supposed to play an important role, not only in the daytime, but also during the darkness,” says I.C.O.N.’s Akari-Lisa Ishii. “Lighting is for sure an indispensable medium to reinforce its innovative design in the urban context, as well as to represent its presence at night, because light emits messages. In order to underline this impressive structure with three tubes and gigantic but weightless roof, floodlighting enlightens the centre of art. Lit–up tubes fly like
Architects Shigeru Ban and Jean de Gastines wanted visitors to see the new Centre Pompidou-Metz as “a bright, luminous building that appears to be both strong yet light, and which seems to invite them to take shelter under its protecting roof”.
project / Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France
carpets, and the roof floats in the air like a glowing cloud.” Ishii’s lighting design aimed to heighten the impression of a ‘floating’ roof using up-lighting and indirect lighting, while at the same time ensuring fixtures were placed as discretely as possible to maintain the simplicity of the architectural design. The variety of fittings were kept to a minimum to help keep maintenance costs low and fixtures were grouped together as much as possible to simplify cabling work. Efficiency and reliability were key in selecting fixtures, as was the need to ensure the uniformity of colour temperature of all exterior lighting. The lighting is pre-set to different switching patterns according to time and usage, with a simple timer programme used to switch off fixtures in groups. Fittings at lower position in the building
are turned off at 11PM, those in the middle at midnight, and the tower top and the flag remaining lit all night acting as a beacon for the city. The 10,700 sqm roof membrane is lit from below. Comatelec-Schreder fixtures - flat projectors mounted on the building’s façade and box shape projectors placed around the top of the gallery tubes in an asymmetric photometry - create the desired ‘welcoming glow’ and reveal the wooden beam structure in silhouette. Four iGuzzini ground-recessed spots placed around the base of each of the canopy’s supporting columns (dubbed ‘tulip’ pillars) illuminate the latticework structure as it emerges from the ground. The outer walls of the three main galleries are illuminated with 150W projectors. As a result, the distinct shapes remain clearly visible.
Top l’Observatoire 1 hid fluorescent strip lights above a grill ceiling in the gallery spaces. Light is directed upwards using custom-made fittings, creating a uniform illuminated ‘sky’ Bottom I.C.O.N. used light to emphasise the gallery tubes that jut out from beneath the hexagonal roof canopy. The lowest gallery sits over the main entrance, marked by exterior downlights
Left and right Sill mini lights emphasise the exoskeleton structure of the hexagonal lift tower in the atrium
Project Details Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France Client: Greater Metz, City of Metz, Centre Pompidou Lighting Designer (exterior): I.C.O.N. (Akari-Lisa Ishii) Lighting Designer (interior): l’Observatoire 1 (George Berne, Rémy Cimadevilla, Antony Perrot) Architect: Shigeru Ban and Jean de Gastines - SARL Shigeru Ban Architects Europe
lighting specified Visitors enter the CPM below the first gallery, which juts out from beneath the roof canopy. The underside of this counterlevered box is punctuated with a series of Simes 70W recessed downlights. Inside the building, this pattern of downlights continues along the gallery’s underbelly using iGuzzini Sistema Easy fixtures. The use of a uniform 3000K colour temperature helps link the internal and exterior spaces. Inside the main atrium, a hexagonal tower houses lifts and stairway to the upper floors, its metal exoskeleton fitted with Sill mini spots to emphasis the structure. The atrium exhibition space, the Grand Nave, is lit by a grid of fluorescent lighting fitted to the grid structures on the underside of the top two gallery tubes. Lighting designers George Berne, Rémy Cimadevilla, and Antony Perrot of l’Observatoire 1 were given the task of
creating an appropriate scheme inside the three main gallery tubes and auditorium. A grill ceiling in each of the gallery spaces creates a void running the length of the room. Above the grill sit rows of 54W fluorescent strips housed in custom-made fixtures that directs the light upwards, bouncing it off the ceiling and down into the room. Thus the gallery is filled with a ‘sky’ of perfectly uniform light, bathing the whole space and providing approximately 500 lux vertically. To highlight individual artworks, 45W spotlights can be fixed to the grill as required. Whether the Centre Pompidou-Metz can truly repeat the Bilboa effect remains to be seen, but with visitor figures in the hundreds of thousands, it seems the lure of world-class architecture and master works of art have, for many, proved irresistable. www.icon-lighting.com
iGuzzini: 24 x Multiline ground recessed spot around tulip pillars; 41 x Sistema Easy ceiling recessed downlight under the tube 1 (indoor); 44 x Sistema Easy ceiling recessed downlight in service area under the tube 1 & WC Zumtobel: 6 x Slotlight ceiling recessed line at reception counters ERCO: 20 x Lightcast ceiling recessed downlight inside of hexagonal tower Gal: 37 x Enbut ceiling recessed downlight with hexagonal glass diffuser in reception room Epsilon: 221 x Astoria DP FL line integrated in structure in the Grand Nave Bega: 5 x 9480 projector for emergency use in the forum Simes: 24 x Megazip ceiling recessed downlight (waterproofed) under the tube 1 (outdoor) Gagni: 12 x Lux flat projector loading zone Comatelec-Schreder: 42 x Neos 3 flat projector mounted on facade to light up roof; 42 x RT 3 box shape projector mounted on wall and tubes to light up roof; 37 x RT 2 box shape projector mounted on wall and tubes to light up roof; 39 x Focal Projector mounted on side of tubes and top of roof Sill: 24 x Outdoor wall light Mini spot mounted on the hexagonal tower structure Targetti: 8 x Exterior Mini LC Bollard parking area Bega: 50 x 8039 Ground recessed spot around Studio de Creation Eliatech: 52 x - FL tube emergency stairs Waldmann: 14 x RL40 FL tube central stairs
project / bmw Museum, Munich, germany
BRILLIANT MEDIA WORLD Architects Atelier Brückner, media designers Art+Com and led specialists G-Lec developed a spectacular centerpiece for the BMW Museum in Munich, a symbiosis of architecture and technology. The term ‘museum’ often conjures up images of stuffy halls with uninspiring one-dimensional displays so it is perhaps misleading to call this particular attraction the ‘m’ word; for the BMW Museum in Munich has a modern, dynamic language: the language of the automotive world. Opened on June 21st 2008, it set a standard in the realm of brand-focused museums. Along with the BMW Welt, opened in October 2007, and the BMW factory tour, the museum is the final component of the BMW Triad, which is witness to two million visitors annually. Analogous to the BMW brand, which stands for innovative technology and design, the BMW Museum takes new approaches to intertwining architecture, exhibition design and communicative media. The
BMW Group could depend on an innovative realisation because of the experienced creative partners. The Stuttgart studio ATELIER BRÜCKNER was commissioned with the planning, architecture, and exhibition design. ART+COM, a Berlin design office for new media, completed the spatial media design and interactive installations, while the Swiss company DELUX AG was responsible for the general lighting design. The initial call for the new BMW Museum came in 2003 when the BMW board of directors purposefully decided on the Munich location. In contrast to construction projects of other automobile manufacturers, the new museum building would not originate in a green meadow; instead, it was a matter of integrating the new museum into the existing structural
fabric of the group headquarters in Munich. Here, trendsetting architecture already had a presence from the original 1973 plans of the Viennese architect Karl Schwanzer. This ensemble consists of the ‘Four Cylinder’ high-rise construction, the adjoining low buildings, and the ‘Museum Bowl’ that carries the BMW logo on the roof, and has subsequently developed into a landmark of the car group. With the ‘Museum Bowl’ Karl Schwanzer designed the first car-specific museum in Germany. Prominent pieces from the BMW collection were exhibited there. Prior to this, exhibits were only shown in the factory museum, built in 1966, although the collection began in 1922. Schwanzer’s basic idea for the museum building was the “continuation of the
More than 1.7 million G-LEC LEDs covering 700sqm play recorded media that blends into the architecture
street in altered space.” The futuristic silver construction, which outwardly is very closed, looks light and generous inside. Via a rising spiral ramp, the visitor enters five seemingly free-floating platforms that serve as exhibition areas. The nearly circular base of the museum widens from approximately 20 metres to 40 metres in diameter. On platforms four and five, the wide airspace and building expansion becomes possible to experience. The job to interpret this prominent architectural piece anew and lead it into the 21st century was transferred to the studio ATELIER BRÜCKNER. It was a matter of maintaining the original architectural and experiential qualities of the ‘Museum Bowl,’ making it suitable for installations, and uniting this part with a completely
new long-term exhibition area. This new exhibition area was housed in an existing adjoining low building, the West Wing of the group headquarters that had served until then as an employee lounge and parking garage. The building was cleared to bearing walls by the Stuttgart architects and given a new dynamic interior. The exhibition space could now be extended from its former size of 1000 to 5000 square metres. However, it is the work of ART+COM, who completed the spatial media design and interactive installations that really catches the eye. Their design is based on interactive, reactive, and cinematic elements. These components go hand in hand with the architecture and exhibition design. The BMW Platz, a collaborative
development between ATELIER BRÜCKNER, ART+COM and LED specialists G-LEC, was designed as “Mediatecture,” a symbiosis of architecture and media. Through a series of experiments, the parameters were fixed to create an impressive spatial experience that adequately connected the brand to the architecture and media technology. The realised product works with monochrome white LEDs, which are mounted behind double glazed white sheets of glass. This combination is new, used here for the first time. The glass provides the impression – retained even at close range – of a uniform, closed picture where the technology is concealed from the visitor. One does not perceive the individual glass pieces as a defining element, instead discerning the overall glow from within the facade.
project / bmw Museum, Munich, germany
ATELIER BRÜCKNER’s designs for incorporating the media wall into the architecture Bottom Left the G-LEC LED system in detail
Behind the 13 metre high glazed glass wall of the BMW Platz hides more than 1.7 million G-LEC LEDs that play recorded media. The installation comprises white surface mounted LEDs pitched at 20mm on white printed circuit boards. At the heart of the system is the ability to individually control each one of the LEDs, plus the means to cut each PCB into pixel sized increments in order to fit the installation absolutely around the shape of the space, including bridges, archways and wall fixings. A total of 700sqm is covered with the circuit boards, the main challenge of such a space being to ensure that all the LEDs were at an exact 5600°K. The walls are then transformed into a media façade with the addition of huge panes of sand blasted glass placed at a specified distance in front of them. A special wall mounted ‘spider’ bracket was developed to mount the PCBs seamlessly onto the wall, with special
covers to mask the joints. The BMW design process from the idea to a specific scheme is in the ‘House of Design.’ The starting point of the three stages highlighted in the house is the ‘Kinetic Sculpture’ in the ‘Inspiration’ space. ART+COM made this work of art a metaphor for the “flow of ideas,” and translates the virtual design process metaphorically into the space. Composed of 714 metal balls hanging from highly flexible steel ropes, it covers an area of 6 metres. Individual computer micro- motors control the movements, which seem to move solely through the power of thought guided by a cycle of free abstractions and vehicle forms typical of BMW. The process starts with disordered thought and follows the choreography of associative ideas and geometric formations, finally leading to representations of vehicles like the 327, the 1500, the Z4 Coupe Concept Car, and
the 2006 Mille Miglia. The formations of the sculptures are synchronised with lit catchwords on the walls and audio quotes from BMW designers. In the room ‘Chronology’ (in the ‘House of the Company’) is the ‘Corporate Sculpture.’ The 30 square metre media table is an interactive history of BMW. Text, pictures, and videos document 90 years of corporate history and provide information on vehicles, aircrafts, and engines. A list of BMW product statistics forms the ‘spine’ of the chronicle. The operation of the table is a multitouchenabled interface that responds to hand contact. This technology is also used in a total of five ‘Infobars’ that offer in-depth information about exhibits and contents within different rooms of the museum. The epilogue of the exhibition is the ‘Visual Symphony’ in the ‘Museum Bowl.’ The column-free space has a 120 metres length wall surface and up to 6 metres of height
that permits 360° of panoramic projection on the inner wall of the building bowl. 18 projections unite into an emotive all-around picture, created by the Berlin director Marc Tamschick. Generated in real time, the film is of endless length. A sound staging of 125 loudspeakers and 64 channels is used. An impressive space-sound experience emanates as an epilogue and climax of the museum tour. For all its multimedia innovation, the technology remains largely hidden. The focus is on the objects and the interaction of visitors with the content. The media was produced as an integral component of the architecture and staged exhibits. The installations are intuitive, for example, through use of multi-touch technology. Audio installations such as the ‘Audio Books’ or video formats like the ‘Appearing Screens’ respond to the mere presence of the visitor. Overall, the media productions invite exhibition exploration and interactivity. The BMW Museum is a sensual, surprising, and meaningful experience. The original museum concept of Karl Schwanzer found a contemporary interpretation in the new building, Top The exterior of the museum showing the Museum Bowl Bottom Inside the Museum Bowl showing the ramp system
project / bmw Museum, Munich, germany
ART+COM’s work in other areas of the museum. Top ‘Kinetic Sculpture’; ‘Encounters’ Bottom ‘Visual Symphony’; ‘Encounters’
Lighting design for the museum was carried out by DELUX AG
namely the “street in altered space as a principle of a dynamic architecture” (Prof. Uwe R. Brückner, head of the Stuttgart ATELIER BRÜCKNER). The proverbial “driving pleasure” was interpreted as a spatial experience. A dynamic, innovative architecture has emerged, where the leading idea of the “continuation of the street in altered space” is taken and
transferred to a ramp system. The media productions lift “the limitations of the room and put exhibits and content in motion” (Prof. Joachim Sauter, creative director, ART+COM). In Munich an original automobile museum has emerged where architecture, content, statement, and creation interlock. They go hand in hand for an aesthetically
demanding, consistent space that corresponds to the BMW brand. The museum fascinates through the origination of unique and individual solutions – in architecture, scenography, as well as the area of the new media technology. www.atelier-brueckner.com www.artcom.de www.delux.ch
art & design / six stages of product design
A SIXTH SENSE OF DESIGN We all look at lighting products as finished elements - something that looks pretty and serves its intrinsic purpose of shedding light in space. Seldom do we question why it exists, and where its originating idea propagates.Â
02 I N T E R P R E T A T I O N
Here we present six designers, six products, and the progression of idea to product segmented into six milestones. The milestones were offered to each designer as loose benchmarks open to their individual interpretation. We map the journey of these products from drawing board to studio, artist to consumer, but most importantly from mind to matter.
I N S P I R A T I O N
Prateek Jain & Gautam Seth Vibhor Sogani Farzin Adenwalla Jenny Pinto Alex Davis Avni Sejpal
01 The inception of an idea - the nagging thought 02 Transforming the idea into a design - giving structure to the thought 03 Evolving the design into a form - assembling the structure 04 Molding the form into a practical format - the physical manifestation of the assemblage 05 Arraying the format into a collection - reconfiguring the physical to create adjutants 06 Displaying the collection in a context - contextualising the sanctioned
A P P L I C A T I O N
V A R I A T I O N
P R O D U C T
T H E
T R A N S L A T I O N
art & design / six stages of product design
PRATEEK JAIN & GAUTAM SETH As a luxury boutique studio, klove combines glass, steel, brass, ceramic and stone to construct installations, objects and statement pieces. The design themes flow from neo-classical to contemporary, combining different temporal and textural styles.
SPIRAL 01 Wanting to create something larger than life, physically and symbolically, representing the ascent into the next decade, hinting at the future as well as remembering the past.
02 The cosmos represents origin and journey, balancing structure with fluidity. The Milky Way is a banded spiral with a straight bar of stars running through its center.
03 The curves of the cosmos were sketched into graphic hyperbolic shapes that represent ascension and origin, the journey read forward and backward.
04 Glass components strung together to mimic a spiral staircase, brought shape to a light emitting form.
05 Through trial and error, and a series of full-scale mock-ups, varying combinations were explored to ensure quality and stability.
06 Considering the client and context of application, the product was scaled to be bold, yet comfortably sized for space in a house. www.klovestudio.com
art & design / six stages of product design
Vibhor Sogani An alumnus of National Institute of Design (NID), Vibhor offers a large portfolio of light collections, and also creates light installations for special projects. His designs have move beyond lights to concepts depicting thought provoking art - Lights with a New Dimension.
CASCADE 01 Inspired by the iconic architecture of Falling Water by Frank Lloyd Wright, the geometries of forms and volumes were carefully considered.
02 The bold horizontal and vertical planes, juxtaposed with striking textural differences and exaggerated proportions, create the illusion of mysteriously floating surfaces.
03 An intimate interplay of accentuated horizontal planes with extravagant vertical layers, come together to form an articulated composition.
04 A multilayered installation of diffused floating planes rendered in varied textures, are connected through a central shaft of fluid stainless steel wires.
05 Cutomised to site conditions, the form can be furnished in an assortment of materials such as copper, brass, aluminium and white finish.
06 Thought provoking, dramatic, and suitable for high ceilings, it lends a distinction to any given space. www.vibhorsogani.com
art & design / six stages of product design
Farzin adenwalla Furniture studio, Bombay Atelier collaborates with local artisans to create products that incorporate traditional Indian styles in a modern minimal aesthetic.
LATTU 01 Taking inspiration from the humble Lattu, wooden colourful spinning tops used by children throughout India, the collection attempts to relate and be relevant to Indian heritage.
02 The flowing shapes of the Lattu are transformed into varying profiles.
03 Profiles are fabricated by local artisans, handbent and then buffed to precision.
04 The profiles are fitted with a handcrafted, woodturned Burma teak â€˜top,â€™ which is spun on a lathe to reveal beautiful timber textures.
05 Each Lattu frame is powder coated and available in a series of bright colours. The vibrant options and varying shapes makes it an exciting collection.
06 The Lattu light is available as a complete set and can be suspended as a pendent in a diverse array of surroundings. www.bombayatelier.com
art & design / six stages of product design
JENNY PINTO Making paper the old fashioned way,Â Jenny creates a unique range of delicate, translucent and textured paper from agricultural and craft waste fibers, which is then transformed into a range of lights, home accessories and stationery.
passion flower chandelier 01 Inspired by materiality, transparency and textural qualities are explored, coupled with the deconstruction and reconstruction of plant to paper.
02 While making paper, external interventions are made during the natural drying process, to exaggerate or deviate the resultant form, leading to innovative sculptural configurations.
03 The dried paper formwork is treated to create spatial structures. Additional materials such as stone, wood and metal are incorporated to juxtapose with the delicate fragility of the paper.
04 Assembling the parts to amalgamate material form with light gives birth to floral configurations in ethereal glow.
05 Envisioned as ceiling suspensions, the light product has extended itself to floor mounted versions. Uniquely handcrafted, each piece varies in size, scale and formation, maintaining material as the common thread.
06 Relating the story of paper and light, the product exploits its versatility in adapting to diverse environments. www.jennypinto.com
art & design / six stages of product design
Alex davis A trained mechanical engineer, with a Masters Diploma in product design from National Institute of Design (NID) and a Masters degree in industrial design from Domus Academy, Alex brings to the table innovation in contemporary design.
COCOONS 01 Surrounded by the wood shavings of solid pine, saturating the workshop with an incredible honey warm tone and translucent magic, there was an urge for the material to be preserved.
02 Deriving from its natural state, the circular and concentric form of the shavings were further exaggerated.
03 Wrapping sheets of shavings on a circular armature developed spherical globes of different sizes in natural wood.
04 Fitted with lamps, the globes radiate in a transparent hue of warmth and comfort.
05 Originating in different hues of natural wood, experimentation led to varying metallic finishes, including a distressed tone.
06 Spherical globes gave way to varying shapes and sizes to accommodate a full range of floor, wall, table and suspension products. www.alexdavisstudio.com
art & design / six stages of product design
avni sejpal Mumbai based Studio Avni is a multidisciplinary design studio offering bespoke lights, 3d textiles, furniture and products using unconventional methods and materials. It is a syndication of research-based design and the heritage of Indian craftsmanship.
FACETED TACTILE LIGHT SERIES 01 Drawn to rhythmic patterns and geometry that can be controlled by algorithms, methods were explored for producing funicular and geodesic triangulated assemblies that possess structural integrity and minimize the construction of a chassis.
02 The structures are situated within the historical trajectory of architectural form finding, specifically the realization of funicular funnel structures and geodesic domes.
03 Building on the crafts of Origami and Kirigami, and moving away from paper to metal, directs the process to be highly detailed in its joinery.
04 Metal sheets cut and linked together form a mosaic of repetitive cellular structures that can be molded into a tessellated geometrical form. Light permeates the joinery to reveal construction lines.
05 The faceted tactile geometry utilizes simplified techniques enabling construction in varying material â€“ brass, copper, German silver, PVC.
06 The modular geometry tolerates translation into differing scales and myriad material â€“ metal, fabric, wood to construct screens, complex shell structures and domes. www.studioavni.com
art & design / uk pavilion, milan expo, italy
voice of the beehive BDP’s lighting designers worked closely with artist, Wolfgang Buttress, to illuminate the critically acclaimed UK Pavilion, that's taking the World Expo by storm.
Pic: courtesy of UKTI
Pic: courtesy of BDP
Pic: courtesy of UKTI
Pic: courtesy of UKTI
Integrated into the Hive, 1000 RGBW individually controllable LED pixels (utilising 4W Cree LED chips), custom-made by Stage One and specified by artist Wolfgang Buttress, are bright enough to be seen in daylight and vibrantly pulse at night mimicking the communicative vibrations of bees.
The UK Pavilion highlights the decline of the world’s bee population and the importance of pollination for food production, looking at how new UK research and technology are helping to address challenges such as food security and biodiversity. Designed by an all British team - Nottingham-based artist Wolfgang Buttress with engineering from Simmonds Studio and the Manchester office of BDP who's lighting team, consisting of Rhiannon West, Chris Lowe and Colin Ball, provided the lighting design - the pavilion is an homage to the ground-breaking UK technology developed by physicist and bee
expert Dr. Martin Bencsik. The bees’ activities are monitored from the roof of Nottingham Trent University by Bencsik using accelerometers to detect and translate the vibrations made by bees as they communicate with one another. Visitors meander through an orchard, discover a meadow of wild flowers and enter the Hive, which pulses, buzzes and glows according to live-streamed signals from a real beehive in the UK. The accelerometers are used to measure the activity of the colony and algorithms are used to convert the bee colony vibrations
into lighting effects. The concept, designed by Wolfgang Buttress, consists of 1,000 individually-addressable bespoke RGBW LED pixels (custom-made and integrated into the Hive engineered by UK manufacturer Stage One) allowing the Hive to pulse and glow, acting as a visual representation of bee activity. Rhiannon West commented: “Our lighting vision from the start was integration of lighting within the landscape and architecture. We wanted to be seamless right from day one. We wanted light only where it was required; maintaining
Pic: courtesy of UKTI
art & design / uk pavilion, milan expo, italy
Top right Mike Staone Lighting (MSL) hexagon extrusions are used inside the pavilion. Due to a strict budget and timeframe, MSL kept things simple, drawing upon familiar materials, practices, trusted sub-contractors and adopted a pragmatic approach towards installability. Left and bottom right 600m of Lumenal Mira aluminium profile, integrated with iGuzzini LED, is used on the walkways and into the handrails to produce a warm, welcoming glow at night.
incredibly low levels of light whilst ensuring sufficient light is available to all required tasks.” BDP needed to keep in mind low viewing angles and glare. The journey from beginning to end was intended to replicate a ‘waggle dance’ - a movement bees make to signal the direction of pollen to one another. This route by night comes alive with glowing pathways being the only source of lighting. Following the light takes you on a journey to the pavilion’s main attraction, the Hive.” Due to the low levels of light in the centre of the Hive, BDP took care to reduce ambient light levels and minimise glare. This is achieved through luminaires
integrated within details, ensuring that visitors’ eyes adapt as soon as they arrive. The Pavilion has various functions and the lighting design ensures that the systems for the bar, dining and conference spaces, together with the wayfinding and emergency lighting, integrate seamlessly into Buttress’s vision whilst maintaining incredibly low levels of light. Entering the Pavilion, the orchard’s pathways glow gently leading to the meadow where a series of trees are uplit and visitors are guided past a busy ‘swarm wall’ emanating a slight sparkle. Visitors move around the meadow pathways in the formation of the ‘waggle dance’ all lit from a low level skirting detail.
Over 600m of British company Lumenal’s Mira 7mm deep aluminium profile, integrated with iGuzzini LED, is used at ankle level around the honeycomb shaped walkways, the bar areas and into handrails to give a warm, honey like-glow. Below the hive deep recessed, low glare adjustable spotlights from Light Projects (also from the UK) provide pools of light to aid the reading of brochures and offsetting the drama of the animated Hive overhead. Inside the heart of the building lies a decorative beehive-inspired lighting installation. This is a show space for fine dining, conference and government hosting, and the installation offers a variety of flexible lighting for each. An array of
Pic: courtesy of UKTI
Pic: courtesy of UKTI
Top left Artist Wolfgang Buttress inside the Hive. Bottom left A view to the floor through the Hive. Right The Hive during the day.
hexagonal aluminium extrusions from Scottish manufacturer (still part of the UK, just!), Mike Stoane Lighting (MSL), are scattered in small clusters over the ceiling, each providing a warm white glow with a slight sparkle using 2200K Cree chips. Dave Hollingsbee, Mike Stoane Lighting's Managing Director, was clearly buzzing about the project: “We were delighted to be approached by BDP to help with the lighting of the inner hub. The brief was relatively flexible and open to suggestion, providing the result was very rich and warm and in the vein of a honeycomb.” West is extremely happy with how the project panned out: “We developed a great working relationship with Wolfgang and
this was fundamental to the success of the scheme. I enjoy focusing on the unique relationship between light and architecture, especially developing ideas where the atmosphere and experience of space become more important than the materials. This is a perfect example of that.” The UK Pavilion is intended to be an exemplar of British design quality and ingenuity. It's all-British cast has blazed a trail at the Milan Expo with many critics lauding the pavilion as the most creative concept on site. And all done on time too. It makes one proud to be British! www.wolfgangbuttress.com www.bdp.com www.simmondsstudio.com
Project Details UK Pavilion, Milan Expo, Italy Artist: Wolfgang Buttress Lighting Design: BDP Engineering: BDP, Simmonds Studio
lighting specified The Hive custom made RGBW LED pixels by Stage One Honeycomb Hex feature lighting by Mike Stoane Lighting Shadow gap lighting by Lumenal and LEDFlex Downlights by Lumenpulse AlphaLED Tree uplights and below the Hive by Light Projects Office and back of house by Luxonic Lighting
art & design / french pavilion, milan expo, italy
boxed up Licht Kunst Licht's lighting scheme accentuates the detail and intricacy of a hive of exhibition spaces and the content within with an air of esteemed French elegance.
Subtlety and gentile accents prevail in the agricultural fields of the French Pavilion. Guiding visitors with handrail integrated linear light strips illuminating the path to the pavilion. Lit by randomly placed iGuzzi Typha light sticks, Licht Kunst Licht ensured a delicate lighting scheme, allowing the entrance of the pavilion to shine as the main event. This allows the three large LCD screens to welcome visitors with poetic animations of real time panoramic images from three different French countrysides. The exhibits, consisting of soft commodity as well as finished products, are placed in the wooden ceiling cassettes. Information about the production process and scientific background are displayed on several screens. Using solely iGuzzini products, the lighting design in the exhibition areas was realised in three layers: soft downlighting front lights ensured safe circulation; spot and aerial uplights integrated above three large TV screens add general lighting to exhibition areas; and PALCO backlights accentuate designated exhibition pieces. The centrepiece, a cluster of dishware, is uplit
by a glowing surface evenly lit by LED strips. Entering on the first floor, visitors are welcomed into the VIP area, designed as a black box. The work of French photographers Bruno Mouron and Pascal Rostain is presented throughout the spaces with iGuzziniâ€™s glare-free downlights providing the general lighting. Additionally, the art displays are lit by iGuzzini Laserblade wall washers, highlighting the photographs. Following through the conference room, the space is a mixture between a white cube and a black box, with the same lighting concept as the VIP area. Leading to the restaurant on the second floor, the stairs are also designed as a black box for exhibiting art with a striking orange floor. Linear fluorescent tubes are mounted to the inner core wall of the staircase to provide light to the photos as well as general lighting. The restaurant itself is guided by a series of Octavio Amado Single Bro pendant light objects, which leads visitors to the bar. Adjustable and dimmable for intimate table lighting, iGuzzini PALCO narrow spotlights hidden in the wooden construction of the roof, light
the restaurant area. The roof terrace is illuminated by exterior rated spots, which are mounted on the chimneys and the outer wooden panels to mimic the ambience of the restaurant. The French Pavilion is a showcase of that familiar delicacy and perfection. Without a kicking and screaming glare, the outdoor agricultural theme brings tranquility to the inner exhibition and dining spaces, evoking a simple elegance only the French would know how to capture. www.lichtkunstlicht.com
Project Details French Pavilion, Milan Expo, Italy Lighting Design: Licht Kunst Licht
lighting specified External iGuzzini Typha Exhibits iGuzzini Front Light, iGuzzini Castello, iGuzzini PALCO bare LED-light retrofits First Floor iGuzzini Laserblade Second Floor Restaurant Octavio Amado Single Bro, iGuzzini PALCO
Tel 44 ( 0 ) 208 348 9003 Web www.radiantlights.co.uk email email@example.com
LandmĂ¤rket residential tower, Stockholm. Luminaire concept and lighting design by Andreas Ejhed and Daniel Hodierne of Ă…F lighting.
Radiant Water Effect Light, IP 65. Dynamic, DMX controlled LED luminaire - 4 LEDs with different colour temperatures dim in sequence through rippled glass.
Mondo Feb 2015 half page.indd 1
ART & DESIGN / Los Angeles Opens Its Heart of Compassion, LA, USA
Pics: Jeremy Green
spiritual significance LA's Koreatown gets a welcomed nod to its heritage through Cliff Garten's most recent sculpture. Renowned international artist Cliff Garten has transformed what could have been an ordinary parking garage at The Vermont residences on Wilshire Boulevard in LA, into an extraordinary new work of art. His new sculpture, titled Los Angeles Opens Its
Heart of Compassion, comprises a 20fthigh, suspended sculpture and transparent 75ft by 45ft, undulating, illuminated screen that graces the parking garage faรงade at this new 464-unit, luxury apartment complex in Koreatown. The laser-cut
aluminum sculpture represents a lotus flower - a nod to the Korean community. Visible from a major transit hub across the street, the US$1.6m installation has elevated the garage and the plaza it fronts, to a neighbourhood destination.
Cliff Garten's sculpture graces the parking garage façade of The Vermont residences in Koreatown, LA, with the laser-cut aluminium sculpture representing a lotus flower, a nod to the Korean community.
Visual studio Lightswitch worked closely with Garten to design the lighting for the piece. After creating mock-ups based on detailed and exact pre-visualisations, Lightswitch partnered with Martin Professional and systems integrator 4 Wall, from the specification phase through to the final focus, to make sure that the lighting matched the mock-ups. Lit from the front, side and back with lensed, wash fixtures, the undulating screen is washed with vibrant, saturated
colour, while the screen provides the perfect backdrop for the sculpture, which is precisely illuminated from the front, side and back with crisp, white light. Great care was taken to ensure that no light spilled from the sculpture to the wall and vice versa, maintaining colour purity for each element. Thanks to Lightswitch’s use of previsualisation, Garten was able to understand and revise the design before the lighting was ordered. By effectively
communicating with the fixture manufacturer and systems integrator, the Lightswitch team could seamlessly execute Garten’s vision without any surprises during the installation. The resulting combination of art, architecture and lighting has created a signature identity for The Vermont and has transformed a functional structure into public symbol that the whole neighbourhood can enjoy. www.cliffgartenstudio.com www.lightswitch.net
art & design / CODE 2015, gurgaon, haryana
DE-CODING RETAIL LIGHTING CODE 2015, The COnference on DEsign was hosted by the GD Goenka University, School of Fashion & Design, on June 16th and 17th. mondo*arc india played a critical role in supporting the convention as an exclusive media partner.
Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Alessandra Bertini, Prof. Raj Singh, H.E. Mr. Lorenzo Angeloni, Sudeshna Mukhopadhyay, Prof. R Paulette Hebert
On 16th and 17th June, Delhi saw a notable convention of designers, architects, students and professionals related to the field of lighting; at CODE 2015: COnference on DEsign. Inaugrated by Mr. Lorenzo Angeloni, H.E. the Ambassador of Italy and Ms. Sudeshna Mukhopadhyay, Senior Director and Head of Competence Centre-Lighting Applications, Philips; the conference theme encompassed, “The Art of Attraction: Lighting Design for Retail Interiors.” “A revolution is happening in the lighting industry. A revolution, something similar to what has happened to a mobile. You no longer just use it to make calls. Similarly, lighting would become a newer and better form of communication that would lead to better well-being of a human being,” expressed Ms. Mukhopadhyay. With over 100 delegates and experts in attendance, a plethora of issues were discussed, ranging from the lighting design industry as a whole to the specific role it plays in retail and commercial pruposes.
“The lighting industry in India is worth 95 billion rupees, growing steadily at 12% CAGR and is expected to maintain this growth rate over the next decade. This growth is being fuelled by rapid development of infrastructure and real estate, exponential growth of middle class income and the upsurge of the retail boom across India. At the same time the lighting industry has undergone a huge transformation in terms of technology upgradation, new product innovation, creative lighting design and new areas of application. In addition, there has been a strong emphasis on energy conservation and sustainability as lighting alone consumes 18% of the energy generated in India,” added Prof. Sanjay Gupta, Dean of the School of Fashion and Design, GD Goenka University An illustrious list of speakers included personalities like Michael Foley (Foley Designs), Paulette Hebert (Oklahoma State University, USA), Suresh Sethi (Global Consumer Design, Whirlpool Corp.),
Arturo Dell’acqua (Politecnico di Milano, Italy), Preksha Baid (Y Walls), Amardeep Bahl (Design Habit), Lyle Lopez (Lirio Lopez Electricals & Lighting Design), Dr. Amardeep M. Dugar (Lighting Research and Design), Ashish Dhir (Wisedge Consulting), Abhishek Khandelwal (BDCL Lighting), Kaustubh Nandurbarkar (Semblance Design Studio), Prof. Renato Lagana (Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria), Yuvraj Singh Ahuja (Serano Lighting), Dr. Kakoli Sen (GD Goenka University), Bharti Chaddha (GD Goenka University), Devender Singh Kharb (GD Goenka University), Ms. Sonali Soni Pal (GD Goenka University), and our very own mondo*arc india editor - Mrinalini Ghadiok. Spread across two days, the conference served as a unique platform that invigorated discussion and disseminated ideas from designing light to lighting design. The first day saw many speakers emphasise the importance of lighting in a retail environment. H.E. Ambassador of Italy, Mr. Lorenzo Angeloni touched upon the
Dr. Amardeep M. Dugar, Michael Foley, Lyle Lopez, Preksha Baid
Prof. Paulette R Hebert and Mrinalini Ghadiok
dichotomy of physical and virtual retail. Kaustubh Nandurbarkar explained that light, and its perception were both equally vital attributes of visual merchandising. Through a series of case studies, Mrinalini Ghadiok demonstrated how lighting technology has evolved creative solutions that build brands and create connections; while Lyle Lopez gave an insight into the world of contrivance, illustrating the idea through museum and gallery projects. On the other hand, a number of speakers highlighted the more intrinsic aspects of lighting. Prof. Paulette Hebert talked about light pollution, shift work and circadian rhythms, urging the audience to adopt a more sensitive outlook to light at night; while Suresh Sethi focused on understanding the quality of new user experiences of lighting design that appeals directly to the human spirit. Michael Foley’s presentation spoke about lighting augmenting experiences, and Preksha Baid showed how light art installation has become
an extremely pervasive phenomenon in contemporary space design. The second day saw an equally enthused audience that witnessed a series of insightful presentations. Dr. Kakoli Sen threw light on how customers perceive, interpret and respond to lighting in a retail environment. This was interestingly followed by Abhishek Khandelwal explaining electric-lighting technologies that could mimic day lighting, Bharti Chadha discussing how humans are designed to be more accepting of daylight, and Prof. Arturo Dell’acqua presenting on how natural light and shadows play a relevant role in the way we approach spaces. The day came to a close with Prof. Renato Laganà explaining that the uniqueness of art exhibited in museums, requires appropriate contrasts of light and dark, to make a good ambience for viewing it; and Amardeep Behl describing how the design language depended on an integrated spectrum of elements and media to create a near-
theatrical storytelling experience. While the students in the audience were exposed to a plenitude of ideas and concepts, they too had the opportunity to display works from their course year. This was complemented by a series of posters from international as well as Indian entrants that addressed myriad subjects of light and lighting. The exhibition and posters were well received by experts and enthusiasts alike. ‘Discussing Lumens’ as its code this year, the event acknowledged the existing position of the lighting community and the challenging role it will play in shaping the future of all other related fields of art, architecture and design. CODE 2015 beautifully complimented mondo*arch india’s vision to create a platform to educate and spread keen awareness among designers, architects and students by providing an arena suitable for discourse in the field and become a growth catalyst for the Indian lighting industry. www.designconference.in
technology / case study
Louvre Lens SANAA architects come together with Arup Lighting to illuminate the museum using ERCO.
The Département Pas-de-Calais has always been known for its coal and heavy industry. The Louvre Lens has now added an attraction which, at first glance, appears far removed from its surroundings. It is a branch of the Louvre in Paris and yet conceptually of unusual compactness and rather unlike its big brother. Thanks to the architects of SANAA in Tokyo and the lighting designers of Arup in London, the Louvre Lens has become a milestone in the worldwide museum landscape. De luxe transparency The open architecture of the Louvre Lens masterminded by SANAA, the sober setting and the comprehensive museum concept establish a fascinating dialogue. ERCO spoke to the museum director Xavier Dectot, the exhibition designer Adrien Gardère and the lighting designer Jeff
Shaw about the ideas behind this project When in December 2012, far from its main gallery in Paris, the Louvre opened a branch in the town of Lens in northern France, the cultural project caused a furore. Planning a museum of this proportion in an economically underdeveloped industrial region clearly signalled intent to revive the once flourishing mining area. A concept that seems to pay off: In the first three months alone, more than 300,000 visitors found their way into the museum. One factor in this may be its unusual approach: Rather than emulating the world’s most famous museum, it was refined in both concept and architecture – as a future laboratory for open and more unconventional exhibition formats. The heart of the museum is the Galerie du Temps. As a Gallery of Time, in the literal sense, it dispenses with a conventional
structuring of the exhibition, by regions, say, or else by eras or methods. “Rather than separate, we have this one big room in which the objects are exhibited in chronological order, starting with the birth of writing in 3500 BC to the year 1850, where the Louvre collections end,” explains Xavier Dectot, Director of the Louvre Museum. His main concern is to place the exhibits in a dialogue with each other and compare them on a timeline rather than grouping them in static categories. The more than 200 works originate from the Middle East, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the Islam and Europe. “We want to present the collections in a different format, one that will allow us to see them from a new angle,” says Xavier Dectot describing the unconventional concept. “For an historian, for a museum lover, this is an excellent chance to change the way to look at things.
Besides, we were keen to attract a new audience.” Which is one of the major challenges facing the museum today, the director stresses. Dectot is an art historian, “because I have an interest in beauty. I wanted to gain a better understanding of why something is seen as beautiful and why people throughout history have had different conceptions of beauty.” The presentation concept provides a crosssection of what people throughout the millennia have considered beautiful. It is left to the observer to discover patterns and contrasts. The open landscape of exhibits with its inconsistencies fits the idea of a Louvre in a former mining area. The exhibition design The exhibition design in the 125m long and 25m wide main hall also breaks with
conventions. At the centre is “the idea always to leave everything open, not to add new rooms to the architecture, to facilitate a full 360° dialogue between the objects,” says Adrien Gardère, the exhibition designer behind this concept. “The first crucial decision was not to place any object on the wall, but instead to use the centre of the room. This allows the visitors to spread out and walk around everywhere.” The same principle was applied to the intersecting platforms and island groups – flanked by a timeline “that relates to the course of time taken throughout the gallery: a few steps may span 500 years or it may span only 10,” explains Gardère. It took the exhibition designer, the curators of the Louvre and the director more than three years to select the right works. The museum designer summarises the result succinctly in one sentence: “There is a design – but it
does not produce the content. The content determines the design.” The architecture Content and design, both inside and out, relate as much in the museum’s architecture, integrating the town, the region and its inhabitants. “The model designed by SANAA was the only one factoring in the park in which we are, and this idea of openness for easy access was what we had in mind for the museum,” Dectot reports enthusiastically. “With this very sober, very low building, which is very easy to access, they have brought this idea to life.” Whereas comparable museum buildings tend to attract attention with solitary, monumental architecture to upgrade a place (Guggenheim Museum), the new Louvre presents itself as unobtrusive and open. Suffused with light, the steel, glass and concrete structure on the two-hectare
technology / case study
site sensitively establishes a dialogue with its surroundings. Designed by Japanese architectural firm Sana a in cooperation with New York studio Imrey Culper, the building sits on a disused coal mine. The single-storey building harmoniously integrates with the park landscaped by Catherine Mosbach. Even the entrance, a transparent glass cube, demonstrates closeness and openness which the museum wants to communicate to the people. The cladding of anodised brushed aluminium used for the remaining sections dimly reflects the surroundings. The lighting concept Special consideration in the museum design was given to the light –a combination of
daylight and artificial light guided across the delicate-looking ceiling. “The lighting concept is based on SANAA’s architectural concept using zenithal daylight,” explains Gardère. “The times when a black jewel box was illuminated by a beam focused onto the isolated, floating object in the dark are gone.” Today’s overriding thought is, through daylight, to let the objects become part of the room. Adds lighting designer Jeff Shaw from Arup: “People love daylight, they like the link with the outside, feel good in daylight. The light colour is perfect, its colour rendering properties accentuate all the colours of the objet d’art.” A structure such as this, awash with light, needs the support of artificial light. “Daylight varies
greatly,” explains Jeff Shaw. “In one day, it can range from darkness to 100,000 lux on a summer’s day. The light can vary quickly between 20,000 and 50,000 when the sun disappears behind clouds.” A challenge which the Arup designers faced head on. The system they devised using LED lighting supports the daylight as needed, with venetian blinds installed to prevent an excess of incident sunlight – the purpose at all times being to ensure a uniform level of light. As a further aspect, the light colour varies depending on the exhibition and architectural environment. “Understanding which light temperature is best took quite some work,” said Adrien Gardère. Daylight used in combination with LED
lighting helps to save energy and costs, but also allows new, custom-fit control options to be generated. “This control system is fantastically suited to our museum. It is designed entirely around our collection and enables us to use tracks,” Vincent Fourmestraux, Head of Operations and Maintenance at the Louvre, reports delighted. “It takes a while to set the system up, but in the end the same lighting configurations can easily be used for future special exhibitions.” The many advantages of the LED are vivid in this project. Dimmable without loss of light quality, they do not need any disruptive artefacts, but instead produce sharp-edged beams for efficient accentuation, making them a
harmonious addition to daylight. Thanks to their small size and simple styling as a result of the photometrics used, the ERCO LED luminaires correspond to the elegant architectural concept of the Louvre Lens even on a formal level. Jeff Shaw predicts a change in lighting technology for museums. “I think most of the major museums will now start to give some serious thought to LED lighting.” The visitor will notice very little here. For Shaw, after all, “the ultimate aim of the lighting designer is to create a lighting concept where the light is not talked about. People simply come, enjoy where they are, do what they came for, and go home again.” www.erco.com
Architect: SANAA, Tokyo Exhibition design: Studio Adrien Gardère Co-conception, Landscape design: mosbach paysagistes. Museographic lighting and commissioning: ACL Alexis Coussement. Lighting designer: Arup, London Photographer: Iwan Baan Location: Lens
technology / lightfair international - iald awards
bume boom! For the first time ever a Chinese practice walked away with the highest accolade at the IALD International Lighting Design Awards, recognised at a presentation held at the magnificent Gotham Hall during LFI in New York. It felt like a significent moment in the development of lighting design.
radiance award project: HAN SHOW THEATRE, Wuhan City, Hubei, China lighting design: BUME Perfect Illumination Design & Engineering Company It felt like a watershed moment when BUME Perfect Illumination Design & Engineering Company received the Radiance Award for the Han Show Theatre in Wuhan City, Hubei, China meaning that, for the first time, the award was won by a Chinese practice. The name of the practice may be a mouthful but their work on this amazing project displayed nothing but grace and expertise. This massive cylindrical building has a plane diameter of 110-metres and a height of 63.3-metres.The external surface of the building is made up of 18,665 individual red aluminium alloy roundels. In creating a lighting plan for this complex modern structure, the lighting design team at BUME Perfect Illumination was inspired by the indirect glow of paper lanterns. To achieve the desired effect, the team installed 25,000 Kelvin floodlights in the internal aluminium curtain; yellow light glows from the lantern ‘wick,’ forming a gradation of light and shadow. Underneath, 3,000K floodlights are adopted to balance the rhythm of the lantern ‘fringe.’ “The lighting of this civic theatre is well integrated into the iconic building design and truly transforms it into a 21st century Chinese
lantern, making it a centrepiece of the city,” one judge praised of the project. “The dynamic exterior lighting creates a theatre within a theatre, and an illuminated billboard for the venue.” “Poetry is the gift light brings to this dense urban area,” one judge wrote of the project. “By using only reflected light, each calotte works as a small lantern. The observer can either see a thousand lanterns as in a magic ensemble, one huge glowing lantern, or even an animated lantern with the use of preprogrammed effects.” Through repeated optical simulations, tests, and multiple rounds of design, the technical parameters of each roundel lamp and the overall illuminance of the structure carefully cleave to Chinese illumination standards. The LED red light lamps clock in at a special wavelength of 620-635nm, organically overlaying with the coloured roundels to create the most evocative, traditional Chinese red. “A very unique take on the common ‘building façade as digital display’ concept!” one judge exclaimed. “In this case the details are what make the design so compelling and appropriate. Every elevation and architectural component is thoughtful and considerate. The culturally relevant lantern theme works at every scale.”
excellence award project: The National September 11 Memorial Museum at the World Trade Center, New york, USA lighting design: Fisher Marantz Stone By restraining the impulse to ‘design in a minor key,’ the lighting design team from Fisher Marantz Stone avoided melodrama in this project, allowing visitors of the memorial to develop their own responses and emotions. Dictated by the architecture, the lighting design was developed to preserve a balance between rational and emotional, light and dark, hot and cold. “This powerful interior design was advanced by equally powerful lighting,” one judge commented on the project. “The scheme created a contemplative and solemn atmosphere for this unique memorial.” The iconic torqued entrance pavilion frames wrecked steel, providing views and daylight to the museum entry. The long entrance enhances the visitor’s adaptation to the museum’s light levels while permitting them to confront the museum’s subject matter at a personal pace.
project: ZHENHAI CULTURE & ART CENTER, china lighting design: Ningbo Yongqi Lighting The lighting designers worked closely with the architects to develop a façade design allowing two completely concealed LEDs to be installed at the bottom of each diamond shape into custom slots. Each LED is installed with 7º lenses, and tilted 60º upwards to light the upper frames of the diamond while avoiding almost all reflections onto the glass. “The light sources are so carefully integrated that the architecture seems to glow by itself,” one judge shared. “This incredibly clever solution creates an even and balanced luminosity.” Variable light is applied on the façade’s 1,000 diamond shapes to enhance its beautiful geometry, while static light illuminates the roof and corridor. The façade’s colours transition from lake blue to white, creating depth and a peaceful atmosphere.
project: KINGS CROSS SQUARE, London, UK lighting design: StudioFRACTAL The re-lighting of Kings Cross Square had a number of lofty goals; in addition to balancing functional public lighting with a sophisticated aesthetic, the client wanted to bring greater civic importance to the square by day and night, while minimising long-term operating and maintenance costs. The lighting designers concentrated on incorporating lighting into the built environment wherever possible, creating a threedimensional space on the historic façade and emphasising materials and textures. The lighting was designed from the outset to create a strong visual identity, support wayfinding, and encourage commuters to linger and appreciate the space. The majority of the plaza illumination is delivered from three 20-metre bespoke stainless steel columns. Positioned precisely, the LEDs have a crisply functional appearance against the warmly glowing façade. Each column houses an array of individually focused LED spotlights, carefully designed to provide low glare illumination to the square.
technology / lightfair international - iald awards
merit award project: STAPLETON LIBRARY, NEW YORK, USA lighting design: CLINE BETTRIDGE BERNSTEIN The lighting design for the Stapleton Library was conducted under tight constraints, including strict municipal guidelines limiting lamp choices and stringent energy usage requirements. Using a standard T5 lamp in a variety of fixtures and in different ways, the designers created a hierarchy of lighting that shapes the space. “A consistent and rigidly adhered-to concept drives the success and beauty of this elegant and minimal project,” one judge said of the project. “The lighting fills the volume and illuminates the surfaces with a disciplined, integrated rhythm, becoming synonymous with the architecture.” project: KYOBASHI CHILD INSTITUTION, TOKYO, JAPAN lighting design: LIGHTING M The lighting concept for the urban Kyobashi childcare centre was to produce a relaxed and pleasant indoor environment, releasing children from a feeling of urban pressure. At the same time, designers capitalised on the 1,400sqm of green space, including roof, walls, and first floor slopes, to create a beautiful night-time oasis wrapped with the greens of nature and warm, natural-feeling light. “Thoughtful lighting inside and out creates a series of warm and inviting spaces, allowing the architecture to become an urban jewel box,” one judge wrote of the project. project: CALIFORNIA PALACE OF THE LEGION OF HONOR, SALON DORE, SAN FRANCISCO, USA lighting design: AUERBACH GLASOW FRENCH Lighting restoration for this French period room appears deceptively simple: historic luminaires and daylight. In actuality, multiple lighting systems and simulated daylight are cleverly concealed within architectural and historic fixtures, giving the appearance of authenticity while artfully lighting the room. “The visitor is invited to a travel in time and see exactly how this space was, due to perfect use of light and subtlety of effects,” one judge praised of the project. project: ART MUSEUM OSTESEEBAD AHRENSHOOP, GERMANY lighting design: LICHT KUNST LICHT Each space is fitted with longitudinal horizontal daylight openings. In order to generate a spatial light distribution perceived as mostly shadow free, prisms were integrated in the skylight construction. Thermally insulated metal panels are the façade cladding of choice. “The beauty of this lighting design was in its elegant simplicity,” one judge praised. “It was completely transparent to the visitor and took nothing away from the architecture. It is sophisticated in its technical solution and elegant in its design result.”
project: THE BROWN INSTITUTE FOR MEDIA INNOVATION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM NEW YORK, NY USA lighting design: BURO HAPPOLD To embrace the interconnected concept of the space, the lighting designers selected a series of intertwining luminous elements to build a network of ambient light for the room. Each element in the network provides indirect lighting along its length with a direct punctuation at its end. Indirect lighting is provided by cutting the top half of the pipe away and embedding low voltage linear LED fixtures inside. “The lighting of this space is playful, creative, functional, and inexpensive,” one judge observed of the project. “It transformed what could have been a very boring space into something dynamic and fun.”
project: KNIGHTSBRIDGE ESTATE, LONDON, uk lighting design: GIA EQUATION Knightsbridge Estate is a complex of buildings of different styles and periods, spread over an entire city block. The clients called for a lighting design that would enhance the nighttime appearance of the block while unifying and emphasising the architectural elements, including a variety of stone sizes and shapes. “Invisibly integrated light sources and a refreshing sensitivity to varying architectural materials makes this one of the most successful executions of the illumination of historical facades,” a judge said.
project: U.S. NATIONAL LIBRARY ROTUNDA FOR THE CHARTERS OF FREEDOM, WASHINGTON, DC USA lighting design: AVAILABLE LIGHT The task: to re-light the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom, the permanent home of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Critical mandates from the client included absence of measurable UV emissions, improved colour rendering, multizone dimming controls, and minimal maintenance. “Successfully hidden light sources and an illumination strategy that enhances and redefines the monumental architecture, historic documents and murals,” one judge wrote of the project. project: QUEEN ELIZABETH PARK, LONDON, UK lighting design: SPEIRS + MAJOR The lighting design creates an enchanting and immersive experience. The challenge of the lighting brief was to support the joyful character of the park design and ensure users would feel safe and secure and could continue to use the facilities of the park as natural light faded. The brief also asked that where possible, equipment from the London 2012 Games should be re-used. “I loved the playful nature of the perforated spheres floating over the pathway while providing provocative light on the path’s surface,” said one judge. “The poetic lighting effect was one of moonlight filtering through the leaves of trees.” project: DAS GERBER, STUTTGART, GERMANY lighting design: PFARRÉ LIGHTING DESIGN Located in the city of Stuttgart, the Gerber Mall is a 25,000sqm space with more than 86 shops. Lightness, clarity and sophisticated minimalism are the well-balanced tunes for the interior design of the mall, and these themes go hand in hand with the lighting design. “Sleek and futuristic, with astonishingly unbroken illuminated surfaces and a highly graphic conceptualization,” one judge said of the project. “The lighting successfully fills the entire mall with glow and electric energy. The lighting evokes a sense of movement and flow. A rewarding implementation of high contrast to create depth and enhance form.” project: NORTHROP AUDITORIUM RENOVATION, MINNEAPOLIS, USA lighting design: HGA & ARUP Prominently located on the University of Minnesota campus, Northrop is a historical icon. Although a celebrated landmark, Northrop has suffered from deficient sight-lines, poor acoustics and underutilisation. The lighting solution provided by HGA and Arup was envisioned to create luminous spaces and reveal fine details. “A successful union of day lighting and subtle artificial lighting enhances the challenging voluminous spaces inherent in this project,” one judge said. “Illuminated surfaces and volumes become the feature, not the light sources themselves.” special citation: Light Garden, Lima, Peru, Clauda Paz Lighting Studio
technology / comment
Lighting design elite, Howard M. Brandston, offers a creative’s viewpoint of this year’s Lightfair Institute program, consisting of 140 speakers.
Pic: courtesy of LIGHTFAIR International
Lightfair at a glance Attendance at Lightfair is now a ‘must go’ event for those seriously engaged in lighting. I finished the first day inspired by the keynote address by Shuji Nakamura, PhD, the 2014 Nobel Prize winner in Physics. The humble, matter of fact presentation of how he attained his PhD for the invention of the Blue LED inspired me to believe all of the steps he took to reach the heights he attained, was achievable by almost anyone. Of course that was not the case. Most remarkable was his statement that led him to decide his research would be to create the blue LED. Why? Because he believed that would be the easiest thing to do. Relating what he did to get there wasn’t easy, but his attitude and dedication to his work was indeed inspiring. Equally inspiring was the second keynote address by Chuck Hoberman, ‘Transformable Design.’ His work was a great example of a combination of architecture, engineering, and imagination to produce pure art forms that were as malleable as putty while creating pure geometry to form amazingly useful structures. His description and illustration of his process in creating this work was remarkably clear. It had me wondering, what am I going to do now? The inspiration of these two keynote speakers set a new internal criteria for all attendees on how they would look at, and evaluate the products and presentations they would see when the exhibit halls and courses opened. I am certain it was altered, as mine was. Mark Rea and I were part of the program entitled, ‘Impact
Speakers.’ I hope we were an inspiration to those who attended our participation in the program. A walk around the exhibition was a constant reminder of how the LED has changed lighting. That alone was worth the trip! A passion for education should be at the forefront of our concerns if lighting is going to continue to contribute to the quality of our lives. The Lightfair Institute program was a rich series of 78 sessions, by 140 speakers that covered topics from basics to advanced, from practical lighting to new luminaire design, that left attendees sorting out which of the many sessions they would choose to attend. I had that problem, as there were overlapping sessions and I had to make a decision. If the sessions I didn’t attend were as good as the programs I managed to see, everyone had an enriching educational experience. Lightfair recognised how critical this educational awareness is several years ago by giving all students free access to the exhibits. Their exposure to all the experts manning the displays expands the dimension of what these students receive in the classroom. The students were an inspiration to observe and mingle with. With over 50 years of classroom teaching experience, plus countless projects of every description lit around the globe, with divergent cultural passions setting criteria, I learned to have no opinion about anything until I can see clearly how the presenter was reaching the audience. I was
open-minded and simultaneously curious about how each session would evolve. Did the final outcome meet the goals of the subject being presented? Simply put, yes. I attended the following sessions; the variety and scope of the subjects is testimony to the quality and depth of the educational opportunities provided: Basic Lighting; Intermediate Lighting; Advanced Computer Aided Lighting Design Using Visual; LED Luminaire Design; HalfBoy, Half Bat: Batboy Revealed Under Intellegent Lighting; Experience Design In Healthcare; Bringing Design and Science Together; Time And Money: Installation And Serviceability Of LED Luminaires; So Many LED Choices: Museum Lighting Challenges; Integrated Marketing: Winning More Work And Gaining Brand Visibility. The list of presenters for the above sessions was a ‘who’s who in their fields.’ The presentations varied as did the subjects being spoken to. The quality of each presentation was first class as were the handouts. Everyone, including me, left having gained a better perspective of the featured topic. A general observation / criticism of the lighting design presentations is that I wished they had people in the photographs of the projects they used as illustrations. The spaces didn’t have a response to the lighting system shining on them but the occupants surely did – and who or what are we designing the spaces for if not the occupant? Lightfair 2015 is by far the best I have ever attended – I look forward to the next one. www.concerninglight.com
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technology / Bench TEST
One of the hits of Lightfair International was innovative Canadian LED company Cooledge, which made an impact with its new look courtesy of industrial designers Billings Jackson. David Morgan takes a look at their new SQUARE snap and trim LED system.
SQUARE - the latest product from Vancouver-based Cooledge - combines the characteristics of a floor tile with those of LED tape. This could potentially be the product that OLED suppliers have been promising us for the past decade but have not yet delivered. Cooledge started life with a team of engineers from TIR systems and Philips who, in 2009 began to develop flexible LED sheets for use in architectural lighting. It is backed by venture capital investors including ARCH Venture Capital Partners. After various false starts, their first product, Cooledge LINE (originally known as light sheet) was launched at Lightfair International in 2013 where it was given the Design Excellence Award. The Cooledge design approach is to mount a grid of medium power LEDs onto a flexible polymer PCB material with a large surface area of copper and then run the LEDs at a
very low drive current, which enables the sheet to work without any additional heat sink. Efficiency, projected life and rate of lumen depreciation are all better than for traditional light panels using multiple medium power LEDs run at conventional, higher, drive currents. Efficiency levels of 120 to 140lm/W are quoted by Cooledge. Cooledge now offers a number of products with different LED spacing. The tightest pitch is 7mm with 30mm / 34mm being the widest on the SQUARE system, the latest product to be launched by the company. The W028 light sheet has the highest light output per mÂ˛ with 7mm LED spacing and could be used for linear cove lighting applications providing over 1,000lm/m as the sheet is only 28mm wide. As an alternative to LED tape that could provide the same light output, the Cooledge sheet needs no extruded heat sink housing and has longer life.
Cooledge systems are UL listed as class two, under 100W and 60V, which means they can be used in North America without many of the restrictions of higher power Class 1 lighting systems. This classification is only applicable in North America, so in Europe the normal SELV restrictions would apply. This may require all connectors to be fully insulated. Cooledge provides its own power supplies, which at the moment are limited to maximum of 90W. On larger projects, this could mean that the number of power supplies and mains power feeds would be higher than if systems run from larger power supplies were used. The SQUARE is a 12-inch square flexible LED panel that can be clipped together with battery type of snap connector in each corner to make up large areas of flat or curved light very much like laying carpet tiles or wood flooring. SQUARE comes in two levels of light output 300lm and 600lm per
sheet and a variety of colour temperatures. The sheet can be cut to size with a 2.3-inch cutting module so that any rectilinear shape can be completely tiled. Plastic side rails on two edges of the sheet provide a means of fixing and are pre scored to snap on the cutting module. SQUARE is ideal for backlit ceilings, panels and light boxes. The spacing required from the panel to a diffuser to eliminate any visible LED dots, ranges from 25mm to 40mm depending on the diffuser panel material. It is understood that the medium power LEDs used to make Cooledge products are binned prior to assembly and then arranged according to an algorithm to minimise any perceived colour or intensity variation between panels even though there may be quite obvious colour differences between the individual LEDs. This effect is clearly demonstrated when a diffuser panel is placed directly over the Cooledge
Square panel and then moved away to the recommended spacing In terms of applications the Square offers a cost effective and easy to install solution for backlit ceilings and walls. It would seem to be a good alternative for side lit LED light sheet as it is lower in cost and higher in efficiency although it needs much greater distance to the diffuser to ensure dot free illumination Cooledge describe their products as delivering on the promises made of LED and OLED technology, having ‘the potential to fundamentally change the way lighting is integrated into the built environment.’ What they have created is a low temperature, high efficiency flat and flexible light source which can fit seamlessly into architectural spaces. However, as functional as this may sound, it may be that panelling entire walls and ceilings with an ambient light-source isn’t
something that lighting designers and architects will always favour for their new buildings and projects. The Cooledge SQUARE is an exciting new product and has already being specified by lighting designers on a wide variety of retail and architectural projects in North America. For product designers these reasonably priced, easy to use, ready-made LED panels which will fit any sized curved or straight surface are bound to be a valuable tool. David Morgan runs David Morgan Associates, a London-based international design consultancy specialising in luminaire design and development and is also MD of Radiant Architectural Lighting. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.dmadesign.co.uk Tel: +44 ( 0) 20 8340 4009 © David Morgan Associates 2015
technology / LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2015 REVIEW
new york new light Following attendance records set in 2014’s Las Vegas show, LFI returned to the refurbished Javits Center in New York to set more records. We take a look at the best products on show from this year’s exhibition. LIGHTFAIR International 2015 broke all registration and trade show records with double-digit growth marking the largest staging in its 26-year history, according to Jeffrey L. Portman, Sr., vice chairman, president and chief operating officer of LFI managing partner AmericasMart Atlanta. “The convergence of light and technology is a defining factor in LFI’s 2015 unprecedented success,” said Portman. “For more than a quarter of a century, LIGHTFAIR has created the world’s global stage for lighting and design innovation. At LFI 2015, technology emerged as the omnipresent force linking innovation and design in transformative ways.” LFI’s 2015 five-day run in New York posted an all-time floor record with 268,580sqft housing 599 exhibitors, including 108 first-time exhibiting companies and 110 manufacturers headquartered outside the US. Rochelle Richardson, CEM, LIGHTFAIR International vice president said:“The 2015 show depth, breadth and diversity captures the holistic nature of LFI’s expanding exhibitor mix.” LFI 2015 registration grew to 29,900, a 15% gain over the previous record set in 2014, with representatives from 89 countries. “LFI has long been the nexus of lighting, design and thought leadership. The 2015 showing sustained that mission in a global dialogue exploring the future of light and technology across virtually every dimension of integrated design practice,” said Marsha Turner, chief executive officer, IALD. LFI’s expanded floor featured a product mix of 44 categories that included integrated design, alternative energy and solar power, LEDs, OLEDs, healthcare, hospitality, digital signage and software. “The volume of product and design innovations recorded at LFI 2015 produced a collective energy previously unseen in all aspects of trade shows and conferences,” said Paul Mercier, president, IES. “The resonance of LFI 2015 will be immediate and farreaching.” www.lightfair.com
Vaeder Modular Lighting Instruments
AL Graze DC DMX Acclaim The AL Graze DC DMX is a high output, DC powered, linear graze fixture for smaller spaces. It has an aluminium and grey finish made for wet or dry settings. The beam angle is available at 15°, 10° x 60°, 30° x 60° or 60° for maximum reach. 1.5-inches wide x 2.3-inches tall x 12-inches long or 48-inches. Available in one and 4ft sections with RGB, RGBW, Dynamic White, 2,700K, 3,000K, 3,500K, and 4,000K light schemes. This unit has 70% lumen maintenance at 150,000 hours, providing approximately 400 lm/ft. www.acclaimlighting.com
Vaeder is a new fixture that feels equally at home in an energy-efficient, ergonomic office environment as in a sleekly designed home office. Its characteristic honeycomb structure in combination with a wafer-thin diffusor reduces glare to a minimum, whilst its LED lighting results in an energyefficient and high-performing office fixture. www.supermodular.com
LEDR/D Control System EnOcean
Soleil Geo Luz & Cerâmica Geo’s twice award winning pendant Soleil - is a product with interesting curves and unique shapes. Soleil has a unique effect of light that arouses curiosity. Geo’s products are all ceramic fixtures 100% handmade in Brazil. Soleil is designed by the awardwinning designer and owner of the brand Mauricio D’Avila. www.geoceramica.com.br
A wireless LED control system including self-powered sensors and switches, LED fixture controllers and a commissioning tool to simplify installation and setup. The LED controller family includes: a transceiver module (TCM 330U) for integration into drivers/modules and LED fixture/zone controllers, with relay (LEDR), and without relay (LEDD). The application firmware enables dimming, occupancy, daylighting and Title 24-compliant controls out of the box. With a navigan commissioning tool to link devices and setup parameters over the air. www.enocean.com
PARCO Hess America PARCO creates a unique visual accent through its graceful organic form. The bollard incorporates the latest LED technology for crisp illumination, delivering low energy consumption and long life. The regressed luminaire is fully shielded and emits zero uplight. It is available in warm or neutral colour temperatures with a CRI of 80+. Subtle craftsmanship details include concealed anchor bolts within the integral base and an absence of visible welds or hardware. Power consumption is 12W. www.hessamerica.com
Olessence Curve Acuity Brands Duet SSL Technology blends OLED and LED in the same luminaire, optimising both for superior aesthetics, performance, lighting quality and cost effectiveness. Light becomes more architecturally sensitive and engaging, while breaking boundaries in efficient and holistic design. The Imoni and Olessence concept families showcase stylistic embodiments and applications of this new approach in lighting design. www.acuitybrands.com
TROV is an LED lighting platform for architectural, retail, hospitality and commercial spaces. This new product platform has been intelligently designed from the ground-up with a patented optical system that delivers the largest assortment of beam angles available today including the line of light and asymmetric distributions. TROV also features flicker-free dimming down to 0% output along with the unique flip to flat design for ultimate adjustability. www.ecosenselighting.com
Enlighted System Enlighted The Enlighted System is a unified digital sensor and data analytics system from Enlighted. It collects, analyses and implements big data to drive down operational costs, increase operational efficiencies and improve indoor environments. Enlighted digital sensors are integrated in every light fixture [1:1] to collect granular environmental, occupancy and activity data. They are able to accurately distinguish people from other heat sources, as well as human and non-human. Additionally, sensors have an on-board processor that can make independent decisions without relying on direction from a central machine. www.enlightedinc.com
LF OV I AW ATIO CA ARD N TE WI GOR NN Y ER INN
Lumenline Lumenpulse Lumenpulse has upgraded the entire family of Lumenline luminaires, adding the latest generation of LED technology, lit corners, and an innovative quick connect design. The all-new Lumenline is more efficient than ever, with increased flexibility and easier installation. Generation 2.0 maintains Lumenline’s impressive lumen output but significantly decreases wattage. The luminaires now deliver up to 85 lumens per watt (HO), for up to a 51% increase in efficacy. A new quick joining system has simplified installation for continuous runs, allowing seamless connections in less than a minute – with no chance of light leaks. www.lumenpulse.com
Specifically for architectural projects demanding sustainable lighting performance, the newly engineered ONYX features a functional, ultranarrow, sharp, long-shot beam of light capable of reaching great distances with precision and even light distribution. ONYX is fitted with a combination of 96 RGBW, cold, warm or dynamic white high brightness LEDs that provide an astonishing light output quality. The dynamic white configuration stands out for a stunning visual rendering of warm tones, natural hues and cool shades altogether. www.griven.com
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Hong Kong International Lighting Fair October 27-30 Hong Kong, China www.hktdc.com
PLDC October 28-31 Rome, Italy www.pld-c.com
Acetech October 28 - November 1 Mumbai, India
LED+Light Asia September 29-October 1 Singapore, Republic of Singapore www.ledlightasia.com
LED Lighting Exhibition October 1-4 Istanbul, Turkey www.ledfuari.com
Light Middle East October 6-8 Dubai, UAE www.lightme.net
Iluminotronica October 8-10 Padua, Italy www.illuminotronica.it
LED China 2015 September 17-19 Shanghai, China www.ledchina-sh.com
London Design Festival September 19-27 London, UK www.londondesignfestival.com
LpS September 22-24 Bregenz, Austria www.led-professional-symposium.com
Shanghai International Lighting Fair September 23-25 Shanghai, China www.light.messefrankfurt.com.cn
Anglepoise....................................... 200 Foscarini............................................. 29 Kinetura................................................ 9 Loco Design....................................... 13
Luceplan............................................. 11 Lucifer................................................... 7 Oluce................................................ 199 Radiant............................................. 175
China (Guzhen) Intl. Lighting Fair October 22â€“26 Zhongshan, China www.gzlightingfair.com
Design Junction September 24-27 London, UK www.thedesignjunction.co.uk/london
BIEL Light + Building Buenos Aires 2015 September 15-19 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Rethink the Night October 12-16 Kea Island, Greece www.rethinkthenight.com
darc night September 24 London, UK www.darcawards.com
LED India 2015 September 10 - November 10 Mumbai, India www.elcomaindia.com
Serenity............................................. 175 Tryka................................................... 17 vis a vis.............................................. 4-5 Waldmann.......................................... 15
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Light & Building March 13-18, 2016 Frankfurt, Germany www.light-building.messefrankfurt.com
Strategies in Light March 1-3, 2016 Las Vegas, USA www.strategiesinlight.com
Northern Light Fair February 9-13, 2016 Stockholm, Sweden www.stockholmfurniturelightfair.se
Lighting Japan January 13-15, 2016 Tokyo, Japan www.lightingjapan.jp
Light India + LED Expo December 3-5 New Delhi, India www.theledexpo.com
Strategies in Light Europe November 18-19 London, UK www.sileurope.com
Interlight Moscow November 10-13 Moscow, Russia
IALD Enlighten Americas October 8-10 Baltimore, USA www.iald.org
100% Design September 23-26 London, UK www.100percentdesign.co.uk
Maison Et Objet September 4-8 Paris, France www.maison-object.com/en/paris
A definitive moment in a design process that exemplifies the interaction of light and space, captured in time.
Sunlight raises a car park rotunda at Bahrain World Trade Centre to the â€˜celestialâ€™ heights of Grand Central Station. The ultimate validation of the consequences of delivering light.
Lawrie Nisbet, Lighting Designer Lighting Design Partnership International Photography: Paul Roberts
AN ICONIC BRITISH BRAND
AnglepoiseÂŽ produces an incomparable series of high performance lamps, ideally suited for both domestic and commercial interiors. est. 1932
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