A THESIS BOOK
LIVING IN SHELTER The Changing Nature of Refugee Shelters in Protracted Situations
To the countless migrant families who have welcomed me into their homes To the friends I have made and your willingness to share with me your stories the brightest smiles, the kindest hearts, and the contagiously determined you are who truly inspire me.
0.1 A QUOTE â€œDonâ€™t design yet another shelter for refugees, theyâ€™re not a species. So, there is no need for tech for refugees, or design for refugees, or architecture for refugees.â€? --Kilian Kleinschimdt (Dutch Design Week: Good Design for a Bad World)
AN INTRODUCTION The physical delineation of spaces traversing through international and national borders, enforced by ideological and physical infrastructures (i.e. laws, border control, walls etc) provides a sense of relief to many as it represents a blockade to the ever shifting environment of our global community. While these borders and ERUGHUDUHDVDUHRIWHQSHUFHLYHGDVSHUPDQHQWÂż[WXUHVPHDQWWREHUHVSHFWHGDQG VRYHUHLJQ WKHUHDOLW\LVWKDWWKH\UHSUHVHQWVRPHRIWKHPRVWĂ€XLGDQGĂ€XFWXDWLQJ VSDWLDO FRQGLWLRQV SUHVHQW 7KLV LV HVSHFLDOO\ HYLGHQW LQ VLWXDWLRQV RI H[WUHPH FLUFXPVWDQFHVLHKXPDQLWDULDQFULVHV ZKHUHODUJHJURXSVRISHRSOHĂ€RFNWRWKHVH ERXQGDU\DUHDV7KHUHIXJHHSUHGLFDPHQWLQRXUFXUUHQWZRUOGVWDWHRÉŁHUVLQVLJKW into these issues and potential opportunities that arise from the aggravation of our perceived status-quo in these border conditions. The emergence of humanitarian architecture and design in main stream media and a growing general awareness of refugee events within the last few decades has provided a platform for humanitarian projects to gain momentum and instigate a â€˜newâ€™ subset of architecture that dives into a realm traditionally underrepresented by architects. Infrastructure in humanitarian aid has predominately been structured in an respectable approach to meet the basic needs of many while accounting for the UHVWULFWLRQV DQG FRQVWUDLQWV WKDW H[LVW LQ D GLVSODFHPHQW HYHQW :KLOH VXFK D VWUDWHJ\ KDV EHHQ HÉŁHFWLYH LQ SURYLGLQJ UHOLHI GXULQJ WKH PRVW XUJHQW SHULRG RI resettlement, there has been a detrimental inability for many humanitarian projects to adapt to the unfortunate long term realities of displacement events. As refugee environments become increasingly protracted, the current framework places inhabitants in a limbic state that paralyzes the ability for refugees to invest or even have opportunities to livelihoods. The thesis takes on a case study dealing with the ephemeral nature of place and structures in border areas with a critique of the current model of design and implementation of displacement infrastructure.
A STATEMENT Refugees and those in refugee situations at the very end of the day are the same as you and I; with the same needs, wants, hopes and aspirations. At its very FRUHWKHRQO\GLÉŁHUHQFHLVVLWXDWLRQDOKRZHYHUWKHDSSURDFKDQGODQJXDJHXVHG to describe those in refugee situations is one that organizes individuals to a set of numbers and statistics which only works to alienates and dehumanize. It is this projectâ€™s stance that such an approach is damaging and proves an unsettling IDFWWKDWWKHOLYHOLKRRGVRILQGLYLGXDOVDÉŁHFWHGE\GLVSODFHPHQWDUHXQIRUWXQDWHO\ not emphasized in current humanitarian strategies. How then can a project take the focus from the quantitative values and restructure the way we approach infrastructure in terms of the qualities of life we all hope for.
W informal bamboo dwelling on the Thai-Myanmar border (Maesot, Thailand)
HUMANITARIANISM (noun: category/subject)- concerned with or seeking to promote human welfare XVXDOO\GHQRWLQJDQHYHQWRUVLWXDWLRQWKDWFDXVHVRULQYROYHVZLGHVSUHDGKXPDQVXÉŁHULQJ especially one that requires a large scale provision of aid.
While the ideology behind humanitarianism is simple --that is to help those who are less fortunate- the practice of the notion has a much PRUHFRPSOH[DQGLQGLVWLQFWVHWRIIDFWRUVWKDWOLPLWWKHHÉŁHFWLYHQHVV of its intentions. One needs to be cognizant that the concept of humanitarianism is already an emblem of failure, not success, it is by LWÂśVRZQGHÂżQLWLRQDUHFRJQLWLRQWKDWVRPHWKLQJQHHGVWREHUHPHGLHG With the creation of international relief organizations and the â€œaidâ€? industry in the mid 20th century, humanitarianism has come to the IRUHIURQWRIRXUZRUOGVPRVWFRPSOH[DQGH[SORVLYHFRQĂ€LFWV7RGD\ WKHDLGLQGXVWU\KDVH[SDQGHGLPPHQVHO\DQGQRZSOD\VDSURPLQHQW UROH LQ ZHVWHUQ VRFLHW\ UHYHOLQJ LQ SHRSOHÂśV LQWHUQDO HWKLFDO FRQĂ€LFW to help those in need. The undeniable fact is that international (and GRPHVWLFWRDFHUWDLQH[WHQW KXPDQLWDULDQRXWOHWÂśVQDYLJDWHWKURXJK incredibly hostile and complicated situations, needing to consider the JHRSROLWLFDOHFRQRPLFDODQGFXOWXUDOWHUUDLQOLPLWLQJWKHHÉŁHFWLYHQHVV RI LWV JRRG LQWHQWLRQV 7KLV LV H[WUHPHO\ SUREOHPDWLF LQ WKH FDVHV RI WKHVH SURMHFWV DV LW WHQGV WR LQWHQVLI\ WKH SUHH[LVWLQJ LVVXHV E\ WKH inadequate planning and design done by charitable organizations / projects. This disconnection between good intentions and results has only been sporadically criticized, largely undocumented and enacted on. The current system that humanitarian aid and relief is conducted QHHGVWREHFULWLFDOO\YLHZERWKLQWHUQDOO\DQGH[WHUQDOO\ LQRUGHUWR develop better systems and organization to guide these projects.
HUMANITARIAN ARCHITECTURE Âł,WKLQNWKDWLWFDQDQGGRHVSURGXFHSRVLWLYHHÉŁHFWVZKHQWKHOLEHUDWLQJ intentions of the architect coincide with the real practice of people in WKHH[HUFLVHRIWKHLUIUHHGRPÂ´1 Philosopher Michel Foucault once stated that while architecture is inherently a political act, the formalism of architecture cannot in itself liberate or oppress.2 In his opinion liberation and oppression are practice, not objects. However, one could argue that such a stance is QRWFRPSOHWHO\FRQFUHWHDVZKLOHWKHÂżQLVKHGSURGXFWRIDUFKLWHFWXUH is an artifact the process of architecture is in fact a practice in itself. Indeed, Foucault acknowledges this, stating â€œspace is fundamental LQ DQ\ H[HUFLVH RI SRZHUÂ´3 but disputes that practice can never be a guarantee in of somethings formalism. It is in his statement that â€œnothing is fundamental -- There are only reciprocal relations, and the perpetual gaps between intentions in relation to one another.â€?4 that one can truly appreciate Foucaultâ€™s position. While intentions in practice may be well meaning it does not always translate into the realm of the object. This is where humanitarian architectureâ€™s fundamental issues are found. The creation of humanitarian or activist architecture was QRW MXVW D PDWWHU RI RÉŁHULQJ VHUYLFHV WR D QHZ FOLHQWHOH EXW D PDWWHU RI FUHDWLQJ D QHZ ÂżHOG RI GHVLJQ 7KH LQDXJXUDWLRQV RI QRQSURÂżWV such as Architects for Humanity and Design Corp. in the late 1990â€™s was the kick start of this new wave of socially conscious design. Both organizations were founded on the notion that designers have the capacity and wherewithal to address critical social issues however their PHWKRGRORJ\ LQ WDFNOLQJ WKHVH LVVXHV ZHUH IXQGDPHQWDOO\ GLÉŁHUHQW Architects for Humanity instead of producing work to address KXPDQLWDULDQFULVHVDFWHGDVDIRUXPIRUGHVLJQHUVWRJDWKHUDQGRÉŁHU WKHLUH[SHUWLVHDQGLQWXUQPDQDJHVWKHVHSURMHFWVWRIUXLWLRQ'HVLJQ Corp. on the other hand emphasized a heavier handed approach to design investigations and produced a critique to the processes in the realizations of projects. 7KH GLÉŁHUHQFH LQ DSSURDFKHV IRU WKH VDPH LQWHQW KDV SURIRXQGO\ HÉŁHFWHGWKHW\SHRIZRUNSURGXFHGE\HDFKRUJDQL]DWLRQ:KLOHDWDQ outlook standpoint humanitarian focused design is a commendable RXWOHWIRUGHVLJQGXHWRWKH\RXWKRIWKHÂżHOGDQGWKHODFNRIDQDO\VLV there is serious possibility that these projects can be more detrimental WKDQ EHQHÂżFLDO IRU WKH FRPPXQLWLHV WKDW WKH\ DUH VLWXDWHG LQ 7KHUH DUHSOHWKRUDRIUHDVRQVIRUWKLVGLÉ¤FXOW\HQFRPSDVVLQJPDQ\IDFWRUV PDQ\ WKDW H[WHQG SDVW WKH VFRSH RI DUFKLWHFWXUH LQFOXGLQJ ORFDOLW\ politics, transport, culture, funding etc. But one could argue that for DQ\HÉŁHFWLYHSURFHVVWRH[LVWWKHUHPXVWEHFULWLFLVPERWKLQWHUQDOO\ DQGH[WHUQDOO\ DQGLWLVLQWKLVSURMHFWVYLHZWKDWWKHUHKDVQRWEHHQ enough critical review of the current approaches in humanitarian architecture.
REFUGEE CAMPS Refugee (noun: person)- a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. Asylum (Refuge) (noun: place)-the protection granted to someone who has left their native country as a refugee. (shelter or protection from danger) Refugee camp - is a temporary settlement built to receive and accommodate refugees The UN Refugee Agency was created in 1950 with the responsibility for protecting and assisting the mass displacement of people after WWII and has grown into the largest agency that deals with refugees from around the world. Today we currently the amount of forcibly displaced people in the world has reached past 65.6 million people, of that 22.5 million are under refugee status.5 To term it as a humanitarian crisis would be an understatement, yet the general strategy in dealing with this global issue has largely stayed the same from since it’s conception. The majority of refugees are siphoned into massive refugee camps as they await the process to either be accepted by a second/third party nation or wait till the volatile situation has reach diplomacy. Issues that face these large settlements has been largely documented including fundamental needs such as food, water, health care and shelter. One of the biggest issues that refugee camps face is that within all the necessities and moving parts matters of dignity and humanity are often the last to be considered. Due to the massive constraints put on by politics, economy, geography and time it is often felt that ones’ hands are tied to fully deal with the problems at hand. But it should be implored that “the fact that we can’t solve all the problems of the world does not absolve us of the responsibility of solving the ones we can.”6 7KHREMHFWLYHRIWKLVSURMHFWZLOOEHWR¿UVWO\UHLQWHUSUHWWKHGH¿QLWLRQ of refugee camps and settlements, as it is truly a misrepresentation of the reality of these places. While generally refugee camps are designed to have a lifespan of 5-7 years the reality is that the average stay at a camp today is 17 years.7 The idea that these settlements and structures are temporary doesn’t seem to hold true anymore, no longer are they camps but cities. Thus it is perhaps time to reconsider what a refugee camp is and to invest in new language and vocabulary that is honest about what these congregations are in order to develop better methods in dealing with this crisis. By not doing so we risk furthering the disintegration of these communities and more important the people in them. It is this understanding along with a concise connection to humanitarian architecture that has form the foundation of this thesis project.
1. Foucault, Michel. Space, Power and Knowledge: Interview w/ Paul Rabinow. trans. Christian Hubert. Skyline, Mar 1982. 2. Shall, Scott. Humanitarian Architecture Book Review. Journal of Architectural Education. April 24 2009 3. Foucault, Michel. Space, Power and Knowledge: Interview w/ Paul Rabinow. trans. Christian Hubert. Skyline, Mar 1982. 4. Id. 5. Information taken from UNHCR Website. http://www.unhcr.org/about-us.html. 11.22.2016 6. Bob Macauley, Founder & Chairman, AmeriCares 7. Kleinschmidt, Kilian. https://www.dezeen.com/2015/11/23/refugee-camps-cities-of-tomorrow-killian-kleinschmidt-interview-humanitarian-aid-expert/. 11.22.2016
S informal migrant camp Thai-Myanmar Border (Mae Sot, Thailand)
0.2 Thesis Schedule. 1
Summer + Fall Semester
a > Connecting Global Landscapes b > Migratory Paths c > Field Studies
Summer + Fall Semester
a > Bali, Indonesia b > Bago, Myanmar
Summer + Fall Semester
a > Historical Context b > Situate c > Social Conditions
a > Infrastructure Timeline b > Material Pathways C > The Venacular and Regional
Thesis Candidate: Steven Hung Thesis Advisor: Lancelot Coar Thesis Chair: Carlos Rueda Faculty of Architecture University of Manitoba Winnipeg, MB, Canada
[A][B] This will be done through comprehension and analysis of the current verbal/ ZULWWHQ YHUQDFXODU XVHG LQ WKH Â¿HOG DQG PRGLI\LQJ WKHVH WHUPV WR EHWWHU Â¿W WKH VFRSH RI WKH WKHVLV ,PSHUDWLYH IRU HÉ£HFWLYH DQDO\VLV DQG LQ H[SHFWDWLRQ IRU D design proposal, respect and deliberation of a holistic approach will be conducted WRH[SDQGWKHWKHVLVSDVWWKHGLUHFWLPSOLFDWLRQVRIWKHFDVHVWXG\ [C]$UXEULFZLOOEHGHYHORSHGIURPSXEOLFDWLRQVDQGUHSRUWVIURPH[SHUWVLQWKH Â¿HOGWRFRPSDUHDQGFRQWUDVWSURMHFWVZLWKLQWKHKXPDQLWDULDQUHDOPZLWKWKHJRDO to consolidate a resource of precedences in anticipation for the development of an alternative strategy for the thesis.
[A] A research trip to Bali, Indonesia was organised during the summer to engage with the local building practices and materiality seen in South East Asia. Emphasis on low technological design and construction was established to be honest with the realities of infrastructure observed in refugee settlements. The trip ran along side DZRUNVKRSLQFROODERUDWLRQZLWKDUFKLWHFWXUDOÂ¿UP,%8.8 [B] A second research trip to Bago, Myanmar was conducted to further supplement the project, giving an opportunity to engage with local builders and designers. A workshop conducted by the AA (Architectural Association) further connected the SUDFWLFHRIDUFKLWHFWXUHLQWRWKHORFDOFRQWH[W
[A][B] ,Q WKLV SRUWLRQ RI WKH UHVHDUFK SKDVH DQ LQ GHSWK H[SORUDWLRQ LQWR WKH livelihoods of those living in the Mae La refugee camp - the emphasis of this thesis -- and the infrastructure conditions that they currently live in was performed by researching and making apparent the systems that are currently practiced in the settlement. [C] $ ORRN LQWR WKH WUDGLWLRQDO DQG FXOWXUDO VSHFLÂ¿FLWLHV RI WKHVH UHVLGHQFH DOVR IXUWKHUVSHFLÂ¿HGWKHFRQWH[WRIWKHFXUUHQWOLYHOLKRRGVWKDWWDNHSODFHLQ0DH/D
[A][B] With respect to the research completed beforehand, the housing typology IRXQGLQ0DH/DÂ¶VUHIXJHHFDPSZDVH[DPLQHGDQGLPDJLQHGWRSURYLGHD more dynamic conversation in responding to the changing situations over the FRXUVHRIWKHVHWWOHPHQWVOLIH7KHVKHOWHUORRNHGWRH[SDQGLWÂ¶VUROHDVQRWRQO\ infrastructure for basic needs, but one that can support the livelihoods of itâ€™s occupants.
ENGAGING TRADITION Winter Semester
a > Materiality + Existing Techniques b > Reinterpreting Methods of Making c > System of Panelization
[A][B] As in any structure, the assembly and construction holds a large importance to the ability to realize a dwelling within the built environment. In the heightened conditions of a refugee settlement these factors are further constrained by VRFLDOHFRQRPLFDO FRQGLWLRQV ZLWK OLPLWHG DFFHVV DQG Â¿QDQFHV WR PDWHULDOV DQG tools. Thus, the importance of investing in local ways of building and making is essential to the success of any proposal. Studies of local building techniques were conducted to support a proposal that would be honest to the abilities and realities of the settlement.
[C] With the instigation of a production system of building components in place, an innovation of building assembly was conducted to further establish a building W\SRORJ\WKDWZRXOGEHPRUHÃ€H[LEOHWRWKHFKDQJLQJQHHGVDQGGHPRJUDSKLFVRI those living in Mae La.
a > Environmental Factors b > Programming c > Inhabitation d > Detailing e > Technical Set
FINAL THOUGHTS Winter Semester
a > Acknowledgments b > Bibliography + Image References
[A] An introduction into a sited project provided a better way of developing the EXLOGLQJV\VWHPWKDWFRXOGUHDFWRÉ£WKHODQGVFDSHDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOFRQGLWLRQV present in the area. [B] The focus occupant of the proposed building adaption saw a growing number of migrant students coming to Mae La in search for better education opportunities. With a large population of youth, the built environment was imagined in a manner that would align with the necessities and qualities that younger inhabitants would look for. [C][D] Supported by the rich cultural background of craftsmanship in the FRPPXQLWLHV RI 0DH /D WKH SURMHFW H[SORUHG WUDGLWLRQDO FRUUHODWLRQV WKDW FRXOG be re-interpreted at the building scale. Through the utilization of accessible and sustainable materials and a strong connection to common building practices the project looked to provide a system of construction that could sustain the FRPPXQLW\DQGUHLQYLJRUDWHDQLQGXVWU\ZLWKLQWKHFRQÂ¿QHVRIWKHVHWWOHPHQW
1.0 ESTABLISHING THEMES 7KHEHJLQQLQJKDOIRIWKLVWKHVLVXQGHUWRRNDQH[SORUDWLRQRIWKHFRQVWUXFWVDQG methodology of relief infrastructure and the ability of the current humanitarian building typology to support those in refugee situations. During this phase of research, multiple scales were taken into account ; the global scale of humanitarian DLGWKHVFDOHRIDLGLQIUDVWUXFWXUHGHVLJQDQGWKHVFDOHRIWKHVSHFLÂżFVHWWOHPHQW VLWH 0DH /D %\ FRQWH[WXDOL]LQJ WKH SURMHFW IURP D PXOWLWXGH RI YLHZSRLQWV the project looked to create a conversation of how one can re-think how an architectural process can work within and even push the current constructs of displacement shelters.
GLOBAL CONTEXT Humanitarianism is a concept popularized only recently in modernity and promoted with the decolonization and subsequent independence of a number of states within the last century. With the large changes in domestic power, the ODFNRISROLWLFDODQGHFRQRPLFVWDELOLW\KDVFUHDWHGQXPHURXVFRQĂ€LFWZLWKLQWKHVH coined â€˜developing countriesâ€™.
PROJECT SCOPE â€œBut if one is interested in doing historical work that has political meaning, utility DQGHÉŁHFWLYHQHVVWKHQWKLVLVSRVVLEOHRQO\LIRQHKDVVRPHNLQGRILQYROYHPHQW with the struggles taking place in the area in question.â€? 1 This thesis will attempt to traverse through a facet of socially-conscious architecture by critically analyzing the issues and problems that the current infrastructural forms of humanitarianism have in meeting the needs of recipients. The thesis will seriously consider the struggles and constraints that the current geopolitical and economical systems evoke in humanitarian projects and pose a reinterpretation of what social architecture is or should be.
1. Foucault, Michel. Power / Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972 - 1977, Pantheon Books, New York. 1980. 64 IMG: statistics provided by the UNHCR.
Global Persons of Concern. Refugees / Asylum Seekers / IDPs / Returnees / Stateless Person
10 Million 5 Million
1 Million 0 Million
Connecting Global Landscapes.
Humanitarian Development: Western Origins
Ottoman Red Crescent Society Est.
1868 Treaty of Versaille
Refinement of medical transportation and evacuation
1900’s American Hurricanes [Focused by ARC] C]
The American Relief Adminstration (ARA)
League of Red Cross Societies (LRCS) Save the Children Fund [SCF] > recognition of trans-national NGO’s
Hague Convention Creation o of ICRC [International tio Committee of Red Cross]
League of Nations > Est. High Commissioner for Refugees (HCR) directed by Dr. Fridtjof Nansen
Russian Civil War
American Civil War
1st Geneva Convention
>minimization of impact of war; rules of engagement and conduct of hostilities
Intern Geneva > led by Barnen
Finnish Civil War
Comm > in re of pro west
1861 HUMANITARIAN FOCUS IN 1800s Intiatives were mostly focused on local and national issues; with focused on the treatment of nationals from their own country, even though work often required working abroad.
WORLD WAR I
Advocation of ‘evidence based action’ by Florence Nightingale and her Nursing team.
St. Johns Ambulance Associastion Est. San Franscico Earthquake [April 18th] San Franscico, USA
> 28000 destroyed buildings > 36000 people displaced
Rif War in Morrocco
> Amelioration of the e Condition of Wounded Armies in the th Field
Influenz aE pi
> Regulating the end of WW1 > instigated the creation of the he international organizations to a addres d ss humanitarian issues
Geneva > led by Barnen
> cha Sovie
Leagu the D
> Medical and Treatment Advancements > Policies and Conventions regarding Conflicts and Wars
Jamaica Earthquake and Fire Kingston, Jamaica
>1000 dead >1.6M Euros in damage
Commission for the Relief of Belgium (CRB) Creation of Japanese Nat’l Society
for the 1976-1978 Bengal Famine in British India
Famine Relief Fund set up UK
1st International Sanitary Conference & International Medical Conference
> address the food needs of German occupied Belgium and France
Practice of Triage instituted by Baron Dominique Jean Larrey
1st International Congress of Lifesaving and First Aid in the Event of Accidents
> 75 000 dead > 500 000 homeless
South African Institute for Medical Research [SAIMR]
> to carry out research on diseases that affected mine labourers
American Red Cross [ARC] est.
1881 Maritime and Quarantine Board est. (Alexandria)
> later changed to Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office [EMRO] of the WHO
lop ment of Indian
Major NGO Development Humanitarian Evolution International Crisis International Events
Eras of Humanitarianism
ALNAP: 20 Years of change in humanitarian action: A timeline by ALNAP (alnap.org/31am) A History of the Humanitarian System: Western Origins and Foundation (HPG; E. Davey, w/ J. Borton, M. Foley, 2013) DATA: -Total funding reported to the UN OCHA Financial Tracking Service 2000-2016 (https://fts. unocha.org/global-funding/overview/2016) -Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 1997-2015 (http://ucdp.uu.se/#/encyclopedia) -EM-DAT: the OFDA/CRED International Disasters Database, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Natural disasters across all continents between 1997-2016 (www. emdat.be/disaster_trends/index.html) Targeted recipients of aid in millions, OCHA State of Aid data, 2007-2017 (www.unocha. org/stateofaid)
(A) Mid-Nineteenth Century -- end of WWI (1918) Imperial Humanitarianism (19th Century -- WWII)
(B) Interwar Years -- WWII
1940’s t er 1s mb pte Se
, 1939 START OF W OR LD WA R II
ational the Children Union the British SCF and Swedish Radda dd
rkers International Relief [WIR] [W
munist State esponse to the industrialization and lack otection and rights for workers seen in the
Spanish Civil War
Response from the destruction of WWI brought about a transition from treaties and conventions between national states to the establishment of int’l organizations; designed to promote health and welfare.
1941 Catholic Relief Services [CRS] > founded by National Catholic Welfare Council
This period also marked a cultural reconfiguration of civil mentalities that had been organized around the ideals of soveriegn nationalities towards something closer to global civil society of shared rights and responsibilities. > League of Nations Creation > Almagamation of the HCR into the Nasen Int’l Office of Refugees > Reaction to industrialization leading to safety codes and rights for workers and children
Council of British Societies for Relief Abroad [COBSRA] Oxfam Famine Relief Committee [Oxfam] est.
Founding of United Nations Relief and R Rehabilitation Administration [UNRRA] > objective to provide aid, rehabilitation, and resettlement tt assistance
Jewish Commitee for Relief Abroad [JCRA] Bengal Famine
Cold War >> 1989
national the Children Union
a y the British SCF and Swedish Radda ad n
Marshall Plan (US) -- foriegn aid to rebuild European cities >> 1951
Indochinese War >> 1954 Creation of over 200 NGO’s
rnational Red Aid [MOPR]
India and Pakistan Independence
annelling aid funds to newly consolidated et Union
Eygpt gp In
Italy’s Invasion of Ethiopia
Cambodi C mb Phillipines Independence
Lutheran heran Wo World Relief [LWR] est.
Burma and Sri Lanka Independence e
UN officially established Arab-Israeli War > 50 countries endorse its 111 charter ratified by 5 permanent members of the Security Council (24 October) > Universal Declaration of Human Rights ‘Everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person.’
ational Sanitary Convention
Treaty for Refugee Rights
pment on international disease ment
> the emergence for relief and protection of refugees
International Refugee Organisation
League of Nations last meeting
> expansion of convention to strengthen existing IHL [International Humanitarian Law w] > reforms to distribute UNRRA assets and personnel to new specialized agencies. UNICEF / FOA / WHO / IRO
Closure of UNRRA United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund Est. [UNICEF]
UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) est.
Myanmar (Burma) Civil War 1948 - Present
UN General Assembly pass Resolution 198 (III) Universal Declaration Officially passed
> commitment of economic development of under-developed countries
US New Deal (1933-1937)
> UN General Assembly adoption of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
1962 << Algerian War
San Franscico, USA
UN Korean Reconstruction Agency g (UNKRA) A est.
ue of Nations Adoption of eclaration of Rights of the Child
HUMANITARIAN FOCUS IN THE INTER-WAR PERIOD
World War II
> the us interna purpose
UN h deve
‘relief that was conceptually limited in terms of time, geography and approach’
HUMANITARIAN FOCUS IN THE COLD WAR PERIOD Humanitarian response during the Cold War period saw the end of colonialism and the creation of numerous independent states, this influx of new nations brought about numerous issues with the vacuum of power left over from decolonisation seen in Africa and South East Asia. This period also marked an expontential growth of NGO’s as a response to the globalisation of humanitarian efforts especially the focus shift from national to international situations. Humanitarian thought also became more critical in siding with political ideologies that the Cold War brought out and the realm of influence. > Declarations and Resolutions passed to give stronger IHL and human rights > Mass influx of newly independent nations
> Worl by gen
THE GREAT DEPR
(C) Cold War Period Neo-Humanitarianism (WWII -- End of Cold War)
Migratory Paths. Communicative Terminology
THOSE WHO LEAVE THEIR HOME COUNTRY
Immigrants (Migrants) Voluntary / Long Term MIGRANTS - People living in a country other than where they were born >> there are many factors that cause an individual or group of people to uproot their life/lives and begin anew, economics is often at the forefront of the decision making but other aspects such as social/political conditions, religion, health care and education all factor to the decision.
Can have similarities in relation to behaviours and motivations (while in the past these two spheres have been treated separately there is ongoing research that shows the issues that often plague aslyum-seekers are face simultaneously in immigrant situations)
Refugee Status Process
Forced / Temporary *
Patterns of Displacement
ASYLUM-SEEKERS - Are persons/people who are being forcibly displaced from their home, the reason are often remarkable similar to those of immigrants but the issues appear more prevalent and extreme to cause the those in affected areas to leave.
Process: The term Refugee is commonly used to describe those who are displaced by persecution, war or conflict and have fled across international border. The term however is a term that entails a specific legally binding status associated with a set of requirements agreed upon during the 1951 Refugee Convention, a UN multilateral treaty setting out rights and laws for those who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of the nation that grants it.
Visa (Tourist/Student) Voluntary / Short Term Those who are looking to visit or stay temporarily in another country often look to visas as a way of accomplishing this.
EVOLUTION OF REFUGEE DEFINITION - a â€˜refugeeâ€™ was based according to ethnic group or country of origin; Only applied to certain ethnicities and groups of people (1933/1938 â€“ Refugee Conference) GHÂ¿QLWLRQRIUHIXJHHVWDWXVEDVHGQRWRQJURXSFKDUDFWHULVWLFVEXWRQLQGLYLGXDO H[SHULHQFH 7KH &RQYHQWLRQ DOVR SODFHG D FUXFLDO WLPH OLPLW RQ WKLV GHÂ¿QLWLRQ which applied only to people displaced â€˜as a result of events occurring before 1 -DQXDU\ Â¶ HÉ£HFWLYHO\ OLPLWLQJ JRYHUQPHQWVÂ¶ REOLJDWLRQV WR UHVSRQG DQG FRQÂ¿QLQJLWVFRQWH[WWRWKHLPPHGLDWHSRVWZDUSHULRG5HIXJHH&RQYHQWLRQ
1967: Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees removed the time limitation of â€˜events occurring before 1 January 1951â€™. 81+&5 H[SDQGV UHIXJHH PDQGDWH WR LQFOXGH Âµ ÂµWKRVH GLVSODFHG ZLWKLQ the borders of their own countries, returnees (refugees or internally displaced people who have returned), asylum-seekers (whose formal status has not yet been DVVHVVHG VWDWHOHVVSHRSOHZDUDÉ£HFWHGSRSXODWLRQVDQGRWKHUVÂ¶81+&5 3). Organisation of African Unity (OAU) established a Refugee Convention in 1974, H[SDQGLQJWKHGHÂ¿QLWLRQRIWKH81GHÂ¿QLWLRQÂµWKHWHUPÂ³UHIXJHHÂ´VKDOODOVRDSSO\ WRHYHU\SHUVRQZKRRZLQJWRH[WHUQDODJJUHVVLRQRFFXSDWLRQIRUHLJQGRPLQDWLRQ or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationalityâ€™. And â€˜refugee problems are a source of friction among many Member Statesâ€™, and its assertion of â€˜a distinction between a refugee who seeks a peaceful and normal OLIHDQGDSHUVRQÃ€HHLQJKLVFRXQWU\IRUWKHVROHSXUSRVHRIIRPHQWLQJVXEYHUVLRQ from outsideâ€™
Relief Structures Typologies Emergency Shelters Refugee Phases [Contemporary Times] Emergency State
FORCED DISPLACEMENT An asylum-seeker is not automatically a refugee a process is taken for those who are fleeing over international borders for such an assignment.
Cross International Border
Move to Safer Urban / Rural Areas
INDIVIDUAL BASIS (CONVENTIONAL REFUGEE)
> Economics / Finances : Most people in affect areas donâ€™t have the funds to make the dangerous and risky trip across to adjacent countries > Familiarity : those who are displaced look for familarity in place (culture/langauge etc.) > Access to Information : to keep in touch and monitor the situation is an essential aspect of those who have to flee from their homes
Requires each individual to prove to the state that their experience of persecution warrants refugee status. (+) is more reliant as proof of refugee status (-) long, difficult process (-) ineffective in larger numbers
In the case where the host country is met with an immense amount of asylum seeker crossing the border, individual basis is too slow at assisting these people thus an alternative strategy was brought in place. Group determination takes on the presumptive state that those given refugee status by group determination would be defined as refugees if they underwent individual determination.
refugee population living in/out of camps (UNHCR)
> majority of refugees are granted status by the prima-facie basis (64% in 2003 [higher now])
(+) ensure expediency for admission to safety and protection from refoulement (forced repatriation) (+) access to aid assistance and same rights and status as Individual Basis method. (-) inability to filter criminals and combatants undeserving of international protection (-) pace of accepted refugees not meet with by the ability and funding of host nations
ILLEGAL / UNDOCUMENTED CROSSING
In many cases asylum seekers, either un-informed or reluctant to be bounded by the refugee status look to be self-reliant and attempting to settle on their own in the host country.
lives outside of camps lives inside of camps
(+) are not constrained by the placement restrictions held by refugees (-) do not hold any international rights and are considered illegal immigrants (-) have not access to aid and assistance from organization or host country and in turn have to rely on the goodness of local communities to survive and create livelihoods
Migratory Paths. Communicative Terminology
FORMS OF SETTLEMENT While there is an assumption that those who are refugees live in refugee camp or settlements until they are able to be resettled in a third country or till a time that they may be repatriated and return to their home country. The reality is much more complex with the majority of refugees or those in refugee situations ending up living and settling in urban and rural areas of the host country.
Self Settled Camps
Rural Self Settlements
Urban Self Settlements
COUNTRY OF FIRST ASYLUM / HOST COUNTRY
Refugee Camps / Settlements
Self Settlements / Dispersed Settlements
These accommodations are usually created by host governments in cases of large numbers of refugees. These areas are usually place near the border and are used as a strategy to manage and restrict the movement of refugees.
A significant portion of refugees stay away from camps or official settlement sites and instead settle themselves among the local communities. Relying on local networks and organizations to help set up accommodations and aid.
Factors: > security > management of aid resources and services
Factors: > proximity to local communities and economies (+) access to work and trade (+) are immersed in the local community (normalcy) (-) can be seen as illegal immigrants and without legal status (-) no access to humanitarian aid
(+) access to humanitarian aid (+) possibility of resettlement in a third country (-) often secluded and isolated from local communities and economies (-) movement is restricted
Rural / Small Towns
Resettlement is the process in which refugees are allowed to move to another country and settle with the same rights as an immigrant, each country have their own strategies and limits of how they deal with accepting refugees to their country. The United States lead in terms of the numbers of accepted refugees for resettlement.
PLACEMENT While the majority of refugee conversations and media coverage is focused on the formal camps and settlements, most refugee migration patterns are far more diverse and needs to be more often acknowledge as most in a displacement VLWXDWLRQÂżQGRWKHURSWLRQVRXWVLGHRIIRUPDOVHWWOHPHQWV
Repatriation COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
Repatriation allows refugees to voluntarily return to their home country when there is a consensus that it is safe to do so. It is often a lengthy process as communities wait to see progress in their home country and is unideal for many who arenâ€™t invested in their country of origin.
PLANNED / MANAGED CAMPS [15%] COLLECTIVE CENTERS [1%] RECEPTION / TRANSIT CAMPS [2%]
MIXED SETTLEMENT [39%]
INFORMAL / SELF MANAGED CAMPS [6%]
PRIVATELY HOSTED INDIVIDUAL ACCOMMODATIONS [37%]
Typologies of Refugee Settlements. 37% of population groups are reported as residing exclusively in privately hosted individual accommodation; 39% of population groups reside in a combination of settlement types, i.e. in settlement options which combine in different degrees planned camps, reception centres or transit sites, privately hosted individual accommodation, collective centres and informal/self-managed settlements. (UNHCR)
Organizational Paths. Current Aid Dispersement
Internal and External Partners
INTERNATIONAL INTEREST + HOST NATION
> Importance of having multiple parties of interest to be directed under the same authority > Expediency critical for timeliness
Funding + Sponsorships
> most of the funding for aid relief comes from national governments and are closely tied to foreign policies > there are factors of marketing and competition for donors in the public and private sectors > criticism for focusing on the economics of projects
JOINT TASK FORCE
(A) Camp Management (B) Food Services (C) Education (D) Medical (E) Water + Sanitation
> selected organizations work individually or collectively to create a network of services and infrastructure to provide amenities to refugees.
coordination w/ camp directives
LOCAL (HOST GOVERNMENT)
> Necessary tasks are handed out to individuals or teams that ideally work in conjunction with one another to have a holistic approach to the project
Tasks / Interest:
Tasks / Interest:
Tasks / Interest:
> Internal + External Security and Stability > Political + Economic Stability > National Services and Infrastructure > Establish constraints and freedoms for asylum-seekers
> Appropriate Site Selection > Camp planning and infrastructure > Coordinate designs to other parties and those implementing the construction + assembly
> Provide security and stability to site > Help with larger effect in camp set up
CONCEPTION + MANAGEMENT
ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE
The current organization of project management in refugee displacement infrastructure are conducted in a primarily top-down, hiearchal framework. By having an umbrella like operation it allows multiple organizations and parties of LQWHUHVW WR EH XQLÂ¿HG LQ WKH WUDQVIHU RI WDVNV +RZHYHU WKH ODFN RI RQ VLWH VWDÉ£ and feedback by the recipients of the aid seems to be counter intuitive. With the FRQWURODQGLQWHUHVWLQWKHKDQGVRIWKHWKRVHZKRDUHQÂ¶WH[SHULHQFLQJWKHUHDOLW\RI the situations, it brings to question why refugees donâ€™t play a larger role in systems WKDWDÉ£HFWWKHP
Though modern institutional humanitarianism spans multitudes of industries, WKHODFNRIDUFKLWHFWXUDOYRLFHVLQWKHÂ¿HOGLVDELWFRQFHUWLQJDVWKHLVVXHVIDFHG in humanitarian situations are strikingly comparable to those in which the DUFKLWHFWXUDOÂ¿HOGLVWUDGLWLRQDOO\LQYROYHGLQ5DWKHUWKHSODQQLQJDQGGHVLJQVRI most settlements and infrastructure fall into the hands of planners and engineers, which is telling to the technical nature of how displacement infrastructure is currently informed.
1.C FIELD STUDIES While at face value many of these deeply rooted issues plaguing protracted refugee states tend to lend themselves to political and social policy matters, there is a necessity for resourcefulness and creativity to come to the forefront in dealing ZLWKWKHVHSUREOHPV:KHUHQRUPDORUVWDQGDUGSURFHGXUHVFHDVHWREHHɣHFWLYH alternative solutions need to be introduced which unfortunately often falls as a burden to displaced individuals generating answers on their own with little to no support. It is here that architecture has an unique chance to provide new solutions and support for those within these communities.
PRECEDENCE 'LɣHUHQW KXPDQLWDULDQ VKHOWHU W\SHV ZHUH UHVHDUFKHG DQG DQDO\VHG LQ RUGHU WR JDLQDEHWWHUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHFRPSOH[LWLHVWKDWLQIUDVWUXFWXUHKDVWRFRQVLGHU LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI D GLVSODFHPHQW VLWXDWLRQ 6KHOWHU W\SHV ZHUH FKRVHQ IRU WKHLU GLɣHUHQFHV LQWKHLUDSSURDFKHVWRWKHGHVLJQ DQGGLVWULEXWLRQ 7KHHPSKHUDOLW\ of refugee situations were emphasized in the analysis with timelines created to further understand the performance and functions these infrastructures had over the course of the shelters lifespan.
a b c d
US Earthquake Shacks UNHCR Tents Paper Emergency Shelters ,.($%HWWHU6KHOWHU3URMHFW
W temporary canvas shelter (Myawaddy, Myanmar)
US Earthquake Shacks. [1906 - 1908]
CRISIS: Natural Disaster (7.8 Earthquake) SUB-CRISIS: Fire + Displacement On April 18th 1906 an earthquake struck the coast of Northern California, with an unprecedented intensity and has since been known as one of the worst and deadliest earthquake event in the United States.
- 80% of San Fransisco destroyed - 400 Million in Damages - 3000 Causaulties - 250 000 People Displaced [50% of Population]
ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE: Tent Structures + Earthquake Shacks MAJOR AID ACTORS:
- US Army [General Greely] a - San Fransisco Relief Corporation b - San Fransisco Parks Commision c [John Mclaren; Parks Superintendent] - US Carpenters Union d
AID ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE: cd
ECONOMICS / RESOURCES: Cost/Unit $50.00 [Materials] + $100.00 [Construction]*
Total Production 5610
Assembly Time/Unit approx. 6hrs
People Needed for Assembly 1-10 People
Number of Occupant/Unit 3-4
Total Residence Addressed 16 488
Lifespan 2-3 years
* adjusted for inflation [current market $3600.00] + there are many cases where shacks were reused or added to other infrastructure
US Earthquake Shacks. [1906 - 1908]
Technical Information Overall Dimensions:IW[IW[IW Foot Print: 140 ft2 Weight/Unit: -/Volume: 1420 ft3 Packaging: No packaging as structures were
1 Cedar Shingles
built on site and materials brought on site.
2 Redwood Roof Rafters / Purlins
3 Redwood Wall Frame
5 Casement Window
4 Redwood Strip Cladding [PTD. Green] 6 Fir Wood Floor Boards
7 Redwood Deck Frame
POST DISASTER LIFE OF STRUCTURES:
$IWHUSD\LQJRÉ£WKHFRVWRIDQ(DUWKTXDNH6KDFN ($50.00) owners could transport their shelters to a permanent location.
0DQ\RZQHUVEXLOWH[WHQVLRQVRQWRWKHLU shelters, to enlarge their homes or reused the shelters as garages, shed and shops.
Cedar Shingles Framing Nails Window Frames + Casement Window Fir Floor Boards Red Wood Wall Cladding 5HG:RRG'LPHQVLRQDO/XPEHUÃ€RRUGHFNZDOOIUDPH Paint (Olive Green)
226 ft2 (Type A) 3 (Type A) 140 ft2 (Type A) 424 ft2 (Type A) -
+ Stove (added cost to the building and rent)
$50.00* *(not adjusted to current inflation)
UNHCR/ICRC/IOM Emergency Tents. CRISIS: International Natural Disasters / Wars / Mass Displacement SUB-CRISIS: Poverty + Violence + Medical a
In the event of a emergency or disaster where people are displaced or left homeless most major relief organizations refer to the use of pole-tent structures WRPHHWWKHPDVVLQÃ€X[RISHRSOHQHHGLQJVKHOWHU
b IMPACT: /Global Impact/ - 65.6 M forcibly displaced worldwide - 22.5 M with refugee status - Continued increase of refugee protracted situations
ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE: Tent Structures MAJOR AID ACTORS:
- Host / National Government a - UNHCR b - Non-Governmental Organization(s) c - Local / International Builders d
AID ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:
b c d
ECONOMICS / RESOURCES: Cost/Unit $420.00 - $700.00 [dependent on tent type]
Total Production > 100 000 tents set up annually [multiple organizations]
Assembly Time/Unit 30 mins - 1 hr [dependent on tent type]
People Needed for Assembly 1-5 people
Number of Occupant/Unit 4-5
Total Residence Addressed > 5 000 000 [individual based on average household size]
Lifespan 1 Year [Parts maybe repaired or replaced]
* contribution varies
UNHCR/ICRC/IOM Emergency Tents.
1 Tent Framework (aluminum/fiberglass poles)
2 Tent Fabric Cover [Roof/Walls]
3 Rope Tie-Backs
Technical Information Overall Dimensions:P[P[P Foot Print: 61 m2 Weight/Unit: 55kg Volume: 0.20m3 Packaging: 7KHGRXEOHĂ€\WHQWDQGDOO accessories (including poles, pegs, hammer) are packed together along with a set of instructions and drawings.
OTHER TENT TYPOLOGIES:
Circular Single Bell Tent
Basic Ridge Tent
up right poles ridge pole side poles door poles guy ropes outer-tent roof + inherent canvas (polyester blend) groundsheet (plastic) tent pegs
3 1 6 4 10 1 1 10
Paper Emergency Shelters. [1995 - Current]
CRISIS: 5ZDQGDQ&LYLO:DU .REH(DUWKTXDNH ,]PLW(DUWKTXDNH Turkey / (1999), India Earthquake (2001), Haiti Earthquake (2010) SUB-CRISIS: Displacement + Poverty + Violence
-DSDQHVHDUFKLWHFW6KLJHUX%DQÂ¶VH[SORUDWLRQLQWRFDUGERDUGWXEHDVDYLDEOH building material was used in his research to respond to the growing need for global emergency shelters. These shelters have been used sporadically in response to many types of global disasters and forced migration events.
IMPACT: /Rwandan Civil War + Genocide/
- 2 000 000 Refugees - 500 000 - 1 000 000 Deaths
/Kobe Earthquake/ - 6000 Casualties - 300 000 Displaced - 400 000 Buildings Irreparably Damaged
ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE: Paper Emergency Shelters MAJOR AID ACTORS:
- Host / National Government a - UNHCR b - Shigeru Ban [Architect] c - Non-Governmental Organization(s) d - Local / International Builders e
AID ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE: abde
ECONOMICS / RESOURCES:
Cost/Unit $50.00 [Tent] + $2000.00 Paper Log House
Total Production 27 Paper Log Houses [Japan] + 50 Tent Prototypes [Rwanda]
Assembly Time/Unit approx. 6hrs [Paper Log House] + 1hr [Tent]
People Needed for Assembly 1-10 People
Number of Occupant/Unit 4-5
Total Residence Addressed 135 [Paper Log House] + 250 [Tent Prototypes]
Lifespan 2-4 years [parts are replacable]
Paper Emergency Shelters. [1995 - Current]
Technical Information Overall Dimensions:IW[IW[IW Foot Print: 169 ft2 Weight/Unit: -/Volume: 1717ft3 Packaging: -/-
1 Tarp Roof Cover (Plastic)
2 Cardboard Tube Rafters > plywood joints
3 Plywood Top Plate
4 Cardboard Tubes
5 Wood Frame Windows
6 Plywood Peg Fittings 7 Plywood Sheet Floors
8 Cardboard Tubes Floor Joists > Wood Skirting
9 Beer Crate Foundations > Sand Bags
PAPER LOG HOUSE
DETAIL OF CARDBOARD TUBE CONNECTORS
Overall Dimensions: 12.5ft x 16.25ft x 8ft Foot Print: 200 ft2 Weight/Unit: -/Volume: 1161ft3 Packaging: -/-
Tarp Roof Cover (Plastic) 1
Cardboard Tubes 2 1/4â€? steel rod 3 plastic tube connectors 4
PAPER EMERGENCY SHELTER
plastic beer crates sandbags wood frame windows cardboard tubes (4.5â€? diameter) plywood pegs plywood joinery Â´[Â´ZRRGERDUGV Âś[ÂśSO\ZRRGERDUGV plastic tarp waterproof taper 1/4â€? steel rods rope
37 37 3 294.8ft 135 pieces 12 pieces 1 -/-/-/-
,.($%HWWHU6KHOWHU3URMHFW [2016 - Current]
CRISIS: Syrian Civil War (2012 - Current), Somolian Civil War (1991 - Current) SUB-CRISIS: Displacement + Poverty + Violence 7KH5+85HIXJHH+RXVLQJ8QLW ZDVDVKHOWHUGHVLJQIXQGHGE\WKH,.($ Foundation in collaboration with UNHCR and Better Shelters (Sweden). The modular unit was meant as an alternative to the tent topology popularized in emergency/disaster relief shelters.
IMPACT: /Syrian Civil War/ - 470 000 Casualities - 7.6 M Internally Displaced People - 5.1 M Refugees
/Somolian Civil War/ - 800 000 Casualties 0'LVSODFHG(WKLRSLD.HQ\D
ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE: Tent Structures + RHU - Host / National Government a - UNHCR b ,.($)RXQGDWLRQV c - Better Shelters Org d - Non-Governmental Organization(s) e - Local / International Builders f
MAJOR AID ACTORS:
AID ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:
ECONOMICS / RESOURCES: Cost/Unit $1150.00
Total Production 15000 units
Assembly Time/Unit 5-6 hrs Abcdef
People Needed for Assembly 4 Persons
Number of Occupant/Unit 4-5
Total Residence Addressed 100 [Ethiopia] + 100 [Iraq]*
Lifespan 1.5 yrs [no maintenaince] + 3 yrs [w/ maintenaince] * reference to the 18-month pilot program to monitor the success of RHU (5000 currently been deployed)
,.($%HWWHU6KHOWHU3URMHFW [2016 - Current]
Technical Information Overall Dimensions:IW[IW[IW Foot Print: 17.5 m2 Weight/Unit: 160 kg Volume: 1.07 m3 Packaging:Ã€DWSDFNDJHGLQWZRER[HVDSUR[ 80kg each)
3 steel framework + foundation
Tools Provided in Kit
1 modular plastic roof panels + ventilation + solar panel
2 modular plastic wall panels + windows + door
Weight: 30-45kg Volume: 0.1 m3 Assembly: 1 hour / 2 people Lifespan: 10+ years
Weight: 85 kg Volume: 0.8 m3 Assembly: 3 hour / 2 people Lifespan: 3 years
steel rods steel cable plastic connectors plastic wall panels connector plugs plastic roof panels solar panel LED light
37 -/-/20 -/14 1 1
2.0 RESEARCH TRIPS Due to the foreign nature of the selected site (Mae La, Thailand), it was imperative WRJDLQÂ¿UVWKDQGH[SHULHQFHWRWKHFXOWXUHRIEXLOGLQJDQGPDWHULDOLW\WKDWZRXOGEH present in the area. Workshops that dealt with sustainable low tech construction applications were sought out to align with the similar responses that displacement infrastructure would be cognizant of. In the summer semester a trip to Bali, Indonesia was conducted to take part in a workshop (Bamboo U) focused on the DGYRFDWLRQ DQG H[SHULPHQWDWLRQ RI EDPERR DV D YLDEOH EXLOGLQJ PDWHULDO 7KH course also provided an opportunity to engage with professionals that have worked LQFRPSDUDEOHÂ¿HOGVWKDWWKLVWKHVLVZRXOGHQJDJH$VHFRQGDU\WULSDQGFRXUVH was attended in the fall semester, situated in Myanmar and ran by the London AA, the course provided another opportunity to further engage with a local culture and HQYLURQPHQWZKHUHSURSRVHGSURMHFWZDVVLWXDWHG%RWKWULSVRÉ£HUHGH[WUHPHO\ YDOXDEOHH[SHULHQFHVLQZRUNLQJZLWKUHJLRQDOPDWHULDOVDQGDOWHUQDWLYHSURFHVVHV RIGHVLJQWKDWDÉ£RUGHGGHSWKWRWKHWKHVLVWKDWZRXOGEHLPSRVVLEOHZLWKRXW
ENGAGED LEARNING :KLOH WKH GHVLJQ WKHVLV LV D ODUJHO\ DQ LQGLYLGXDO H[HUFLVH WKH VXEMHFW PDWWHU and nature of the project needed to appropriately engage with the locality and communities that would come into question. These trips and workshops allowed the project to gain a level realism, through conversations with local professionals, residence, and course participants that brought important viewpoints and opinions of refugee and immigrant situations in these communities. By focusing the trips to areas encompassing the thesisâ€™s proposed site it not only allocated time to immerse oneself into the community and locality of the site but also allowed a OHYHOIDPLOLDULW\WRWKHDUFKLWHFWXUDOYHUQDFXODUDQGSUHH[LVWLQJPHWKRGRORJLHVRI the region.
a Bali, Indonesia b Bago, Myanmar
W bamboo structural framework in construction (Bali, Indonesia)
Pop: 120 569 (2008) Time Zone: ICT (UTC+07) Climate: Tropical Monsoon
Maesot, Tak, Thailand
// Bangkok - Maesot - Myawaddy - Kanchanaburi - Winnipeg //
2nd Leg: June 15th - July 07th
Pop: 4.225 Million (2014) Time Zone: WITA (UTC+08) Climate: Tropical Monsoon
30hrs (3+ Stops)
// Winnipeg - Bangkok - Kanchanaburi - Bali - Bangkok //
1st Leg: May 24th - June 14th
Bamboo U: Design + Build Course
Pop: 709 253 (2014) Time Zone: CST (UTC-6) Climate: Humid Continental
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
COURSE COORDINATORS + SPONSERS
(Design Firm + PT Bamboo Construction)
Green School / Kul Kul Farms
WEST NUSA TENGARRA
INDONESIA COUNTRY MAP
Bali, Indonesia. Course Introduction
BAMBOO U(NIVERSITY) Duration: June 2nd - June 14th %DPERR8ZDVÂżUVWFRQFHLYHGLQDVDZD\WRKHOSWHDFKSURIHVVLRQDOVDERXW the potential of bamboo as a green building material. Currently it is a design + EXLOG ZRUNVKRS LQ %DOL KRVWHG E\ WKH .XO .XO )DUP DW WKH *UHHQ 6FKRRO ZLWK FROODERUDWLRQ ZLWK EDPERR GHVLJQ ÂżUP ,%8.8 7KH ZRUNVKRS EULQJV DQ DUUD\ RI H[SHUWV ZLWKLQ WKH FRPPXQLW\ RI EDPERR GHVLJQ ZLWK DUFKLWHFWV FUDIWVPHQ engineers and agriculturalist making a group of instructors that bring a holistic approach to bamboo infrastructure. The course was also a unique opportunity to ZRUNDORQJORFDOPDVWHUEXLOGHUVWRJDLQÂżUVWKDQGH[SHULHQFHRQDEXLOG The course features development in multiple areas:
- learn the potential and limitations of bamboo - modeling and making skills - design process (conception to construction) KDQGVRQH[SHULHQFHEXLOGLQJEDPERRVWUXFWXUHV H[FHUSWVWDNHQIURPNXONXOIDUPZHEVLWH
HOLISTIC APPROACH One major aspect of the course was to provide a full understanding and appreciation in the process of bamboo architecture. The workshop began with tours of a bamboo grove and on site lectures about the growing and harvesting process. As a plant bamboo is an ideal agricultural product due to itâ€™s quick growth and its capacity to be a renewable resource. As a building material, it provides an alternative to lumber and holds structural characteristics similar to concrete and steel. The ability for bamboo to appeal to both the production and manufacturing process, makes it a resource that has seen stronger advocacy in recent years to become more standardized in order to compete with other construction materials, bringing about new developments of farming and treating bamboo. The workshop gave demonstrations to these approaches which where well suited for remote locations or communities with constraints on resources.
HARVESTING Cutting bamboo is usually done with a machete or handsaw (though power WRROV FDQ DOVR EH XVHG HLWKHU DERYH WKH ÂżUVW RU VHFRQG QRGH 7KHUH DUH PDQ\ observations of when is the best time to harvest, but it is a general rule to reduce the amount of moisture content within the pole before harvesting. Though dependent on the species, a pole is usually ready to harvest around the 5 year mark as it tissue has hardened to have structural integrity. In order to manage when to harvest, younger poles are marked with a numeric system to organize the culms.
TREATMENT Bamboo has traditionally been known as a second grade material due to itâ€™s lack of durability against insects, moisture and UV radiation. In order to immunize bamboo against insect and fungus degradation, many bamboo production plants XVHÂľSHQWDERUDWHÂśDVROXWLRQRIERUD[DQGERULFDFLGLQZDWHU
X ( 1 ) harvesting bamboo ( 2 ) prepping bamboo pole for treatment ( 3 ) bamboo treatment W pentaborate treatment process using a gravity feed method (Bali, Indonesia)
Bali, Indonesia. Low Tech Building Strategies
7KH ZRUNDELOLW\ RI EDPERR KDV DOORZHG LW WR EH HÉ£HFWLYHO\ XVHG LQ DSSOLFDWLRQV where there is no access to machinery or power. Even in contemporary structures, builders still rely on simple carving tools and saws to create the joints and details. The redundancy for large machinery also provides a more inclusive construction process, as multiple skill levels can engage in the building; an important aspect to build a sense of community.
:LWK PXOWLSOH IXOO VFDOH SURMHFWV RUJDQL]HG LQ WKH ZRUNVKRS LW JDYH Â¿UVW KDQG H[SHULHQFH WR VHH WKH UDQJH RI ZD\V RQH VLQJXODU PDWHULDO FRXOG EH XVHG DQG UHWKRXJKWWRVROYHGLÉ£HUHQWSUREOHPV%\UHZRUNLQJWKHEDPERRRQHFRXOGUHIRUP VLQJXODUSROHVLQWRRWKHUSDUWVWKDWFRXOGEHXVHGWRFUHDWHPRUHH[SUHVVLYHIRUPV $QRWKHU EHQHÂ¿FLDO DVSHFW ZLWK EDPERR LV LWÂ¶V DELOLW\ WR EH VFDOHG IURP PRGHO WR EXLOWIRUPUHODWLYHO\DFFXUDWHO\0DQ\EXLOWEDPERRVWUXFWXUHVDUHÂ¿UVWO\GHVLJQHG and engineered with scale models and then translated to site. The emphasis of PRGHOVDOVRDOORZVH[SHULPHQWDWLRQWKURXJKPDNLQJDQGUDSLGSURWRW\SLQJWRWHVW concepts and details quickly.
JOINERY Environmental factors have a large role in how bamboo structures are detailed. As bamboo decays more rapidly if it touches the ground, most foundations must raise EDPERRFRPSRQHQWVRÉ£WKHJURXQG7KLVFDQEHGRQHE\SURYLGLQJDFRQFUHWHRU stone plinth that wicks away the moisture and back splash from the bamboo. In Bali, traditional pin joints are still being used in bamboo structures, though hardware is upgraded from bamboo pins to threaded steel rods and bolts. By updating traditional techniques to modern hardware it has allowed craftsmen and builders to still have a sought after trade. Weaving and furniture making has also provided a rich culture of artisanship in Bali, in which many building proponents have taken inspiration from.
S forming split bamboo into curved components using glue laminating W common tools used for bamboo construction X pinning curved bamboo components to fix the curvature
3rd Leg: Nov 18th - Dec 05th
Pop: 5.21 Million (2014) Time Zone: MST (UTC+6:30) Climate: Tropical Monsoon
Yangon (Rangoon), Yangon Region, Myanmar
23h 20min (2+ Stops)
// Winnipeg - Yangon - Bago - Yangon - Winnipeg //
AA Bamboo Lab
Pop: 709 253 (2014) Time Zone: CST (UTC-6) Climate: Humid Continental
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
MYANMAR MANDALAY RAKHINE MAGWAY
A Yangon (Rangoon)
1h 10min > by car A Yangon (Rangoon)
Bago, Myanmar. Course Introduction
AA BAMBOO LAB Duration: Novemer 21st - December 3rd 7R IXUWKHU H[DPLQH DQG LQWHJUDWH LQWR WKH FRPPXQLW\ DQG VLWH RI WKH WKHVLV DQ DGGLWLRQDO WULS LQWR 0\DQPDU ZDV SURSRVHG LQ WKH IRUP D ZRUNVKRS RÉ£HUHG E\ AA (Architectural Association School of Architecture) Visiting School Program. The course named Sustainable Bamboo Futures was an intensive 12-day workshop that dived into traditional/local bamboo construction methodology set along side digital modelling design and testing. This trip gave the chance to further develop the bamboo construction knowledge gained in a prior trip to Bali where DGHVLJQEXLOGZRUNVKRSZDVIDFLOLWDWHGE\DORFDODUFKLWHFWXUHÂ¿UP7KHFRXUVH also provided an opportunity to reach out to the local community and continue the semesters research on the cultural and societal undertones of the Burmese (and other ethnic minorities in the country). Course development:
- site mapping + model making - lectures series on materiality and assembly - computational modelling + testing - construction
COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT A major aspect of the course was the two-way knowledge transfer between overseas SDUWLFLSDQWVDQGWKHORFDOFRPPXQLW\WKDWRÉ£HUHGXQLTXHSHUVSHFWLYHVDQGVNLOOV The hope was to create an environment where constructive debate, imagination, DQG OHDUQLQJ RFFXUHG WR Â¿QG VROXWLRQV WR WKH LVVXHV FXUUHQWO\ VHHQ LQ ORFDO EXLOW environments of Myanmar.
LOCAL CONSTRUCTION KNOWLEDGE A long-term goal of the course was to revitalize local, traditional bamboo building techniques and where applicable combine them with contemporary practices. It was also a chance to be inspired and contribute to the development of a XQLTXH %XUPHVH DUFKLWHFWXUDO H[SUHVVLRQ ZKLOH EHLQJ VHQVLWLYH WR WKH QHFHVVDU\ practicalities of the material and economics.
Due to the current state of Myanmar, building tectonics and strategies are largely underfunded and unenforced, technology has a role to play in the evolution and education of the building industry. While it is no substitute for local building WHFKQLTXHVDQGNQRZOHGJHRISURIHVVLRQDOVLQWKHÂ¿HOGUHVHDUFKDQGYLDEOHGDWD provided by these digital systems support and allow the possibility of bringing DZDUHQHVVDQGFUHDWLQJYLDEOHVROXWLRQVIRULVVXHVVXFKDVÃ€RRGLQJW\SKRRQVDQG earthquakes prone areas. The course took advantage of a range of software tools meant to help articulate and test project ideas to a more comprehensive level.
W ( 1 ) cleaning bamboo to prepare for treatment bath ( 2 ) pentaborate solution bath ( 3 ) pin joint X drilling holes through through the node to prep for treatment
Bago, Myanmar. Computational Aided Engagements
COMPUTATIONAL + PHYSICAL TESTING The use of software to support and test designs was useful to test environmental scenerios quickly and assess designs for structural sizing and stability. By integrating new architectural processes to traditional building techniques, the projects created an interesting dialogue between analogue and digital work. This process of working was valuable as it provided new means of representation that FRXOGFRPPXQLFDWHFRQFHSWVPRUHHÉ£HFWLYHO\:KLOHDODUJHSRUWLRQRIWKHFRXUVH was framed within computer work, it was important to note that designs were still brought to the 1:1 scale and tested with actual materiality.
CONNECTION TO THESIS $V WKH WKHVLV EHJDQ WR IRFXV RQ WKH VSHFLÂ¿FLWLHV RI WKH ERUGHU ]RQH RI 0\DQPDU + Thailand. It was imperative to have some access and interaction with the area and community in question. While the course location was slightly removed from the border area, it still provided relevant feedback and engagement with a rural community and provided insight to their livelihoods along with the environmental/ geographical factor faced in the area. 7KHRSSRUWXQLW\WROHDUQIURPORFDOLQGXVWU\H[SHUWVDOVRKHOSHGDGYDQFHH[SHULHQFH and knowledge of the local construction/building methodologies and appreciate WKHFXOWXUDODQGHQYLURQPHQWDOFRPSOH[LWLHVIDFLQJ%XUPHVHLQKDELWDQWV Finally, with the continued digitalization of the architectural practice the use of VRIWZDUHDQGSOXJLQVXSSRUWDQDORJXHWHVWLQJEURXJKWWKHEHQHÂ¿WVRIERWKWRWKH forefront.
X ( 1 ) bamboo pin joint using metal hardware ( 2 ) bamboo slot connection using tire tubes W parabolic bamboo canopy structure (Bago, Myanmar)
3.0 CREATING SPECIFICITY One of the major issues with the current strategy of relief shelters is the idealistic tendency to look for a singular answer for any humanitarian situation. The reality is WKDWSHRSOHOLYHLQGUDVWLFDOO\GLÉ£HUHQWZD\DQGUHVSRQGWRGLÉ£HUHQWHQYLURQPHQWV thus it would only be logical that any solution or proposal be situational rather than a generalization.
BACKGROUND %XUPDÂ¶V VRFLDO ODQGVFDSH LV H[WUHPHO\ PXOWLIDFHWHG DV HWKQLF FRQÃ€LFW KDV EHHQ a fundamental dynamic in Burmaâ€™s troubled history. These issues that plague %XUPDDUHRIWHQRULHQWDWHGDORQJWZRPDLQD[HVWKDWVWHPIURPWKHVDPHVRXUFH a predominantly urban movement struggling to achieve greater accountability and GHPRFUDF\ DQG DQ RYHUODSSLQJ VHW RI FRQÃ€LFWV EHWZHHQ WKH FHQWUDO JRYHUQPHQW and ethnic nationality opposition groups. Since the 1960s, Burmese army operations have been characterised by counterLQVXUJHQF\FDPSDLJQVWKDWKDYHWDUJHWHGFLYLOLDQSRSXODWLRQVLQDQHÉ£RUWWRGHIHDW HWKQLF RSSRVLWLRQ DUPLHV ,Q .DUHQ 6WDWH DQG QHLJKERXULQJ 6KDQ DQG .DUHQQL States, more than 3,500 villages have been destroyed between 1985 and 2010 causing a large number of civilians of those states to cross the border into Thailand. $OWKRXJKUHFHQWVKLIWVRIJRYHUQPHQWDWWLWXGHVDQGDFHDVHÂ¿UHDJUHHPHQWSURYHG WR KDYH SRVLWLYH HÉ£HFWV LQ WKH DUHD WKH HDVWHUQ ERUGHU UHJLRQ LV VWLOO WHQVH DQG the long term instability in the area has made refugees unwilling to return to the country. H[FHUSWVWDNHQIURP%XUPD/LQN
REFUGEE SETTLEMENTS +XQGUHGV RI WKRXVDQGV RI 0\DQPDUHVH UHIXJHHV KDYH EHHQ FRQÂ¿QHG LQ FDPSV in Thailand spanning for over 30 years. Due to the restrictions of travel and economics in the camps the overwhelming majority of camp inhabitants rely on outside aid to meet the necessities of life. &XUUHQWO\ WKHUH DUH RÉ¤FLDOO\ UXQQLQJ UHIXJHH ÂµWHPSRUDU\Â¶ VHWWOHPHQWV RQ WKH Thai-Myanmar border. (data provided by TBC Refugee Townships 2013)
S shared border map X displacement breakdown
+LVWRULFDO&RQWH[W Mae La Refugee Camp, Tak, Kanchanaburi
BACKGROUND Situated in the Northern Thailand border with Myanmar, Mae La, is the largest of QLQHUHIXJHHFDPSVLQWKHFRXQWU\7KHFDPSZDVÂżUVWHVWDEOLVKHGLQGXULQJ D FLYLO ZDU EHWZHHQ WKH HWKQLF .DUHQ 1DWLRQDO 8QLRQ DQG WKH %XUPHVH $UP\1 'XULQJWKHÂśVPRUHWKDQ.DUHQDQGRWKHUHWKQLFERUGHUYLOODJHUVĂ€HG to Thailandâ€™s border to escape from the violence.27RGD\ZKLOHDFHDVHÂżUHLQWKH eastern region has stabilised the numbers of those seeking asylum and Myanmarâ€™s political situation has gained some favour at the international stage, there is still unrest among refugees about returning to the place they once lived.3 Thus, the refugee situation along the Thai-Myanmar border is one of the longest running in the world. The social and political conditions of the area have marked restrictions in the building and construction sector where building types have been formally reduced to ones of temporary status structures. Residences and supporting parties have therefore been forced to rely on traditional building methods due to the limitation of tools, accessibility of materials and cost restrictions.
1. TBC. Refugee Camps. https://www.burmalink.org/background/thailand-burma-border/displaced-in-thailand/refugee-camps/ (2017.12.19) 2. UNHCR. Refugee and IDP Camp Populations. July 2017 3. Hazel Lang. The repatriation predicament of Burmese refugees in Thailand: a preliminary analysis (Australia National University: Canberra) pg. 3
1 Family 1 Community 1 Block 1 Sector 1 Settlement
1/Family 16/Families 16/Communities 4/Blocks 4/Sectors
4-6 80 1250 5000 20000
Jewi (Gambella, Ethiopia) Community Area: 3200 m2 (16 Family Plots) Communal 10m wide strip location of communal latrines, showers and waste areas in initial emergency phase Plot Size: 150m2
Kobe (Dollo Ado, Ethiopia) Community Area: 3750 m2 (11 Family Plots) 86KDSH&RQÂżJXUDWLRQWRRSHQDFHQWUDOVRFLDO area, also used as location for communal latrines during emergency phase Plot Size: 225m2
Ajuong Thok (Unity State, South Sudan) Community Area: 4800 m2 (12 Family Plots) Shared latrines and garbage pits in the central D[LVODWHULQGLYLGXDOIDPLOLHVEXLOWWKHLURZQ
Plot Size: 400m2
Azraq (Jordan) Community Area: 1512 m2 (12 Family Plots) 4 Communal Toilets and Shower Blocks and the end of each community Plot Size: Shared Plot
Mae La (Tak, Thailand) &RPPXQLW\$UHD$SUR[P2$SUR[ Families) Communal Wash and Latrines are throughout the site, there is generally a lack of communal spaces. Plot Size: Shared Plots S organization of camp
Situate. Current Status
S A young refugee boy in Mae Laâ€™s main pathways (Photo provided by BurmaLink)
AN URBAN VILLAGE The camp currently serves 40 000 refugees, but the continued reduction of aid relief has added to growing concerns of those living in the settlement. The restrictive nature of the camp and the regulations the Thai government have been pushing more for have obviously changed the traditional village lifestyle and agriculture heavy livelihoods that many of the inhabitants have had to let go. Without the possibility to carry out conventional vocations, many inhabitants DUHIRUFHGWRÂżQGORZODERXUMREVLOOHJDOO\RXWVLGHRIWKHVHWWOHPHQWRUULVNUHO\LQJRQRQO\DLG relief.
W typical stilt housing suffering from landslide damage (Photo provided by BurmaLink)
S typical street scape in camp (Photo provided by BurmaLink)
Mae La Refugee Camp, is located at the base of a mountain range that runs along the entirety of the camp. In the past refugees lived in village-type settlements with the freedom to travel outside of the camps, this changed post 1995, where these village settlements were merged into large sprawling camps, restricting space and movement.1 Unlike many other settlement OD\RXWVZKHUHVLWHVDUHUHODWLYHO\Ă€DWWHQHG0DH/DÂśVVORSHGODQGVFDSHKDVIRUFHGWKHFDPS to be organized along the changes of elevation. Civic infrastructure is rudimentary at best within the camp only served by dirt pathways and wooden cross walks. A major issue that has EHHQSUHVHQWHGE\WKHLQIRUPDOSODFHPHQWRILQIUDVWUXFWXUHLVWKHGHQVLÂżFDWLRQRIWKHFDPS OHDGLQJWRLVVXHVRIÂżUHVDIHW\DQGDODFNRIFRPPXQDOVSDFHV
Restrictions on movement have had considerable impact on refugee mentality, heightened by intimidation and risks of detainment by Thai authorities. Currently 33.5% of inhabitants are unregistered and are ineligible for resettlement further limiting refugee options.3 A study FRQGXFWHG E\ 38$0, IRXQG WKDW RI DGXOW FDPS UHVLGHQWV VXÉŁHU IURP PHQWDO KHDOWK issues.4 The lack of long term prospects has added to a mentality of short term thinking aggravating conditions in which refugees are already struggling to maintain dignity and hope in the community.
Since Thailand is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention or its 1967 Protocol,2 itâ€™s commitment and treatment to refugees is often questioned and though the camps planning and management has been mostly carried out with international NGOâ€™s the Thai government has continuously placed restrictions on organizations and inhabitants in hopes to encourage UHSDWULDWLRQ 7KXV PDQ\ RI 0DH /DÂśV UHVLGHQFH UHVWULFWHG WR WKH FRQÂżQHV RI 0DH /D DUH unemployed and lack livelihood opportunities.
1. TBC 2014. Refugee Camps. https://www.burmalink.org/background/thailand-burma-border/displaced-in-thailand/refugee-camps/ (2017.12.19) 2. Lang, Hazel. The repatriation predicament of Burmese refugees in Thailand: a preliminary analysis. Working Paper. Australian National University. 2001 pg. 3 3. TBC 2015a. Refugee Camps. https://www.burmalink.org/background/thailand-burma-border/displaced-in-thailand/refugee-camps/ (2017.12.19) 4. Human Rights Watch, 2012e, p. 19 https://www.burmalink.org/background/thailand-burma-border/displaced-in-thailand/refugee-camps/ (2017.12.19)
Situate. Regional Formalism
RESPONSIVENESS 7KHLQIRUPDOQDWXUHRI0DH/DÂ¶VFRPPXQLW\OD\RXWVDUHUHÃ€HFWLYHWRWKHUHVSRQVLYHQDWXUHRI building to the landscape rather than social conditions or programs. In general, residential units attempt to follow the sloped topography to reduce the amount of land work necessary WREXLOG:KLOHRULHQWLQJVWUXFWXUHVWRWKHODQGVFDSHLVDQHÉ¤FLHQWV\VWHPWHFWRQLFDOO\WKHUH is a lack of attention on civic spaces, where individual structures rarely have any relations with surrounding infrastructure. Pathways are often narrow and walled in with buildings that limits social spaces. By being more concise when situating new buildings, opportunities to EHWWHUHQJDJHWKHXQGHUUHSUHVHQWHGSXEOLFUHDOPFDQEHH[SORUHGDQGHQFRXUDJHDFWLYLWLHVWR trickle onto the street level.
S Houses in Mae La Zone C (Photo provided by BurmaLink) X Mae La camp seen from the road(Photo provided by BurmaLink)
RURAL (AGRICULTURE) SETTING: Traditionally the village stilt house is a vernacular most seen with families who work in agriculture and livestock. While the living spaces are relatively small the DELOLW\WRH[SDQGDFWLYLWLHVLQWRODUJHUVSDFHVLHÂ¿HOGVDQGZRUNDEOHODQG PHDQV the home footprint is much larger than the built space.
CONNECTION TO URBAN AREAS: With the development of large urban areas such as Mandalay and Yangon in Myanmar, roads and highways have become a point of investment causing changes to the local economy and living spaces. Traditional stilt houses are often scattered along these transportation lanes to take advantage of the accessibility DQGSUR[LPLW\WRRWKHUFRPPXQLWLHVDQGLQGXVWULHV
INFORMAL URBAN ZONES: In the case of the refugee settlements on the border area and IDP camps within Myanmar, traditional village houses are an established building type. However, WKHODFNRIH[SDQVLYHVSDFHVDQGUHVWULFWLRQVRQHFRQRPLFRXWOHWVKDYHEURXJKWRXW the negative impact of rural infrastructure in urban zones.
Social Conditions. Mae La Refugee Camp, Tak, Kanchanaburi
Registered: 16667 Unregistered: 19924 Total: 36591
Animism: Buddhism: Christianity: Islam: Other:
0-4 5-11 12-17 18-59 60+
5.2% 8.8% 7.4% 26.3% 2.8%
5.6% 9.0% 7.7% 24.6% 2.6%
10.8% 17.8% 15.1% 50.9% 5.4%
.DUHQ .DUHQQL Burmese: Mon: Other:
6% 36% 50% 8% 1%
3% 1% 2%
(statistics provided by UNHCR Refugee Population 2017 )
Housing (Temporary Materials) Programmatic Buildings Unknown Buildings Roads River District Border
High School No. 8
Boarding House No.8
Htee Moo Thaw Church Primary School No. 11
Morning Route Return Route to Work Evening Route
Individual 1. Livelihood: High School Teacher Age: 28 Individual 1 has spent her entire life in refugee camps. After high school she worked as an assistant for the principal of High School No. 8 and later was hired to be a language WHDFKHU DV WKH VFKRRO KDG GLɤFXOW\ ¿QGLQJ RXWVLGH KLUHV to meet the needs of students. She currently lives at the an empty loft at the school grounds and is saving money to help her family who are in living in another camp. She WXWRUVLQWKHHYHQLQJWRJDLQH[WUDLQFRPH
Wage:$SUR[%DKW0RQWK (depending on donorship)
Origin: Born in Mae La Oon Refugee Camp Status: Economic Refugee (Registered) Dwelling Type: Boarding Room Time In Camp: 28 years Age Entering Camp: 22 (Mae La) Transportation Access: By Foot
S typical classroom layout
Zone B4A Section Office Disemination Board Library Primary School No. 4 Boarding House No. 17
Nursery School No. 17
Primary School No. 1 Holy Family Catholic Church Thirimingalar Monastery
Zone B5B Section Office
TBC Distribution Center
Evening Work Route Return Route to Home
Individual 2. Livelihood: Warehouse Security Guard
,QGLYLGXDO XVHG WR OLYH LQ .DUHQ VWDWH DQG QRZ UHVLGHV in Mae La camp. He moved in and out of camp looking IRUZRUNXQWLODZDUHKRXVHVWDÉ£SRVLWLRQEHFDPHDYDLODEOH He is responsible for taking stock and maintaining the warehouse during the night shift, which he keeps impeccably clean. He was eventually promoted, and has worked to ensure security in the warehouse every night for almost eighteen years.
Status: Refugee (Registered) Dwelling Type: Bamboo/Wood House Time In Camp: 25 years Age Entering Camp: 18 Transportation Access: By Foot (motorcycle on occasion)
MAE LA MONTHLY FOOD RATIONS SUGAR
125g/adult 250g/child (>5)
-none provided-none provided-
1kg/adult 500g/child (>5)
1kg/adult 500g/child (>5)
FORTIFIED FLOUR (AsiaREmix)
.25kg/adult 1kg/child (>5)
-none provided1kg/young & older child
DRY CHILIES 2008
125g/adult 250g/child (>5)
-none provided-none provided-
12kg/adult & older child
FISH PASTE 2008
RELIANCE ON AID Due to restrictions on travel and economy the majority of the population in Mae La rely on aid sources for the majority of their resources. Unfortunately, the drop of investment over time has resulted in the reduction of rations further aggravating the living conditions in the camps.
COOKING OIL 2008
1L/adult 500mL/child (>5)
(statistics provided by 2012 TBBC food ration report )
Middle School No.1
Mae La Adventist Church
FARMABLE LAND KKBBSC College
Boarding School No. 38
Middle School No. 9 Middle School No.4 KYO Office
COERR Social Service
Solidarites Intâ€™l Camp Commitee Office
Women Legal Office Zone C Office
Water Commitee Office
Nursery School No. 2
Kay Ra Moh Church ADRA Cooking & Baking Center
1 Internet Cafe
Middle School No. 4
ADRA Office High School No.1
MarRaKeh Mosque Morning Market Route Return Route to Home Nursery School No. 10
Individual 3. Livelihood: Warehouse Security Guard Age: 38 Individual 3 is a mother of 2; a 14 year old daughter and a 6 year old son. Her husband works out in Mae Sot an adjacent border town to support the family in the markets. With his contacts she has been able to trade for produce to sell at the morning markets. She has also had access to the farm lands and have use the crops grown to suppliment her stock.
Wage: $SUR[EDKWGD\ (dependent on people)
Origin:.DUHQ9LOODJH Status: Refugee (Un-Registered) Dwelling Type: Bamboo/Wood House Time In Camp: 30 Age Entering Camp: 8 Transportation Access: By Foot
MARKET TYPICAL FORMS
Social Conditions. Communal Spaces
PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT Constraints on refugeeâ€™s freedom of movement along with the informal planning of Mae Laâ€™s infrastructure has posed issues of density. Due to lack of space in Mae La, public areas are consolidated within other amenities such as markets and water access points. These areas of gathering however are limited to the direct functions WKH\VHUYHFXUUHQWO\0DH/DODFNVVSDFHVIRUDVLJQLÂ¿FDQWSRSXODWLRQRI\RXWKZKR need spaces for play, gathering and learning.
Social Conditions. Resources
WATER ACCESS Tap Stands Wells
S water infrastructure
SYSTEM OF OPERATION 'ULQNLQJZDWHUUHVRXUFHVLQ0DH/DDUHSURYLGHGE\VXUIDFHZDWHUÀRZLQJLQIURP DULYHUDQGQDWXUDOO\ÀRZLQJVSULQJVLQWKHDUHD:KLOHWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHZDWHU is not consistent, drinking water access is accessible to over 3/4 of the settlement WKURXJKSXEOLFWDSVWKDWUXQWKURXJKDFROOHFWLRQ¿OWUDWLRQV\VWHP
4.0 ESTABLISHING NETWORKS The majority of refugees settled in Mae La are formally rural villagers or farmers whose past homes were built similarly to those observed in the camp. Having the advantage of a familiar construction technique and a proportional demographic with the knowledge of these assembly systems, the thesis looked to establish a critic of the current housing infrastructure and the traditional methods of making. In order to provide a proposal that could be clearly understood by locals inhabitants, analysis of these traditional housing structures were conducted to EHWWHUGHÂ¿QHWKHFRQGLWLRQVWKDWZRXOGEHFRPSUHKHQVLEOHZLWKWKHORFDOZD\VRI building would help minimize miscommunication and reduce construction time.
LIFE OF A SHELTER The image of refugee housing is one that conceives of iconic images of rows of tents and temporary structures, and while the infrastructure is one of logic and LPPHQVHHÉ£RUWWKHUHLVDGLÉ¤FXOW\WRORRNSDVWWKHVHVHWWOHPHQWVDVHPEHGGHGLQ WKHVHWHPSRUDU\W\SRORJLHVGXULQJWKHLUH[LVWHQFH+HUHPDWHULDOFRQVWUDLQWVDUH often limited to â€˜temporary materialsâ€™ and designs rarely involve lifespans past 5 years. Unfortunately, the reality is that these situations are rarely ever short term, H[LVWLQJIRUGHFDGHVRUKDYH\HWWREHUHVROYHG$KRQHVW\LV QHHGHGWREHJLQWR bridge this gap between what temporary shelters provide and the realities of these situations timelines.
LIFE IN A SHELTER 7KH TXHVWLRQLQJ RI UHIXJHH VKHOWHUV DUH IDU PRUH FRPSOH[ WKDQ WKH MXVW WKH buildings structure and living spaces that they are designed to provide. Rather there is a distinct connection with the people, culture and tradition in the way that a shelter performs, which has yet to be really answer in any current infrastructure solution. An alternative to this problem cannot just lie within a building itself but in the systems that make up the building.
X informal dwelling in a settlement outside of Mae Sot (Mae Sot, Thailand)
Timeline: 1st week - 6 months (dependent of the situation)
* in natural disasters the majority of those in need will be the most vulnerable at this WLPHLQDFRQÀLFWVLWXDWLRQWKLVWLPHOLQHFDQEHFRQVLGHUDEOHORQJHUDVYLROHQFHPD\ continue well past the primary emergency event.
A A A
Timeline: will commence as soon as Emergency/Disaster Event stabilizes
Timeline: (a subset of a stabilized situation) Fluid State (dependent of situation)
REPATRIATION / RESETTLEMENT
END OF REFUGEE CAMP
Emergency Situation. Infrastructure Timeline
HUMANITARIAN FOCUS !0HHWLQJWKHEDVLFQHHGVRIWKRVHDɣHFWHGE\HYHQW > Organized by qualitative needs and rankings set by the international world.
INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS !0HHWLQJWKHEDVLFQHHGVRIDVPDQ\RɣWKRVHDɣHFWHGE\HYHQW (warmth/protection from the environment) >Focus of infrastructure on shelters and resource allocation/dissemination > Temporary & Quick Assembly Structures - Tents / Space Frame / Trailers
FORMAL TENT STRUCTURE
INFORMAL TENT STRUCTURE
Lumber / Bamboo
Use: Columns / Poles Cost:
Use: Covering/Roof Cost:
(+) > Cost > Fast Construction and low skills et > Can be harvested locally (-) > Lack of strong joinery > Durability (design and material issue) > Privacy > Structural Stability > Security
(+) > Cost > Fast Construction and low skill set !)OH[LEOHLQXVH > Light (-) > Durability (design and material issue) > Privacy > Structural Stability > Security
Stabilized Situation. Infrastructure Timeline
HUMANITARIAN FOCUS > Focus of aid response switched to establishing systems of resources for the camp > Planning of sectors and maintaining resource levels > Setting up a programs for long term solutions
INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS > Switching focus Quantitative Needs to Quality of Living (cleanliness/space) !,QIUDVWUXFWXUHSURJUDPLQWHQVLÂ¿HVRQRUJDQL]DWLRQDOQHHGV (i.e. waters stations/food storage/communal spaces) > Longer Term Structures / Use of Local Materials / Division of Space * Here many of the temporary structures become acts of individual changes
Protracted Situation. Infrastructure Timeline
HUMANITARIAN FOCUS !0DLQWDLQLQJUHVRXUFHSURJUDPVWRPHHWWKHQHHGVRIFDPSLQKDELWDQWVGLɤFXOWLHVGXH to loss of international interest and investment) !&UHDWLQJOLYHOLKRRGSURJUDPVWKDWZLOODOORZVHOIVXɤFLHQWHFRQRPLHVZLWKLQWKHFDPS > Organizational state to prepare for permanent solutions of repatriation or resettlement
INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS > Focus on durability and longevity of structures > Infrastructure program invested in education, health and other civic programs > Material options stay relatively the same (need for materials to be perceived as WHPSRUDU\ SXEOLFEXLOGLQJVPD\KDYHH[FHSWLRQV
!/RFDOLQÀXHQFHGEXLOGLQJPHWKRGVDQGOLYLQJVSDFHVDUHHQFRXUDJHGDVZD\RIFUHDWLQJ possible livelihood solutions > Longer term temporary structures / Use of local materials
Tin Corrugated Panels
Use: Roof / Siding Cost:
Use: Foundations/Footings Cost:
Use: Walls/Retaining Walls Cost:
(+) > durability (4-7 years) > water proof (-) > noise > lighting > heat distribution
(+) > durability (stability for building) > walkable surface (-) > need of larger tools and skill set
(+) > durability (stability for building) > privacy (-) > need of larger tools and skillset
Typical Housing Materials
TEAK (Processed or Raw)
Use: Columns / Beams / Rafters (structural components) 3UHVHQWO\ EXLOGLQJV DOPRVW H[FOXVLYHO\ XVH XQSURFHVVHG WHDN OXPEHU for load bearing components (i.e. columns and beams). While the hardwood is an ideal material and has historically been used for KRXVLQJLQWKHDUHDWKHXQUHÂżQHGVWDWHRIWKHWHDNDQGODFNRIDFFHVV GXHWREDQVRQGHIRUHVWDWLRQOLPLWVWKHHÉŁHFWLYHQHVVRIOXPEHULQWKH camp. (+) > material durability > low skill level in construction > possible to use simple pin details with processed teak !FDQFRPHLQVWDQGDUGL]HVL]HV[[HWF
(-) !H[SHQVLYH(compared to other materials) > non sustainable material > lack of accessibility > illegal to harvest in camp
BAMBOO (Multiple Species)
While bambooâ€™s â€˜temporalityâ€™ label is often used in a negative connation, due to the restrictive conditions on housing in Mae La EDPERR LV D FRVWHÉŁHFWLYH PDWHULDO WKDW LI EXLOWGHVLJQHG SURSHUO\ can rival the durability of other construction types, regardless of itâ€™s perceived temporary nature. (+) > material cost > low skill level in construction !Ă€H[LEOLW\RIPDWHULDOLQPXOWLSOHDSSOLFDWLRQVIXUQLWXUHSDQHOV Ă€RRULQJHWF
> engage local workforce (livelihood driver) (-) > durability against UV, moisture and insects > non standardized sizes
pole harvested in camp
Use: Columns / Beams / Rafters (structural components) Joists / Flooring / Purlins
Treating Poles Camp Organizers
BANANA LEAVES (or similar alternatives)
Use: Roof Thatching / Panelling Material
(+) > material cost > low skill level in assembly > engage local workforce (livelihood driver) (-) > needs to be replaced > assembly time
Use: Pin Joints (Bamboo / Nails) / Lashing Connections (Rope) Restricted funding and access to hardware has forced most housing structures to rely on simple connections and details. (+) > material cost > low skill level in assembly > engage local workforce (livelihood driver) (-) > connections can weaken over time > production + assembly time
The issue of accessibility is not just limited to lumber but also other FODGGLQJPDWHULDOVVXFKDVLGHDOYHJHWDWLRQVIRUWKDWFKHGURRÂżQJGXH to the lack of wild grasses or palm leaves in the area for harvesting, locals have used banana leaves as an alternative, though itâ€™s shorter lifespan (2-3 years) means replaceability is an important factor in its use.
The Venacular. The Traditional Karen Stilt House
TRADITIONAL KAREN STILT HOUSE Unlike many refugee camps that have traditionally relied on prefabricated, framework shelters shipped to settlement sites. The shelters in Mae La are ODUJHO\EDVHGRQWKHWUDGLWLRQDO.DUHQVWLOWYLOODJHKRXVLQJ 7KHXVHRIZKDWDUH considered temporary materials such as bamboo and thatching have made it ideal for the political constraints on the settlement. A familiarity to the landscape and an ability to engage local building methodologies has provided the settlement with an infrastructural tectonic that has helped reduce some of the strain of their protracted living conditions. However the density and the placement of village housing types in an urban setting has brought about issues of social life and a sense of community.
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 7KH.DUHQVWLOWKRXVHLVDEXLOGLQJW\SHWKDWUHOLHVRQDUXGLPHQWDU\JULGOD\RXW WR SURYLGH D FROXPQEHDP IUDPHZRUN LQ ZKLFK FODGGLQJ DQG Ã€RRULQJ FDQ EH then attached to. Because the vernacular typology of the stilt house has already SURYLGHG D VWURQJ EDFNGURS LQ WHUPV RI DQ HÉ¤FLHQW EXLOGLQJ W\SH WR ZRUN IURP instead of proposing an alternative structure the project looked to adjust and imagine how the current vernacular system could better serve the changing social and economic landscape in Mae La.
BUILDING ELEMENTS In order to break down the stilt house to itâ€™s simplest of functions, building components were evaluated and organized into a buildings essential functions WKHURRIZDOOVIRXQGDWLRQ %\PDNLQJDSSDUHQWWKHGLÉ£HUHQWUHODWLRQVKLSVRI building components, the project could begin to look for new connections between WKHOLYHGVSDFLDOFRQGLWLRQVDQGKRZLWZRXOGDÉ£HFWWKHLQIUDVWUXFWXUHV\VWHP
THATCHED ROOF MATERIAL: [numerous materials] / grasses, leaves LIFESPAN: 2 - 5 years [dependent on material and craftmanship] COST: minimal [local production]
PURLINS MATERIAL: EDPERRDSUR[´GLDPHWHU
LIFESPAN: 10+ years COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
FLOORING RAFTER BEAMS
LIFESPAN: 10+ years
LIFESPAN: 10+ years
COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
RIDGE BEAMS MATERIAL: EDPERRDSUR[´GLDPHWHU
LIFESPAN: 10+ years
COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
LIFESPAN: 10+ years COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
FLOOR JOISTS FLOOR BEAMS
LIFESPAN: 10+ years
LIFESPAN: 10+ years
COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
COLUMNS MATERIAL: EDPERRDSUR[´GLDPHWHU RUWHDN LIFESPAN: 10+ years
WALL PANELS MATERIAL:FUXVKHGEDPERRDSUR[´GLDPHWHU
LIFESPAN: 3-5 years COST: 30 Baht (per pole)
COST: 50 Baht (per pole) / 300 Baht (per board)
The Venacular. The Traditional Karen Stilt House
TRADITIONAL KAREN HOUSE ORGANIZATIONS
7UDGLWLRQDO .DUHQ +RXVHV KDYH D UHODWLYHO\ RSHQ Ã€RRU SODQ ZLWK WKH main room treated as the space for all primary activities. Bedrooms and private spaces are reserved to the back end of the house. Generally each dwelling houses a family from 4-6 inhabitants.
TYPICAL SCHEMATIC LAYOUT
Entrance + Buffer Area
Entrance + Buffer Area
Guest + Living Area
Guest + Living Area
LAYOUT ADJUSTMENTS The traditional layout was adjusted to better suit the realities of having multiple individuals living amongst each other in a single structure. By reducing the amount of walled spaces necessary for private rooms the PRGLÂ¿FDWLRQVFRXOGDFFRXQWIRUIXWXUHH[SDQVLRQDQGSXEOLFSURJUDPV
PROPOSED SCHEMATIC LAYOUT
SINGLE BAY ROOMS
Taking advantage of the column grid, individual bays can be used to delineate single units to provide multiple living spaces in the case of individuals with no IDPLOLHVRUVWXGHQWGRUPV%\VSOLWLQJLQWHULRUVSDFHVLWSURYLGHVÃ€H[LELOLW\DQG ownership of these new areas.
Use of Column Bays to Delineate Single Units
OPEN INTERIOR BAY
In a similar fashion of adding interior partitions, the removal of interior walls can provide more informed spaces for the types of users that might be dwelling. By allowing the occupants to decide what types of spaces they need, it gives inhabitants a better sense of ownership in their spaces.
Adjustable Panel System Allows for Unit Expansion
+DYLQJ D VLPSOH FROXPQ JULG DOVR DOORZV IRU IXWXUH H[SDQVLRQ LQ WKLV FDVH WKH FRYHUHGYHUDQGDFDQEHH[WHQGHGWRPXOWLSOHED\V2QHRIWKHGLÉ¤FXOWLHVZLWKWKH traditional housing layout is its lack of engagement with public spaces. By opening the dwelling to the public it will help instigate a more active communal setting.
ADDITIONAL INTERIOR BAYS
Additional interior bays can also be inserted by increasing the bay count in the RWKHUD[LV7KHDELOLW\WRLQFUHDVHWKHDPRXQWRIOLYLQJVSDFHVDYDLODEOHWRHDFK dwelling, provides the community the ability to organize their capacity and programmatic needs.
Perspective Schematic Plan
The Venacular. Framework Adjustments
TRADITIONAL KAREN STILT HOUSE FRAMEWORK [%D\6WUXFWXUH
PROPOSED FRAMEWORK ADJUSTMENTS [%D\6WUXFWXUH
ROOF PEAK 20'-0"
ROOF PEAK 20'-0"
LVL 01 8'-0"
LVL 01 8'-0"
RETAINING WALL 4'-0"
RETAINING WALL 4'-0"
GROUND LVL 0'-0"
GROUND LVL 0'-0"
5.0 ENGAGING TRADITION Conventionally, village housing units would be placed sporadically and have access WRH[SDQVHVRIVSDFHVIDUPODQGJDUGHQV ZKHUHRWKHUOLYHOLKRRGSURJUDPVFRXOG be conducted outside the home. This is not the case in Mae La where building are tightly packed and open land is a rarity. In order to provide spaces for communal activities individual housing units need to begin to open themselves out to the public realm. By setting a project framework that could operate within WKH FXUUHQW VWLOW KRXVH YHUQDFXODU RQH FRXOG FDQ EHJLQ WR GHÂżQH WKH YDOXHV DQG constraints that would adjust the built environment. One of these overarching values was the importance to instill community engagement in the process of design and construction, in hopes to garner a better sense of ownership for refugees and present livelihood opportunities in act of making. In order to do so, the materiality of the building and construction were interpreted in a way that would be understandable to regional techniques of building.
CRAFTING There is a rich cultural background of craftsmanship embedded in the community of Mae La which are already present in many of the building techniques such as weaved fences and wall panels. These processes were brought into the project not only as a way to involve local participation but also to be honest to the ability and resources available in the settlement.
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Materiality. Why Bamboo?
BAMBOO While Myanmar is the 3rd largest producer of bamboo in the world, it is generally not recognized as a permanent building material. Consequently, there is an opportunity to establish the use of an abundant resource as a key construction LQGXVWU\SOD\HU$ODUJHEHQHÂżWWREDPERRLVWKHORZFRVWRISROHVFRPSDUHGWR other lumber products, currently varied length of bamboos can cost between 25-50 Baht ($1.00-$2.00CAD) while a wood pole will cost upwards of 300 Baht ($10.00 CAD) .(1) The project looks to utilize bamboo in a design that can provide PRUH SHUPDQHQFH LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ KRXVLQJ W\SRORJ\ VHHQ LQ 0DH /D $V D FRVW HÉ¤FLHQW DQG VXVWDLQDEOH PDWHULDO EDPERR SROHV SURYLGH D FRQYLQFLQJ FDVH IRU replacing the wood components of these housing units. While processing bamboo treatments are readily available and can be easily adopted by local industries, design considerations still must be taken to protect bamboo from UV rays and moisture. Along the Thai-Myanmar border there are over 100 species of bamboo, though only two bamboo spaces are readily available for building. Wa bogyi (dendrocalamus giganteus) is a larger species with diameters measuring from 4-6â€? and can grow typical up to 80-100â€™, it is a popular material for load bearing components. Wa Net (bambusa vulgaris) have a diameter of 2-3â€? and is typically used in light weight construction.(2)
ECONOMIC DRIVER Already implemented in many aspects of the building and embedded in the culture of making of the local community, bamboo holds a sense of importance in not only a building material but a possible economic driver. By investing in a natural resource that can be farmed and harvested sustainably, bamboo has the RSSRUWXQLW\WRFUHDWHDF\FOHRILQYHVWPHQWWKDWUHDSVWKHEHQHÂżWVEDFNLQWRWKH community and provide inhabitants with new positions.
CHARACTERISTICS SPEED OF GROWTH:
Technically a species of grass, bamboo can grow up to one meter a day and typically ZLOOUHDFKRILWÂśVYROXPHZLWKLQWKHÂżUVWWKUHHPRQWKVDQGIXOOKHLJKWE\WKH ÂżUVW\HDUZLWKPDQ\ODUJHUVSHFLHVDEOHWRUHDFKXSWRP
STRUCTURAL STABILITY : A bamboo pole has a high resistance to tension, reaching the same tension properties of steel. While compressive resistance is dependent on factors such as diameter, age and humidity of the culm testing has shown that larger species are more than well equip to be load bearing components in a building.
1. UNHCR. Shelter Design Catalogue. (Switzerland, Jan 2016) 2. Bambusa Vulgaris .Guadua Bamboo. last modified 2018.03.20, https://www.guaduabamboo.com/species/bambusa-vulgaris
A: Wa Net (bambusa vulgaris) Secondary Structure Diameter: 2-3â€? B: Wa Bogyi (dendrocalamus giganteus) Primary Structure Diameter: 4-6â€?
Materiality. Potential Economic Cycle
CULTIVATION Currently in Mae La, the majority of building materials are transported into the camp from elsewhere, this in turn has reduce many possible livelihood possibilities within the construction sector. While deforestation is illegal in the area and arable land limits the amount of farming that can be done, the cultivation of bamboo provides a unique opportunity to create a resource system that can be reinvested into the community.
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CONSTRUCTION By creating a local industry of natural building materials, the cost savings of not having to rely on outside sources can be inserting into other aspects of Mae La.
cost s av
- farmers / agriculturalist - low skill level / general labourer
re-i nve sted into com mu nit y
Bambooâ€™s robust nature sets itself well in the growing conditions of the camp, whereas other plants may struggle bamboo is often ZHOOVXLWHGWRFOLÉŁVLGHVDQGVORSHGODQGVFDSH
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES - construction manager / foreman - low skill level / general labourer
FABRICATION By keeping the fabrication of building components (wall panels, pegs, thatching) within the community, transportation and labour cost can be re-invested into providing occupations for residents.
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES - roof thatching panels - pre fabricated wall panels
prod ucti on
HARVESTING Bambooâ€™s harvesting process can be accomplished with simple hand tools (hand saws or machetes) and due to the lightness of poles transportation can be done without machinery.
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ult ric ag
- low skill level / general labourer
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,Q RUGHU WR H[WHQG WKH GXUDELOLW\ RI EDPERR LQ FRQVWUXFWLRQ treatment will need to be completed. Pentaborate solution can be applied with multiple methods to provide protection against insects.
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES - low skill level / general labourer
([LVWLQJ7HFKQLTXHV Bamboo Post-Production
PINNED CRUSHED BAMBOO PANELS
WEAVED CRUSHED BAMBOO PANELS
CRUSHED BAMBOO PANELS
Materials: > Bamboo Poles (Ø 3-4” Length 4-10’ Dependent on Panel Size) (+) > Local Techniques Engaged > Lightweight > Replacability > Quick Production (-) > Durability > Privacy
SPLIT BAMBOO PANELS
Materials: > Bamboo Poles (Ø 2-4” Length 4-10’ Dependent on Panel Size) (+) > Local Techniques Engaged > Lightweight > Quick Production > Possible to Increase Durability using Mortar or Plaster > Visual Screen
(-) > Durability
([LVWLQJ7HFKQLTXHV Cladding Adjustments
FLAT PANELIZATION Currently partitions are often cladded using crushed bamboo panels that are weaved through runners to provide lateral stability and are either tacked or lashed onto the SULPDU\LQIUDVWUXFWXUH7KHSURFHVVSURYLGHVDQH[SHGLHQWFRQVWUXFWLRQPHWKRGRORJ\ that can quickly clad a structure with relatively few materials and tools. Though there are many positives to the panelization system issues of durability and replacement have yet to be resolved.
EXTENDABLE + CUSTOMIZABLE PANELIZATION To provide more intuitive spaces within a framework of the vernacular stilt KRXVHH[SORUDWLRQLQWRKRZFXUUHQWFODGGLQJWHFKQLTXHVFRXOGEHDGMXVWHGZHUH conducted. Considerations of how a panelization system could be better integrated into the primary structure brought about a slotted system that would help speed up the assembly process and provide additional support for the panels.
Reinterpreting Methods of Making.
FRAMEWORK With a distillation of the primary and secondary elements of the current stilt house typology, a decision was made to maintain the primary elements of the stilt house. In doing so the cladding and secondary components could be customized but still adaptable to local assembly methods. Having a grid layout also provided familiar spatial conditions that the community could relate to. Changes to the traditional framework included doubling up the beams and cantilevering them SDVWWKHFROXPQSROHVWRJDLQH[WUDĂ€RRUVSDFHRQWKHVWOHYHO7KHFRQYHUVLRQ of materiality from teak (hardwood) to bamboo mark important considerations RIVKLHOGLQJWKHFROXPQVIURP89H[SRVXUHDQGPRLVWXUHWKXVURRIUDIWHUVZHUH H[WHQGHGWRSURYLGHDPRUHHÉŁHFWLYHRYHUKDQJ
PANELIZATION The simplicity of the traditional stilt house is that itâ€™s frame provides a skeleton that can then be cladded to create enclosures. Currently houses are cladded using Ă€DWWHQHGEDPERRÂżJXUH DQGZHDYLQJWKHVHSDQHOVLQWRODUJHUVSDQVSURGXFLQJ walls that can then be pinned or lashed to the framework. The technique is well known in the community and possible with limited tools, making it a favourable option in the project. However, one issue that arises from such panelization is the limited natural light available and the lack of individualization in the process. ([SORUDWLRQVZHUHFRQGXFWHGWRÂżQGDSRVVLELOLW\LQSXQFKLQJRSHQLQJVLQWRWKH panels without intruding the process of making. In the studies bamboo poles were FXWWROHQJWKDQGWKHQRWFKHGZLWKSDUWLDOFXWVEHIRUHEHLQJĂ€DWWHQHGSURYLGLQJD Ă€DWWHQHGSDQHOZLWKSHUIRUDWLRQV%\XSGDWLQJWKHPHWKRGRISDQHOL]DWLRQFRXOG QHZ RSWLRQV RI GLÉŁHUHQW SDQHO W\SHV FRXOG SURYLGH EHWWHU VXLWHG LQGLYLGXDOL]HG spaces. In anticipation of durability and replaceability issues, the design allowed for individual panels to be easily removed and replaced by slotting each panel within the frame of the structure enabling ease of access to the panels.
rain + drainage
sun + shade
post / column attachment
dual side openings
single side opening
curves + dome
EXTENSION OF FLOOR AREA + VISUAL ACCESS
PANEL ATTACHMENT OPTIONS
CARVED OPENING %\FDUYLQJVORWVLQWREDPERRSROHVSULRUWRWKHÀDWWHQLQJLQWRSDQHOV openings can be created, providing lighting and air circulation within the interior spaces of the dwelling unit.
CANOPY / SUNSHADE
BUILT IN FURNITURE Using the framework, other units of living may be DWWDFKHG ZLWK ÀH[LEOH SHUPDQHQFH FUHDWLQJ PRUH programmable spaces within the building and limiting the amount of unit furniture necessary.
FRONT FACE PANELIZATION
SLOTTED CONNECTIONS Using the primary frame work, the panelization of the dwelling unit can be slotted into place and supported laterally by the structure itself.
VENTILATION Spaced bamboo poles line the bottom half of the front panel in order to create natural ventilation within the room while also creating slots for furniture to be supported.
Systems of Panelization. Partition Explorations
FABRICATION PROCESS In order to combat the limitations of visibility and permeability of contemporary cladding systems observed in Mae La, the project looked to adjust the crushed bamboo panels to allow for more variety in the spaces they house. By pre-carving QRWFKHVLQWREDPERRSROHVSULRUWRWKHÃ€DWWHQLQJSURFHVVSXQFKHGRSHQLQJVFRXOG be created to allow the passage of light and air circulation through partitions ZLWKRXWKDYLQJWRIXUWKHUIUDPHZLQGRZVDQGYHQWV'LÉ£HUHQWRSHQLQJVL]HVDQG layout patterns provide options to better support the living spaces that are being cladded and levels of customization for each inhabitant.
REPLICABILITY &RQVLGHUDWLRQ ZDV JLYHQ LQWR KRZ WR H[SHGLWH WKH IDEULFDWLRQ SURFHVV RI WKH punctured panels. The use of sheet templates could be used to guide the cut out SODFHPHQWTXLFNO\DQGE\LQVHUWLQJWKHFDUYLQJZLWKLQWKHÃ€DWWHQLQJSURFHVVWKH IDEULFDWLRQ FDQ EH GRQH TXLWH HÉ¤FLHQWO\ HVSHFLDOO\ FRPSDUHG WR WKH FRPPRQ SUDFWLFHRIIUDPLQJRSHQLQJVRQHVLWH7KHÃ€DWWHQLQJRIHDFKSROHDOVRLQFUHDVHV the amount of cladding surface, in turn reducing the amount of material necessary to clad the structure.
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Systems of Panelization.
FRONT PANELIZATION ASSEMBLY 5’ - 0”
7’ - 7” Front Panel Elevation
LATERAL STABILITY Split bamboo runners on either side of the panel will SURYLGHODWHUDOVWDELOLW\WRWKHÀDWWHQHGEDPERRSDQHOV
BOTTOM PANEL SLOT A cleared split bamboo allows the panel to rest within a divet, a simple connection that can help speed the panelization of the dwelling as well as aid replacing panels later on.
SIDE INTERIOR + EXTERIOR PANELIZATION ASSEMBLY
8’ - 0”
7’ - 7” Side Panel Elevation
CRUSHED FLATTENED BAMBOO PANELS Flattened bamboo is already a prevelant technique used in building applications in Mae La, making a ideal method as local builders and workers have the skill and knowledge.
RAFTER BEAM SLOTS
BOTTOM PANEL SLOT
Systems of Panelization. Testing Structure
CONSTRUCTION - 2 Day Build
2 people needed
To test the constructability of the proposed structural framework, a 1:2 detail of a section of a front bay was built to better understand the connection types that ZRXOGEHLQYROYHGDQGFRPSUHKHQGWKHFRPSOH[LWLHVWKDWZRXOGEHLQYROYHGLQWKH project construction. By creating a large prototype it also provided a greater sense of the spacial conditions that the proposal would instigate. Tools used were limited to carving knifes, a hand splitter and a drill as the reality of the site would not be able to support large machinery. Connections were either IDEULFDWHG LH EDPERR GRZHOV RU FKRVHQ IRU LW¶V DFFHVVLELOLW\ DQG DɣRUGDELOLW\ (rope).
ADJUSTABILITY 2QHRIWKHEHQH¿WVWRZRUNLQJZLWKEDPERRLVWKHDELOLW\WRTXLFNO\WHVWDQGDGMXVW a process or connection to the constraints of the material; in doing so decisions FDQ UHGHYHORSHG GXULQJ WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ SKDVH OLPLWLQJ WKH HɣHFW RI WKH RYHUDOO scheme. In the process of testing a 1:2 prototype, a main take away for the build was the importance for the structure to be visually easy to comphrehend in order WRHɤFLHQWO\FRPPXQLFDWHWKHEXLOGLQJSURFHVVWRRWKHUV
X ( 1 ) typical sqaure lashing detail ( 2 ) cantilever brace lashing detail ( 3 ) supporting brace lashing detail W front bay framework detail prototype (1:2)
S front bay framework detail prototype (1:2)
6.0 INHABITED METHODOLOGY This thesis looked to engage a infrastructure that relied on a system of building RYHU WKH HPSKDVLV RI D Â¿QLVKHG IRUP 7DNLQJDGYDQWDJH RI WKH YHUQDFXODUIRUP RIWKH.DUHQVWLOWKRXVHWKHSURMHFWHQJDJHGLQDVHWRIPRYHVWKDWFRXOGXSGDWH WKH EXLOGLQJ W\SRORJ\ WR WKH Ã€XFWXDWLQJ VHWWLQJ RI 0DH /D ZLWKRXW ORVLQJ WKH HÉ£HFWLYHQHVVRIZK\WKLVUHJLRQDOEXLOGLQJW\SHH[LVWHGLQWKHÂ¿UVWSODFH,QGRLQJ so, a system of making was developed to create an environment that materiality and tectonics were used to support the living conditions of dwellings rather than the community supporting the tectonics, something that has unfortunately been the norm. Placing emphasis on the qualitative aspects of living (social relationships, sense of self, leisure), this project hopes to integrate a building system that can restore the missing dialogue between structure and the needs of the community.
IMPACTING CULTURE In developing a system of building that gives the control back to community, the structures will begin to develop in unforeseen ways as occupants impart their needs and wants in the making, testing the resiliency of the proposed infrastructure. This conversation between user and building is necessary to re-inspire an architectural W\SRORJ\ WKDW VXSSRUWV WKH OLYHOLKRRGV RI WKH FRPPXQLW\ DQG LQ H[WHQVLRQ WKH culture of the place.
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RAISING LIVING SURFACE (+) Moisture (+) Ground Slope Taking lessons from traditional methods of buildings the stilt house approaches the ground plane in a process that subverts multiple environmental issues, while lending to a relatively simple construction techniques.
PITCH COVERAGE (+) Drainage (+) Air Circulation 'UDLQDJHLVH[WUHPHO\LPSRUWDQWHVSHFLDOO\GXHWRWKHWHUUDLQRI the site and the materiality of the structures.
GROUNDWORK (+) Earthwork By building back the earth using retaining walls, the ground can be opened up to other livelihood opportunities.
SHADE (+) Sun / Heat The tropical climate of Mae La, bring about the importance of VKDGH DQG SODFHV RI UHIXJH IURP WKH H[WUHPH KHDW WKDW H[LVWV during the hot season.
Environmental Factors. Instigating the Public Realm
ESTABLISHING A SOCIAL REALM The lack of public spaces in Mae La’s communities is an indication of the inability for the infrastructure to meet the demands of those who are living there. Already limited in area and a lack of freedom of movement, those residing in Mae La are SODFHG LQ D ÀXFWXDWLQJ VWDWH RI RQO\ OLYLQJ WR VXUYLYH 7KH ODFN RI SURSRUWLRQDO social spaces and programs within these communities only furthers the isolation RIWKHLUVLWXDWLRQ1DUURZVWUHHWVDQGWLJKWO\SDFNOLYLQJXQLWVVLJQL¿HVWKDWPRVW VRFLDO VSDFHV H[LVW ZLWKLQ WKH FRQ¿QHV RI WKH VKHOWHUV WKDW DUH V\QRQ\PRXV ZLWK the Mae La. With that comes an opportunity to re-establish a public domain supported by the shelter units.
GENERATING RELATIONSHIPS Along with considerations of the site, the proposal looked to encourage connections between housing units.
(A) With the steep slopes of Mae La’s landscape, by spacing building units and aligning with landscape multiple levels can be placed on the same plane that allows WKHLQWHUVWLWLDOVSDFHVWREHFRPHH[WHQVLRQVRIWKHVHVKHOWHUV
(B)&UHDWLQJFRQQHFWLQJYLHZSRLQWVEHWZHHQGLɣHUHQWOHYHOVRISURSRVHGVKHOWHUV also allows for more transparency and openness within the community.
EXPANSION If the needs is there for more groeth, the building system can be propagated to other sites using the same framework to create other building environments.
Mae La has over time shifted itâ€™s demographic to a current population which 50% are under age of 18. 7KHORQJWHUPQDWXUHRIWKHFDPSDQGLWÂ¶VSUR[LPLW\WR bordering towns has made it an educational hub among refugees and economic PLJUDQWV EULQJ LQ DQ LQÃ€X[ RI VWXGHQWV WR WKH DUHD IRU HGXFDWLRQ ZKLFK KDV brought about a new typology of living conditions in the area. +DYLQJOLYHGLQDSODFHZKHUHIUHHGRPRIPRYHPHQWDVZHOODVVHOIH[SUHVVLRQLV severely restricted, young refugees feel scared about leaving the refugee camps. Those who do are subjected to intimidation by Thai authorities and threat aof detention centres. Yet this has not stopped many to move to pursue higher HGXFDWLRQRSWLRQVPDUNLQJDLQÃ€X[RIPLJUDQWVWXGHQWVZKRQHHGSODFHVWRVWD\ and infrastructure to support them.
SINGLE FAMILIES ROOF
CUSTOMIZATION As Mae Laâ€™s social landscape changes, a detriment of the current infrastructure is itâ€™s inability to adapt to these changes. To combat this, the project proposes a VHWRIÂ¿[WXUHVWKDWFRXOGEHLQWHJUDWHGWRWKHIUDPHZRUNRIWKHLQIUDVWUXFWXUH%\ organizing additions, spaces can be better equiped for the types of programming WKDWWKHRFFXSDWHVQHHG7RUHVSRQGWRWKHLQÃ€X[RIPLJUDQWVWXGHQWVWKHSURMHFW VHWRXWWRDGDSWWKHSURWRW\SLFDO.DUHQGZHOOLQJWRRQHWKDWZRXOGEHWWHUVXSSRUW WKHOLIHVW\OHRIDVWXGHQWFUHDWLQJDVWUXFWXUHWKDWFRXOGEHÃ€H[LEOHLQVXSSRUWLQJWKH housing, recreation and education of those in the community.
WORK + STUDY
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EXPANDING FOOTPRINT Currently, dwelling units in Mae La are commonly walled up in all directions and due to the congestion RIWKHVHWWOHPHQWODFNH[WHQGDEOHVSDFHVWKDWLQÂ¿OWUDWH into the public realm. By changing this typology the potential in creating a more vibrant community culture within the camp is possible.
DRAINAGE With the slope of the roof perpendicular to the natural topography of the site, gutters run along the roof and drain into water basin, storing water for irrigation.
COMMUNAL GARDENS :LWK WKH H[FDYDWHG HDUWK IURP WKH UHWDLQLQJ ZDOO construction, built up arable plots may be converted into gardens and be used to grow produce while providing educational opportunities to students.
MOUNTABLE HANGER POLE
TABLE + SHELF UNIT
SINGLE BAY DORMS Interior partitions can be set up to provide individual or shared rooms. Using the structural frame of the building furniture such as WDEOHVDQGVKHOYHVFDQEHDWWDFKHGZLWKPLQLPDOHÉ£RUW
LARGE DORMITORY CONFIGURATION By removing the interior wall panels the interior can be opened up to three bays allowing for a larger group to occupy the space.
INTERIOR TABLE SURFACES
MULTI-USE SPACES By opening up the underside of the stilt structure, new activities FRXOGEHH[SORUHGE\UHDFWLQJWRWKHIUDPHZRUNDQGODQGVFDSHRIWKH ground level.
BAMBOO PRIVACY PANELS
POINTS OF ACCESS With the intention of allowing a dwelling unit to be more communal DQG LQWHUDFW ZLWK WKH FRPPXQLW\ LQ D PRUH VLJQLÂ¿FDQW ZD\ 7KH ground level of the structure allows adjustable permeability to the community allowing both public and private functions.
ATTACHABLE EXTENSIONS By using the structural framework of the housing unit to further support the spaces hinged canopies can provide adjustable sun shade and privacy screens depending on the needs of the users.
LIVING UNITS Panel partitions help convert what would be WUDGLWLRQDOO\VLQJOHRSHQLQWHULRUÀRRUSODQLQWR indiviual units that help provide privacy and study spaces for it’s occupants.
ADAPTABLE SPACES :LWK D Ă€H[LEOH EXLOGLQJ DVVHPEO\ V\VWHP other underutilized spaces can be rethought to provide much need dwelling spaces for a multitude of programs.
PRIVATE / PUBLIC THRESHOLDS Currently, Mae La lacks the area for public gathering spaces and forums. This has been especially detrimental to the youth of the area where spaces of play and meeting spaces are far and few between. By taking advantage of the underside of the stilt house for inhabitation many of the underserved programs may occur.
BAMBOO RAFTERS Due to the light weight nature of Bamboo rafters have the ability to be preassembled on the ground and lifted into place with a group of people without the reliance of machinery.
BANANA LEAF THATCHING With the restriction of building materials available to Mae La residences forageable materials such as EDQDQD OHDYHV DUH XVHG DV QDWXUDO URRÂ¿QJ PDWHULDOV Panels are constructed by the community and provides supplementary income.
R1 Tatching Peak Panel (4" Overlay)
Banana Leaf Roof Thatching (4" Overlay) Rafter Runner
2-4 Roof Thatching
1-2 Thatching Panel
CONSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY TIME
SKILL LEVEL Thatching Panels
Roof Thatch Panelization
Thatched Roofing (Palm Leaves)
Fishing Mouth Joint
Column Pole Ext. Wall Pole
Banana Leaves Thatched Panel
TIRE RETAINING WALL The intention to open up the ground level for inhabitation brought about the need for a method to combat the steep terrain. Using reclaimed tires to create a retaining wall provides a level of durability against the earth while providing structuring for other attachments to occur.
SCREW PILES :KLOHFXVWRPL]DWLRQLVGLÉ¤FXOWWKHQHFHVVLW\WRKDYHD strong, durable foundation was more important, screw piles are a relatively acceptable option in providing a strong base for the light weight framework.
Bamboo (Wa-Bogyi) Ã¸ 5-6"
2-6 Retaining Wall
2-3 Screw Pile Foundation 12'-6"
CONSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY TIME
3/8" Bolt + Nut Connection Steel Pipe (1/4" Gauge)
1-2 days (Screw Pile Foundation)
Hand Screw Pile
7 days (Retaining Wall)
SKILL LEVEL Retaining Wall
Screw Pile Foundations
F2 9" Back Fill (Sod) Reclaimed Tire Peg
18" Car Tire
18" Car Tire
Detailing. Structural Frame
Ext. Wall Pole
Double Butt Bent Joint
Split Bamboo Flooring Floor Joist Pole
CONSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY TIME Floor Beam Square Lashing Column Pole
3-4 days 23.5
SKILL LEVEL Bamboo Framing
Shear Lashing Bracket Pole
Bamboo Block (1")
Technical Set. Migrant Student Dwelling - Plans
Roof Plan. 1 : 50
Technical Set. Migrant Student Dwelling - Plans
Foundation Plan. 1 : 50
Level 01 Plan. 1 : 50
Technical Set. Migrant Student Dwelling - Elevations
North Elevation. 1 : 50
South Elevation. 1 : 50
Technical Set. Migrant Student Dwelling - Elevations
East Elevation. 1 : 50
7.0 FINAL THOUGHTS $VUHIXJHHVLWXDWLRQVOLNHWKHRQHVREVHUYHGLQ0DH/D7KDLODQGEHFRPHH[WHQGHG into another decade of limbo, there needs to be a fundamental change in the way the humanitarian sector and the global stage frames what these camps and settlements implicate. The temporal, transitory nature that have produced these communities are no longer an accurate depiction of most refugee situations, and forcing impermanent systems on these communities have further limited living conditions to that of strictly survival. A large concern in protracted refugee states LVWKHRYHUUHOLDQFHRIH[WHUQDOERGLHVWRVXSSRUWWKHVHFRPPXQLWLHV7KHLGHDOLVWLF ZHVWHUQFRQFHSWRIDLGDQGUHOLHIKDYHQHJDWLYHO\DÉŁHFWHGOLYHOLKRRGRSSRUWXQLWLHV and a lack of self-worth, as the process of living is shifted from individuals and placed into the hands of organizations and policies. The absence of control can be observed in the lack of prominent connections to site and proliferates in the unresponsive infrastructure present. Using Mae La Refugee Camp as a case study this thesis looked into how a design led process could articulate an alternative system of building that would put the decisions back into the hands of residents and instigate a closed economy that would re-invest back into the community. By shifting the focus over to the human and qualitative aspects of living and shelter, the project injects an approach that recognizes Mae Laâ€™s inhabitants not as a legal title (refugees) but as human beings, with the same needs and wants that are shared globally. In doing so, the project became a question of how the process of building could support and inspire its residence as oppose to the unfortunately common reality of inhabitants struggling to support the built environment. While the majority of humanitarian architecture projects emphasis infrastructure that can be implemented universally, the thesis looked to bring cultural and site VSHFLÂżFLW\WRWKHSURFHVV3URPSWHGE\WKHVXUURXQGLQJYHUQDFXODUWKHSURMHFWVHW out to update the regional stilt house to better engage with the social landscape and the demographic needs of community. Local materiality and traditional methods were also engaged to further encourage community engagement with their living environments, by increasing the role of the refugee community in the process it also allowed adjacencies to develop that would provide additional livelihood opportunities in production and fabrication. 7KHDVSHFWRIWLPHKDVOLPLWHGPDQ\DUFKLWHFWXUDOSURMHFWVDVWKHĂ€XLGQDWXUHRI UHIXJHH VHWWOHPHQWV VHWV D GLÉ¤FXOW WDVN IRU LQIUDVWUXFWXUH WR EH Ă€H[LEOH HQRXJK to adapt to the changing states of these communities. Rather than imposing a formalized structure, the goal was to produce a system that could organize a EXLOGLQJPHWKRGWKDWZRXOGDOORZIRUHÉ¤FLHQWUHSOLFDELOLW\ZKLOHDOORZLQJRSWLRQV of customization that could be adapted as the programmatic needs change. :KLOH WKH FRPSOH[LWLHV RI UHIXJHH VLWXDWLRQV DUH WRR ODUJH IRU RQH GLVFLSOLQH WR tackle, this thesis hopes to show the value of an architectural practice that limits LWVLQĂ€XHQFHRQGHÂżQLQJWKHÂżQDOIRUPRIDEXLOGLQJEXWUDWKHUWDNHVWKHUROHRI providing a system of working that can support the role of the community in generating their living environments and in the process generate a sense of ownership and place that the current camp framework is so apprehensive to do.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Throughout the process of completing this thesis I have had the opportunity to work with and meet some incredible people who have inspired, challenged and fundamentally compelled this project . I am truly humbled and honoured to have had each and one of you in my life and will DOZD\VFKHULVKWKHFRQYHUVDWLRQVDQGH[SHULHQFHVZHKDYHVKDUHG , ÂżUVWO\ OLNH H[SUHVV P\ GHHSHVW JUDWLWXGH WR P\ DGYLVRU /DQFHORW IRU DVNLQJ WKH LPSRUWDQW questions and placing your faith in me throughout the entire process. This year would not have been possible without your support, the knowledge and advice you have passionately imparted will not be forgotten. I would also like to acknowledge my studio mates and colleagues who I have spent the last year with special thanks to Jessica, Violet, Halley and Tali for all the shifts taken, rides given and student cards borrowed. Liane whose honesty and bluntness have been so valuable and refreshing, thank you for the inspiration you have instilled in me. Thanks to Em, Yun, Marylynne, Laure, and Ye Lin for the brief, yet intense time I was lucky enough to spend with you all. My sincere thanks to David and Joshua for the hospitality you have shown me, I can only hope to return the kindness one day. To my Bali family, Anthi whose heart knows no bounds and Marcellus whose intensity only is PDWFKE\WKHLQÂżQLWHORYH\RXKDYHIRUDOO,WKDVEHHQDEOHVVLQJWRKDYH\RXERWKLQP\OLIH Thank you Brennan for the numerous google street view tours, terrible puns and the uncountable times you have been there for me. 7RWKH727(727FUHZZKRP,KDYHOHDQHGRQH[WHQVLYHO\IRUWKHSDVWWZR\HDUV&DUVRQDQG Jill thanks for making 4.00 am nights enjoyable, birthday menchies and all the positivity that \RXERWKH[XGH A special thanks to Noon for encouraging me to chase my passion. $QG ÂżQDOO\ WR PRVW VWURQJ ZLOOHG SHRSOH LQ P\ OLIH +RSH 0RP DQG *UDQGPD WKH TXLHW stubbornness and sensitivity you all own will forever be instilled in me.
- Dedicated to my father -
Bibliography / Image Reference.
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ARTICLES/INTERNET +RVH\/DQFHÂł$'DUNHU6KDGHRI*UHHQÂ´+XÉ¤QJWRQ3RVWKWWSZZZKXÉ¤QJWRQSRVWFRPODQFHKRVH\DGDUNHUVKDGHRIJUHHQBBEBKWPO 6KDOO6FRWWÂł'HVLJQ/LNH<RX*LYHD'DPQ$UFKLWHFWXUDO5HVSRQVHVWR+XPDQLWDULDQ&ULVHV$UFKLWHFWXUHIRU+XPDQLW\DQG([SDQGLQJ$UFKLWHFWXUH'HVLJQDV$FWLYLVP (GLWHGE\%U\DQ%HOODQG.DWLH:DNHIRUGÂ´-RXUQDORI$UFKLWHFWXUDO(GXFDWLRQ9ROXPH,VVXH0D\Âą UNHCR Shelter and Settlement Section. Settlement Folio. UNHCR. May 2016
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ARTICLES/INTERNET Pater, Ruben. â€œTreating the refugee crisis as a design problem is problematicâ€?, Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2016/04/21/ruben-pater-opinion-what-design-can-dorefugee-crisis-problematic-design/. 11.23.2016 5DGIRUG7DOLDÂł5HIXJHHFDPSVDUHWKHÂłFLWLHVRIWRPRUURZÂ´VD\VKXPDQLWDULDQDLGH[SHUWÂ´'H]HHQKWWSVZZZGH]HHQFRPUHIXJHHFDPSVFLWLHVRIWRPRUURZ NLOOLDQNOHLQVFKPLGWLQWHUYLHZKXPDQLWDULDQDLGH[SHUW Winston, Anna. â€œThe architectural community cannot remain apathetic to Calaisâ€™ Jungle and the refugee crisisâ€?, Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2016/03/07/opinion-evajeannie-s-lee-visit-the-jungle-calais-refugee-crisis-design-architecture-response/. 11.23.2016 Turner, Simon. :KDW,VD5HIXJHH&DPS"([SORUDWLRQVRIWKH/LPLWVDQG(ÉŁHFWVRIWKH&DPS-RXUQDORI5HIXJHH6WXGLHV2[IRUG8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV
VIDEO Cassel, Matthew. The Journey from Syria (6-Part Documentary), The New Yorker, 2016 Quinn, Christophe. God Grew Tired of Us, National Geographic Films. 2006
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B.1 IMAGES All Photos of Mae La Refugee Camp graciously provided by BurmaLink (https://www.burmalink.org/gallery-mae-la-refugee-camp/) All other images produced or taken by author.
The Changing Nature of Refugee Shelters in Protracted Situation