Trajectory Calculation Necessary to Gauge NEO Threats a Masterâ€™s Thesis submitted to the faculty of American Public University System by Steven Frank MejĂa in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts July 2013 American Public University Charles Town, West Virginia
The author hereby grants the American Public University System the right to display these contents for educational purposes. The author assumes total responsibility for meeting the requirements set by the United States Copyright Law for the inclusion of any materials that are not the author’s creation or in the public domain. © Copyright 2013 by Steven Frank Mejía All rights reserved.
Dedication I dedicate this thesis to a number of anonymous intellectual sources窶馬amely, people who have examined intelligence sources and those who have employed various conceptual attempts to aid the published author(s). This work is dedicated to a number of individuals who have conducted work in national security study, making this thesis possible.
Acknowledgments I would like to thank the members of my editing team for their adept assistance. I would like to thank those who have aided me in this research study and those who provided inquiry intelligence about my thesis topic. I would like to thank the student government for adapting their services to become an online membership educational institution. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped me succeed with this project. My overall course work throughout the national security study was continuously effective in bringing together several different areas of social sciences applicable to a national prospectus.
Abstract This thesis reviews the involvement of a Near Earth Object (â€œNEOâ€?) in multiple modern and historic studies. The thesis examines several important NEOs and familiarizations with non-funded and funded organizations that gather space intelligence and research in different global time zones. The thesis challenges the research and development of space intelligence and national security, particularly research that took place over two hundred years ago. This thesis exemplifies conditions of modern NEOs and historic research and development intelligence, which results in scenarios and a predictor analysis concept study. In addition to modern conditions among NEOs from funded organizations (i.e., NASA) and non-funded organizations (i.e., La Sagra Sky Survey), the concepts of precision and research intelligence height have led to an amazing topic for exploration in recent centuries. Continuous traditional intelligence has led to astonishing space concepts regarding NEOs that crash into Earth. Whether study of NEOs occurs at an educational institution or through the focus of a laymanâ€™s personal study, the topic of asteroids and NEOs will remain a popular subject for the next 100 years.
Table of Contents Chapter I: Introduction 1 Statement of the Research Question 10 Chapter II: Literature Review 15 Chapter III: Methodological Framework 26 Chapter IV: The NEOsâ€™ Analyses and the Research Study Results ..................................31 Chapter V: Discussion 35 Glossary 39 References 41
List of Tables Table 4.1 Worldâ€™s Ten Popular Craters 33
List of Figures Figure 1.1 Current Image of Impact 12 Figure 2.1 Image of Asteroid Remains 20 Figure 2.2 Illustration of Asteroid Belts 23 Figure 2.3 Current Satellite Image of the Manicouagan Crater ........................................24 Figure 2.4 Changes in Asteroid Anatomy Intelligence .....................................................25
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION The odds of a near-Earth object strike causing massive casualties and destruction of infrastructure are very small, but the potential consequences of such an event are so large it makes sense to takes [sic] the risk seriously (Keating 2013, 1). This thesis delves into concepts to augment a traditional national security understanding by strategically furnishing research with method elements for review at the time of this writing. Through an analysis of existing information in the literature, the reader can understand to greater depth the evidence that exists regarding traditional analytical decision-making in a selective study of self-possession intelligence. First, social science premise theories imply a dual perspective of space intelligence and traditional intelligence perspectives, creating an awareness of relationships among NEOs and Earth. However, the sensibility of sorting dual interactions into astral iron rushes must be questioned. Artists ought to learn from history as well, but as one author points out, an NEO “isn’t a gold rush quite yet” (Fool’s Platinum 2013, 5). Historical indicators suggest that natural scientists cannot count on NEO rushes to adapt to possessions. Second, this thesis seeks to review basic space intelligence through a graduate and alumni perspective by investigating areas of interest available to Americans. Is NEO study the result of present-day and ongoing interaction among the social science community to innovate ideas and expand intelligence study in educational institutions? Third, the ultimate choice to study asteroid NEOs follows originality trends in societal places, which are inherited by distinct places and deep emotions. Fourth, the exploration of research strategically focused on NEOs might affect people’s views of the study, but does the study of NEOs really usurp the publication rights serving the proper audience? In a discussion of NEO study, an anonymous writer directs astronomical adaptions not to share advice but to achieve avaricious exactitudes, indicating that, “the potential bonanza is, well, astronomical.” We should reevaluate how NEO study interests influence the traditional public, which “isn’t a gold rush yet” (Fool’s Platinum 2013, 5). Fifth, how are complex subjects such as astrobiology, polymathics, self-intelligence study, and astrometaphysics united to achieve potential exploration in deep space industries as well as to aid in national security? Although these questions might seem trivial, different time zones can cause discomfort and style differences among the creative minds that encourage emotional intelligence. According to Camilla, optimal trajectory design for interception and deflection of near earth objects explains mission planning can be performed by optimising different contrasting criteria, such as the mass at launch, the warning time, and the total deflection (Camilla 2010, iii). Similarily, iron myths are not as magical as many come to distinguish in everyday societies. Are these iron concepts a place for myths or a rude wake up call for national security concern. Her study collects results that show how geological places are selected for different reliable trajectory strategy scenarios. Although her study reflects an engineering research it is concidential to research trajectory occurences and changes of research pertaining to ones
own choice study. This thesis also collects several research studies that focus on current space studies (i.e., newsletters, journals, and modern scholarly publications) to determine if these remain consistent in providing forthcoming data and information in a peaceful nature. The research purpose will unite a combination of manuscript intelligence to influence the funding of global national security awareness, which can make available some degree of knowledge to influence space study awareness concerning NEOs. It will spend the money designing, building, and launching three single-use spacecraft, called “Firefly,” to conduct fly-bys of small asteroids (Fool’s Platinum 2013, 5). In addition to forthcoming NEO spotlights, Firefly is a modern spacecraft that might connect with space applications and satellite intelligence in orbit (geosynchronous satellites) when it is prepared and assembled in jet propulsion laboratories across the globe. It represents a national security topic of interest inviting the participation of scientists and artists. When political discussions of NEOs are shown in the media, national security should address job identifications to solidify their study of NEOs. In online educational news publications, when national security studies are addressed, artists and scientists should protect their publications by purchasing job identification shares. If researchers do so, then artists and scientists can recognize that when it is a national security NEO study issue, political media coverage should be ignored. Nonetheless, the realistic view is gathering science fiction intelligence, but its goal is to increase awareness by presenting polymath analysis and patented discoveries. At this point, this thesis influences yesterday’s concerns and today’s national and international security studies among the community and public, private, and global online viewers. In this self-executive thesis, the research includes submissive facts streamed from online news and familiarization, which cedes into present and ongoing global astrial conpcepts in nature to threats. A celebrated form of study links traditional knowledge with surprising NEO encounters, within and outside of satellite intelligence in orbit. If authors found how NEO study developed into national publications, authors would become more involved with forthcoming centennial national values. Numerous NEO publications have occurred in recent centuries, which have led to amazing technological telescope intelligence and exploration in major asteroid iron anatomy. Many laboratories are modernizing space studies, and they are being used to explore only a fraction of existing NEOs. These NEOs one day might present useful science to detect close encounters with planets, stars, and asteroid collisions. The nature of settling space patterns recently has become clear to many townsmen (Mejia 2011, 3). However, ambient intelligence links to emotional intelligence formulate great timing though engendering a feeling of the modern unfolding of space study interests. In addition to these publications, this recorded study publication of NEOs is the product of originality and self-interest to relocate and move to a certain degree of selfconfidence, which shares imagination and scientific questions with the community and society. These originalities supersede present and past publication collections to elevate
the self-worth of the social sciences and the arts in shared support with the traditional civil public/military populations. According to the U.S. Constitution: “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries” (U.S. Constitution, Art. 1, sec .8, cl. 8). Solidifying the theme of this thesis is the clear-cut natural distinction of NEO as a topic for further study. Furthermore, the purpose of this thesis is to support itself from the public domain in America and to give self-confidence to its audience, allowing for public free expression. The superiority of this study is, however, a minor glimpse of an indication of spectacle traces of how NEO exploration can enlighten. The private and public writings of the author’s manuscript, however, will give confidence with a rigorous blend of societal scientific dialogue in everyday life. In addition to these features, scenes of big pictures and image designers have not eliminated the importance of communicating NEOs as a true form of American art. These artistic and scientific goals will provide readers access to the events involving NEO activity in asteroid belts. In addition to strategy planning, participation has become a sizeable organizational force. Furthermore, organizations want to see to it that members can focus on leadership, thereby providing strong governance and not wasteful agressions tied to unsupportive lucridness. First, preeminence of organizational funding supplies members the opportunity to elect managers seeking to strengthen strategies to implement NEO awareness in both orbit and on Earth. Second, mounting a tactical communication plan between funded and non-funded space intelligence/national security plans is progressive on both ends of the leadership development spectrum. Third, people have failed to express the importance of trial and error in the development of affordable organizational leadership strategies. Non-funded and funded space/national security organizations must develop quick and easy methods to share NEO speculative intelligence in space. In addition to leadership improvements among space/national security organizations, surviving NEO and NEO safety precautions welcome serious development leadership attempts to construe plans for analyzing NEO trends. At the time of this writing, surveying astral irons and surveying NEOs distinguishes this thesis apart from controls and campaigns. However, for audience readers in the high space corporations, the idea of losing observation of NEO encounters directed to Earth affects scientists’ decision-making process, both inside and outside space organizations. Fourth, the process most familiar to space and national security organizations remains the forthcoming election practice. Fifth, to remain efficient in the use of resources and time, funded and non-funded organizations must maintain tactile control to strengthen the administration. Discoveries might affect global safety related to NEO repercussions, alleviating countless social worries and stresses that inhibit further space and national security explorations. Based on analysis, non-funded and funded space/national security organizations are likely to become more effective through adherence to decision-making traditions. Upon realizing
that NEOs are not quite a gold rush yet, then space and national security organizations must implement executive choices to enforce space intelligence. Given that NEOs do not quite represent a gold rush yet, space and national security organizations must implement executive choices to enforce space intelligence. The thesis begs two primary notions. First is the principle that NEOs pass conditions by satellites or, more specifically, geo-synchronous satellite intelligence in orbit unbeknownst to space and national security organization observers. Second is the increasing involvement of ongoing NEO research, open to NEO space organizations with rules concerning precision, protection, privacy, participation, and price. These mutual hypotheses provided by funded and non-funded NEO space organizations contain rich astrial iron concepts, which help to guide the study of national security. As a result, sharing the approaches in the study (i.e., executive editing and educational news publication) assists in premeditated national security study advances. Each concept acquires an original pattern of its own, which might strengthen the emotional intelligence style of its readerâ€™s awareness regarding the NEO study and national securityâ€™s involvement in space myths. In addition to interpreting the theses, its adaptive approach might aid its audience in developing new objectives. The technology, visits to planetary museums, and visits to astronomy museums, both in America and abroad, might provide suggestive adaptations in modern and forthcoming research about NEO intelligence. The translator media technologies extend into adaptive selections, and through these approaches, creativity and inventiveness can provide for deeper knowledge regarding space and NEO intelligence. Astrobiology and metaphysics, along with a keen understanding of polymathics, explores selectivity in publication writing about cheap astral iron concepts. However, as of the time of this writing many cheap fallacies and myths about astral irons have prevailed in places like the Tutankamunâ€™s tomb in 1924. The focal point of the thesis does exclude analysis according to selective analysis choices, key indicators, and focal events, mostly shared in intelligence and analytical tool study. This raises a number of forthcoming questions, but the degree of choices and scenarios remain relevant among previous analytical tools, methods, and styles far-off from cheap myths related to astral iron daggers. Laymen (persons without specialized training) possess a basic path and should become knowledgeable about NEOs; however, this thesis will explore the wide range of NEO intelligence and reference analysis tools on a separate distinction for scholarly professionals and doctoral studies of astral metaphysics on earth strategies. The course of the Russia meteor was extensively more uncommon than the course of the asteroid 2012 DA14, producing a binary exactitude of unrelated NEO phenomena. As a result, binary scenarios compose to be tantamount to a national security study collected by NEO intelligence and passed by means of military and public study. NEOs passing around the outside of the geosynchronous rings is a national security study topic in itself, especially
when unnoticed NEOs become apparent in the last few seconds before they develop into asteroids and meteors crashing through the global ring. According to Fredrick Hoffman: Kenneth Rextroth tells us that we are living in a ‘shock world’ and Mr. Rextroth is referring to many postwar phenomena; the atom bomb as the beginning of a sequence of events and that were dismayed and depressed by a series of violent ambience explosion, which have had repercussion in many areas of America intellectual and literary life. (Hoffman 1960, 5-12) Hoffman goes on to assert that many space phenomena have occurred because of many actions perpetrated by humans. For now though, astrobiology is the popular study of binary adaptation of an observation and spare among NEO revelations. In the interim, its origins and its orbits (i.e., NEOs) will have become yet another facet to feed the binary ego. A distinction of astrobiology and applicable science led to statements of problem and research question(s). In his discussion of science, Henry Fountain uses forward-looking facilities for news gathering and focuses on a global outreach philosophy; of global outreach methods he states that, “for now, though, they and other teams, including one from the University of Antioquía in Medellin, Colombia, have established” (Fountain 2013, 1). The study speculated among global partners that “the meteor originated in the inner part of the asteroid belt in a regular, harmless orbit around the Sun between Mars and Jupiter (The Hindu Business Line 2013, 1). Figure 3 illustrates the adaptation of the JPL’s asteroid belt. The major biannual NEO phenomenon study sites include the coastal and tropical zones of South America, Colombia. It also includes the astronomy museum of the University of Antioquía and previous visits to the JPL in Pasadena, California. Expected launches to astronomy observatories are anticipated in the coming years as interest in the NEOs begins to settle; some of the most compelling historic records ever witnessed in global magnitudes have occurred this century. However, the inference of the exploration is that NEOs, in the non-sadistic sense, place a space of independent entertainment with emotional timing as NEO revelations land. In another part of the NEO interest, an analyst must become familiar with methods of signal intelligence and satellite ring ambiance to maintain an understanding of the national security study of these traditions. Statement of the Research Question(s) The strategy is to focus on NEOs, where the private investigation focuses on leading direction but the national security study aims to deliver an effective methodology at the time of this writing. The research paper adapts its ambiance from collections of interest from American Natural History Museums. The detection of information is granted by a means of student/alumni discount passes, which incites passionate influence in the subjects associating with NEOs. In Using Lasers in Space: Laser Orbital Debris Removal and Asteroid Deflection, Jonathon W. Campbell further claims, “speculative
proposals exist for using lasers to de-orbit debris up to 800 km for a cost of several hundred million dollars” (Campbell 2004, 4). However, the removal of asteroid activity is not in an ideal process, and costs of international and national space agency proposals to lessen the possibilities of NEO activity from hitting Earth are prohibitive. While Campbell claims these to be “a cost of several hundred million dollars,” in reality, space agencies are sporadically located in several places, which might be a benefit of less expensive goals in future NEO alerts. Significantly, this assures that, “with a few hundred million dollars, space laser awareness is a possibility” (Campbell 2004, 5). Ideally, devices would “operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the network connecting the devices, such as lighting, sound, vision, domestic appliance, and personal health care products, which cooperate seamlessly with one another to improve the total user experience through the support of natural and intuitive user interfaces,” asserts Emile (Aarts 2006, 1). Indeed, there is cost and AmI space intelligence involved in aspects of NEOs. People first consider the affordability to reenact innovative space/national security study proposals and the ability to exchange monetary aid (humanitarian space/national security attempts with other populaces), which can be created and easily eradicated amid unstable global conditions. Constructing many different aims, qualities, themes, and objects might recover on-going scientific and technological discoveries in the NEO field. Although asteroid deflection is not as predictable as many conclude it to be, the capacity to construct NEO detections and the global courses of action to construe space policy into national/international security measures remains a question of foreign and national competition balance. The previous statements produce a believable appeal of considerable progress, but they lack credibility, particularly after the asteroid that grazed near earth in February 2013. The predictability measures in the previous statements conclude a wide range of international laws and space object detection expositions, but they are protecting geosynchronous satellites and an even bigger presence to foreign and national security study. Campbell suggests that one event natural scientists can learn from the past is not to feel dwindled by the space tragedy itself. “The Chinese destruction of their Fengyun-1C weather satellite in 2007 stands out as the largest debris-producing event on record” (Campbell 2004, 24). This and a number of incidents, such as the angry outbursts of the 9/11 upsurge, can present future obstacles to construct NEO safety conclusiveness. In summary, NEOs are a motivating concern as much as they are the epicenter of emotional intelligence topic selection. The national security and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) public officials have tried repeatedly to communicate the importance of planetary safety programs within other governmental agencies in the U.S. These actions have become a concern to America as much as they have been minimized from the effects that resulted in Chelyabinsk and Tunguska, Russia in 1908, a binary predicament turned unlikely for star-crossed moments.
Figure 1.1. Damage to the city of Chelyabinsk, several hundred miles east of Moscow. May have been the casue of one of these asteroid trajectories. Source: Alexander Bolonkin. Protection of the Earth from the Asteroid. Article: Protection from Asteroid 10 20 12 Short article. http://www.vixra.org/pdf/1212.0006v1.pdf
In 1908, Russia was unconvinced regarding NEO activity, so the NEO activity of 2013 quickly mystified residents of Chelyabinsk. The closeness in location between the 1908 event and the 2013 NEO event indicates that these events are occurring in the same area over a period of time. The practical relationship is valuable to earth sources and trajecotry scenarios. For example, two similar trajectories near the same location in the time spane of a litlle over 100 years may stir a number of studies which increase trajectory strategy studies for safer global security. Space, culture, asteroids and society are esentially a valuable study and when two similar trajectories around the proximaty of 100 years occur a debate is sure to stir argument. The trails that asteroids leave behind are remarkable, but more dangerous are the instances in which they explode in the air close to populated boroughs, as was observed in several news journals around the world. Although these aspects expand an author’s understanding of NEO awareness, they do not tire out the “human curiosity” factors that lead to the discovery of studying about NEOs and astral iron concepts. Scientists must also study the application of NEO age, satellite NEO crater mapping, and military action plans in case NEOs blast at Earth. An anonymous NEO article writer provided a similar wonder: Scientists speculate that the numerous asteroids may have been formed in space when two objects collided together; however, there is much speculating from various universities and countries.
On Friday 13 April 2036 the asteroid on the second pass it [sic] will hit earth, and could hit a country like Germany or the west cost of the USA. (Politicol News 2013, 1) In the rest of the anonymous online news article, the anonymous writer discusses new fears arising in the decades to come, while considering the necessary solidarity among the public and communities to remain calm and develop excessive fear over such speculations. Lastly, the research question is: How can a greater study of NEOs improve global safety?
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW Review of NEO Topic Historic cases of NEOs include everything from holes in house roofs, deaths of cattle, unexplained iron crashing in the sea, broken car windows, NEO “statue sculptures,” and many more. The NEO research available led the author to deem this an interesting and worthwhile subject of study. Indeed, the overall concept of this thesis is the direction in which a published author’s topic has changed since before the February NEO phenomenon occurred. At the time of this writing, this capstone will review nonargumentive elements to blend scientific and artistic advice to reach an ultimate conclusion regarding the changes that have taken place in the study of NEO phenomena. NEO fatalities are believed to be greater than shark-to-man attacks and are placed close to earthquake phenomenon scenarios. However, some asteroids pass close to the Earth’s orbit without scientists detecting them until months later. This leads to the question, “Will an NEO smash into Earth without experts having prior knowledge of the situation?” The ability to detect an NEO threat to Earth goes beyond “folk gossip” because withdrawal of NEOs “combines the science of mining an asteroid” (Innes 2013, 1). As an anonymous article writer puts it, this detection is “mankind’s first attempt at modifying the heavens to enable the permanent settlement of humans in space” (NASA wants to tow an asteroid to
the moon: US 2013, 1). While some astronomers suggest that the air blast of recent
asteroid in February 2013 was much less noticed than others maintain, the NEO situation speaks for itself. The promising security theme continues to remain a traditional objective for the entire global ambiance. Calls to initiate a budget to explore NEO danger has risen following the binary February 2013 NEO discoveries. In her debate of colliding worlds, Mellor says of asteroid research and development intelligence: the asteroid impact threat can therefore be located within the broader cultural history of fantasies. We should deem security and space agents as unconcerned observers â€œabout security and power, which, Bruce Franklin (1988) has argued, is inextricably linked to the century-old idea that a new super weapon could deliver world peace. (Mellor 2007, 1) Put simply, one aim of this chapter is to acknowledge and describe the effectiveness of other unpublished authors regarding the written works they have provided related to civil and military science. The discoveries of NEOs on land have been numerous, and reported cases have recently increased in popularity. Cases ranging from large asteroid remains being bought for exhibition to cases of asteroid rock sculpturing have entertained astronomers and individuals. Other popular NEOs, like meteorites, have been chronicled online at websites like meteoritemarket.com. For example, polymict eurcrites are carved and sold for profit. However, on a national archival scale, written knowledge about these small meteorites might exist in literature and might be recorded in the Library of Congress, but a more important determination is how the earth would be affected if an asteroid that was expected to pass by earth instead blew up in its orbit somewhere in space. How would nearby orbiting satellites and geo-synchronous outposts truly affect global interactions? And would organizations be able to promote science and arts among archrivals without facing global skeptics? Regulation of NEO materials remains an astonishing attention-grabber for astronomers. The resources that can be discovered or dug up, such as iron or minimum traces of humidity existence, can be of paramount study importance in space and in scientific laboratories. Clearly, with the aid of government funding, a survey and ballot system would need to adapt safety and recovery guides to outsource any unaided political and national security braveries and to measure procedures in international and national social science publications regarding student governments and division archives. This would require aid to funded and non-funded organizations in housekeeping election intelligence to secure study among the next generation of astral iron huppla. Although technologies of national security might possess apparent relations to scientists and engineers, the pursuit of global free NEOs is crucial for the next century. In her discussion of the social studies of science topic related to NEOs, Mellor says that
“during the 1980s, a few astronomers began to resignify asteroids this way, but for some years they had only limited success” (2007). We should give an idea of how space technologies and taking a predictive approach influences “telling stories about the future of human civilization and how space technologies could save the world” (Mellor 2007, 1). In 2013, a predictive scenario illustrated that the newspapers across the globe about NEOs would garner much attention. First, the asteroid that grazed near earth in February 2013 was located by scientists at la sagra sky survey—a survey managed by the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca in Spain on February 23, 2013. Second, the asteroid that followed on a different path soon prompted national security coverage to borrow from scientific data of space studies to budget strategy for a space technology to freeze NEO activity. Third, this event became the cornerstone topic of an instrument adapted by NASA. Felicity ensures that these space technologies eventually adapt to national security safety in an article titled “Population and Development Review.” Therein, an anonymous news writer reflects on beliefs about NEOs as being more natural than global catastrophes. In the discussion, the columnist indicates that, “unlike most other natural hazards to humanity, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, and tornadoes, NEO impacts present a very large spread of disaster” ( Defending Planet Earth 2010, 27). Social scientists should consider how larger planets exchange natural disasters and the influences of “scales ranging from small property damage to global extinction events” (The National Council on Hazards from Near-Earth Objects 2010, 860). The columnist writer for the Population and Development article goes on to claim that “approximate average impact interval and impact energy for nearEarth objects at a regional scale is approximately impact energy of 30 MT (Megatons).” Traditionally, the approximate energy of the regional scale does not compare to the approximate impact energy of the asteroid that blew over the skies of Chelyabinsk, the geographical place where a medium size asteroid affected regional change above the skies of Russian territory in February 2013. This regional disaster event is unrelated to the 2012 DA14 asteroid flyby announced by scientist officials in Spain in February 2013. In addition to a review of the executive content of the NEO topic, a number of applied NEO statistics are solved in colorful illustration research sources (see Table 4.1). However, National Security Analysis Reports have not provided clear statistics of the actual average impact energy of the NEO over Russia. In addition, other topics of interest have found instances in which military satellite research studies have informed researchers regarding satellites colliding with NEOs. The 1990s became a decade of great interest and speculation regarding NEOs. In that decade, many studies conducted research regarding military satellites and NEOs. In addition to the actual average impact energy of NEOs, at a slightly glimmering regional scale, other analysis found an approximation detail of the afterglow blaze that soared through the skies at approximately 09:20:20 a.m. over the Kazakhstan/Russia zone.
From analytical observations, the discharge over the sky in February 2013 appears to have been about the size of three star-dusted 146.066-kiloton fireballs, roaring over the skies at an astonishing velocity per second. Some believed that the explosion in the sky was an airplane exploding or other such blasts that cause a similar appearance; in the aftermath, however, the moderately populated zone experienced diminished lines of technology and civic infrastructure. Wooden cabinets and factory roofs are usually destroyed from air blasts, in addition to any other typical ambiance that goes with an asteroid affecting earth. Scientists are discovering if the study of NEOs has anything to do with Russia’s recent activity to lodge a number of different animals into orbit inside Russian spacecraft.
Figure 2.1 Image of a piece of Asteroid in scientific Petri dish that appears similar to the asteroid pieaces that smashed into Chelybinsk in 2013. Sources: Data image from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.
While space collisions are likely to become present in forthcoming space experiments, analysis teams, such as private analyst reporters and national security intelligence analysts, will become helpful aides to small spacecraft in orbit scenarios. Leonard David discusses the collision scenarios of satellites in space, concluding, “The space collision is the second substantial in-space accident between an active spacecraft and a defunct satellite or piece of space debris” (David 2013, 2). Mellor discusses space technology and predictive analysis approaches. Graham-Rowe discusses lobbying as a means of communicating with the international communities about possible threats; however, in his discussion on lobbying on asteroids, Graham-Rowe says of the lobbying space intelligence, “supporters of the scheme say that the only way to accurately gauge the threat is to detect all of the asteroids and calculate their trajectories. Without this crucial first step, no government will seriously tackle the issue” (Graham-Rowe 2013, 1). He indicates that people should disregard the fantasy and consider lobbying more in Washington “of how to deflect an incoming asteroid, or somehow mitigate the effects of its impact” (Graham-Rowe 2013, 1). Graham-Rowe discusses the forthcoming goals of protesting these remarkable space phenomena by considering lobbying and visiting Washington centers to address the importance of the uncontrollable NEO dilemma.
Scientist-artist or astronomer-astronaut relationships are not the interest of this content; instead, the tactics and scenarios that international and national space organizations communicate when investigations report of space collisions and NEO-satellite hits are at the base of this study. The previous studies have generated reports that conclude that space collisions might be as popular as car-accident; in the forthcoming decades, the study of asteroids and NEOs will become more recognized. Other researchers have addressed the concerns of astronomers and space intelligence; however, in similar findings, the amount of international and national space intelligence coverage occurs behind securities intelligence government doors. This likely becomes a topic for politicians behind Washington lobbying doors. Moreover, several MAs and AAs gather these SIGINTs—namely, they research in educational institutions and publish in traditional venues, invoking analysis of predictable scenarios. However, how useful is this if a meteorite, or space rock, must be carved in a cross style and blessed by a religious authority? It will not be useful at all. The future of NEO detections relies on military satellite intelligence and satellites that specialize in detecting incoming NEOs, such as the telescopes located in Mauna Kea, Hawaii. In the months following the air blast over Russian, a number of Washington lobbyists began to introduce such topics, which might have stemmed from the published works produced by advocates for asteroids in space study. Why did this recent asteroid air blast occurrence reach the politicians in Washington so effectively? Why were news sources focusing on this occurrence? Moments after the air blast, syndicates of media sponsors began to air their views of how politicians tend to donate large amounts of money to social studies of science, when these are program objectives reflecting the assurance or understanding of National Security’s study and intelligence concerns for our forthcoming national and international generations. Furthermore, films like The Green Slime, Fire in the Sky, and Earthstorm have a guaranteed source of interest in Hollywood. Final reports find three aim groups of NEO, depending on the geometry of their orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Because of their close encounters with the Earth, they pose a risk to hit the Earth in the next future (SpaceDys 2013). Murphy summarizes this, “NEODys also includes a ‘Risk Page’ that lists near passes of asteroids and those asteroids whose orbits are highly uncertain and that need additional observations to better determine their orbits” (Choice 2005, 1). While choices make excellent research studies, according to Murphy, other authors like Graham-Rowe and David have researched the security of space intelligence measures posed at NEOs as possibly threatening to Earth. An illustration of the asteroid belts and a description of the Trojan asteroids show a behavioral path of NEOs (see Figure 2.2). In addition to near passes of asteroid online research sources, another illustration of an asteroid shows its impact on Earth (see Figure 1.1). Beyond risk pages of NEOs, other illustrations make clear the recent NEO impact during the past century (see Figure 2.3). Murphy presents research of the choices and influences of NEOs based on experience methods for an accessible standoff study.
Moreover, Murphy identifies the ability to prepare a timely study of other research in the midst of an NEO aftermath, which will reduce the load of scholarly publications on forthcoming studies of social and natural science.
Figure 2.2. Image of Asteroid Belts. Sources: Data image by JPL.
Figure 2.3. Image of the Manicouagan Crater. NEO research study, which can be found in Quebec, Canada estimated to be 215 million years old. Sources: Data Image by Google. Source adapted into Photoshop.
Compilations of analytical predictable tools could induce research because analytical continuity helps strengthen topic results based on authors’, illustrators’, and graphic designers’ experiences with the topic. Perhaps this is why polymathics has such
an interesting bearing among topic researchers—namely, NEOs and the measurable impacts of space objects. Figure 2.4. Image of research distant proximaty of relations between NEO. Asteroid Anatomy Intelligence
Most notably, Murphy’s online research provides links and edited literature that aid in minimizing study periods and tailoring a direction of specialization within the topic of study. Murphy published in Choice, while the previous authors—David and GrahamRowe—published in New Scientist and Space.com. Having a specifically designed publication method could provide tables and charts and intermediate NEO statistics to assemble a larger workflow of collective analysis, thereby strengthening the ability to forthcoming studies.
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGICAL FRAMWORK The Study Characterization By finding out how NEOs are appraised in political television commercials, scientists and researchers might better comprehend the question of how humans came from dust. Consequently, researchers might develop a second and third way to gauge the NEO threat by calculating their trajectories. National Security Relations interrelate binaurally to affect the global study about safety. Thus, researchers in the academy and outside of the educational institutions might feel emotionally motivated to study NEOs. Therefore, traditional and non-traditional NEO study will lead to two valuable strategies: (1) understand the kinds of sources readers expect you to use and (2) look beyond the usual kinds of reference (Turabian 2013). Discovering what political aspects of NEOs cause Americans to react from a self-personal event to forthcoming stupefactions is valuable research information because it might allow researchers multiple ways to express the importance of an NEO threat to other trajectories. Some researchers might observe that snowy comet tails are as interesting to observe without the aid of a telescope, but some researchers might conclude that a 10 m-class telescope can be used to acquire faint discovery checks of NEOs more quickly. First, the publication source used herein would need to be a reliable partner. Second, space applications will necessitate traditional intelligence and national security study foundations because the topic of NEO is imperative for safety policy. In The Buenos Aires Herald, the author points out that, “a woman died and eight people were injured in an overnight house explosion in Monte Grande, Buenos Aires province” (“House Explosion” 2011). In the 1990s, researchers found similar cases but final analysis discovered that a kitchen gas tank exploded. Lastly, space art plays an interesting role in compiling a hypothesis about possible binary star phenomena in orbit. Without the aid of digital space art, astronomers might find it difficult and unpleasant to gather intelligence from global security studies. Asteroid watch study results in popular concept that aids astronomers in observing the NEOs in orbit. The anatomy and structure of NEOs can be projected into future analysis. Astronomers are already aware about how to track asteroids using two of the largest and most sophisticated radar features. Radars transmit sound waves into orbit, and waves rebound off the NEO, affecting a satellite feature signal that produces a map image of the size, structure, and characteristics of the NEO in orbit. Recently, this concept was used in describing the 1998QE2 NEO that likely grazed Earth by approximately 35 million miles. NEO analyses are interesting because mining NEOs seems to produce a number of analytical scientific tools that strengthen the assumption that multiple resources of NEOs can be used on Earth and in space. Mining NEOs for excavation answers in space—for extracting water and air and other space resources—is perhaps a separate analytical study of its own. However, news articles have discussed the possibility to deflect NEOs in space and to produce multi-cruise space missions of human/NEO-interactions by 2025. Investigation and study analyses are critical for
concept gathering regarding NEOs and human safety concepts. The safety of modern detection systems, or simply forthcoming military infrared space satellite concepts, is a compelling read for interested parties. NEO analyses initiatives and strategies mesh on a number of levels. • Basic: Identifying potential risks to Earth from forthcoming NEO dilemmas. • Critical: Use of development of propulsion techniques, also known as Trans-Lunar Space analysis. Launching an astronaut crew. • Intermediate: Human intelligence interaction with the NEO—for example, taking samples of an NEO by hand and balloon-to-asteroid mining, eventually bringing wrapped NEO subject to Earth landing in Utah 2023 (“Tracking Space Rocks” 2013). All these analysis factors play a large role into the edited research because they provide evidence and answers to social media questions involving source information and they communicate feedback from agencies like FEMA and DOD, along with speculations from national security study involvement. In a peer-reviewed article in a scenfitifc journal, Gould writes about a number of impacts of global warming. According to Gould, researchers believe global warming is caused by emissions, weather realted disasters and rising levels of carbon dioxide (Gould 2009, 1) Are the effects of trajectory calculation necessary to gauge NEO threats in pastime research. Further research may suggest that newer topics are essentially a study headed towards other directions but the review of global warming and trajectory still remains a popular hinderance in todays global security. Lastly in a recent Nature World News article, Kemsley (2013, 1) notes, “the only person to have actually been hit by a meteorite was Anne Hodges who, while napping on her couch in Sylacauga, Alabama, in 1954, was hit by meteorite similar in size to the one that broke the Becks’ roof, though only after bouncing off a nearby radio.” “There are potentially thousands of suitable near-Earth objects (NEOs),” says Whitwam, “that could be accessible to robotic missions” (Asteroid Mining 2012, 1). A piece of iron from an NEO could imply supportive national security evidence of things still undiscovered on earth. The author seems to understand “along the way to that mine in the sky” (Asteroid Mining 2012, 1). Hypothesis: If intelligence wants to influence the funding of global national security awareness, then gauging NEOs will require multiple trajectory strategies. DV: Upcoming national security events of NEO intelligence. IV: Provide planet defense insight with or without government aid regarding NEO discoveries.
IV: Cultivate collection study of NEOs in National Security/Journal Intelligencer Publications. Developing objectives in intelligence and national security studies increases events, national defense plans, and collective publications, and it prevents the discussion gaps associated with unclear objectives.
CHAPTER IV: THE ANALYSES AND RESEARCH STUDY RESULTS Research Design Methods The anatomy and structure chemistry of NEOs is important to analyze especially when they pose a threat at the direction of Earth. An exploration program directed to NEOs is an important subject of global debate since NEOs can pose much danger to the planet. Because collisions of NEOs with Earth pose a finite hazard to life, the exploration of these objects is particularly urgent (Exploration of Near Earth Objects 1998, 1). This analysis and research study results in the positive confirmation of more detection systems in orbit and earth in order to explore the NEOs, which remains a finite hazard to life. It follows hypothesis testing with respect to the safety of humans and NEO observations. This chapter is limited to potential approaches and gathers scenarios from the dependent variable and independent variables in the following results. With respect to analysis and research study results appropriate national and international, agencies should prioritize the following: 1. First the safety of humans and secondly the safety of detection systems. 2. Provide sensible priority of telescope observations for possible NEO encounters at earth. 3. Partner with other companies such as Planetary Resources to aid in space mining. These three research study results have shown to provide commercial insight into the NEO happenings; however, they are further than the goals of this thesis. They are simply executively worded to encourage further research study and include priority points reflecting the research study of NEOs. The possible cooperative program between NASA and the U.S. Air Force, with the goals of discovering about 90% of NEOs larger than 1 km in diameter (estimated to be about 3000), could increase the rate of discovery by nearly two orders of magnitude (Exploration of Near Earth Objects 1998, 3). The educational study precides a level of legitimization evidence which provides the holder of the study a, national security topic. It identifies images of NEO occurrences on Earthâ€™s surface and most importantly justifies case studies with ongoing political appropriations. Depending on social and political factors, ubiquitous ambiance and near earth object themes enhance the authors style and voice. One typical, proposal study is retargeted for social science study and a second typical topic recently self-proposed produces a summary that gathers collection intelligence in order to sample appropriate forthcoming doctorial procedure studies. Discussion designed for aiding information passes through ambient technologies in contemporary times when non-educated civilians co-exist in geopolitical behaviors. Table 4.1. World's Ten Popular Craters
PLACE OF IMPACT
Barringer Crater, AZ
Meteorite Bosumtwi, Ghana
Comet or Asteroid Deep Bay, Canada
Meteorite Aorounga Crater, Chad
Asteroids Gosses Bluff, Australia Asteroid Mistastin Lake, Canada
290 million Clearwater Lakes, Canada Asteroid
5 million Kara-Kul, Tajikistan 212 million
Manicouagan, Canada …
Source: Data, for illustration purposes only. World’s Ten Popular Craters. Sources: Data Images by LISTPHOBIA.COM.
Ambient NEO crashing behaviors can act as geopolitical traps in society, and nontrapping mechanisms give way to self-mechanic executive strategies. The nascent advancement of national security study must surround these approaches, thereby eliminating trapping mechanisms. Thus, surrounding geopolitical evidence lurks and national intelligence security study processes and illustrations will exemplify patternmatchings that reflect sound judgment. Table 4.1 identifies evidence and data collection methods that remain an important aspect of safety and global security discussion.
CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION The ever-expanding research being conducted in military and national security studies often focuses on NEO gatherings. Military satellite and aircraft-based remote sensing technology could be useful in establishing historic NEO terrain analyses. In addition to the military satellite and aircraft intelligence, hyper-spectral intelligence might support research conclusions about NEO phenomena. Geospatial imagery (GI) also might present supportive study that reflects the NEO phenomena on Earth. GI might include research by NEO experts that will aid in continuing knowledge regarding NEO natural phenomena and NEO activities and their effects on Earth’s surface. Furthermore, satellite-to-hyper spectral intelligence could combine several human intelligence research areas, resulting in electromagnetic spectrum derivative examples that could aid in mining hidden NEOs on Earth’s surface. As a result, multiple images are shown in Table 4.1, which might soon be discoverable in other scholarly research. Moreover, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is another instrument that could be used in future NEO research by national security and intelligence researchers. This technology might aid in processing research details regarding specific locations for NEO activity. The accumulation of SAR results could take a number of years, but such a wait is well worth the research possibilities it would create in studying NEO phenomena. In certain NEO instances— such as the recent NEO that exploded several miles from Oblast, Russia, Chernobyl—a number of suspicions unraveled among the nearby continents. Parties gathered just miles from infrastructures and nuclear facilities, which remained closed because of the air blast. Russian intelligence officials thought the suspected nuclear facilities were of no importance because they had been closed for a few decades. What happens if such facilities should become disrupted by similar air blasts? Such foreign national security and research conclusions related to such facilities and the NEO phenomena could aid foreign national security and intelligence research in identifying strategy models to oppose nuclear facilities under construction tactics with adversary intelligence developments. However less prestigious, the collection is extinguished by isotopic intelligence analyses (IA). Examples of NEO IA can solicit researchers with tools and evidence to publish literature that describes compositions of NEO materials (i.e., rock, iron, stone pores, etc.). Another useful tool that falls under the classification of natural Earth compositions is the Mass Spectrometer (MS), which is a tool used to discover or determine a sample of an object. In this scenario, an MS would need to be designed and upgraded to classified NEO analysis. This strategy might even serve on unmanned aerial flying apparatuses, which might discover elements or traces of NEO phenomena. In return, these intelligence scenarios could soon determine the conditions, stability, age, composition, and research conclusions of NEOs. Certification of NEO research studies requires a number of analytical intelligence and research efforts; however, the dual degree option enhances and augments national security and intelligence confidence in teaching and future research shares. Thus, NEO
study is ongoing and retrospective to accommodate forthcoming publications in dual languages. The geospatial predictive analysis in this thesis predicts the likelihood of things occurring at the perfect time. Senses and reflections are a keen hot spot in everyday research. Signature intelligence predictive areas of focus aid in applicable national security and NEO study in a number of ways. A first example is strategic foreign intelligence studies of NEO phenomena near unpowered nuclear factories. Second, there are a number of places in which focusing on recent NEO activity results in interdiction phenomena and obscurities reflecting nuclear resistance forces. Third, unclassified intelligence reporting can become forthcoming geospatial/hyper spectral processes and concepts. Fourth, general areas where mass spectrometries are available could improve machines that analyze NEO components and account for terrain analysis appropriations. The result would be a composition of SAR technologies that can be used to study Earth’s surface from space and process forthcoming military studies of nuclear threat analyses. “Since 2010, a world-class team has been quietly working to expand humanity’s resource base. Their path forward is to mine asteroids that have high concentrations of water and precious metals” (Planetary Resources Webcast 2012). From a security standpoint, a future hit-or-miss NEO could disrupt military objectives. Of the forthcoming objectives this thesis could bring—namely, a number of polymathic studies that conclude several concepts and might produce solid study misconceptions—fluidity goes on to improve a safer global message. In conclusion, loyalists in the study of global security and intelligence have tried to collect research as much as possible despite a series of national security skepticisms with foreign non-American English surfaces.
GLOSSARY ambient intelligence (AmI). Refers to electronic movements that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. Is the vision of a technology that becomes invisibly embedded in our natural surroundings, present whenever it is needed. Is the vision of the information societies and a distributed network of intelligence devices and hidden intelligence interfaces that influence the people for the style in which it is adapted to. apophis. An approximately 885-foot wide to 325-meter diameter asteroid that is expected to pass by Earth in 2029. asteroids. Asteroids are pieces of smaller planetary bodies that formed when Earth and the other planets did. They range in size from a few meters to over 900 kilometers across. Most asteroids are made of the same material as the rocky planets. A few are comets that lost their ices, leaving behind only orbiting ices, leaving behind only orbiting chunks of rock. Countless asteroids orbit through interplanetary space. Most are found in the Asteroid Belt and beyond. Some have orbits that bring them close to Earth, and JPLâ€™s Asteroid watch team actively monitors their trajectories. asteroid belt. Most asteroids orbit the Sun in a region called the Asteroid Belt. It lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Other groups of asteroids, such as the Trojan families, orbit beyond the Main Belt. binational. Concerning or consisting of two nations. binary star. A system of two stars in which one star revolves around the other or both revolve around a common center. 10 m-class telescope. A telescope required to attain faint discovery checks of NEOâ€™s speedily. chelyabinsk. Geographical place in which a medium size asteroid affected regional change above the skies of Russian territory. This regional disaster event is unrelated to the 2012 DA14 asteroid flyby.
comet/asteroid scene investigators. A funded NASA media program which involves a group of scene investigators to discuss NEO intelligence to its audienceâ€™s.
diogenite. A meteorite that was found in LaPaz Icefield. geosynchronous satellites. Satellites which soar in permanent perches above Earth to convey with and communicate collection intelligence datum. howardite. A meteorite that was found in Elephant Moraine Icefield. main-belt comets. Ten or more asteroids that have been sited to date that demonstrate a trail like that of comets. meteorites. Are stony or metallic fragments that fall to Earth from asteroids, Earth’s Moon, Mars, or comets. They represent material from the very early history of our solar system. All were collected in Antarctica. nasa’s dawn spacecraft. A NASA spacecraft that collected NEO’s and was hit and severed by several meteorites in 2011-12. nasa’s near earth asteroid (NEAR). NEAR brought to JPL images of NEO activity. Images revealed a cratered, lumpy mini-world. NEAR was guided by JPL navigators to the first soft landing of a spacecraft on an asteroid. nuclear winter. Is a meteorological theory estimating the global climatic consequences of a nuclear war-or a natural disaster such as a major asteroid impact-that injects large amounts of dust or water vapor into the atmosphere. polymathic. A person of wide-ranging knowledge or learning. polymict eurcrite. A meteorite that was fond in Lewis Cliff. regulation of neo materials. Resources that can be discovered or dug up such as iron or minimum traces of humidity existence. santa ana wind. Stalwart, particularly dry offshore airstreams that influence coastal Southern California and northern Baja California in winter and autumn. survey & ballot. A system used to adapt guides to outsourced elections and used to aid funded and non funded organizations in housekeeping election intelligence. torino scale. Is a method for categorizing the impact hazard associated with near-Earth objects (NEOs) such as asteroids and comets. trajectory. path of a flying projectile. Can still be defined as an asteroid that is on a nearEarth trajectory.
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The author proposes to the Thesis/Research Paper Professor and the Department a study of the following topic to be conducted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in National Security Studies.
School of Global and Security Studies Department of Intelligence and National Security The thesis for the masterâ€™s degree presented by Steven Frank MejĂa Trajectory Calculation Necessary to Gauge NEO Threats This thesis has been read by the undersigned. It is hereby recommended for acceptance by the faculty with credit to the amount of three semester hours. (Signed)_____________________(Date)_____________ (Signed)___________________(Date)________________ Recommended for approval on behalf of the Department (Signed)_________________(Date)____________ Recommendation accepted on behalf of the Dean, School of Security and Global Studies (Signed)_________________________(Date)______________ Approved Academic Dean and Provost