2 0 1 1 T RA FF I C K IN G IN P ER S ON S RE P OR T
appalling working conditions, little or no pay, and intimidation or violence. Likewise, sex trafficking victims’ previous engagement in prostitution does not mean that they consented to activities like forced drug use, unprotected sex, forced abortions, or sex against their will for the profit of a pimp. In the case of children, moreover, no improper means need to be established for the trafficking act to constitute a criminal offense, as children cannot consent in these circumstances. According to UNHCR, children among the 240,000 internally displaced Afghans face a wide range of protection concerns, including child labor, early or forced marriages, and human trafficking. Sex trafficking of both girls and boys is all too common.
A similar impediment to trafficking prosecutions is that some governments, including many in Latin America, require a formal complaint, or denunciation, to be filed by a private citizen for a trafficking prosecution to be initiated. In countries with high levels of organized crime or violence, an NGO or private citizens who are not trafficking victims often refrain from linking their names with such public complaints for fear of compromising their own safety. Victims themselves will typically refrain from filing an official complaint because they fear retaliation, distrust that the system will work for them as opposed to the trafficker, or desire anonymity. This may be the most rational choice where victim protections are nonexistent, inadequate, or insufficient in protecting the victims’ families.
GLOBAL LAW ENFORCEMENT DATA The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (T VPR A) of 2003 added to the original law a new requirement that foreign governments provide the Department of State with data on trafficking investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and sentences in order to be considered in full compliance with the T VPA’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking (Tier 1). The 2004 TIP Report collected this data for the first time. The 2007 TIP Report showed for the first time a breakout of the number of total prosecutions and convictions that related to labor trafficking, placed in parentheses. YEAR
The numbers in parantheses are those of labor trafficking prosecutions and convictions.
NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION
Published on Jun 26, 2012