Pathways to slavery. Broker/trafficker networks feeding exploitative long-haul fishing boats.
Local Khmer broker: Transports groups to Poipet/Malai
Voluntary internal migration: Often with friends
Khmer broker in Poipet/Malai: Safehouses; walks groups across border; handles money transfer to relatives at home
Thai transporter: Drives groups from border (Thai side) to destination towns
Thai broker: In destination port town; serves local boat owners
Slave boat Broker at Thai border: Strong, direct relationship with boat owners. Usually Thai, sometimes Khmer.
United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, 2009
Many trafficked persons have suffered months or years of physical and psychological abuse, displacement from familiar surroundings, and negative interactions with law enforcement or other government officials. Law enforcement officials must consider the fear the victim may be experiencing, the victim’s fragile emotional state, and the victim’s physical needs, and they must adapt the interview accordingly.
Two dozen Thai farm workers gather in front of a Buddhist temple in Los Angeles to denounce the labor recruiter who had brought them to the United States. Up to 400 Thai men were allegedly held on farms through threats of violence and deportation.
MO V IN G T O WAR D A DE C A D E O F D E L I VERY
* Red arrows indicate clear linkages to exploitation. The yellow and orange pathways were about evenly represented in the sample. Enforcement responses should focus on the links to exploitation.
While specialized police or prosecution units can focus on cultivating interviewing expertise, everyone can benefit from the following basic victim-centered interview techniques. Allay fears. Traffickers often hold victims in servitude through fear of their arrest and deportation by police and immigration authorities. Once identified by law enforcement, victims’ first thoughts are often not of rescue, but of the trauma of a raid and fear of arrest, deportation, and potential retaliation by the trafficker. They may have been provided with a cover story by their captors. Thus, their initial statements are often either incomplete or even falsely exculpate the trafficker. To help avoid this situation, the following techniques have proven effective: •
old the interview in a non-threatening H and comfortable location;