ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR Stephen Yuen_641050 2015_Semester 1 Tutor_Brad Elias

APPENDIX

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Meshimage: cover geometry Tape Melbourne forms theproject basis reverse of many engineered applications within Grasshopper. This exercise explores the capabilities of creating simple meshes.

Most meshes will begin as platonic shapes but can be easily manipulated through boolean actions, and deformation components.

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CONTENTS 4 LOFTING + STATE CAPTURE 5 TRIANGULATION METHODS 8 SPOTLIGHT: OCTREE 10 MESH GEOMETRY 12 CULL PATTERNS + LISTS 14 CONTOURS + SECTIONING 16 CREATING GRIDSHELLS 18 PATTERNING LISTS 20 FIELD FUNDAMENTALS 22 EXPRESSIONS 24 FRACTAL TETRAHEDRALS 26 EVALUATING FIELDS 28 GRAPH CONTROLLERS 30 GRADIENT DESCENT 33 FRACTAL PATTERNS 34 SPOTLIGHT: KANGAROO PHYSICS 36 PLANARISATION 38 PATTERNING A SURFACE 40 IMAGE SAMPLING 42 LIVE DATA FEEDS 44 RADIATION ANALYSIS

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LOFTING + STATE CAPTURE loft me like squares you do can you fit in a circle? Subheading how many

Lofting may seem to be basicofcomponent Mesh geometry forms theabasis many apused profusely in the regular Rhino program. plications within Grasshopper. This exercise However, the beauty of parametric modelexplores the capabilities of creating simple ling in Grasshopper is the ability to change meshes. the individual curves causing the overall lofted surface to change intuitively.

The following three models were created Most meshes will begin as platonic shapes using but can the same curves by simply changing theactions, individual be easily manipulated through boolean control points. Thiscomponents. shows the flexibility of paraand deformation metricism on even a basic scale.

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TRIANGULATION METHODS fill me with geometry

All the following triangulation methods require a set of points in which to create geometry. Therefore, Pop2D and Pop3D are two very useful tools.

Delaunay edges is a quick and easy component to create developable surfaces.

The metaball component appears to create individual charges in which adjacent elements repel or attract each other.

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Mesh geometry forms the basis of many applications within Grasshopper. This exercise explores the capabilities of creating simple meshes.

1 Schumacher, Patrik, The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), p. 1. 2 Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013), pp. 3-4, 34.

Most meshes will begin as platonic shapes but can be easily manipulated through boolean actions, and deformation components.

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The Voronoi and Voronoi 3D components are a basic method to quickly produce geometry. Although it is visually interesting, it merely is a starting point in which further techniques or algorithms can be applied.

Deleting voronoi modules from a larger collection illustrates its abilities to create unique forms.

1 Schumacher, Patrik, The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), p. 1. 2 Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013), pp. 3-4, 34.

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SPOTLIGHT: OCTREE how many squares can you fit in a circle?

This weekâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s algorithmic exercise had us Mesh geometrywith forms basis component. of many apexperimenting thethe OcTree plications Grasshopper. This exercise Taking an within existing work of architecture which explores the capabilities of creating simple features a curved surface, we had to utilise meshes. the component to investigate what kind of results it would generate. I decided to use Frank Lloyd Wrightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design for the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum located in Manhattan, New York. The OcTree component approximates curved surfaces by producing a series of varying sized cubic forms. As these cubic forms are generated from an arrangement of points which are populated throughout a

Original Rhino model of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

geometric structure, the obvious first point of Most meshes will begin shapes but can experimentation would as beplatonic to change the number be easily manipulated through boolean actions, of points generated in the structure. Secondly, the and deformation components. OcTree component also allows you to change the number of cubic forms produced at each point. Thus, I also experimented with this input by using a number slider. However, I wanted to extend this definition further. I wanted to investigate the algorithm that generated the cubic forms themselves. Moreover, knowing that these forms are produced from a list of points, I used the Cull Pattern component to identify which boxes or points I wanted to keep (True), and which I wanted to be disregarded (False) by typing in my preferences in a panel.

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how many squares can you fit in a circle?

50 points

150 points

Iterations demonstrating an increase of points generated on the base geometry

PATTERN: True False True False 500 points Experimentation with the Cull Pattern component

PATTERN: True False True False False True True True True False False False False 800 points

Further experimentation with the Cull Pattern component

200 points

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MESH GEOMETRY Subheading mesh up and start over

Mesh Meshgeometry geometryforms formsthe thebasis basisof ofmany manyapapplications plicationswithin withinGrasshopper. Grasshopper.This Thisexercise exercise explores exploresthe thecapabilities capabilitiesof ofcreating creatingsimple simple meshes. meshes.

Most Mostmeshes mesheswill willbegin beginas asplatonic platonicshapes shapesbut butcan can be beeasily easilymanipulated manipulatedthrough throughboolean booleanactions, actions, and anddeformation deformationcomponents. components.

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Applying the smooth mesh component provides flexibility into the minimum and maximum angle at which the mesh deforms.

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CULL PATTERNS + LISTS Subheading â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cullâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;-our my world

Mesh geometryhow forms basis of many Understanding tothe manipulate data apin plications within Grasshopper. exercise Grasshopper forms the basis ofThis producing explorestypes the capabilities creating simple various of powerfulof algorithms. meshes.

Most meshes willknowledge begin as platonic shapes but can Combining this with image sampling be easily manipulated through boolean actions, produces iterations as seen on the right in which and deformation components. the diameter of the circles are controlled by raw data.

Cull pattern: TRUE

Cull pattern: TRUE FALSE FALSE

Cull pattern: TRUE FALSE

Cull pattern: TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE

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The diameter of the circles are determined by the brightness of the sampled image. Points that become too small are then culled.

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CONTOURS + SECTIONING Subheading slice & dice

Mesh geometry forms the basis of many apDividing solid objects not only provide an applications within Grasshopper. This exercise proach towards fabrication, but it may also explores the capabilities of creating simple produce visual effects. The examples below meshes. were generated by firstly creating a form

Most meshes will begin as platonic shapes but can using the manipulated Kangaroo component. The vaulted surbe easily through boolean actions, faces were then sectioned to produce these iteraand deformation components. tions. As a result, it creates these effects similar to the patterns created by sand against the water.

Number of frames: 80

Number of frames: 100

Number of frames: 120

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In the 3-dimensional sense, it creates a series of planes which culminate to the overall form. It allows designers to approximate curved surfaces.

Contouring is utilised to reverse engineer the AA Driftwood Pavilion.

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CREATING GRIDSHELLS Subheading what shell we do?

Gridshells are created by joining Mesh geometry forms the basis ofcurves manyalong apa list of points that rest upon the shellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plane. plications within Grasshopper. This exercise Resultantly, visual effect createdsimple by a set explores theacapabilities ofiscreating meshes.

of curves Most meshes thatwill both begin divide as platonic a surfaceshapes while maintabut can be easily ing the integrity manipulated of its form. through Fabrication boolean can actions, then andconsidered be deformation bycomponents. fixing joints where the curves meet.

Generate the initial geometry

Form the plane upon which the gridshell will project

Interpolate the points through which the curves will create the gridshell

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The following iterations demonstrate the patterns that can be created by manipulating data. Using the Voronoi component as a means to produce a basic pattern, the main

focus of this algorithm to explore the capabiliMost meshes will beginwas as platonic shapes but can ties of changing the order of information inherent be easily manipulated through boolean actions, within the algorithm. and deformation components.

Cull pattern: TRUE

Cull pattern: TRUE FALSE

Cull pattern: TRUE FALSE FALSE

Cull pattern: TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE

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FIELD FUNDAMENTALS Subheading do you get the point?

Mesh geometry forms the basis of many a apFields utilise a point charge to generate plications within Grasshopper. This exercise pattern. In the most basic sense, a point explores capabilities of creating simple charge isthe used to repel elements. Often meshes.

Most meshesas willabegin platonic shapes but can represented series as of arrows interacting with be manipulated through booleanin actions, oneeasily another, this can also be illustrated a gradiand deformation components. ent of colours.

1 point charge

3 point charges

1 point charge

6 point charges

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Field diagram illustrating the interactions between point charges

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EXPRESSIONS

Mesh geometry forms the the use basisofofmathematimany apExpressions are simply plications within Grasshopper. Thiswithin exercise cal functions to manipulate data an explores the creating simple algorithm. In capabilities this exercise,ofan expression was meshes. used to generate the diameter of each circle on this form. Specifically, an external point was placed at a distance from the vertical structure and the distance between this point

Most meshes will begin as platonic shapes but can and every point on the structure was calculated. be easily manipulated through boolean actions, The result then determined the diameters. Thus, and deformation components. expressions provide a method to input relevant data extracted from the site, or specific conditions or considerations required when generating a model.

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Inspired by Amanda useofofmany fractal Mesh geometry formsLaschâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the basis aptetrahedrals, these experiments explored the plications within Grasshopper. This exercise use of such forms to create a structure which explores the capabilities of creating simple

features interconnected By manipulating Most meshes will begin aslimbs. platonic shapes but can the mathematical expressions the actions, algorithm, be easily manipulated throughwithin boolean the iterations were produced. andfollowing deformation components.

meshes.

5 sided polygon

4 sided polygon

5 sided polygon

5 sided polygon

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4 sided polygon

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Extending the fundamentals of fields in the previous algorithm, by interpolating the set of points generated by the point charges, a

diffused-like effect can be generated. These results resemble the appearance of natural forms and organisms which may assist in conceptual development.

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diffusion force: 40

diffusion force: 100

diffusion force: 25

diffusion force: 500

diffusion force: 50

diffusion force: 1000

diffusion force: 60

diffusion force: 2000

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GRAPH CONTROLLERS Subheading there is no limit

Similar to culling patterns and manipulating data structures, using graph controllers are another way of changing the information

that is utilised within the algorithm. The following show the result of using different graph types in the same algorithm.

bezier

guassian

bezier

sine

bezier

power

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perlin

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In order to generate the descent of gradients upon a surface, we begin to utilise clusters within Grasshopper. Clusters provide an alternative to manually repeating a single algorithm. Resultantly, it can generate patterns which build upon each other. Specifically, it can draw upon data from the previous iteration rather than merely the data that was referenced at the start.

Surface used to calculate the series of gradients

In this example, clusters were used to calculate the closest point from a series of points within the surface. As a result, a pattern which simulates the way water would move along the surface is created. This algorithm may be used to determine the behaviour of a design if it came into contact with a fluid. Furthermore, it could utilise the path of the fluid to determine the form of the design itself.

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Front elevation

Side elevation

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Diagram illustrating the degradation of the integrity of the original surface when the number of points are reduced.

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FRACTAL PATTERNS generation, iteration, Subheading repeat

Clusters can also be utilised to generate fractal patterns. This is used to generate a visual effect of using a single module which is then repeated at different scales or in a different

orientation. The result is a branch-like effect whereby small modules branch away from the original geometry. Such patterns are easily generated through the use of algorithmic clusters.

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SPOTLIGHT: KANGAROO PHYSICS this could get a little meshy

This weekâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s algorithmic sketch had us introMesh geometry the basis of many apducing ourselvesforms to the Kangaroo Physics plications Grasshopper. This exercise plug-in onwithin Grasshopper. Significantly more explores the capabilities of creating simple challenging compared to last weekâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exermeshes. cise, this sketch allowed us to start incorporating and modelling real-life factors such as gravity. Kangaroo Physics allows us to investigate the reaction of a mesh under various levels of forces. In order to successfully set up a simulation, I had to identify the skeleton that would shape the mesh, the anchor points which would keep the mesh intact, and a unary force which would act upon the mesh itself.

In combination with the Kangaroo plug-in, I Most meshes begin platonic shapes also opted towill utilise the as Weaverbird plug-inbut as can be easily manipulated through boolean actions, it increases the ease in which I can manipulate and deformation components. meshes. Throughout my experimentations, I decided to use a downward force to simulate the effects of gravity. I firstly began with a simple mesh that was supported by four vertical supports. With the design proposal in mind, the anchor points upon which the mesh is attached to could be considered to be entities such as trees, poles or other existing bodies that could be used to engage with a mesh structure.

Preliminary model using only the mesh vertices as the anchor points

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how many squares can you fit in a circle?

Unary force factor: -1000

Unary force factor: -5000

Unary force factor: -10000

Iterations demonstrating changes in the unary force

Unary force factor: 0

Unary force factor: -200

Iterations demonstrating changes in the unary force on a curvilinear skeleton

In order to further my algorithmic sketch, I was curious as to see what effect the mesh would have if it were anchored to a curvilinear skeleton. The models directly above and the one on the right simulate the form of a possible tent-like cacoon structure. What is interesting to note is that if the unary force is parallel to a particular surface, that surface will become taut and will not be affected by the external force. Thus, an important factor to consider when approaching my design is the orientation of the skeletal structure as it will determine the behaviour of the mesh.

Unary force factor: -1000

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TENSILE BODIES Subheading you seem tense

A powerful component on Grasshopper or any other parametric modelling tool is the ability to simulate the behaviour of materials in real-life situations. Using the Kangaroo component, the performance of mesh structures

Rest length: 0.8

Rest length: 0.5

Rest length: 0.2

was simulated under different conditions. Furthermore, by manipulating the rest length, different qualities of varying materials can be investigated.

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Increasing the number and size of cavities reduces the integrity of the material. Thus, it becomes less durable and more susceptible to external forces.

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PATTERNING A SURFACE Subheading a diverse generation

Similar to the panelling tools component, this algorithm approximates and scales individual modules onto a mesh surface. The following iterations demonstrates multiple examples of different patterns that can be fitted onto the triangular faces of a mesh. What is powerful about this algorithm is its ability to not only morph 2-dimensional modules onto the mesh, but also 3-dimensional elements. Furthermore, the patterns are not only limited to triangular geometries. As long as a geometry can be fitted inside a triangular shape, it may be used to panel the mesh surface (eg. a circumscribed circle).

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3-dimensional patterning

2-dimensional patterning

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IMAGE SAMPLING Subheading here is a sample

The opportunities presented through image sampling carries a wide range of areas for experimentation. However, the benefits of using image sampling to extract data, is its ability to use visual information to inform an effect

within a design. More specifically, I have utilised image sampling to determine the size of the cavities within the surface which may assist in regulating real-life factors such as sun and shade.

Sample subject:

Blue

Sample subject:

Hue

Sample subject:

Brightness

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Using the information from an image sampler to determine the size of the cavities embedded on a mesh surface

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LIVE DATA FEEDS Subheading smile for the camera

Red Channel

Hue Sample subject:

Sample subject:

Blue Channel

Sample subject:

Brightness

processed, specific aspects of the image were sampled to determine the height at which the protrusions would extend.

Sample subject:

Sample subject:

Green Channel

Sample subject:

Brightness

Using the Firefly plug-in, I experimented with inputting visual data using a webcam. Furthermore, once the webcam data had been

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The benefits of digital modelling is not just limited to generating forms but also in analysing them. Using the Ladybug plug-in, I am able to input meteorological data and visualise the extent of solar radiation a surface possesses. This method demonstrates one method of optimisation whereby the design of a building is modified on the basis of environmental systems. Furthermore, it allows buildings to become more efficient in terms of its heat

transmittance and use of thermal insulation. Moreover, the plug-in is advantageous in being able to produce analytical diagrams which can be extremely useful in conveying data during presentations. With the capabilities of Grasshopper, developing sustainable outcomes becomes more flexible as designers can instantly visualise the relationship between a building and its environment.

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Original surface

Rotation of curves

Rotation of curves

Scaling of curves

Scaling of curves

Orientation of curves

AIR_Algorithmic Sketchbook

University of Melbourne Architecture Design Studio: AIR