Considering the Interpreted Nar r at i ve
Preface 4 Introduction 6 Consider: Anatomy 9 Narrative in Motion: Constructing the Image 10 An Unfolding Narrative 18 Considering the Potential of the Stilled Narrative 32 Stationary Motion: narrative through the eye of the spectator 34 On Subjectivity 41 Temporal Thinking 44 Completing the Narrative 64 Epilogue 71 Notes on the Method 73 References & Bibliography 75
If our goal is interpretation, and the most natural mode of communicating is storytelling, then narrative is the architecture that both structures and conveys the intended meaning. - Lee H. Skolnick
Narrative is a simple thing: chronology with meaning. - Jon Franklin
An explanation on the title It is important, initially, to consider and understand the term ‘narrative’ - the intended use of which is integral to this discussion. Derivation: narrative: from the Latin narrāre - to recount - and gnārus, knowing. Definition: An account of a series of events, facts etc., given in order with the establishing of connections between them; a story.1 1
Though it is often loosely used and not fully understood, typically the term is associated with the written or spoken word which recounts a series of connected events. Simply, it is storytelling: a basic human concept which manifests itself throughout culture. It is the conscious way in which we communicate experiences and ideas to others. In this essay, ‘narrative’ will be defined as a composition of ‘things’. A constructed anatomy which conveys meaning. It is, perhaps, helpful to consider the architect as the ‘author’ of their building, where the written word is replaced instead by physical objects and materials.
1 Oxford English Dictionary
The fundamental implication is that architectural sense-making and the construction of identity are storyline constructions. Architectural storytelling involves the process of developing connections between oneâ€™s past experiences and those of others. - Marco Frascari
Photography is truth. The cinema is truth twenty-four times per second. - Jean-Luc Godard
Human beings are dominated by the compulsion to return to the familiar, or when there is nothing familiar to be found, to familiarise ourselves with the unfamiliar. - Neil Leach
6|7 Narration is a familiar human concept – it is fundamental in our ability to understand the complexity of ‘things’. Architecture specifically, presents us with the opportunity to exhibit history, culture and memory through the means of architectural narrative. In considering ‘intervened’ architecture(s) such as Sverre Fehn’s Storhamar Barn at the Hedmark Museum, Hamar, Norway; Carlo Scarpa’s Castelvecchio, Verona and; David Chipperfield’s Neues Museum, Berlin, the concept of narration becomes a multi-layered, four-dimensional2 experience. These examples - museums specifically - must exhibit artefacts out-with their original context. The architect has to therefore consider how the object can continue to convey its purpose - its ‘story’ - within its new environment. 1
Typically though, there is an inevitable ambiguity in any narrative. It can be understood on multiple levels and it is the individual’s interpretation or involvement that allows this perception to be consistently altered. Architecturally this represents itself as an ever evolving dialogue between the visitor, the space and/or object(s). This DRU aims to investigate and challenge the perception of narrative, which is determined initially by the physical, spatial relationship between the occupant and the artefact; secondly, by the role of the author (architect/photographer); and finally by the role of the reader (occupant/spectator). Architecture is entirely experiential, always it involves direct participation by the occupant. In reference to photography, the spectator is no longer physically active in the narrative but still participates from a removed perspective. Purposefully designed for the remote viewer, it acts as a window into an environment that the viewer is unable to physically access. Visual narrative, therefore, is imperative. The photographer may manipulate the image, by selective composition and/or digital editing, to ensure that the viewer sees precisely what the photographer intends them to. Interpretation of a photograph is physically limited to its image borders. There is controlled containment for the viewer which is difficult to achieve within architecture. In the threedimensional world, field-of-view may only be guided by the architect. Similarly though, the constructed narratives of architecture and photography exist as physical representations of the concepts and stories of their respective authors.
2. Time, space, object, viewer/occupant
Consider: Anatomy ‘It’s a kind of anatomy we’re talking about’. (Zumthor 2006) As a composition of things, architecture is choreographed – in this respect, it is fundamentally structured. Space, material and light are essential elements; within museums, artefacts are perhaps the most essential. In this particular building typology the exhibits give the building its purpose. Within successful museum architecture, the absence or presence of any single artefact has a profound impact on the narrative of the space(s). The architecture is only part of the story. Sverre Fehn’s archaeological Nordic museum in Hamar, Norway epitomises the concept of architectural narration. Fehn considers a range of inventive stories and images. At the point he is able to bring a particular story into his material concept, a creative resistance force belonging to structure evolves. (Fjeld 2009) Preoccupied with the connection between earth and sky, mellomron – the space between, Fehn’s architecture actively explores and challenges the position of the viewer in relation to, at its most macro scale, the cosmos; the perceived intermediary that is the ‘horizon’; and at a more micro scale, the object and, significantly, the position of the object in relation to the horizon.
fig.01. Concept interior montage for Integrated Design project, ‘Filmhaus’.
Narrative in Motion: Constructing the Image The inherent embodied memory of material, specifically, is a platform upon which Fehn considers his intervention. Inserted within the existing stone structure, a fluid concrete route unfolds as a constructed landscape. His investigation into the concept of the shifting horizon is made manifest through the considered integration of stairs and ramps within this suspended narrative. These devices within the continuous, shifting route purposefully activate the ‘space between’. This influences the perception of the space as the visitor’s position in relation the ground/horizon and sky is continually transformed. It appears Fehn’s intention is not to predetermine the visitor’s perception but to guide them both through and out-with an interpreted sequence of history. Through the cross section [opposite] Fehn’s metaphors are clear. The concrete route appears as a series of ‘vessels’ apparently suspended within the enclosing frame. They contain the visitor within the space while the ramp (the smaller of the three) specifically directs movement. His own sketch [p.24] entitled The Discovery of the Object is also evidenced here. It is the presence of material enveloping this route that most evidently conveys Fehn’s own ethos. The stone walls at ground and first floor levels exhibit an aura of permanence and endurance pertaining to the earth; while on the uppermost level the lightweight, rhythmic quality of the timber structure relates to the sky. Connecting the levels, the contemporary concrete insertion appears to allude to both. It subtly interacts with the old only when necessary to permit the existing marks in the landscape - the protected ruins - to continue their now slowed decay. Having considered the broad anatomy of the narrative, it is relevant to discuss a significant portion of the architectural dialogue where these separate elements are choreographed to form a cohesive whole. Within this context there exists a crucial subtext. As a museum, it is the artefact which contains the most significance –the dramatis personae within the architecture. Fehn, on staging the object(s): ‘It is the object that is constant, but the visitor experiences the exhibited object differently. It is the way in which the object communicates with the space that makes the individual communication possible. The exhibitor injects a new personality into the object, but it is the visitor who decides if it is understood.’ (Fjeld 2009) Thus the architect accepts his limits and allows the individual’s interpretation to conclude the narrative
fig.02. Sketch plan + section of Fehnâ€™s Storhamar Barn
‘When the object moves itself into a museum, its dialogue with the past, with the space where it was made, disappears…It must survive on its own magic…Its beauty and inner strength will confront time as well as the object’s legitimacy.’ – Sverre Fehn A single exhibit, particularly, appears to be a physical manifestation of one of Fehn’s metaphors: the boat on the elusive horizon. Physically suspended between two levels – two horizons – is a modest timber rowing boat. Situated at the moment where the visitor is drawn through an enclosed space to an open double height volume which exposes the entirety of the structure3. The individual is instantly aware of their position in relation to the object – the perception of being beneath the horizon. This predetermined route permits the visitor to view the craftsmanship of the object, first, from below - from within an absent body of water - and then once more, from above, at the new horizon where perception is more familiar. Essentially it is the object within this conscious sequence, at this precise moment, which controls the spatial experience. The cross section through this space - and through the object - identifies a striking similarity between the actual vessel [the boat] and the implied vessel [the ramp]. [fig.06] 1
The artefact, removed from its intended environment and purpose, is communicated by Fehn in the manner of his own interpretation. His approach allows the boat to be properly exhibited whilst also exploring his own metaphor. He does not seek to directly replicate the original but in suspending the boat he evokes a fictional - yet entirely credible - scene of a boat docked alongside a concrete pier. Fishing rods, specifically staged nearby, further suggest a potential continuation of the narrative. Consider, for a moment, that the exhibit no longer occupies the space. Without the presence of this specific object the purpose of the space is transformed. It is argued then, that the considered anatomy of the architecture influences perception. The omission or alteration of any single element affects the understanding of the whole. Ultimately, Fehn’s considered approach and sensitivity to both building and artefact is evident in the success and clarity of the narrative. 3. Spatially this sequence can be likened to a ‘dolly shot’ within a film narrative – a cinematic technique whereby the viewer is drawn towards something in the distance through a forward motion involving the physical displacement of objects. Note: this differs to a ‘zoom shot’ where the object in the distance is magnified and seemingly brought towards the viewer, achieved through changing the focal length of the camera. This evaluation aims to highlight the significance of the physical participation of the visitor within the intended narrative.
fig.03. Constructed â€˜cinemetricâ€™ montage
fig.04. cinematic ‘dolly’ shot technique
fig.05. principles of ‘zoom’ shot
fig.07. space with exhibit: spectator’s view is controlled and directed towards new ‘horizon’
fig.08. space without exhibit: perception is altered as the space is no longer bounded by the object
What do we mean when we speak of architectural quality? It is a question I have little difficulty answering…Quality architecture to me is when a building manages to move me. What on earth is it that moves me?...One word for it is atmosphere. I have to admit that I’m back to believing in first impressions. It’s a bit like that with architecture too. I enter a building, see a room and - in the fraction of a second have this feeling about it. - Peter Zumthor
[On theoretical practice] …theory and idea reside inherently in the subject matter – it is only the fact of their resolution within a physical reality that makes them poetic. - David Chipperfield
An Unfolding Narrative Pertaining to movement: the physical displacement of a body through space and time. Fundamentally, this is the manner in which we physically experience architecture. Within this process though, in moving from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’, an entirely subjective interpretation – conscious or sub-conscious – takes place. While it is the responsibility of the architect to consider architecture as a response to context, in its many connotations, in order to facilitate a meaningful solution: a potential solution – it can be argued that this will only ever be just that – a physically represented version of the subjective interpretation of the architect. ‘Sequential experiences of space [in parallax] can only be played out in personal perception…If we allow magazine photos or screen images to replace experience, our ability to perceive architecture will diminish so greatly that it will become impossible to comprehend it.’ - Steven Holl Architecture is a characteristically ambiguous ‘thing’. There is no single way to understand it. The unique nature of people ensures this. An attempt, then, to impose a sort of logic and structure – a narrative – is the process by which the architect endeavours to convey his interpretation to others. Ultimately it is what and how this is conveyed that will influence perception – thus is the limit of the architect’s control: ‘the Death of the Author’4so to speak. Thereafter, personal history, memory and ethos of the individual are inherent to the conclusive perception. 1
4. ‘The Death of the Author’ 1967 - Essay by Roland Barthes, who argues that the interpretation of a text should not be limited to nor end with the discovery of the Author (the scriptor).
fig.09. Integrated design project: unfolded cinematic route
layering the narrative: Fehnâ€™s metaphor
layering the narrative: perceiving the horizon
layering the narrative: fehnâ€™s narrative
layering the narrative: structured perception
Considering the Potential of the Stilled Narrative ‘Suppose you shoot a whole movie in a single frame?...You get a shining screen.’ – Hiroshi Sugimoto
A single image may be less tangible than a built space but it is certainly no less profound. Perhaps even more so – for often it is not what it is seen but rather what remains unseen. Simply, it is the result of an individual’s decision at a moment in time to capture whatever is or isn’t. For this reason photography, inherently subjective and thus comparable to an architectural narrative, is the process of rendering observation self-conscious. (Dyer 2001)
Stationary Motion: Narrative through the Eye of the Spectator
Hiroshi Sugimoto’s monochromatic Movie Theatre collection aims to capture the essence of the space and its intention. Apparently devoid of people, the emptiness exists in stark contrast to the brightly illuminated, blank movie screen. Using multiple exposures on his camera, Sugimoto’s attempt to potentially find something ‘still’ within a moving image is realised: through setting the exposure time to coincide with the duration of the film, the spectator is rendered invisible. In this way ‘time passes through [his] camera’. (Dyer 2005) The absolute whiteness of the screen suggests something more; some narrative intentionally unseen. Essentially, this series of photographs exist as a physical representation of the conscious effort by the individual to somehow capture, in a still image, the passage of time. Similarly, English installation artist Corneila Parker, explores the possibilities of motion stilled. Her installations comprise shattered objects, suspended mid-air – her exploding shed installation , perhaps most recognisable, is a narrative suspended in time: it is simultaneously with and out with the moment – not unlike Fehn’s ‘suspended route’. Much like Sugimoto’s Movie Theatre photographs, the process of production is as important as the ‘end product’. A systematic selective process of layering through which the creator physically constructs their imaginings in reality. Entitled, Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, Parker suggests a further layer of perception by the viewer. It concerns both the measurable and immeasurable. The latter part of which intimates the exploded axonometric drawings one might find in a technical manual: a sort of ‘mapping out’ of the way in which things can be understood. The first part meanwhile, suggests the vast detachment from the immeasurable and unknown. The title is both simple and fundamental: mostly it assigns purpose. As Barthes alludes to in Death of the Author, interpretation is infinite and should not be restricted by its creator.
I am interested in the presentation of culturally-made objects in spacesâ€”and the spaces themselves as such objects, the presentation of presentation, if you like. - Candida HĂśfer
Through the medium of photography, Candida HĂśfer also endeavours to capture a sort of intermediary narrative of space. Temporary absence, not emptiness, is what permeates her constructed images. Momentarily, it seems that a person might enter the image and activate the space.
fig.12. Candida Hรถfer: Musee du Louvre, Paris
fig.13. Le Corbusier: Villa Church the composition of the image suggests its inhabitants have just vacated this space (open books on table)
fig.14. Thomas Demand: Diorama of The Oval Office suggestive of activity either just passed or about to
Human visual perception is a far more complex and selective process than that by which a film records. Nevertheless the camera lens and the eye both register images- because of their sensitivity to light â€“ at great speed and in the face of an immediate event. â€“ John Berger
On Subjectivity ‘A text consists of multiple writings, issuing from several cultures and entering into dialogue with each other, into parody, into contestation; but there is one place where this multiplicity is collected, united, and this place is not the author, as we have hitherto said it was, but the reader.’ - Roland Barthes Consciously or subconsciously, we, as individuals, selectively decide the relevance of ‘things’. Architecture [and photography] inherently bears the signature of the creator. It is an exact perception that cannot be replicated – there is no such thing as an objective image. Consider not the presence of subjectivity but rather the absence of objectivity Photographer, Ivan Brodey, was faced with the challenge of somehow capturing the ‘spatial narrative’ of the Skadalen School for the deaf  – one of Sverre Fehn’s lesser known projects. It became necessary to depart from the single image. The photographer has to search for another structure, to use the potential of a photograph to transport the viewer into a fictional world of spaces. Even when there was no obvious narrative except the one traced by the use of the building, a photograph can invite the viewer to explore and experiment. [Fuchs-Mikac 2009] A stilled image is, on a fundamental level, a split narrative. It is simultaneously a captured truth and a manipulated lie. The truth exists in the precise moment of capture: it conveys the exact image at that exact moment. The falsity occurs in the selectivity of the image; the edited experience of the photographer.
fig.15. Ivan Brodey: Narrative through sequence
‘…there are actually many ways to understand it. This is the key to an architecture of transcendence, that continues to be active in the meeting of people and places long after the thought has left the mind of the architect. Such an architecture demands our participation, and it changes us.’ - Ingerid Almaas
Consider: Site as artefact. Building as artefact. Artefact. Photograph as artefact.
Duration. Each is constructed by man either over a period of time or instantaneously: the concept of ‘duration’ 5 is paramount. 1
Essentially, perceived architectural space is inclusive of a number of intersecting timelines.
5. ‘Duration’: The not yet meets the already gone. (Holl 2000)
Chipperfield’s Neues Museum in Berlin relentlessly exemplifies the collision of these ‘things’ and, even further as the city becomes the artefact. The building at once, exists within the city, its ‘physical’ site boundary yet somehow out-with time. Berlin, with its visible scars and historical fractures permeates the architecture. There is an inherent temporal perception whereby the built context accepts its tumultuous history: there is no illusion. ‘…this, a new building that neither celebrates nor hides its history but includes it…Each decision, whether about repair, completion or addition, was grounded by the articulation of its physical quality and its meaning , where all parts of the building attempt to inflect to a singular idea; an idea not of what is lost, but what is saved.’ - David Chipperfield In considering the Museum itself, much like Fehn’s example, in both instances, the buildings themselves are as much the ‘artefact’ as the objects contained within. There is an explicit embodiment of cultural value within their respective physical anatomies. Though these values may be defined in opposition; where one exhibits a sort of monetary wealth - a ‘monumental’ artefact - while the other, a simple barn with archaeological significance, demonstrates its more modest achievements, both nonetheless exist as constructed and preserved cultural memories respective of their context. Great importance and consideration is, of course, given to the placement and composition of the internal artefact(s). Though the scalar values of these examples differ dramatically, the principles are comparable. In the Neues Museum, the Egyptian Courtyard upper platform is the most internalised space in the entire building and is also the only dead-end. It is one of the largest spaces and it contains some of the smallest artefacts - a successful paradox. The significant principle here is containment: the courtyard is bounded by building; the platform by columns; and the artefact by display case. This space exists out-with the formality of the enfilade composition which structures the majority of the building; instead the rooms are structured within themselves as ‘spaces within spaces’. This sequential relationship between spatial scales is acknowledged through the presence of the spectator. Perception, literally, is point-of-view at a moment in time.
As interactive public places, it is unusual to observe museums devoid of people – and objects. Museum space is designed around human intervention and activation: it depends on it. Thus when one does view spaces that are apparently suspended from their intended use, largely through the aperture of a camera lens, it is no longer an experience in time but rather a window through it. ‘…devoid of any diversions that would disrupt her transcendental rooms, where nothing is staged, but where, as the architect of order, Höfer leaves nothing to chance.’ - Constance W. Glenn As referred to previously, Candida Höfer, specialises in capturing something ‘more’ through the absence of human presence. The focus is controlled: the composition straightforward. Her photographs exist as a view to the past – a ‘closed’ system – which permits a lateral understanding of existing human culture. In the publication Neues Museum Berlin, Höfer’s photographs are seamlessly juxtaposed with the text narrative. Two images, identical save for the absence/presence of one object clearly convey how perception of a space can alter with the addition or subtraction of a single thing: here, the photograph becomes the artefact. The North Dome, depicted in these images, contains the bust of Nefertiti and acts as a pivot point in the museum; the South Dome, located at the opposite end of this particular axis contains a sculpture of the Roman God, Apollo. The considered placement of these artefacts along this axis articulates a relationship between the Sun Queen and the God of the Sun. Composed in such a way as to evoke meaning, the photographs suggest new interpretations and perceptions [as alluded to in the ‘Potential of the Stilled Narrative’]. It is the absence of presence which is suggestive of something that has passed or is about to. Höfer somehow captures the ‘in-between’, simultaneously within and out-with moments of time.
figs.16&17 Candida Hรถfer: Nefertiti, North Dome
left: own image, right: image by Candida Hรถfer the subjectivity of the photographer affects the selective composition of the image
awareness of temporal presence
perceiving the spatial structure + containment
placing objects in space
Completing the Narrative ‘The apocalyptic strain in popular cinema has provided us with plenty of images of that moment, seconds after some unspeakable catastrophe, when the mass of humankind has been erased from the planet, leaving its once bustling civic spaces forlorn and attendant.’ (Höfer 2006) As alluded to by Höfer’s photographic compositions, there is a level of intrigue where only part of the narrative is rendered visible to the viewer. It requires imagination. The viewer is allowed to interpret and decide what has been and what might be. Film, of course, is an illusion. The credibility of which is determined by the viewer. Gregory Crewdson looks beyond this illusion and exposes the fragility of the apparent constructed reality that is the film set. Monochromatic, abandoned and lifeless, his photographs suggest what once was. He frames the view as one might frame a movie scene, selectively layering and exposing the structure of the sets. This is an unusual approach by Crewdson whose photographic narratives are usually constructed and detailed with such precision: in this series of photos it appears he is actively looking for the de-constructed narrative. Where Höfer presents the idea that the spaces are empty ‘just for the moment’, held in suspense from activity, Crewdson’s portrayal seems final and exhibits the idea that ‘this is it – there is no more’. Each interpretation of the potential of absence is valid. It alludes to Zumthor’s Atmospheres  and ‘anatomy’ whereby the composition of the whole ultimately affects individual feeling and perception.
fig. 19 stark reality: Chernobyl
fig.20. Thomas Struth: the untold narrative of the abandoned cityscape
fig.21. Gregory Crewdson: looking beyond the illusion
Epilogue ‘Architecture does not exist in isolation from culture and society; rather it forms an interrelated connection of people, processes and material worlds…In architecture, percept and concept are revealed as two aspects of one and the same experience.’ – Marco Frascari Narrative is ongoing and is very much open-ended. In considering how perception is formed, both through physical experience and removed subjectivity [viewing the stilled image] it is possible to begin to formulate a holistic understanding of architecture and its place in society and significantly, society’s understanding of it. What is clear, is that through the examples discussed, the authors - architect/photographer - none of whom prescribe a single, conclusive narrative but rather demonstrate support for interpretation through the physical composition of their unique perspectives on contemporary society and culture. Culture, potentially could be viewed as a combination of ‘collectively shared’ narratives language is a literal example of this. As with culture, narrative is also read and understood on multiple levels. It may be considered then, that if culture is essentially narrative - and architecture is a constructed narrative - then, perhaps, architecture is culture. This text is a narrative written from a personal perspective. As the author, the intention has been to highlight the importance of the ‘role of the (viewer)’ within the narrative(s) conceived and conveyed by its author(s). ‘Beauty exists in things merely in the mind that contemplates them.’ - David Hume Like beauty, narrative is ambiguous and subjective. This essay addresses, not ‘beauty through the eye of the beholder’ but rather ‘narrative through the eye of the spectator’. Reflectively, this essay might equally have been entitled The Illusion of Narrative as it has become evident that term cannot be considered in its singular form. As long as architecture continues to be observed and experienced, the narratives are infinite.
Notes on the Method From the outset an interest in the technique of Carlo Scarpa – his process and craft, and ultimately his specific composition of ‘things’ to form his unique architectural dialogue, highlighted the potential of investigating ‘narrative’. In addition to this, an interest in the narrative of film in relation to the city had developed in line with our separate integrated design studio project: Filmhaus, Berlin. This influence is evident in both the essay and the ‘cinemetric’ technique integrated within the layered drawings. Initially drawings were constructed [for Fehn’s Hedmark museum] in an attempt to understand the experience of the space – a single hand drawing combining first and second floor part plans and a section through the space formulated an initial perception. De-constructed, this drawing forms separate layers of the ‘final’ narrative drawing: then constructed once more to complete the drawing as a whole. The Neues Museum narrative drawing initially developed in a similar manner yet eventually manifested itself rather differently. A far more experiential, physical drawing which became what might be described as a three-dimensional map, evocative of a personal spatial experience. Viewed in parallel, the drawings, both drawn at 1:100, exhibit the importance of scalar value. The process of constructing the drawings questions the importance of ‘things’: what is the ‘essential’. Through their continuous transformation these drawings evidence the constant working and reworking of personal perception. Finally, selected images of these drawings [the drawings de-constructed once more] are juxtaposed with the text narrative to provide a considered visual focus and reference. These images, intentionally printed on tracing paper, reflect the method of constructing the layered drawings. The visual transparency of which also suggests multiple perceptions of the images - similar to that of an architectural narrative. Together, the written body of work and the physical ‘thinking machines’ facilitate a thorough comprehension of the tangible meaning of ‘narrative’ and its cultural associations. Considering it as an ‘anatomy’ and exploring the possibilities of the ‘stilled image’ has been surprisingly enlightening and has developed into a framework which will continue to inform my design process.
REFERENCES Architecture Norway. Fuchs-Mikac, N. (2009) Skadalen School, Construction of a spatial narrative. (August) Barthes, R. (1967) Death of the Author. [essay online]. Available at: http://www.tbook.constantvzw.org/wp-content/death_authorbarthes.pdf [accessed April 2014] Chipperfield, D. and Harrap, J. (2009) Neues Museum Berlin. Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther Konig Dyer, G. (2001) John Berger: Selected Essays. London: Bloomsbury Fjeld. O,P. (2009) Sverre Fehn: The Pattern of Thoughts. New York, US: Monacelli Press Glenn, W,C. et al. (2007) Candida Hofer: The Architecture of Absence. Hampshire, UK: Aperture [Thames and Hudson] Höfer, C. and Léith, GM, C. (2006) Candida Hofer: Dublin. Dublin: Irish Museum of Modern Art Holl, S. (2000) Parallax. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press Macleod, S. et al. (2012) Museum Making: Narratives, Architectures and Exhibitions. Abingdon: Routledge Sharr, A. (2012) Reading Architecture and Culture: Researching Buildings, Spaces and Documents. Abingdon: Routledge Zumthor, P. (2006) Atmospheres. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser
Image Credits References for images not directly credited in main body of text. Images not referenced are Author’s own. 10. Hiroshi Sugimoto, Movie Theatre [online]. Available at: http://strongfilms.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Hiroshi-Sugimoto-Paramount-LosAngeles-1997.jpeg [accessed April 2014] 11. Candida Hofer, Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View [online]. Available at: http://un-blog-evable.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/cold-dark-matterand-engine-oil.html [accessed April 2014] 13. Le Corbusier: Villa Church [online]. Available at: https://www.contextgallery.com/design/le-corbusier-perriand-jeanneret-a-formidable20th-century-collaboration/ [accessed April 2014] 18. Neues Museum archive photo [online]. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2009/03/12/arts/design/20090312-abroadslideshow_5.html?_r=0 [accessed April 2014] 19. Chernobyl [online]. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1380432/Chernobyl-Pictures-abandoneddisaster-zone-25-years-nuclear-meltdown.html [accessed April 2014]
BIBLIOGRAPHY Architecture Norway. Fuchs-Mikac, N. (2009) Skadalen School, Construction of a spatial narrative. (August) Barthes, R. (1967) Death of the Author. [essay online]. Available at: http://www.tbook.constantvzw.org/wp-content/death_authorbarthes.pdf [accessed April 2014] Berger, J. (1991) About Looking. New York, US: Random House Berger, J. (2005) Berger on Drawing. Cork, Ireland: Occasional Press Berger, J. et al. (1977) Ways of Seeing. London: British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books Chipperfield, D. (2009) Form Matters. Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther Konig Chipperfield, D. and Harrap, J. (2009) Neues Museum Berlin. Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther Konig Chipperfield, D. (1997) Recent Work. Barcelona: Gustavo Gill [2G] Chipperfield, D. (1994) Theoretical Practice. London: Artemis Dyer, G. (2001) John Berger: Selected Essays. London: Bloomsbury Dyer, G. (2005) The Ongoing Moment. London: Little, Brown Fjeld. O,P. (2009) Sverre Fehn: The Pattern of Thoughts. New York, US: Monacelli Press Glenn, W,C. et al. (2007) Candida Hofer: The Architecture of Absence. Hampshire, UK: Aperture [Thames and Hudson] HĂśfer, C. and LĂŠith, GM, C. (2006) Candida Hofer: Dublin. Dublin: Irish Museum of Modern Art Holl, S. (2000) Parallax. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press Leatherbarrow, D. (2009) Architecture Oriented Otherwise. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press Leaver, T. (2003) David Chipperfield: Complete Works. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press Macleod, S. et al. (2012) Museum Making: Narratives, Architectures and Exhibitions. Abingdon: Routledge Psarra, S. (2009) Architecture and Narrative: the formation of space and cultural meanings in buildings. Abingdon: Routledge Sharr, A. (2012) Reading Architecture and Culture: Researching Buildings, Spaces and Documents. Abingdon: Routledge Zumthor, P. (2006) Atmospheres. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Zumthor, P. (2006) Thinking Architecture. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser
So u r c e s fo r Quotations Roland Barthes Barthes, R. (1967) Death of the Author. [essay online]. Available at: http://www.tbook.constantvzw.org/wp-content/death_authorbarthes.pdf [accessed April 2014] John Berger Berger, J. (2005) Berger on Drawing. Cork, Ireland: Occasional Press David Chipperfield Chipperfield, D. (1994) Theoretical Practice. London: Artemis Sverre Fehn Fjeld. O,P. (2009) Sverre Fehn: The Pattern of Thoughts. New York, US: Monacelli Press Marco Frascari Sharr, A. (2012) Reading Architecture and Culture: Researching Buildings, Spaces and Documents. Abingdon: Routledge Constance W. Glenn Glenn, W,C. et al. (2007) Candida Hofer: The Architecture of Absence. Hampshire, UK: Aperture [Thames and Hudson] Jean-Luc Godard cited in the film, â€˜The Little Soldierâ€™ (1963) Steven Holl Holl, S. (2000) Parallax. New York, US: Princeton Architectural Press Neil Leach cited in Macleod, S. et al. (2012) Museum Making: Narratives, Architectures and Exhibitions. Abingdon: Routledge Lee H. Skolnick Sharr, A. (2012) Reading Architecture and Culture: Researching Buildings, Spaces and Documents. Abingdon: Routledge Peter Zumthor Zumthor, P. (2006) Atmospheres. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser