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INC LUS IVE THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT: Inclusive design for the public way

A Professional Project by Stephanie M. Kean with Committee Chair Director Ric Richardson and Committee Members Assistant Professor Moises Gonzales and practicing professional Maggie Gould


Professional project Committee Chair Ric Richardson, MArch & MCRP Professor and Director Community and Regional Planning School of Architecture and Planning University of New Mexico

Committee Members Moises Gonzales, MCRP & MUD Assistant Professor Community and Regional Planning School of Architecture and Planning University of New Mexico

Maggie Gould, MCRP Planner Planning Department Long Range Division City of Albuquerque

Master’s Candidate Stephanie Kean

Physical Planning and Design Community and Regional Planning Program School of Architecture and Planning University of New Mexico Bachelor of Arts, Environmental Planning and Design, 2012 School of Architecture and Planning University of New Mexico

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Table of contents Executive Summary

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Chapter One: Introduction

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What is inclusive design?

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What is the public way?

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Who is the user?

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What does ability mean?

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Why focus on Albuquerque’s International District?

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Where is the International District?

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Chapter Two: Goals and Outcomes

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Goals

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Outcomes

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Chapter Three: Case Studies Local Case Study: Lead Avenue, Coal Avenue and Zuni Road streetscape improvements

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National Case Study: Southwest 12th Avenue Green Street Project

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International Case Study: Legible London

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Arid Landscape Case Studies

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Taylor Mall

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Acequia streetscapes

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Chapter Four: Existing Conditions

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Background

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Demographics

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Population

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Dependency ratio

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Means of transportation

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Disability charateristics

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Vehicle accidents involving pedestrians

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Table of contents Public way

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Community assets

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Chapter Five: Strategies

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Accessibility

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Safety

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Comfort

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Legibility

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Familiarity

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Distinctiveness

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Chapter Six: Recommendations

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Design overlay zone

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Business improvement district

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Local improvement district

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Chapter Seven: Vision

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Chapter Eight: Implementation

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Chapter Nine: References

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Literature review

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2010 Standards for Acceptable Design

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Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Guide

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Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life

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References

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This project examines inclusive design and applies it to the public way within the City of Albuquerque’s International District in the State of New Mexico. Inclusive design is intended to maximize people’s access and mobility. Designs that are inclusive empower an individual to reach his or her full potential and allow for access within the built environment. Inclusive design stems from the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. It was enacted into federal law to eliminate discrimination against individuals with disabilities. This includes access to public services. However, ADA standards are generally site-specific and apply only to facilities and facility access, including parking lots. They fall short of addressing the route of travel from residence to facility. For the purpose of this project, the public way refers to sidewalks, crosswalks, and pedestrian walkways. For residents to access amenities and facilities within a community, it is critical to incorporate inclusive design features in the public way. Using ADA

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standards and extending them beyond facility access will significantly reduce societal isolation and create a socially sustainable and healthy community. The International District is an ideal place to apply inclusive designs within the public way. A large population of children and aging adults, with a total dependency ratio of 45 percent, resides within the district. An antiquated infrastructure, originally constructed around the vehicle, has resulted in deteriorating sidewalks, frequent curbs cuts, and limited crosswalks. Speeding is a common occurrence along its streets, and the district experiences the most vehicle accidents involving pedestrians in the metropolitan area. Fifty-five percent of the population is economically active, and many of these residents depend on alternative modes of transportation. Over 3,000 employed residents carpool, bicycle, walk or seek public transit to travel to work. Many other residents rely on walking to access amenities and services, such as community centers, health clinics,


grocery stores, parks and schools. Three case studies were analyzed to support the research and designs contained in this project. The case studies include a local, a national, and an international example. One case study focuses on streetscape improvements along Lead and Coal Avenues in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Another case study centers on Downtown Portland, Oregon, a renowned national leader in transit-oriented development and urban design. The third case study examines London, England, and that country’s successful effort to create an inclusive pedestrian infrastructure using a wide range of wayfinding strategies. These case studies contribute substantial research and information that support inclusive design. The following strategies are recommended to design an inclusive public way within the International District. Although the strategies overlap in some categories, each one serves a purpose in creating inclusive environments. • Accessibility is the extent to which the public way enables the user to reach, enter, use, and walk to and from a destination. Designs that enhance accessibility include connected sidewalks, signal controls at large intersections, marked crosswalks, and wide and flat pathways. • Safety allows the user to feel protected and secure. Techniques that assist in a safe public way include buffer zones, smooth pathways, and well-lit areas. • Comfort is the ease in which the user experiences the public way. Physical and mental reassurances should create a calm and pleasant environment. A number of pedestrian amenities contribute to comfort, such as space, signage, seating, shade and lighting. • Legibility creates a clear sense of direction and an understandable public way. This is achieved through a comprehensive network, signage, and wayfinding amenities such as landmarks and public art. • Familiarity is the way in which the public way is recognized and understood by the user. A familiar public way contains facilities and public services, a clear street layout, and memory triggers such as landmarks, public art, and a variety of street furniture.

• Distinctiveness is a clear community identity and character. This is accomplished through architecture, aesthetic features, colors and materials. Three recommendations are offered to achieve inclusive plans, designs and practices within the International District. Any one or a combination of these recommendations can be implemented as development and renovation takes place in the district. These recommendations include: • Design overlay zone – a designated area that needs special design considerations and provisions • Business improvement district – a district that pays a portion of business revenue to finance supplemental public services • Local improvement district – a district formed by property owners who wish to bring about capital infrastructure improvements As a pedestrian who utilizes the sidewalk network frequently, I have personally experienced and observed the need for inclusive infrastructure to allow everyone the basic right of access. Such access must include people with physical or mental impairments that limit their ability to move about the environment. As we age, illness or life-altering events can occur, suddenly or over the course of time, thus affecting a person’s ability and range of mobility. Since disability is part of the human condition, public ways should be designed to foster an inclusive environment, free from mobility restrictions or limitations. This project is a call to design a public way that creates an inclusive environment within Albuquerque’s most diverse community, the International District. Once inclusive design is implemented in the public way, it can sustain the community’s collective development, economy and health, which can enhance the overall livability. The proposals contained herein serve as a guide to enhance the pedestrian network in the International District, with strategies and recommendations that will benefit all residents of the community.

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Chapter One

INTRODUCTION What is inclusive design? Planners must recognize the diversity and uniqueness of everyone in society and produce designs that empower individuals to reach their full potential. In doing so, they must identify and remove physical barriers that limit access, personal development, and communal growth. The population most affected by poor planning are those with disabilities. Inclusive design explores the range of human diversity with respect to culture, language, age and ability. It considers everyone’s needs within a community, and attempts to create physical environments that all people can access and use. The solution to removing physical barriers and opening public access is to create an integrated network

of planning and design interventions that accommodate the entire population. Rather than segregating people into different sets of users, planners must envision neighborhoods that allow residents access to resources with confidence, ease, independence and pride. This is particularly true for people with disabilities. It is the responsibility of planners to be advocates for the community, and be conscious of the impact their plans and designs have on individuals as well as whole communities. Inclusive design is intended to maximize people’s access and mobility; and, once implemented, it must sustain a community’s collective development, economy and health.

Planners must recognize the diversity and uniqueness of everyone in society and produce designs that empower individuals to reach their full potential.

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What is the public way? “Public way” is defined as any passageway open to public access and intended for travel by vehicle or foot, and which is controlled by a responsible government agency (Merriam-Webster, 2014). Public way excludes private property, which is the sole responsibility of the property owner, and public land which is excluded by statute (e.g., no pedestrians and/or vehicles). This project will focus on sidewalks, crosswalks, and pedestrian walkways within the public way.

Who is the user? A “user” is defined as any person who uses the public way, and whose range of physical and mental abilities may or may not be limited by an impairment of a major life activity. A user may include other terms such as pedestrian, individual, person, traveler and resident.

What does ability mean? For the purpose of this professional project, “ability” is defined as the range of physical and mental abilities, including any limitations or impairments, to engage in major life activities. The Americans with Disabilities Act defines major life activities as: “caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, and working,” (Department of Justice, 1990).

Why focus on the International District? Stairs, light poles, and cracks on sidewalks may seem easy enough to navigate, but these are urban obstacles. The existing public way has many of these unnecessary obstacles to overcome. Buildings must meet Americans with Disabilities Act standards for design; however, design in the public way and the implementation of policies and standards to standardize inclusive walkways are lacking. People need to travel from one place to another with

ease and without exclusive public infrastructure. Design professionals, including urban planners, must consider the needs of everyone, no matter a person’s age or ability, in the physical environment to create inclusive public way designs that facilitate mobility and access. Accessible sidewalks are crucial because they enhance the quality of life within a community by creating access to facilities. The area of study focuses on Albuquerque’s International District. The main corridors in the district have a variety of commercial strips, restaurants, car sale lots, grocery and specialty stores, places of worship, and other amenities. Since services and employment exist within the International District, it is necessary to design a streetscape that will encourage residents, of all ages and abilities, to walk to these businesses and jobs. Designing an inclusive public way will improve the pedestrian experience and increase the mobility of individuals with disabilities who wish participate in the overall community experience. The International District has one of the largest aging populations in Albuquerque and most of its residents seek alternative means of transportation to go to work or attend to their daily tasks. This may be through public transportation or walking. Due to socio-economic factors, pedestrian mobility is crucial to the area’s vitality. The International District needs basic public way improvements. This is clearly evident if one were to look at the vehicle accident records in which a pedestrian was injured. The intersections along the length of Central Avenue involving the most frequent vehicle-pedestrian accidents are: San Mateo Boulevard, San Pedro Boulevard, Louisiana Boulevard, and Wyoming Boulevard. Nearly 15 percent of the world’s population lives with a disability. The entire community is at risk to be affected by a disability. Longer life expectancy and a corresponding increase in chronic, age-related diseases account for a five percent increase since 1970. As people age, a life-altering event or illness can unexpectedly change a person’s mobility at any moment (World Health Organization, 2011, p. 3). Disability is part of the human condition, and public infrastructure should be designed for everyone without impediments to mobility.

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Where is the International District? New Mexico

Bernalillo County

Albuquerque

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International District

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Chapter Two

GOALS AND OUTCOMES Goals

Outcomes

Ease of mobility is essential for pedestrians. Mobility and accessibility goals should be considered throughout the development and design of this professional project. First, the public way should not create a disadvantage for any user. Everyone should be granted the basic right of access to the community’s amenities. Second, the public way should accommodate a wide range of individual preferences and abilities in order to create an inclusive network. There is a diverse set of users and everyone’s range of abilities differs; therefore, the design should account for the diversity and uniqueness of the community and its residents. Last, the public way should effectively convey necessary information to the user to create a convenient, comfortable, reassuring and inclusive network. When users are adequately informed, they can feel confident and secure in their environment.

This project will develop a conscious design that may serve as a model which complies with inclusive principles so that any user can access community amenities. It is the intent of this project to generate awareness and expand the residents’ knowledge and support of inclusive design. The final design will celebrate human diversity by creating accepting, healthy and sustainable design options for any future development within the public way of the International District. No environment is completely accessible to every user because of such a broad spectrum of individual abilities within a community. However, designers can develop a set of intended outcomes that can accommodate most users. Within the International District, it is crucial to improve the public way through a set of inclusive design standards to promote pedestrian mobility. Since many of the residents within the district commute by foot and public transportation, it is necessary to create an inclusive network for residents to access jobs and various amenities. Establishing a set of inclusive design strategies will be vital for future growth, development, or community projects within the district.

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GOALS

OUTCOMES

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EQUITABLE USE: The public way does not create a disadvantage for any person or group of users.

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Improve the current public way through a set of inclusive design strategies to promote mobility, regardless of ability.

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FLEXIBILITY IN USE: The public way accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.

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Establish a set of inclusive design strategies in regards to the public way for future growth, development, or community projects.

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Create a set of conscious designs that comply with inclusive design principles so that any person or group of users, regardless of ability, can access amenities.

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Generate awareness and expand the community’s knowledge and support of an inclusive design that celebrates diversity and creates an accepting, healthy and sustainable community.

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PERCEPTIBLE INFORMATION: The public way effectively conveys necessary information to the user.

FIGURE. GOALS WERE INSPIRED BY “THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN” BY ROSEMARIE ROSSETTI (2006).

FIGURE. THE INTENDED OUTCOMES OF THIS PROFESSIONAL PROJECT.

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Chapter Three

CASE STUDIES The following case studies add a significant amount of research and contextual information that align with inclusive design. Included in this chapter are local, national and international case studies that demonstrate planning initiatives that have been successfully integrated into the pedestrian network within a community. Two additional studies focus on arid landscape designs that have invigorated streetscaping ideas in dry climates. The local case study examines streetscape improvements applied to Lead and Coal Avenues in the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is a collaborative effort to revitalize a corridor dominated by the vehicle and modify it into a multimodal street. While the corridor is accommodating to various forms of travel— vehicle, bicycle and pedestrian—the public way incorporates inclusive features that create an inviting and walkable environment. These streetscape designs are an example of what the City of Albuquerque is capable of implementing on arterial corridors. Southwest 12th Avenue is a green street in downtown Portland, Oregon. Portland is a national leader in alternative

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transportation options. Designers worked with limited space to create a thoroughfare that coalesced vehicle travel, parking and a sidewalk. Using tactical strategies and many conceptual designs, engineers, landscape architects and planners were able to renovate a streetscape with two driving lanes, two sides of parking, buffer zones, and a wide sidewalk. This street is an example of how existing urban streets can be renovated and integrated into an inclusive streetscape through creative design. Legible London is a program developed to assist in wayfinding for multiple users within the pedestrian network. It is an international example of how inclusive techniques can be incorporated in historic areas while still maintaining local character. Consistent signage, maps and landmarks serve as directional and memory cues for the user. These strategies also serve another demographic: people who need cognitive markers to navigate through the public way. Finally, two cities designed innovative strategies to integrate stormwater collection with decorative landscape along pedestrian walkways. Phoenix, Arizona, and Mendoza, Argentina, extended the use of canals and acequias to


irrigate the streetscape. Both cities turned their streets into a park-like environment, lining the walkways with trees and other vegetation which are watered by diverting natural rainfall along channels and into the landscape. These case studies represent different approaches to urban design. Lead and Coal Avenues demonstrate a combined community, city and county effort to revitalize an older corridor and enhance a community’s character. Southwest 12th Avenue displays how an existing street can be renovated to add pedestrian amenities through safe sidewalks and aesthetic appeal. Legible London exhibits how wayfinding can be achieved using tactical methods and features to aid in route planning and memory. And arid landscapes show how native plants can be linked to sustainable stormwater management techniques to decorate walkways in dry climates like Albuquerque. All of these case studies demonstrate inclusive design practices that enhance a community’s access, livability and health.

Local Case Study Lead Avenue, Coal Avenue and Zuni Road streetscape improvements Albuquerque, New Mexico Lead and Coal Avenues are one-way streets in the City of Albuquerque that extend from 2nd Street to Washington Street. The two avenues merge and continue eastward to Zuni Road. The streetscape improvements on Lead and Coal Avenues, which have been completed for quite some time, received positive feedback from community members and commuters. Since its completion, the project received the “Best Practices Award for outstanding achievement in

the field of transportation” at the 17th Annual New Mexico Infrastructure Finance Conference (City of Albuquerque Municipal Development, 2012). The Department of Municipal Development hopes to expand the improvements throughout Zuni Road, which is one of the main arterials within the International District. Lead and Coal Avenues are designed and configured identically. Both avenues have seven-foot wide sidewalks with four- to six-foot wide landscape buffer zones. Buffer zones separate the sidewalk from the street, and allow pedestrians to feel safe because they are not walking directly next to traffic. Landscape buffers also provide an appealing and pleasant experience because the user can view something aesthetic for the duration of his or her walk. Adjacent to the buffer zone is a bicycle lane, which travels the same direction as vehicle traffic. The streets are two lanes with a speed limit of 30 miles per hour. A marked or unmarked crosswalk exists at every intersection for users to travel north and south or east and west. Although some of the crossings are unmarked, particularly from Mulberry Street to Pine street east of Interstate 25, the streets are relatively narrow and traffic is moderately slow, which enables a pedestrian to feel confident to cross safely. Every curb ramp has a detectible crosswalk warning for people who are visually impaired. All of the avenues’ curb ramps open at a 90-degree angle to allow a person to walk straight onto the crosswalk. Older streets, such as in the International District, offer a 45-degree curb ramp, which forces a pedestrian using a stroller, wheelchair or electric chair to turn into the adjoining street before orienting their turn back onto the crosswalk. This design is faulty for two reasons: it causes the user to step toward traffic driving parallel to the sidewalk, and it lengthens the

“We know how important our streetscapes and a safe, pleasant pedestrian environment are to the community… It was great to see this group effort and cooperation between the neighborhood, city and county.” Councilor Isaac Benton

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time to cross the street, both of which potentially put the person in danger. Lead and Coal Avenues’ streetscape improvements were made possible through a joint effort of City Councilor Isaac Benton, Bernalillo County Neighborhood Outreach Grant Program, Huning Highland Historic District Neighborhood Association, and the City of Albuquerque’s Parks and Recreation Department. Funding for the pedestrian improvements along the corridors was provided through a General Obligation Bond in 2011. Additional funding for landscape was secured through Bernalillo County’s Neighborhood Outreach Grant Program and from Councilor Benton. The Department of Municipal Development manages the project (City of Albuquerque Parks and Recreation, 2013). The completion of the project along Lead and Coal Avenues was celebrated by a tree planting ceremony at which Councilor Benton stated, “We know how important our streetscapes and a safe, pleasant pedestrian environment are to the community… It was great to see this group effort and cooperation between the neighborhood, city and county,” (City of Albuquerque Parks and Recreation, 2013). It is now the goal of the Department of Municipal Development to continue the streetscape through Zuni Road with the intent that it, too, will improve the pedestrian environment and foster an accessible, safe and pleasant walking environment within the International District. The expansion of the Lead and Coal Avenues’ streetscape improvements through Zuni Road will encourage residents to seek alternative methods of travel which can enhance community livability and health. The streetscape improvements on Lead and Coal Avenues demonstrate a collaborative effort among the community, councilor, city and county. The design is intended to embrace multiple modes of transportation—public transit, driving and walking— through the neighborhood’s corridors. A design that accommodates multiple travel options, while remaining inclusive, allows for a convenient, relaxed and efficient street experience for all users.

IMAGE. HIGH DENSITY AREAS ALONG THE CORRIDORS ALLOW FOR ON-STREET PARKING, WITHOUT SACRIFICING ACCESSIBILITY.

IMAGE. NEIGHBORHOODS HAVE MARKERS TO CREATE A SENSE OF IDENTITY.

IMAGE. FREQUENT SEATING ALLOWS PEDESTRIANS TO REST.

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IMAGE. A SECTION FACING WEST ON COAL AVENUE WITH A SIDEWALK, LANDSCAPE BUFFER ZONE, AND TWO ONE-WAY LANES.

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IMAGE. A SECTION FACING EAST ON LEAD AVENUE WITH A SIDEWALK, LANDSCAPE AND PARKING BUFFER ZONES, AND TWO ONE-WAY LANES.

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National Case Study Southwest 12 th Avenue Green Street Project Portland, Oregon

a challenge for the designers in regards to space; however, they did not compromise the space and accessibility of the user in the process. Instead, the public way was enhanced through aesthetic appeal, three buffer zones—landscape, parking egress and parking spaces—smooth walking surfaces and ADA compliant curb ramps. The environment also benefited through effective stormwater management. The renovation of Southwest 12th Avenue cost $38,850. The majority of that cost was for landscape improvements, and the remainder went toward street and sidewalk repairs (City of Portland, 2006). The design provides a visual amenity for the neighborhood, yet maintains its practicality as an effective stormwater management system. Additionally, it exemplifies community access and livability while continuing to function as a heavily used downtown street. The Green Street Project is a great example of how urban streets can be renovated and integrated into an inclusive streetscape. Since development is lacking within the International District, renovation is an option that should be considered. Renovating existing streetscapes and incorporating inclusive design features would greatly benefit the community. Such a strategy would limit liability within the existing public way and be a low cost alternative for property owners and the city.

Southwest 12th Avenue is a green street located in Portland, Oregon. Portland is known nationally throughout the planning community as an example of regional transit-oriented development and urban design. This case study demonstrates how an innovative plan and design can be achieved within an existing street infrastructure. Southwest 12th Avenue established an inclusive design without compromising the frequent vehicle travel that occurs in the surrounding urban environment. The Southwest 12th Avenue Green Street Project was constructed for the purpose of sustainable stormwater management. The streetscape was designed to manage rainwater runoff in an effective manner while sustaining a strong pedestrian network, vehicle circulation and on-street parallel parking. Since its construction in 2005, the project has received accolades and critical acclaim by planners, engineers, landscape architects and urban designers. In addition, it received the National Award of Honor from the American Society of Landscape Architects (City of Portland, 2006). The sidewalks are six feet wide and bordered by three buffer zones. One buffer zone is a four-foot wide landscape planter which doubles as a soil infiltration system. Next to the landscape planter is a three-foot wide parking egress zone where a passenger can exit a vehicle with comfort and ease. The next buffer zone provides on-street parking adjacent to moving vehicle traffic. Street traffic is slow enough that a driver feels safe entering and exiting the vehicle. Since the project was designed and constructed, there have been no indicators of traffic impacts (City of Portland, 2006). IMAGE. THREE BUFFER ZONES: PARKING SPACE, PARKING The renovation of Southwest 12th Avenue was EGRESS AND LANDSCAPE (CITY OF PORTLAND, 2006).

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IMAGE. A SECTION ON SOUTHEAST 12TH AVENUE WITH A SIX-FOOT WIDE SIDEWALK FOLLOWED BY THREE BUFFER ZONES: LANDSCAPE, PARKING EGRESS AND PARKING SPACE. THE DESIGN ALLOWS FOR AN UNINTERRUPTED FLOW OF TWO-LANE TRAFFIC IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS.

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International Case Study Legible London

London, England Due to London’s historic urban form and tourism, the British capital has invested many resources to expand its pedestrian infrastructure and make it inclusive. Legible London was developed to accommodate the needs of pedestrians utilizing the city’s extensive network of housing, institutions and retail establishments. Legible London’s programming offers a broad range of wayfinding strategies to orient a pedestrian through the streetscape. Walking trips in London have steadily decreased by 13 percent in the past 50 years (Tanner, 2004, p. 1). In response, Transport for London published Making London a Walkable City. The guide’s purpose is to explain the importance of creating quality environments within walking paths. In this guide, walkability measures the “extent to which the public realm provides movement by foot in ways that are more efficient and enjoyable,” (Transport for London, 2004, p. 4). Transport for London describes five crucial characteristics of walkability: connected, convivial, conspicuous, comfortable, and convenient. The agency often refers to these as “The 5Cs of Good Walking Networks”. “Connected” refers to routes being connected from one area to another within a community. These areas include leisure destinations, public transportation, school and work. “Convivial” conveys that routes should be pleasant and allow social interaction. “Conspicuous” denotes that routes should be legible for the user. This can be accomplished by signage and clear street names. “Comfortable” means that the route’s condition should not detract from the experience. Walking paths should be comfortable which creates an enjoyable environment. Flat surfaces, street furniture, and landscape can add to the comfort of routes. “Convenient” routes are direct and create a sense of priority for the pedestrian rather than the vehicle (Transport for London, 2004, p. 21). Using the “5Cs” as guidelines, Transport for London’s Walking and Accessibility Team created Legible London, an inclusive walkable network through the capital. Legible London created a system of consistent signage. Before, there were 32 different pedestrian signage systems in one area alone. Signage consistency builds trust, confidence and

reliability in navigating a pedestrian network. Legible London worked on coordinating bus, mobile, pedestrian and station maps; guidebooks; and signs. Linking these different systems of transportation information allows the user to receive one clear message of direction (Clark, 2010, p. 7). Through Legible London, three principles were created for the city to follow in the design process of the pedestrian network. The first principle describes connectivity. Connections within the network shall be seamless, in a human scale and create place. Second, establish continuity by providing information for the users and creating predictability in the network’s content. Last, clarity should be promoted throughout the network while striving for the inclusivity of all users (Clark, 2010, p. 8). Since the publication of the Legible London Inclusivity Report (2010), Transport for London has been working to create an inclusive network. Legible London describes the difference between accessibility and inclusivity and their reasoning for the adoption of inclusivity. Accessibility concerns access to an environment and creates a focus on people with a disability, which results in separation and segregation in society. Inclusivity refers to a physical environment or design that considers all users which in return creates inclusion and acceptance (Transport for London, 2010, p. 4). Legible London has developed solutions to create inclusive networks. Audio information that users can hear has been incorporated at map stations. This is useful for users with a visual impairment or learning disability, and tourists may also find it reassuring (Transport for London, 2010, p. 18). Signs are uniform and visible throughout the network with varying heights and large fonts to allow people to view them. Information on the signs is simple and consistent, and words are grouped in small portions to avoid overwhelming the user (Transport for London, 2010, p. 19). Legible London is an ideal example of inclusive wayfinding and signage techniques for the public. These solutions are reassuring and enable the user to use and take advantage of his or her experience in the network. People have different ways of interpreting information and different experiences as pedestrians. Creating a system that caters to as many people as possible is necessary in order to create inclusive pedestrian networks that advance communities as opposed to creating limitations.

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IMAGE. STATION MAPS ARE LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE SIDEWALK NETWORK FOR PEDESTRIANS TO LOCATE THEIR DESTINATION (TRANSPORT FOR LONDON, 2010).

IMAGE. STATION MAPS ARE EASY TO LOCATE THROUGHOUT LONDON (TRANSPORT FOR LONDON, 2010).

IMAGE. LEGIBLE LONDON OFFERS AN ARRAY OF SIGNAGE THAT PROVIDE VARIETY AND USER PREFERENCE (TRANSPORT FOR LONDON, 2010).

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Arid Landscape Case Studies Taylor Mall Phoenix, Arizona Taylor Mall is an impressive example of combining historic practices with local plant species to create a sustainable, walkable and inclusive pedestrian network. Taylor Mall is a three-block section of Taylor Street on Arizona State University’s downtown campus in Phoenix, Arizona. The mall was redesigned into a pedestrian-oriented streetscape with an integrated stormwater management system, incorporating Phoenix’s historic use of canals. The walkway is adorned with attractive landscape and includes amenities such as seating, lighting and the visual stimulation of artist-rendered mosaics. The designers used local materials, native plants, permeable surfaces and water harvesting techniques to create canals that not only sustain plant life but also irrigate the surrounding landscape (Ten Eyck Landscape Architects, 2014). The canals are similar to New Mexico’s tradition of acequia systems to capture and direct stormwater. Like Albuquerque, Phoenix is home to a desert climate with hot summers and moderately warm winters. This design concept, therefore, could easily be adapted to Albuquerque’s streetscape, incorporating New Mexico’s tradition of acequias while embracing a sustainable, green environment that promotes healthy living.

IMAGE. PEDESTRIAN AMENITIES AND VISUAL STIMULATION ADD TO THE FEATURES THAT EXIST AT TAYLOR MALL (TEN EYCK LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS, 2014).

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Acequia streetscapes Mendoza, Argentina The South American City of Mendoza, Argentina, experiences an arid climate with moderate-to-high, year-round temperatures. Using an innovative design, the city planted a canopy of trees and installed an acequia system. The acequias are used to capture and funnel stormwater for irrigation (Breuste, 2012, p. 813), and they ensure that the trees in Mendoza remain adequately watered. There are 75 tree species within Mendoza’s landscape design, but only four percent of them are native to the region. Consequently, it is the goal of the municipal government to incorporate native trees into any new development of the streetscape (Breuste, 2012, p. 807). The city plans to expand the tree canopy, using plants of native origin, together with self-sustaining acequias. Albuquerque, like Mendoza, has a desert climate with hot summers and low annual precipitation (Breuste, 2012, p. 806). Since acequias are a common, water-collection practice throughout New Mexico, they hold promise to be expanded to the inner city. Extending the use of acequias into Albuquerque would be a natural progression of the traditional practice to capture stormwater for collective use.

IMAGE. ACEQUIAS ARE USED TO CAPTURE AND FUNNEL STORMWATER FOR IRRIGATION AND ENSURE THAT THE TREES REMAIN ADEQUATELY WATERED (MENDOZA HOLIDAYS, 2014).

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Chapter Four

EXISTING CONDITIONS Background The International District is contained within 2,489 acres. The district is bordered by Lomas Boulevard (north), Wyoming Boulevard (east), Kirkland Air Force Base (south), and San Mateo Boulevard (west). Other major streets within the district include San Pedro Boulevard and Louisiana Boulevard, which run north and south, and Central Avenue and Zuni Road, which run east and west. There are six neighborhood associations that exist within the district. These include Fair West, Elder Homestead, La Mesa, Siesta Hills, South San Pedro, and Trumbull Village. The International District is Albuquerque’s most culturally diverse community. The ethnic businesses serve the local residents as well as attract people from throughout

the city. In addition, the district is home to the Expo New Mexico State Fairgrounds. The fair takes place annually and other activities are scheduled throughout the year. The fairground also hosts a weekly flea market, and is the site of the newly redeveloped Downs Racetrack and Casino. Situated along Historic Route 66, the City of Albuquerque has transformed over the years into a vehicledominant environment, and the International District is no exception. Although the blocks within the district are similar in size to those of Albuquerque’s Nob Hill MainStreet, another major commercial center, the wide streets and narrow sidewalks create limitations and obstacles that impede a walkable environment.

Situated along Historic Route 66, the City of Albuquerque has transformed... into a vehicle-dominant environment, and the International District is no exception.

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1.00

Neighborhood Associations

FIGURE. THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT IS HOME TO SIX NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATIONS: FAIR WEST, ELDER HOMESTEAD, LA MESA, SIESTA HILLS, SOUTH SAN PEDRO AND TRUMBULL VILLAGE.

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Demographics The following demographic information and profiling is taken from the United States Census Bureau’s American FactFinder. American FactFinder is a national source for population, housing and economic data. The following data were retrieved from the most recent compilation, which is the 2012 American Community Survey (ACS) five-year estimates. The ACS is a national survey designed to provide communities with demographic data so they may observe how they are changing over time (American FactFinder, 2014). The following data are specific to the International District. Compiling specific data was achieved by locating the Census Tracts that correspond to the district. The district is located within Census Tracts 5.01, 6.03, 6.04, 9.01, 9.03 and 9.04. FIGURE. THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT IS LOCATED WITHIN SIX CENSUS TRACTS: 5.01, 6.03, 6.04, 9.01, 9.03 AND 9.04.

Population A population pyramid was created to examine the large aging population within the International District. Population pyramids are used to analyze growth, decline, fertility, mortality, and migration in countries, states, cities and communities. The left half of the population pyramid displays the male population whereas the right side presents the female population. These data are derived from the Sex and Age 2012 ACS five-year estimates. There are three population groups: young (14 years and younger), economically active (15 to 64), and aging (65 years and older). The total population of the International District is 27,862. There are more females than males; however, they are almost evenly split with 14,249 females to 13,613 males. Although

N

5.01

6.04

6.03

9.01 9.03 9.04

MILES 0.25

0.50

1.00

Census Tracts

more males are born than females, females are outliving their male counterparts. A moderate birthrate is outpacing a low mortality rate, which indicates a rising population within the district. Two factors contribute to this trend. First, there are many public and private senior services within the International District. Two community centers offer free senior programs, which include meals, education and recreation. Privately owned senior housing is also located in the district, and there is an inmigration of the aging population to access these private housing services. Second, the district is infused with many diverse cultures and practices. In some cultures, it is common for a child to take care of his or her parents as they age. Thus many seniors and adult children live together.

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85 years and above 80 to 85 years 75 to 79 years 70 to 74 years 65 to 69 years 60 to 64 years

AGE GROUPS

55 to 59 years 50 to 54 years 45 to 49 years 40 to 44 years 35 to 39 years 30 to 34 years 25 to 29 years 20 to 24 years 15 to 19 years 10 to 14 years 5 to 9 years Under 5 years 6.0

4.0

2.0

PERCENT OF MALE POPULATION

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

PERCENT OF FEMALE POPULATION

CHART. POPULATION PYRAMID OF THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT USING THE SEX AND AGE ACS 2012 FIVE-YEAR ESTIMATES.

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Dependency ratio A dependency ratio is the population of people who are not in the labor force. As seen in the collected data from the ACS, it is evident that a large aging population—over 2,800 people—exists within the International District. A look at the dependency ratio verifies this trend. There is a child dependency ratio, an old-age dependency ratio, and a total dependency ratio. The child dependency ratio is derived by dividing the population under age 15 by the 15-to-64 population and then multiplying by 100. The old-age dependency ratio is derived by dividing the population age 65 and above by the 15-to-64 population and then multiplying by 100. The total dependency ratio is derived from the sum of

people under 15 and over 64, divided by the 15-to-64 population, and then multiplied by 100. In the International District the child dependency ratio is 30 percent and the old-age dependency ratio is 15 percent. The total dependency ratio within the International District is 45 percent; the remaining 55 percent of the population is economically active. The large total dependency ratio within the district points out that there are a wide range of abilities in the population in the International District. Both young children and aging persons need to be accommodated within the public way to access services such as schools, community centers, restaurants, parks and stores, to name several.

CHILD DEPENDENCY RATIO

30%

OLD-AGE DEPENDENCY RATIO

15%

TOTAL DEPENDENCY RATIO

45%

5,793 x 100 19,176

2,893 x 100 19,176

8,686 x 100 19,176

FIGURE. DEPENDENCY RATIOS USING SEX AND AGE ACS 2012 FIVE-YEAR ESTIMATES. FORMULAS TO DETERMINE DEPENDENCY RATIO ARE FROM THE U.S. CENSUS BUREAU.

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TR AN S

E

CA

PU BL IC

RP

OO

L

AL ON

1,298

G

W OR K

BI

@

IN CY CL

K W AL

391

642

HO M E

E IV DR

7,972

440

294

FIGURE. MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION ACS 2012 FIVE-YEAR ESTIMATES.

Means of transportation In order to understand if there is a need for an inclusive walkable environment within the International District, data must be collected to research whether people are walking. The ACS collected data from employed individuals over the age of 16, and inquired how they are commuting to work. The data to examine the transport to work is derived from the Means of Transportation 2012 ACS five-year estimates. It has six categories: drive alone, carpool, public transportation, walk, bicycle, and work at home. There are a total of 11,037 employed residents within the district. The majority of employed residents—7,972 workers—drive alone to work. However, a significant number of people, totaling 3,065 residents, use alternative modes of transportation to commute to work or work at home. The second most common means of transportation to work is carpooling which accounts for 1,298 workers. Carpooling is sharing the vehicle journey of two or more persons. It

is a viable alternative because it reduces travel cost and carbon emissions, making it a more sustainable option than driving alone. A significant number of residents use public transportation to travel to work, totaling 642 workers. Public transportation is an affordable alternative to the vehicle and it also reduces carbon emissions, because a single bus transports multiple people to various destinations, thereby reducing individual vehicle trips. A total of 831 residents bicycle or walk to work. Some people view bicycling and walking as inefficient ways to commute because of the time involved; however, bicycling and walking are more efficient because of the cost savings and absence of carbon emissions. In addition, bicycling and walking to work reduce or eliminate the amount of time needed to exercise regularly. Since cyclists and walkers are essentially exercising while commuting to work, they are engaging in a healthy and more efficient lifestyle.

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Disability characteristics The following data are from the Disability Characteristics 2012 ACS five-year estimates. There are six categories of disability: hearing, vision, cognitive, ambulatory, self-care, and independent living. There are a total of 4,178 people with at least one disability within the International District who are not institutionalized, and a total of 8,242 disabilities. The most common type of disability is ambulatory, accounting for 2,279 individuals. An ambulatory disability is difficulty climbing stairs, standing or walking. This could pertain to someone who uses crutches, a walker or a wheelchair. Flat

pathways or ramps can accommodate these these users. The second most common disability is cognitive, totaling 1,748 individuals. A cognitive disability is a physical, mental or emotional difficulty remembering, concentrating or making decisions. Accommodations for these individuals should include uniform signage and consistency throughout the district. The least common disability is self-care, totaling 642 individuals. A self-care disability is difficulty bathing or dressing. This is the least common due to the data only accounting for non-institutionalized individuals. Most people who have self-care difficulties live in senior housing centers that are located throughout the district.

HEARING DIFFICULTY

Deaf or having serious difficulty hearing

VISION DIFFICULTY

Blind or having serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing glasses

COGNITIVE DIFFICULTY

Physical, mental or emotional problem, having difficulty remembering, concentrating, or making decisions.

AMBULATORY DIFFICULTY

Having serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs.

SELF-CARE DIFFICULTY

Having difficulty bathing or dressing.

INDEPENDENT LIVING DIFFICULTY Physical, mental or emotional problem, having difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping.

FIGURE. DISABILITY AS DEFINED BY TH U.S. CENSUS BUREAU.

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2,279

1,500

17 and under 18 to 64

1,748

1,300

65 and above

POPULATION

1,100

900

1,434 1,332

700

817

500

642

300

100 Hearing

Vision

Cognitive

Ambulatory

Self-care

Independent living

DIFFICULTY

CHART. TYPES OF DISABILITY AND TOTAL DISABLED POPULATION USING THE DISABILITY CHARACTERISTICS 2012 FIVE-YEAR ESTIMATES.

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Vehicle accidents involving pedestrians A review of vehicle accidents involving pedestrians in the International District reveals startling information. The highest number of pedestrian-related vehicle accidents occurred at major intersections along Central Avenue. These intersections include San Mateo Boulevard, San Pedro Boulevard, Louisiana Boulevard, and Wyoming Boulevard. According to the Metropolitan Transportation Board, all four of the intersections were on the “Top 10 Pedestrian Crash Locations” in the metropolitan area (Metropolitan Transportation Board, 2004, p. 11-11). Since then, San Pedro Boulevard and Wyoming Boulevard along Central Avenue have experienced fewer crashes and are no longer listed among the top 10; however, the intersections at San Mateo Boulevard and Louisiana Boulevard remain on the list and occupy the top two crash sites. The intersection at Louisiana Boulevard and Central Avenue is ranked second on the list, with a total of 10 pedestrian-related vehicle accidents from 2006 to 2010 (Mid-Regional Metropolitan Planning Organization, 2010, p. 18). On the four corners of the intersection are CVS Pharmacy (northeast), Talin Market (southeast), Expo New Mexico State Fairgrounds (northwest), and Kentucky Fried Chicken (southwest). Talin Market is the busiest grocery store in the district and the fairgrounds are a popular attraction on the weekends due to the large flea market which is held there. The sidewalks on average are six feet wide, broadening slightly on the north side of Talin Market to accommodate a bus stop. The crosswalks are long, with the north-to-south crossing measuring 90 feet from curb to curb, and the east-to-west crossing measuring 70 feet in length. The intersection at San Mateo Boulevard and Central Avenue holds the top spot for vehicle accidents involving pedestrians in Albuquerque. A total of 14 accidents occurred there between 2006 and 2010 (MidRegional Metropolitan Planning Organization, 2010, p. 18). Located on three of the four corners are Octopus Car Wash (southeast), Shell Gas with Circle K (southwest), and Walgreen’s (northwest), each with a large parking lot adjacent to Central Avenue. The prominent Bank of the West building (northeast), at 16 stories tall, is located at the remaining corner. The sidewalks are six feet wide,

and all four crosswalks measure 90 feet in length. This intersection is clearly dominated by the vehicle. Cars rounding the street corners, and entering and exiting the large parking lots, are constantly crossing pedestrian paths of travel, thereby increasing the risk of pedestrian-related vehicle accidents. Vehicle accidents happen for a variety of reasons. They are often due to inattention, unsafe speed and operator error; but they can also be attributed to environmental factors such as street design and poor visibility. Accidents involving pedestrians may be due to congestion, both vehicle and foot traffic, as well as distraction. Design flaws may also be the cause of accidents as well as inadequate controls, a lack of markings, unclear signage, visual obstructions, and a lack of pedestrian conveniences. Human error is another factor, but can likely be mitigated by improvements in design, which strikes at the heart of this professional project.

N

N

IMAGES. INTERSECTIONS ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE: SAN MATEO BOULEVARD (TOP) AND LOUISIANA BOULEVARD (BOTTOM).

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WYOMING

LOUISIANA

SAN PEDRO

SAN MATEO

FAIRGROUNDS

Context map

N

14

10 Crash data from 2006 -2010

14

11

8

7 Crash data from 2000 -2004

FIGURE. VEHICLE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING PEDESTRIAN IN THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE. 2004 DATA FROM THE METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION BOARD AND 2010 DATA FROM THE MID-REGIONAL METROPOLITAN PLANNING ORGANIZATION.

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Public way The average sidewalk width within the International District is five feet. Along the Central Avenue corridor, the sidewalk ranges from four to six feet wide. The sidewalks in residential areas are considerably smaller with the width ranging between three to six feet. There are many urban obstacles within the International District’s public way. The sidewalks present an abundance of hazardous cracks and raises, which can easily cause an accident. The placement of infrastructure, such as light posts, electricity poles and signage, poses yet another inconvenience and potential danger. They obstruct the public way and reduce space on the sidewalk for access. Central Avenue primarily serves the vehicle, which is evidenced by the frequency of curb cuts along the corridor. Although curb cuts provide a smooth ramp for vehicles to enter and exit parking lots, they also become a recurring inconvenience and potential trip hazard for pedestrians. They force a pedestrian to travel along a path that contains declines and inclines rather than a flat and convenient walking surface. Central Avenue is the most trafficked corridor within the International District, both by vehicle and foot. There are a total of four intersections that include traffic signals for cars and crosswalks in all directions for pedestrians. These cross streets include San Mateo Boulevard, San Pedro Boulevard, Louisiana Boulevard and Wyoming Boulevard. The four intersections contain the only north-south crosswalks within the two-mile stretch. Therefore, a person must walk half a mile to legally and safely cross the street. In addition, the presence of medians provides an inadvertent refuge for jaywalkers. Consequently, jaywalking is a prevalent infraction within the district. And while jaywalking may be easier and faster for some people, it is neither safe nor feasible for everyone.

IMAGE. THREE-FOOT SIDEWALKS ARE COMMON WITHIN THE DISTRICT’S RESIDENTIAL AREAS.

IMAGE. CRACKS AND INCLINES CREATE URBAN OBSTACLES.

IMAGE. CURB CUTS CREATE UNEVEN, INCONVENIENT SURFACES TO WALK ACROSS.

IMAGE. SINCE CROSSWALKS ARE LACKING THROUGH THE CENTRAL AVENUE CORRIDOR, MANY PEOPLE JAYWALK.

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Community assets Talin Market is located at the intersection of Central Avenue and Louisiana Boulevard. The market is New Mexico’s largest international food grocer. Due to the variety of its specialty food selection, both local residents and citizens of the greater Albuquerque area frequently shop here. Other local ethnic businesses line the main corridors throughout the International District. Mesa Verde Community Center is located in the La Mesa Neighborhood on Marquette Avenue. The community center is currently being renovated to improve its facility and services; yet, the renovation has not deterred residents from utilizing what the center has to offer to the community. It is equipped with a number of rooms: an arts-and-crafts room, a computer lab, fitness center, game room, gymnasium and open classrooms for community members to hold classes. The community center provides a variety of activities that focus on senior engagement, and it also offers a number of after-school programs for youths. Cesar Chavez Community Center is located in the Trumbull Village Neighborhood on Kathryn Avenue. The facility boasts a ceramics-and-art center, computer lab, game room, gymnasium, meeting room, multipurpose room and fitness center. In addition to after-school activities for youths, the community center provides a number of programs for adults. Most of the adult programs are free or available at low cost. Healthy, nutritional meals are offered to seniors on weekdays for a nominal, suggested donation of $2.00. Free senior fitness classes are also available throughout the week. The meals and fitness classes complement each other and nourish a healthy senior community within the International District. The International District Community Garden, located at Wellesley Drive and Ross Avenue, is a joint endeavor with the SouthWest Organizing Project’s (SWOP) Feed the Hood initiative. SWOP is a statewide organization dedicated to social equality, economic justice, and empowerment in low-to-middle-income communities of color (SouthWest Organizing Project, 2014). Since its opening in 2012, the community garden’s goal has been to teach “food literacy” by introducing a natural food source

through sustainable, agricultural practices. The project engages residents and grows quality food that both helps families become self-sufficient and promotes community health. A total of 11 parks are found in the International District, providing over 80 acres of recreational space for community use. The three largest parks in the district are Mesa Verde, Phil Chacon and the Veterans Memorial. Due to its proximity to the Mesa Verde Community Center, Mesa Verde Park is the most utilized of all the parks in the International District (City of Albuquerque Planning Department, 2012, p. 178); it fields a variety of sports venues, such as basketball courts and a soccer field, as well as ample picnic space with plenty of seating. Phil Chacon Park and Veterans Memorial Park are neighboring parks adjacent to the Cesar Chavez Community Center. The two parks are connected by a multiuse trail dotted with park benches. Phil Chacon Park features basketball courts, a baseball field, play area, and plaza. Veterans Memorial Park offers a peaceful, picturesque setting with quiet seating and a green field that leads to the veterans’ museum and memorial monument. These two parks and Mesa Verde Park account for half of the total park space in the International District. Eight more parks and an additional 40 acres are available for community recreation. Action Communities for Health, Innovation, and Environmental Change (ACHIEVE) is a non-profit organization that has studied the International District. Funded by the Center for Disease Control, ACHIEVE created an action plan to spur the improvement of walking trails throughout the International District. Subsequently, Bernalillo County Public Works and the City of Albuquerque’s Department of Municipal Development prepared the International Trail Scoping Report. The report proposed a 14-mile trail network within the district that would create better pedestrian and bicycle connections to local services and community assets (Bernalillo County Public Works, 2011, p. 3). The goal is to help residents become active and stay healthy.

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N

1

2

3

1

Mesa Verde Community Center

2

Talin Market

3

Cesar Chavez Community Center

4

Phil Chacon Park

5

Veteran’s Memorial Park

4

5

MILES 0.25

0.50

1.00

Community Assets

FIGURE. COMMUNITY ASSET LOCATION MAP (LEFT).

IMAGES ( LEFT TO RIGHT). TALIN MARKET, CESAR CHAVEZ COMMUNITY CENTER AND PHIL CHACON PARK.

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Chapter Five

STRATEGIES Good design can profoundly influence the public way and affect a person’s ability to move about the physical environment. If a community lacks a safe and convenient public way, it can confine residents to their homes rather than allow them to partake in activities, errands and community experiences. When someone has a disability, it should not be the sole responsibility of the individual to adapt to the barriers in the physical environment that designers have created over time. Instead, designers should establish a set of strategies to foster an accessible public way that helps people overcome isolation and discrimination. People have the right to fully participate within their community, and inclusive design promotes full participation for everyone. The International District has many barriers that restrict mobility in the public way. Barriers limit a person’s activity and participation within a community. As described in Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices

Design Guide, there are two types of barriers: movement barriers and information barriers. Movement barriers restrict one’s mobility within the physical environment through obstacles created by design (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 2-13). Information barriers inhibit the ability of an individual to perceive, recognize and understand information (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 2-14). As stated previously, disability is part of the human condition. Since disabilities are inevitable, everyone benefits from a design that helps people utilize, interpret and enjoy pedestrian networks. Inclusive design strategies can encourage community activity and participation by eliminating, or at the very least minimizing, the barriers that exist in the constructed environment. These strategies are inspired by the six principles from Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life but have been modified to fit the characteristics and needs of the International District, its residents, and users of the public way.

32


Environmental Movement Barriers User Description

Individual Movement Barriers

Difficult Soft Signal Complex Limited Limited Limited Unpredictable terrain Surface Obstacles actuation decisions agility endurance speed movement

Stroller User

X

X

X

Wheelchair User

X

X

X

X

Individual with limited balance

X

X

X

X

Individual with vision impairment

X

X

X

Aging Adult Child

X

Individual who is obese

X

Crutch or support cane user

X

Individual with cognitive impairment Individual with emotional impairment

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

TABLE. EXAMPLES OF HOW SOME USERS EXPERIENCE PARTICIPATION LIMITATIONS WITHIN A COMMUNITY DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL OR INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT BARRIERS. ADAPTED FROM DESIGNING SIDEWALKS AND TRAILS FOR ACCESS, PART II OF II: BEST PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE (AXELSON ET AL., 2001, P. 2-16).

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Environmental Movement Barriers User Description

Sight lines

Individual Movement Barriers

Limited Limited Slower Limited ability Inaccessible Irregular Complex ability to ability to speed to to have a formats intersections signage receive process process response

Individual with vision impairment

X

X

X

X

Individual with hearing impairment

X

X

X

X

Individual with brain injury Individual with mobility impairment

X X

Individual with limited English

X X

Individual with concentration abilities Individual with cognitive impairment Individual with emotional impairment

X

X

X

X

X

Aging Adult Child

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TABLE. EXAMPLES OF HOW SOME USERS EXPERIENCE PARTICIPATION LIMITATIONS WITHIN A COMMUNITY DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL OR INDIVIDUAL INFORMATION BARRIERS. ADAPTED FROM DESIGNING SIDEWALKS AND TRAILS FOR ACCESS, PART II OF II: BEST PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE (AXELSON ET AL., 2001, P. 2-19).

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Accessibility When designers think of inclusive design, accessibility is often the first prerequisite that comes to mind. Accessibility concerns the way that the user reaches his or her destination. An accessible and inclusive public way must have flat and wide paths of travel with signal controls at busy intersections to enable pedestrian crossings (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 92). Certainly, there are unavoidable changes in slope along the path of travel; however, a gentle modification in level is easier for most people to manage than a drastic change in step or elevation. In regards to facility access, where stairs are required for steeper slopes, a ramp should be incorporated for people using wheelchairs, electronic chairs, walkers or strollers. According to the 2010 ADA Standards for Acceptable Design, designers must provide a ramp with a maximum ratio of 1:12 (Department of Justice, 1991, p. 127). This is not the case for the public way. According to the ADA standards, the slope of a walking surface shall be less steep than a ramp, which must not exceed 1:20 with a cross slope— the slope perpendicular to the path of travel—of 1:48 (Department of Justice, 1991, p. 127). Sidewalks must be wide enough to accommodate the user. The ADA standards require the width of walking surfaces to be no less than of 36 inches wide (Department of Justice, 1991, p. 117). Since this is the minimum allowable width, the International District exceeds this requirement with an average sidewalk width of five feet. However, most universal designers and planners argue that an accessible sidewalk should be an average of six feet wide (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 103), which is a requirement for new development in the City of Albuquerque (City of Albuquerque Municipal Development, 1989). This allows the user to comfortably pass other pedestrians and to distance oneself from vehicles on adjacent streets. Signal controls allow the user to cross the street without harm. An ideal crossing would allow the user to cross both safely and comfortably. Signal controls should be within

reach, at an adequate height, of every person regardless of one’s ability (e.g., a wheelchairbound pedestrian). The buttons should be easy to press with both fingers and the palm. The crossing should be signalized, emitting both visual symbols and audible sounds. The time should be calculated so that all users may cross the street in a timely fashion while still maintaining safety and comfort. For some people with limited mobility, the timing of the crosswalk may be inadequate, so including a refuge median to divide the crossing into two stages is desirable.

Safety A safe public way allows the user to feel protected and secure. Street frontage, buffer zones, wide and smooth paths, and well-lit areas contribute to a person’s sense of safety. The three most common fears pedestrians experience include vehicle-related accidents, assaults and falls (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 115). Although it is impossible for a design to completely counteract these safety concerns, designs can be implemented to prevent them as much as possible. As discussed previously, vehicle accidents involving pedestrians along Central Avenue in the International District are common. A factor that contributes to the high accident rate is the amount of space between the street and the adjacent buildings. When buildings are set back from the street, as in the International District, vehicle speed tends to be faster than in areas where buildings front the street. For example, the speed limit through Nob Hill MainStreet, where buildings front the street, is 35 miles per hour; vehicles driving through this area tend to remain within the speed limit, driving 30 to 35 miles per hour. But at the neighborhood transition from Nob Hill Mainstreet into the International District, a different trend occurs: drivers tend to drive faster, between 40 to 45 miles per hour, even though the speed limit remains the same. Upon entering the International District, buildings are set back from the street; the frequency of speed limit signs decreases; visual

35 CHAPTER FIVE


cues and stimulation for drivers to slow down are less prevalent; and the average vehicle speed exceeds the posted limit. Therefore, future public way alterations and additions in the International District must embrace and consider a design that will decrease the occurrence of pedestrian-related vehicle accidents. For example, large walkways would allow the user to walk further away from the street; and buffer zones, whether parking spaces or landscape, would create a barrier between pedestrians and vehicle traffic. Being attacked while walking outdoors is a common fear among most people. In order to help the user feel safe, and lessen the likelihood of assault, the public way should be well-lit. Lighting adds a sense of security when walking at night. To further improve security, an excellent design concept is Jane Jacobs’ “eyes on the street” (Jacobs, 1961, p. 35): pedestrian safety can be enhanced through building frontage to the street. The more building frontage that exists, the more people watch and see street activity through the windows; therefore, attacks are less likely to occur and tend to decrease. Uneven sidewalks are a hazard that can cause someone to stumble and fall. While this may be less of a concern for the middle-aged, full range adult, it is a common fear of the aging population and people with impairments. Walking surfaces should be as flat as possible with a slope no greater than 1:20 (Department of Justice, 1991, p. 127). This angle of slope allows for a gentle and manageable incline and reduces the likelihood of accidental tripping. On occasion, the sidewalk raises due to unforeseen circumstances, such as faulty construction or something as natural as tree roots. Increased code enforcement can help reduce this problem. For example, the City of Albuquerque’s Sidewalk Ordinance requires that property owners be responsible for the maintenance and repair of sidewalks fronting their property (City of Albuquerque Municipal Development, 1989). If a sidewalk is on the side or rear of a property, the Department of Municipal Development Construction Coordination Division investigates the matter in order to determine ownership (City of

Albuquerque Municipal Development, 2014). If it is determined that the property owner is responsible, then he or she must finance the repair. If it is owned by the City of Albuquerque, the Department of Municipal Development will inform the city. Arterials are the responsibility of the city to maintain since they heavily traveled throughout the year.

Comfort When assessing or considering inclusive design options, comfort is often overlooked or grouped with safety. However, comfort is a design characteristic in and of itself. Comfort refers to the ease by which the user experiences the environment, and it provides both physical and mental reassurances throughout the public way (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 106). A comfortable public way is both calm and pleasant, and it offers a variety of pedestrian amenities, including signage, seating, bus shelters, shade and lighting. Comfort in an urban environment facilitates access to amenities and services, reduces physical and mental stressors, and increases personal satisfaction. When a public way is comfortable, it encourages people to walk and enjoy outdoor activities.

Legibility The public way should support a person’s sense of direction and be easy to understand. This is referred to as legibility. A legible public way has a comprehendible set of sidewalk networks with simple and logical wayfinding features. Several things contribute to wayfiding, such as maps, signage, landmarks and a consistent street layout. With the advent of global positioning technology, few people use paper maps in today’s society. However, maps can be a great asset for travelers who are unfamiliar with a community. Minimal maps with illustrations, a sense of direction, titles of landmarks, names of streets, and a legend are a simple way to convey such information. But while maps are a helpful and a powerful tool, they can also be confusing to understand. Too much information, ambiguity, abbreviations, small text

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and color may cause misinterpretation (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 67). An alternative to maps is effective signage. Signage is a quick and easy way for someone to identify his or her location within the physical environment. To be universally understood, signs must be clear and simple. When signage is implemented in a tactical way, it can be beneficial to the pedestrian. Poorly designed signs can cause confusion. Symbols on signage must be recognizable and realistic to the user. For example, a walking figure means that one may cross, whereas an upright hand indicates to stop and wait. Colors convey meaning: red pertains to something we should avoid, green and blue convey what is permissible, and yellow signifies to proceed with caution. Wording on signs should be short, simple and precise—no more than

FIGURE. THE UNIFORM GRID PROVIDES A WELL CONNECTED STREET PATTERN (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 73).

three to five words (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 67). Landmarks are another means to find one’s way, either by physical or natural environmental cues. When a person becomes lost, he or she often examines the surroundings and finds a point of reference, such as a landmark, to orient oneself. If other people are present, an individual can easily ask for directions and follow landmarks to reach one’s destination. Consistency is crucial in street layout. Some planners are under the impression that a uniform grid pattern is necessary for wayfinding and vehicle use; however, an irregular grid pattern can also be acceptable in wayfinding. When creating a walkable environment, the top priority designers must consider is what the street layout will convey to the user.

FIGURE. THE ‘LOLLIPOP’ PATTERN CAN CAUSE USER CONFUSION (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 73).

FIGURE. THE IRREGULAR GRID PATTERN OFFERS CONNECTED STREETS AND A VARIETY OF BLOCK AND STREET SHAPES, ENABLING WAYFINDING THROUGH LEGIBILITY AND MEMORY (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 73).

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IMAGE. THE SIDEWALKS SURROUNDING TALIN MARKET ARE FAMILIAR AND DISTINCTIVE. THE ART DISPLAYS TRIGGER MEMORY AND AID WAYFINDING.

Familiarity Familiarity is how streets are recognized and understood by people. Forms, space and features establish familiarity within a community’s street network. In society, people acquire a set of expectations of how their community is planned, and if those expectations are disrupted, it is disorienting and stressful. Familiarity aids with memory, which is essential for people with cognitive disabilities, children and even tourists (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 53). The longer a person experiences a community or lives in a neighborhood, the more familiar one’s surroundings become. Components such as urban form, street layout, art, services, facilities and street furniture promote familiar environments for people to navigate (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p.54). When developing a familiar public way, it is important to consider local forms, styles, materials and colors.

Distinctiveness Community identity is important to preserving local culture and character. Distinctive streets create an identity through urban and built form, variety of uses, materials, features and colors, all of which are attributes that establish local character (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 78). Enhancing local character, therefore, leads to greater distinctiveness which strengthens a community’s sense of identity. This is a crucial concept because the International

District is one of the most diverse and unique neighborhoods in Albuquerque. While an identity already exists within the district, taking advantage of the existing features and enhancing them can create a more unified and cohesive environment throughout the public way. Distinctiveness aids in wayfinding when a variety of architecture and land use exists. For example, when a row of houses is identical, disorientation or confusion for the user can occur; however, diversity in buildings’ facades or forms help the user to identify where they are and in which direction to go. Distinctive and diverse structures, therefore, enable people to recognize their location and course of direction. Distinctive streets also influence the routes people select to reach their destination (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 79). Rather than picking the most obvious routes, many travelers unconsciously decide to take routes that are pleasant with a variety in features like architecture, art and land use. Distinctive features in the public way capture a person’s interest in her or his environment. Wayfinding features that contribute to distinctiveness include aesthetics and practicality. Aesthetic attributes are sculptures, fountains and landscapes that adorn the public way. These types of features offer visual stimulation and captivate the user’s attention. Practical attributes such as street furniture—benches, bus shelters and lighting—are necessary elements for the traveler. Both of these wayfinding features serve as cues for the user because they are well-established and recognizable characteristics in the public way.

38 CHAPTER FIVE


Chapter Six

RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations can be implemented for new development and future renovations that occur within the International District. These recommendations include establishing a design overlay zone, instituting a business improvement district, or creating a local improvement district. Design overlay zones and business improvement districts have already been implemented in the City of Albuquerque. But a local improvement district, a concept used in other states such as Oregon and Washington, has yet to be introduced in New Mexico. Design overlay zones provide a set of design standards to be applied in designated areas, while business improvement districts bring additional public and private resources to target communities. Local improvement districts direct funds to improve neighborhood infrastructure.

39

Design overlay zone The City of Albuquerque’s Comprehensive City Zoning Code, Section14-16-2-28, pertains to overlay zones. An overlay zone is an additional set of ordinances that apply to the existing, or underlying, zoning code. If there is a conflict between the overlay zone and the zoning code, the overlay zone shall be the superseding provision (City of Albuquerque Planning Department, 2013, p. 2-115). The city has five types of overlay zones: Wall Overlay Zone, Historic Overlay Zone, Urban Conservation Overlay Zone, Airport Protection Overlay Zone, and Design Overlay Zone. For the purpose of this professional project, the Design Overlay Zone best fits the implementation of inclusive design standards in the public way within the International District. According to the Comprehensive City Zoning Code, a design overlay zone may be used in areas that need special design considerations but do not require complete design control. The size of the zone must be


either a minimum of 320 acres or the size of a rank three plan, as determined by ordinance (City of Albuquerque Planning Department, 2013, p. 2-118). Fortunately, the International District meets one of the requirements: at over 2,400 acres, it exceeds the minimum acreage. Currently, the district has a rank three plan in draft form, which hasn’t been formalized. A design overlay zone must meet a minimum of two out of three conditions to be implemented, and the International District abides by two. First, the district has development potential for transportation, open space and urban land uses. This is because of Central Avenue, a main transportation hub, and the district’s abundance of parks and various institutional and retail uses. Second, the district plays a significant role in the development of arterial street corridors (City of Albuquerque Planning Department, 2013, p. 2-118). This is because Route 66 runs through the district on Central Avenue. It is a vastly utilized public transit corridor serving commuters and the local population. The third condition, new development and renovations, has not been met. Since the development of Talin Market, there has been an absence of new development and renovations within the International District. As a result, there is a lack of standards to create an inclusive public way. Although this is a barrier to creating an inclusive environment soon, it is also an opportunity to guide future development and design. A slow process that would benefit the district’s current and future residents is better than leaving the existing design flaws completely unaddressed and unresolved.

Business improvement district A business improvement district (BID) is a IMAGE. DOWNTOWN ALBUQUERQUE IS AN district in which business owners “vote to initiate, EXAMPLE OF A BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT manage and finance supplemental services” that WITHIN THE CITY.

A slow process that would benefit the district’s current and future residents is better than leaving the existing design flaws completely unaddressed and unresolved.

40 CHAPTER SIX


exceed the public services and maintenance that a city, town or village offers. In order to finance the additional services, a fee will be assessed to the business owners within the district. Before a BID can be implemented, it must be initiated by an official action of the City of Albuquerque’s Council and approved by a majority vote of the property owners who will be required to pay the fee (Downtown Albuquerque, 2014). The City of Albuquerque’s City Ordinance, Section 14-18-1, governs the implementation of a BID. The city’s fee rate is $0.58 for every $100 of revenue the business receives (Bernalillo County and City of Albuquerque, 2013). Business owners vote on the creation of a BID based on a vision the district hopes to achieve. Once implemented, business owners may terminate a BID by majority vote. Typically a BID is initiated when commercial businesses within a district want to increase public services, such as capital improvements, graffiti removal, pedestrian enhancements, street cleaning, security, trash pick up, marketing and visitor information. A BID strives to create a vibrant community, which in return promotes business development and vitality. Downtown Albuquerque, which is currently a BID, serves as a good example of how a BID operates. The BID is managed by the Downtown Action Team, and every five years the BID is reviewed by the City Council. The downtown BID is due for renewal or termination in October of 2015. The City Council plans to terminate the existing BID and replace it with a new one that will contain a few additional provisions (City of Albuquerque City Council, 2014). The BID will be put to a vote and either pass or fail depending on the City Council’s approval or disapproval of the measure.

Local improvement district City-owned property, arterial roads, and fronting sidewalks are typically financed by taxpayer money. In most cities and the City of Albuquerque, it is the responsibility of the property owner, business and residential, to maintain,

repair and assume liability for the sidewalk fronting his or her property (City of Albuquerque Municipal Development, 2014). Nevertheless, most people are under the mistaken impression that any infrastructural improvements are the City of Albuquerque’s responsibility. Despite the city ordinance, fronting sidewalks in the International District are in disrepair. Perhaps sidewalk repairs are not a priority for individual property owners for a variety of reasons. First, infrastructure improvements are costly. Second, the average income within the International District is only slightly above $32,000 per year (American FactFinder, 2014). Third, property owners may be unaware that it’s their responsibility to maintain the sidewalk in front of their residence. Fourth, the city ordinance is not enforced because of lack of new development. Infrastructure improvements can be achieved throughout the International District by creating a Local Improvement District (LID). A LID is a special district formed by property owners who wish to bring about capital infrastructure improvements, such as the development of streets, sidewalks, and stormwater management (City of Portland, 2014). Creating a LID for the funding and improvement of infrastructure would benefit each property owner within the district. A LID provides a longterm payment plan with relatively low interest rates. Sharing the cost of renovations across the entire community greatly reduces the expense for the individual property owner. Since the city would be borrowing the money, it is typically borrowed at a low interest rate; and the payments are made affordable because they are spread out over the life of the loan (City of Portland, 2014). Creating a LID also benefits the overall transportation network and the community. First, the property owner’s financial responsibility, as well as civil liability, for a defective sidewalk is eliminated. Second, reconditioned sidewalks and streets improve access for pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles (City of Portland 2014). Last, an improved transportation network creates community vitality, appearance and form, and increases property value.

41 CHAPTER SIX


Chapter Seven

VISION The following designs are conceptual images that inform a vision of the street and pedestrian environment that could exist within the International District. The selected area is located along Central Avenue from Rhode Island Street to Vermont Street. This site was selected because of the amenities within the area that align with the research for this professional project. Two Rapid Ride bus stops located on the north and south sides of the street are a common source of foot traffic. The main bus route through the site is the Rapid Ride Green Line, Route 777, which runs east and west along Central Avenue from Tramway to downtown Albuquerque. Since Central Avenue supports many jobs within the city, the line is a convenient way for people to access their jobs. The site has a church, grocery store, health center, hotel, thrift store, senior housing, and various vehicle service shops. The service areas for the vehicle shops are located on the north side of Central Avenue. Many of the parking lots and service bays are primarily fenced off from the public. The south side of Central Avenue

offers a number of services to the community. The main services include Ed Romero Terrace, Fair ‘N Square, and the University of New Mexico Hospital’s Southeast Heights Center for Family and Community Health. Ed Romero Terrace is a privately owned senior housing development. It has a total of 40 units that are solely rented for assisted living purposes. The apartments offer affordable housing for eligible seniors. The sidewalks within the development adhere to the City of Albuquerque’s minimum sidewalk width of six feet (City of Albuquerque Municipal Development, 1989). Landscape surrounds the development and a canopy with seating allows for a comfortable environment when residents are enjoying the outdoors. To the west of the senior housing is Fair ‘N Square, a local grocery store and the second largest market after Talin Market. The store is fronted to the street with accessible entrances on the front of the building as well as on the side facing the parking lot. To the east of the senior housing is the University of New Mexico Hospital’s Southeast Heights Center for Family and Community

42


Health. The health center provides a range of services such as preventative medicine, family planning, and treatment for chronic illnesses. This site offers an ideal opportunity for inclusive development in the public way due to the amenities and public transit that exist within the area. The conceptual designs include a wide walking path with a landscape buffer zone. Lighting is low to the ground and extends a feeling of safety and comfort when walking at night. Frequent speed limit signs remind drivers not to exceed 35 miles per hour. Public art is also included in the area to allow for wayfinding and assist in imageability so people can navigate to their destinations with ease. As an added benefit, local artists within the district could contribute to the public art displays, which would help showcase the district’s culture and identity. A crosswalk in front of the senior housing center is included to allow safe and easy access to the bus stop, since the closest crosswalk is located five blocks away— over a quarter mile—at Wyoming Boulevard. The inclusion of the crosswalk will reduce the likelihood of vehicle accidents involving pedestrians. The crosswalk design provides an area of refuge for anyone who may need more time to cross the street. It is important to note that the International Trail Scoping Report, mentioned previously, includes a recommendation for a crosswalk one block east of this vision’s proposal. The scoping report’s recommended placement is directly in front of the University of New Mexico Hospital’s Southeast Heights Center for Family and Community Health. The crosswalk would include a pedestrian hybrid beacon to stop traffic so pedestrians could safely cross the street (Bernalillo County Public Works, 2011, p. 35). The pedestrian hybrid beacon would provide safe north-to-south access to amenities on Central Avenue, which is crucial since there are only four north-to-south crosswalks in the district. The intended purpose of the crosswalk is good; however, the location should be moved a block to the west, where it would improve access. This vision places the crosswalk directly in front of Ed Romero Terrace, the senior center. This placement allows seniors to cross the street one time to access a bus stop. One bus stop is located directly across from the senior center, and another bus stop is located one

block east of the site, near Utah Street, in front of the Southwest Heights health clinic. If the crosswalk were placed on the east side of Utah Street, as the scoping report proposes, a person from the senior center would have to cross the street three times in order to legally and safely reach the bus stops. Locating the crosswalk in front of the senior center, as proposed herein, would allow seniors to cross the street only once to access either bus stop. Patients going to the health center would cross zero to two times, and Fair ‘N Square shoppers would cross twice; these pedestrians would have to cross the street as many as three times if the crosswalk were located east of Utah Street. Therefore, placing the crosswalk at the senior center reduces the total number of times a person must cross the street, thereby making the user less vulnerable to vehicle traffic. Additionally, the Albuquerque Indian Center is located on a two-acre lot immediately south of the senior center. The Indian center has a range of services that offer counseling, education, support groups, food distribution and job placement (Albuquerque Indian Center, 2014). The center is expected to expand within the next few years due to a Community Development Block Grant funded by Albuquerque Housing and Urban Development. The $365,000 grant and will finance expansion and building enhancements to include areas for business training and a community garden (Shively, 2003). Since the Indian center will be experiencing growth and development of its structure and services, access to the center plays a vital role in community development. Providing a crosswalk in front of the senior center, then, will facilitate access to the Indian center, whether arriving by foot or public transit. This vision is for the future planning and development of the public way within the International District. As development and renovation occur, the public way should be designed in a manner that promotes accessibility, safety and an enjoyable experience for all users. Creating an inclusive public way will encourage people to walk and feel comfortable, safe and confident in the physical environment. An aging infrastructure demands a vision that will showcase the district and its diverse local character. This design concept will generate rich engagement and a healthy community that will continue to thrive for many generations to come.

43 CHAPTER SEVEN


Southe as a n d Co t H e i g ht s Ce n mmun ity Hea ter for Fami ly lth

race ero Ter Ed R o m

q u a re Fair ‘N S

Current site

VERMONT STREET

UTAH STREET

N

TEXAS STREET

CENTRA

L AVENU

E

IMAGE. PLAN VIEW OF THE CURRENT SITE ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE FROM RHODE ISLAND STREET TO VERMONT STREET.

44 CHAPTER SEVEN


Vision plan

N

IMAGE. PLAN VIEW OF THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE FROM RHODE ISLAND STREET TO VERMONT STREET.

45 CHAPTER SEVEN


Axonometric

IMAGE. AXONOMETRIC VIEW OF THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE.

46 CHAPTER SEVEN


IMAGE. STREET PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN LOOKING EASTWARD.

IMAGE. THE ED ROMERO TERRACE APARTMENTS ARE LOCATED DIRECTLY OPPOSITE A BUS STOP. SINCE THE CLOSEST CROSSWALK IS THREE BLOCKS AWAY, CONSTRUCTING A CROSSWALK WOULD ADD CONVENIENCE AND LIMIT UNSAFE JAYWALKING.

IMAGE. STREET PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN LOOKING WESTWARD.

47 CHAPTER SEVEN


N

SECTION CUT

8

10

8

4

IMAGE. A SECTION OF THE GENERAL STREET DESIGN FACING EAST ON CENTRAL AVENUE. A SPACIOUS EIGHT-FOOT WIDE SIDEWALK IS FOLLOWED BY A FOUR-FOOT WIDE LANDSCAPE BUFFER.

48 CHAPTER SEVEN


N

SECTION CUT

8

10

8

4

IMAGE. A SECTION OF THE SUGGESTED CROSSWALK FACING EAST ON CENTRAL AVENUE WITH AN EIGHTFOOT WIDE SIDEWALK, LANDSCAPE BUFFER ZONE, AND AN EIGHT-FOOT WIDE MEDIAN AS A PEDESTRIAN REFUGE.

49 CHAPTER SEVEN


Chapter Eight

IMPLEMENTATION Planners and designers typically work with existing conditions rather than starting with a completely new slate, thus it is common practice that settlements become modified over time to meet the changing needs of the community. For example, Central Avenue was built around Route 66, the historic thoroughfare that connected the east and west coasts by way of Chicago and Los Angeles. Therefore, the corridor through the International District was designed to accommodate vehicle transportation. More recently, planners have noticed a trend in urban environments where people are seeking alternative modes of transportation—public transit, bicycling and walking. This trend is spreading across society, so urban networks must be reconfigured to foster multiple user options. In addition, these networks must facilitate access to jobs and amenities with comfort and ease. Therefore, it is the responsibility of planners to develop plans and designs that not only accommodate additional travel options, but are also inclusive of all people’s ability to access and use their environment. The demographics identify a clear need for a more inclusive environment in the International District. These

demographics include population, dependency ratios, disability characteristics, and people who seek public transit. But new development within the International District has been infrequent, resulting in a lack of standards to create an inclusive public way. An innovative set of standards, therefore, is needed to guide future development. In order to design a functional community, practitioners and stakeholders should work together to preserve the neighborhood’s identity, embrace its culture and diversity, increase mobility, and improve the overall quality of life. Practitioners are committed to the production of plans, design and development to fit a community’s needs; but with the addition of stakeholders, they can multiply their resources to create truly innovative designs. The following pages contain matrices that serve as a guide for the regulatory process in the City of Albuquerque. The guide also demonstrates the implementation process for designing an inclusive public way. The matrices illustrate how community stakeholders can or should participate in the process to create, renovate and maintain urban spaces.

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X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Road crossings with visual and audible cues

X

X

X

X

Clear and consistent signage

X

X

X

X

Frequent seating

X

X

X

Bus shelters with seating

X

X

X

X

X

X

Busy streets with a buffer zone between the street and sidewalk

X

X

Clear building entrances

X

X

Landmarks, structures, and civic spaces

X

Wide and flat sidewalks and trails

POLICY MAKERS

X

X

LOCAL RESIDENTS

X

X

MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT

NON-PROFIT DEVELOPERS X

Mix of uses

ENGINEERS

X

PLANNERS

X

URBAN DESIGNERS

PRIVATE DEVELOPERS

Implementing Body

ARCHITECTS

Recommendation

Creating new communities

X

X X

X

Bus shelters with seating Adequate lighting

X

X

TABLE. A MATRIX OF IMPLEMENTING BODIES THAT AID IN CREATING NEW URBAN SPACES. THE MATRIX WAS ADAPTED FROM ELIZABETH BURTON AND LYNNE MITCHELL’S NEIGHBORHOODS FOR LIFE CHECKLIST FOR THE HOUSING CORPORATION OF LONDON (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 138).

51 CHAPTER EIGHT


X

X

Increase sidewalk widths

X

X

Add a buffer zone between the street and sidewalk on busy streets

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

POLICY MAKERS

Add wayfinding features throughout the public way

X

LOCAL RESIDENTS

X

X

MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT

Add landmarks, structures, civic spaces or open spaces

NON-PROFIT DEVELOPERS

X

PRIVATE DEVELOPERS

X

ARCHITECTS

Increase the mix of uses through new development

ENGINEERS

PLANNERS

Implementing Body

URBAN DESIGNERS

Recommendation

Renovating existing communities

Increase the frequency of pedestrian crossings and crossing time

X

Incorporate ramps or steady slopes when steps are present

X

X

Add handrails to existing ramps if needed

X

X

X

X

Incorporate clear and consistent signage and symbols

X

X

Remove unclear or unnecessary signs Increase variety in existing buildings Replace rough or cracked sidewalks as new development occurs

X

X X

X

X

Add lighting where necessary Community engagement, process and facilitation

X

X

X

TABLE. A MATRIX OF IMPLEMENTING BODIES THAT AID IN RENOVATING EXISTING URBAN SPACES, WHICH COULD BE UTILIZED IN THE INTERNATIONAL DISTRICT. THE MATRIX WAS ADAPTED FROM ELIZABETH BURTON AND LYNNE MITCHELL’S NEIGHBORHOODS FOR LIFE CHECKLIST FOR THE HOUSING CORPORATION OF LONDON (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 138).

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CHAPTER EIGHT


POLICY MAKERS

LOCAL RESIDENTS

MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT

NON-PROFIT DEVELOPERS

PRIVATE DEVELOPERS

ARCHITECTS

ENGINEERS

PLANNERS

Implementing Body

URBAN DESIGNERS

Recommendation

Maintenance of urban areas Repair damaged sidewalks and trails Trim trees and hedges

X

X X

X

Clean sidewalks and trails regularly Remove litter

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TABLE. A MATRIX OF VARIOUS STAKEHOLDERS THAT AID IN MAINTENANCE OF URBAN AREAS. THE MATRIX WAS ADAPTED FROM ELIZABETH BURTON AND LYNNE MITCHELL’S NEIGHBORHOODS FOR LIFE CHECKLIST FOR THE HOUSING CORPORATION OF LONDON (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 138).

An inclusive public way... is crucial to creating a sustainable community that will propel it far into the future. The International District has the potential to become a desirable destination due to its location, amenities, culture and diversity. However, it lacks a set of standard designs that would accommodate many users’ range of ability. The district is a beacon of wellbeing and hope for its residents and businesses, and it offers the opportunity for a bright and successful future. An inclusive public way, therefore, is crucial to creating a sustainable community that will propel it far into the future.

An inclusive public way envisions the following attributes: It is accessible, safe and pleasant. It creates an engaging and walkable environment which is beneficial to the community’s health. It is sustainable through many social and environmental aspects by encouraging people to walk rather than drive to their destination. It inspires and empowers everybody to access the services and amenities, to enjoy the physical environment, and to experience the creativity and beauty that surrounds them. It increases the quality of life for every individual, and it nourishes economic opportunity and vitality.

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Chapter Nine

REFERENCES Literature review The literature on mobility and access offers practical design practices that designers can utilize to create inclusive public ways. In order to fully understand the subject of inclusion, one must refer to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, wherein Congress recognized that individuals with disabilities have been subjected to discrimination through exclusion, leading to their isolation and segregation. Among other findings, Congress determined that: (1) physical or mental disabilities in no way diminish a person’s right to fully participate in all aspects of society, yet many people with physical or mental disabilities have been precluded from doing so because of discrimination; (2) discrimination against individuals with disabilities persists in such critical areas as employment, housing, public accommodations, education, transportation, communication, recreation, institutionalization, health services,

voting, and access to public services; and (3) the Nation’s proper goals regarding individuals with disabilities are to assure equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for such individuals, (Department of Justice, 1990). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights for people with disabilities in the United States. Following its enactment, the Department of Justice issued the ADA Standards for Accessible Design. This was a shift in design toward inclusiveness in the built environment for individuals with disabilities; however, the standards only mandated requirements pertaining to access to buildings. It was silent about standards for the public way. Shortly after the ADA Standards for Accessible Design was published, the Federal Highway Administration (FHA) noted a lack of accessibility along sidewalks and trails. The FHA subsequently evaluated the accessibility of sidewalks

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and trails in the United States, and published a two-part report: (1) Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices; and (2) Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide. Part I examined the need for accessible sidewalks and trails within urban areas and natural environments open to the public, and Part II provided a set of samples and models to accomplish an inclusive network of sidewalk and trails. It was one of the first attempts in the United States to create a set of inclusive standards in the public way for designers. Two practicing professionals also understood the need for basic guidelines to support designers during the development process for creating accessible streets. Thus, Elizabeth Burton and Lynne Mitchell wrote Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life. The book is based on an extensive ten-year study of dementia patients by the organization Wellbeing in Sustainable Environments. Interviews and surveys were conducted to assess the wants and needs of people with an aging disability. From first hand accounts of the study, Burton and Mitchell developed a comprehensive guide to create “streets for life” and “streets for everyone.”

2010 ADA Standards for Acceptable Design Issued by the United States Department of Justice The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 was enacted into federal law and codified under Title 42, United States Code, Sections 12101 - 12213. The purpose of the ADA is to create a clear and comprehensive national mandate to eliminate discrimination against individuals with disabilities. This includes discrimination of one’s ability to access public services, communication, education, employment, health services, housing, institutionalization, public accommodations, recreation, transportation and voting. Historically, societal isolation and segregation of people with a disability was common and, despite some improvements during the 1980s, continued to be a prevalent social problem. Prior to the implementation

of the ADA, there was no legal recourse to challenge such discrimination (Department of Justice, 1990). The Department of Justice recognized the need to create design criteria for all ranges of physical ability; thus, the ADA Standards for Acceptable Design were established in 1991 and revised in 2010. The standards govern design in construction; curb ramps; detention, educational, government, medical, social and state facilities; historic property alterations; housing; and path of travel. “Path of travel” corresponds to individual access and mobility in the physical environment. Part 36 of the ADA, “New Construction and Alterations”, standardizes paths of travel, and any alteration to a path of travel must adhere to these standards. The path of travel requires “a continuous, unobstructed way of the pedestrian passage [that] may be approached, entered, and exited”; it may consist of “walks and sidewalks, curb ramps and other interior or exterior pedestrian ramps; clear floor paths through lobbies, corridors, rooms, … parking access aisles; elevators and lifts; or a combination of these elements,” (Department of Justice, 1991, p. 23). Chapter four of the ADA requires that accessible routes must have “walking surfaces with a running slope not steeper than 1:20, [including] doorways, ramps, curb ramps excluding the flared sides, elevators, and platform lifts,” (Department of Justice, 2010, p. 117). One exception is made for ramps and curb ramps, which are allowed to be a slightly steeper slope than 1:20. The width of walking surfaces must be a minimum of three feet. The ADA acknowledges that access to employment and services is crucial to the commerce and prosperity of a free society. It recognizes that disabled people are able to prosper and fully participate in their community only if access is readily available to them, despite physical or mental impairment. Designers, therefore, are required to follow ADA standards during the development, design and construction of a site, such that people with a disability can access services and employment on an equal basis as with non-disabled people. Generally, these ADA standards are site-specific and apply only to facilities and facility access, including parking lots. They do not cover the route of travel from residence to facility access.

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Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Guide by Peter W. Axelson, Julie B. Kirshbaum, Patricia E. Longmuir, Kathleen M. Mispagel, Julie A. Stein and Denise A. Yamada Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide was written in 2001 to provide designers with a set of analyses and recommendations in the design of sidewalks and trails for access. The guidebook asserts that every situation is different and should be left to the designer’s discretion to apply an appropriate design (Axelson, Kirschbaum, Longmuir, Mispagel, Stein, Yamada, 2001, p. 1-1). It falls short, however, of addressing the needs and concerns of people with limited mobility. It fails to recognize that sidewalks and trails should be designed to encourage pedestrian use and provide access for all users, regardless of ability. Although sidewalks and trails allow access to services for the general public, many sidewalks and trails lack the design needed to serve individuals with disabilities. The Federal Highway Administration (FHA), a component of the Department of Transportation, published Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices. Published in 1999, Part I explores elements that affect the accessibility of sidewalks and trails. It established a clear set of definitions for sidewalk and trail. A sidewalk is the area of a highway, road or street planned for pedestrians. A trail is the path of travel for recreation or access within a park, natural environment, or a corridor that is not a highway, road or street (Axelson, Chesney, Galvan, Kirschbaum, Longmuir, Lyons, & Wong, 1999, p. xii). Legislative history is instructive in knowing what inspired the FHA guidelines for designing sidewalks and trails. In 1980, the World Health Organization published the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH). The ICIDH classifies three terms describing the ability restriction of a user’s level of function. The first, impairment, is the way the body is formed or operates. The second, disability, is a limitation of the user’s daily tasks which cannot be performed due to impairment.

Last, handicap, the most recognized term for disabled persons in our society, is a “limitation of function” that is usually “imposed by the beliefs of the community” (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 2-1). The ICIDH was revised in 1999 to include a second section regarding the ability status of all users, with or without a disability. It defined four “dimensions” which include function, activity, participation and contextual factors. Function is the “physiological or psychological functions of the body or the anatomical body parts,” (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 2-2). Activity refers to the function of an action or a task of a user. Participation is the user’s involvement in life and society, or within his or her community. And contextual factors are the personal and environmental factors that affect the user’s function (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 2-2). The ICIDH helped inform the Federal Highway Administration of the different types of ability functions of disabled users, and it helped guide the strategies and recommendations that the FHA published in Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide. Part II identifies three principles: understanding the user, sidewalk development, and trail development. The first principle, understanding the user, describes disability rights legislation derived from the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. In order to have a true understanding of the user, planners must recognize the wide range of abilities that exist and how designs can empower or impede people’s capacities (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 2-1). The next principle, sidewalk development, offers approaches to create an accessible sidewalk network. Sidewalks are an essential form of transportation in any community. They allow for individuals to access services and promote business vitality (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 3-1). Guidelines have been established to assist communities and designers in creating accessible sidewalks. Overall these guidelines state that developed sidewalks are an essential component of a community (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 3-5). Many people in society are under the impression that everyone has a vehicle; however, not everyone has access to a car, so creating a developed and well-planned sidewalk network to amenities within a community is important for the livelihood and health of its residents. The third principle, trail development, focuses on the planning and design of trails. Trails are vital in providing recreation to a community, and recreation in turn creates healthier neighborhoods. Every person with any range of ability should have access to trails for recreational

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experiences and activities (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 121). Designers can recognize and utilize inclusive design techniques without compromising the environment and its natural features so that trails can be used by all, including people with restricted ability. An inclusive design approach to sidewalks and trails will “ensure that the needs of all potential users are addressed, including people with disabilities,” (Axelson et al., 2001, p. 1-4). Society has created a dogma that if one is “handicapped” then he or she cannot perform the daily functions like other people within a community. Consequently, we have constructed our communities around the mobile adult as opposed to creating an ideal design for all ages and range of abilities. These impairments, disabilities, and so-called handicaps, therefore, are exacerbated due to the built environment imposed by design. It is preventable. Through advocacy, education, planning and design, communities can be created to accommodate everyone and prevent discrimination in the design process and implementation. This will allow any user access to a community’s services.

Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life by Elizabeth Burton and Lynne Mitchell There is consensus about the need for design and accessibility standards in buildings, but the external environment has been disregarded. The research of Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life is an attempt to create criteria to assist urban designers in inclusive design practices for streets. This book is divided into three parts which address these questions: why, how, and what about the future. “Part One: Streets for Life – Why?” explains the purpose. Based on over ten years of research, Elizabeth Burton and Lynne Mitchell noticed the need for design in the outdoor built environment and its affect on an individual’s wellbeing and quality of life (2006, p. 3). The research included people’s perceptions and preferences on an environment that improves a community (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 3). The concept of “streets for life” is defined and examined (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 1); however, there are two interpretations of street for life. In the

first, the individual considers the street and whether it is “easy and enjoyable to use as they grow older.” A street that is easy to navigate allows people to age and continue to live in their homes. In the second, streets for life are inclusive and consider the community’s collective needs. Inclusive streets are easy and enjoyable to all members of a community, including the aging and disabled population who are usually not considered in the street design process (Burton &Mitchell, 2006, p. 4). It is important to consider streets for life early in the design and development process and the principles in this book guide that practice. “Part Two: Streets for Life – How?” has six principles and many recommendations for design. The six principles include familiarity, legibility, distinctiveness, accessibility, comfort and safety. “Familiarity” is the way people recognize and understand streets (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 51). When an environment is familiar, it becomes easier for the user to understand and navigate with confidence. Familiar environments are especially crucial for those who experience “spatial disorientation” and memory impairments (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 53). “Legibility” helps people identify and understand a network. This can be through signage or “unambiguous features” to show where they are and where they need to go. The set of legibility strategies draw from Kevin Lynch’s concept of wayfinding – cognitive maps, directions, landmarks, and nodes (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 64-68). “Distinctiveness” is the way streets deliver a clear idea of what they are, their use, and where they lead (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 78). This is where communities can showcase their local character or create an identity. Distinctiveness conjures a sense of belonging while creating wayfinding. “Accessibility” is the extent in which streets enable the user to access amenities. Accessible streets are connected, wide, flat, and contain controlled or safe pedestrian crossings. “Comfort” refers to how streets allow people to access services without physical exhaustion or mental agitation. Calm, welcoming and inclusive streets are comfortable streets. They allow the user to genuinely enjoy the experience (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 104). “Safety” is paramount for any street. It allows

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the user to be free from fear. Tripping, falling, being attacked, or having an accident is an all-too-common occurrence, so a safer street can be accomplished by, but not necessarily limited to, street-facing buildings, mix of uses, lighting, buffer zones, and smooth footways (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 115). Safe streets are desirable streets. “Part Three: Streets for Life – The Future?” explains how to implement inclusive design. While it would be ideal to create new cities and towns, this is not often an option. Designers must work with the urban environment and be sure to implement inclusive practices in any sort of street alteration. Alterations and adaptations of urban areas may include redevelopment of urban areas; regeneration

ice

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Public transit stop

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Prim ary Se rvi ce s

Se co nd ar yS er v

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of dilapidated areas; infill developments; additions to structures and open space; and refurbishment or replacement of street furniture (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 134). The research for this book stemmed from people living with dementia; even so, the book’s principles and recommendations can be used to create streets for everyone. It is important to keep in mind that everyone ages and people of all ages and abilities benefit from inclusive design. A shift is necessary in the design of sidewalks to create a vibrant and healthier community. In “Streets for Life is a vision, the authors argue that planners and designers can bring greater sustainability, wellbeing and hope,” (Burton & Mitchell, 2006, p. 165).

ie cilit Fa d an

4 mile s - 1/

Open space

Private medical office

General food store

Post office

Health center

Community facilities

Bank

Private medical office

Open space

Private medical office

Place of Worship

Public transit stop

Place of Worship Public transit stop

Open space

FIGURE. COMMUNITY AMENITIES FOR SENIORS SHOULD BE WITHIN A QUARTER-MILE OF RESIDENCES AND SECONDARY AMENITIES SHOULD BE WITHIN A HALF-MILE (BURTON & MITCHELL, 2006, P. 99).

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References Albuquerque Indian Center. (2014). “Services.” Albuquerque, New Mexico. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.abqindiancenter.com/Services.html. Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D.A., Galvan, D.V., Kirschbaum, J.B., Longmuir, P.E., Lyons, C., and Wong, K.M. (1999). United States Federal Highway Administration. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I of II: Best Practices Design Guide. Axelson, P.W., Kirshbaum, J.B., Longmuir, P.E., Mispagel, K.M., Stein, J.A., and Yamada, D.A. (2001). United States Federal Highway Administration. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide. Bernalillo County and City of Albuquerque. (2013). Albuquerque/Bernalillo Comprehensive Plan. Albuquerque, New Mexico. Bernalillo County Public Works. (2011). International Trail Scoping Report. Albuquerque, New Mexico. Breuste, J.H. (2012). Investigations of the urban street tree forest of Mendoza, Argentina. Springer Science and Business Media, LLC. Burton, E. and Mitchell, L. (2006). Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life. Oxford: Architectural Press. City of Albuquerque City Council. (2014). “Improvement of Services Provided by the Downtown Business Improvement District.” Albuquerque, New Mexico. City of Albuquerque Municipal Development. (1989). “Sidewalk Ordinance.” Section 6-5-5-3. Albuquerque, New Mexico. City of Albuquerque Municipal Development. (2012). “Project bestowed with best practices award in Taos.” Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.cabq.gov/municipaldevelopment/featured-projects/lead- and-coal-avenues. City of Albuquerque Municipal Development. (2014). “Answers to the most commonly asked questions.” Retrieved March 10, 2014 from http://www.cabq.gov/municipaldevelopment/frequently-asked- questions#q7. City of Albuquerque Parks and Recreation. (2013). “City and County Leaders, Huning Highland Historic District NA, Parks and Recreation Plant Trees.” Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.cabq.gov/ parksandrecreation/news/lead-and-coal-avenue-streetscapes-beautified. City of Albuquerque Planning Department. (2012). International District Sector Development Plan, Draft. Albuquerque, New Mexico. City of Albuquerque Planning Department. (2013). “Part 2: Zoning Districts, Overlay Zones.” Section 14-16-2- 28. Comprehensive City Zoning Code. Albuquerque, New Mexico. City of Portland. (2006). SW 12th Avenue Green Street Project. Portland, Oregon: Environmental Services. City of Portland. (2014). “Local Improvement District Projects. “ Retrieved March 10, 2014 from http://www. portlandoregon.gov/transportation/article/82642.

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City of Portland. (2014). “Overlay Zones.” Retrieved March 10, 2014 from http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ bps/article/64465. Clark, S. (2010). Transport for London. Legible London… Supporting walking in the Capital. Downtown Albuquerque. (2014). “What is a BID?” Retrieved March 10, 2014 from http://www.abqdowntown. com/what-is-a-bid/. Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, Inc. Mendoza Holidays. (2014). Mendoza, Argentina. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.mendozaholidays. com/mendoza.asp. Metropolitan Transportation Board. (2004). 2030 Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Albuquerque Metropolitan Planning Area. Mid-Regional Metropolitan Planning Organization. Mid-Regional Metropolitan Planning Organization. (2010). “Safety Doesn’t Happen by Accident.” New Mexico. Public way [Def. 1]. (2014). Merriam-Webster Online, Retrieved February 20, 2014, from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/publicway. Rossetti, R. (2006). The Seven Principles of Universal Design. Action Magazine. Shively, L.A. (2003). “Community blesses Albuquerque Indian Center.” Indian Country Today Media Network. Albuquerque, New Mexico. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http:// indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2003/05/21/community-blesses-albuquerque- indian-center-88796. SouthWest Organizing Project. (2014). “What We Do.” Albuquerque, New Mexico. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from http://www.swop.net/about-swop/what-we-do/. Tanner, G. (2004). Transport for London. Briefing: Making London a walkable city. Ten Eyck Landscape Architects. (2014). “Taylor Mall.” Phoenix, Arizona. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http:// www.teneyckla.com/projects/public/taylor-mall/. Transport for London. (2004). Making London a walkable city. London: Mayor of London Office. Transport for London. (2010). Legible London Inclusivity Report. London: Mayor of London Office. World Health Organization. (2011). United Nations. Global Health and Aging. United States Code. Department of Justice. (1990). Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Washington DC: National Institute of Justice. United States Code. Department of Justice. (2010). 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Washington DC: National Institute of Justice. United States. (2008-2012). U.S. Census Bureau. American FactFinder.

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Master's Degree Professional Project  

"The International District: Inclusive design for the public way" received distinction from the University of New Mexico's Community and Reg...

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