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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

ZBRUSH 4 R4 WHAT’S NEW DOCUMENTATION

ZBRUSH

®

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

WELCOME Welcome to the What’s New documentation for ZBrush® 4R4. While much of ZBrush® 4R4 is very similar to other releases in the version 4 series, there are quite a few new features to help make your ZBrushing even more productive and creative. We hope that the information you find here helps you understand the differences between this release and previous versions of ZBrush®. This document only covers what’s new in version 4R4. To learn more about the features introduced in previous releases of ZBrush® 4, we invite you to read the ZBrush® 4 /4R2/4R2b/R3 What’s New Guides, located in your ZBrush installation’s Documentation folder. You’re invited to visit our ZClassroom for a huge database of free high quality movies explaining all the main features of ZBrush®. Here you will also find the Artists Spotlight, where famous 3D Artists explain how they use ZBrush®, helping inspire you to create like the pros. Don’t forget to subscribe for free to our ZBrushCentral community with over 250,000 members to discover tips, view artists’ creations, locate useful help for all things related to ZBrush® or post your works-in-progress! We encourage you to regularly visit our ZBrush® Blog where you will find all the news related to the ZBrush® universe, from the most recent Interview to new plugins or gallery additions.

ZClassRoom Portal: http://www.pixologic.com/zclassroom/ Artist Spotlight: http://www.pixologic.com/zclassroom/artistspotlight/ ZBrushCentral: http://www.zbrushcentral.com/ ZBlog: http://www.pixologic.com/blog/ Pixologic.com: http://www.pixologic.com The Pixologic Team

© 2012 Pixologic, Inc. All rights reserved, Pixologic and the Pixologic logo, ZBrush, and the ZBrush logo are registered trademarks of Pixologic, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

MAC OS X & WINDOWS VERSION OF ZBRUSHÂŽ Instead of the Windows Ctrl key, the Macintosh uses the Command (Apple) Key. This documentation will always refer to using the Ctrl key name, although it may sometimes list both as Ctrl/Command. When the Ctrl key is mentioned anywhere in the documentation a Macintosh user will want to use the Command key instead. The same is true for the Windows Enter key, which the Macintosh calls Return. When seeing the Enter key mentioned anywhere in this documentation, a Mac user will want to use the Return key instead. The Close/Quit, Hide, Minimize and Maximize buttons are located on the top right in Windows and at the top left on Mac OS X.

ZBrush 4R4 Documentation - version 1.0 This documentation has been written by Thomas Roussel, Paul Gaboury and Matthew Yetter For all documentation questions and inquiries, please contact us at thomas@pixologic.com

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT ZBRUSH® 4R4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

I

1. Major new features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Various Other ZBrush Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1 Brushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2 Tool and Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 FiberMesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 Render and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.5 Import/Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.6 Misc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 II

IMPORTANT NOTICE - ZBRUSH FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

III

INSTALLATION, UPGRADE & ACTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1. Minimum requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Deactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Activation Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. GoZ and ZBrush® 4 and ZBrush® 4R2/R2b/R3/R4 . . . . . . . . 6. Un-installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Support Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13 14 16 17 18 18 19

IV QREMESHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1. QRemesher in a Few Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Environment Sculpting Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Full Character Retopology Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Working with QRemesher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Polygon Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Density with Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Working with Curves: the QRemesher Guide brush . . . 3. Partial Mesh Retopology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. QRemesher Options: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 QRemesher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Auto Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 MDensity (Mask Density) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

21 21 26 29 29 29 30 30 32 33 33 33 34


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

4.4 Target Polygon Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.5 Half, Same, Double . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.6 CStiffness (Curve Stiffness) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 V

CURVE AND STROKE MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1. Improving and Editing Existing Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Operation on the Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Moving the Curve along the Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Extending or Shrinking a Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Deleting a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Adding to the Middle of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Creating a Straight Line Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. New Curve Stroke Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Smooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Frame Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Maximum Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Curve Snap Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Curve Projection Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Curve Smoothness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lock Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Lock End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VI

37 38 38 38 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43

REPLACING PARTS OF A MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

1. Creating a Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2. Replacement and Topology Brush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. Replacement Part Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 VII

TOPOLOGY BRUSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

1. Topology Brush Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Using the Curve Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Generating the New Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51 52 52 53

VIII BRUSHES ADDITIONS AND CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 1. 2. 3. 4.

Insert Brushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insert Brushes Combined with Curve Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tri Parts Insert Brushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . InsertMultiMesh Brush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

5. Creating InsertMesh and InsertMultiMesh Brushes . . . . . . . . . 6. Insert Mesh new Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 MultiMesh Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 MultiMesh Spread Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 MultiMesh Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 MultiMesh Variation Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Projection Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Insert Brushes Combined with Curve Options . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Tri Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Overlap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Curve Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Max imum Bend Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Curve Snap Surface Brush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Brush Creation Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Other Additions and Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX

61 63 63 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 67 68 69 70

DYNAMESH ADDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

1. DynaMesh Maximum Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2. Merging SubTools as DynaMesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3. Convert Inserted Meshes from Positive to Negative . . . . . . . . 74 X

HISTORY - UNLIMITED “UNDO’S” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 1. Undo History Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. History Functions and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Del UH (Delete Undo History) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Undo Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Restore Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Undo History for Movie Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Movie Creation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 HFrames (History Frames) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 HRecenter (History Recenter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 HOrientation (History Orientation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 HPosition (History Position) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 History Camera Path Smoothness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Undo History Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Show Undo Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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76 78 78 78 78 78 79 80 80 80 80 80 81 82 82


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 XI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. XII 1. 2. 3. 4.

Show Time Stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Max Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warn When Deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enable Saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skip Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82 82 82 83 83

TOOL AND GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Crease All and Uncrease All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SubTool Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grow All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mask Peaks And Valleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Loop Displacement Slider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Merge Tris and Weld Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mesh Extract Thin Border and Corner Quad to Triangle . . . . . Split to Similar Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Split to Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 86

POLYGROUP ADDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Group Masked Clear Mask (Hotkey CTRL+W) . . . . . . . . . . . Group Visible New Options: Coverage and Cluster . . . . . . . Group Masked New Option: Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group as DynaMesh Sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88 89 90 91

XIII TRANSPOSE ADDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Transpose Axis Selectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transpose Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flatten a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inflating a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inserting an Edge Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93 93 94 95 95

XIV BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 1. Tilting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 2. Rotate With Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 3. Snapshoting models and images in the Background image . . 97 XV

GRID AND REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

1. Shadow on Grid with BPR Render . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 7


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Grid Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 3. Images References on Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4. Grid Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4.1 Open and Save with LightBox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4.2 Snap Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.3 Fill Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.4 Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.5 Snapshot to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.6 Snapshot Image Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.7 Snap to Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.8 Snap to All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.9 Snap to Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.10 Snap to ShadowBox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.11 Image Selectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4.12 One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4.13 PLine (Projection Lines from Cursors to Axis) . . . . . . . 106 4.14 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.15 Adjust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.16 Rotate, Flip and Inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.17 Scale, Angle, Vertical and Horizontal Offset . . . . . . . 108 4.18 Edge (E) Enhancement and Opacity . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.19 Front Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.20 Back Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.21 Grid in BPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.22 Opacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.23 Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.24 Grid Color and Floor Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.25 RGB Frame and RGB Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.26 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.27 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 XVI OTHER CHANGES AND ADDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 XVII THANK YOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 XVIII NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

I

ABOUT ZBRUSH® 4R4

This new release of ZBrush continues expanding on creative freedom with a focus on model topology and detail creation. It includes major features which are designed to free the artist in you. Before we go into these ZBrush 4R4 new features in depth, here is an overview of what to expect:

1. Major new features • QRemesher Plugin: Provides high quality and automatic retopology of your model. It can be applied to the entire figure or restricted to specific areas. • Topology Brush: Works “on the fly” to control topology. It can be used for props, accessories or doing a 100% controlled retopology of your models. • Replacement Part Function: Replaces a group of your model’s polygons with another, fully detailed mesh. • Full Process History: You can now undo up to 16,000 times. This feature also gives the ability to replay the entire construction of your model as a movie. • Improved Curves Functions: Insert replicated items composed of multiple elements such as a chain with hooks on both ends. • New MultiMeshInsert Brush: Can contain several meshes ready to be inserted individually or randomly. • Insert Brush Creation: With a single click, create Insert brushes from your current Tool. Or create MultiMesh Insert brushes from your SubTools. • DynaMesh Booleans: When merging multiple SubTools you can now use DynaMesh to add, subtract or intersect them. • Improved Transpose: The new action line displays X, Y and Z axis as well as having integrated Inflate and Flatten functions. • Floor Grid with Reference Images: Load images onto the working plane grids to help create a model based on blueprints or other references.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Various Other ZBrush Additions 2.1

Brushes

• New preset brushes provide examples of how to take advantage of ZBrush 4R4’s key features: Curve Strap, Curve Track, Insert types and more. • Create Insert and Multi Mesh Insert brushes with a single click. • Insert Brushes now use the brush Imbed setting to define the depth of the insertion. • Insert Brushes now use the Z Intensity setting to apply a squash factor along the insertion normal. • Projection Strength function conforms the inserted mesh to the underlying surface. • Be recognized for your contributions! You can now provide your name and website info to a brush before exporting and sharing it with the community.

2.2

Tool and Geometry

• Maximum DynaMesh resolution has been increased to 2048. • Mask Peaks and Valleys function detects portions of the mesh with the greatest detail density. This function is used internally by QRemesher but is also available for general use via the AutoMasking options. • Quickly create a PolyGroup from a mask. This is especially useful with the new topology replacement features. • New Cluster option for the Group Visible function controls the way its randomization will act. • Grow All visibility function makes all the current mesh’s polygons visible. • Mesh to Brush function converts the mesh of an Insert Mesh brush to a new Tool. • New topology cleaning tools: Merge Triangles and Weld Points. • Mesh Extract gains two new controls: Corner Quad to Triangle and Thin Border.

2.3

FiberMesh

• Merging different SubTools which are FiberMesh aware preserves the designation if they have the same number of vertices per fiber. • The Group Visible function is now FiberMesh aware and uses the Coverage value 10


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide to regroup the fibers. • The Split Hidden and Group Split functions are now fiber aware. • The Inflate deformer now has a reduced effect when used on a FiberMesh.

2.4

Render and Materials

• New Vibrant Shadows and AO setting generates more strongly color-saturated shadows. • The Background image can now be tilted. • The Background image may now be synchronized with your model’s rotation.

2.5 •

Import/Export

Vector Displacement map export quality has been improved.

• UV Offset has been added in the Preferences palette’s Export options for use with Vector Displacement. • .EXR File format has been added for Vector Displacement maps. • GoZ now supports Maya 2013 and Luxology modo 601. (Note: modo 601 on OSX requires a manual update when importing a model.)

2.6

Misc

• XPose now display the SubTools as a contact sheet. • Improved notification when saving large projects. (2Gb to 4Gb) • New SubTool commands Delete All and Delete Other help to quickly clean your projects. • Improved overall Projection speed. • ZBrush preferences settings are now stored in a Public folder for improved permissions compatibility with Windows and Mac. • The location of the ZBrush virtual memory/cache files can now be changed, providing performance improvements on systems where the system drive is not the computer’s fastest drive or is running low on disk space. • New ZScript commands have been added, mainly to manage the SubTools. We look forward to seeing your ZBrush® 4R4 creations and comments on our users forum: ZBrushCentral.com! 11


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

II

IMPORTANT NOTICE - ZBRUSH FILES

ZBrush now manages all temporary and configuration files in a dedicated public folder. On Windows, this is the C:\Users\Public\Documents\ZBrushData folder. For Mac OS X it is the Users/Public/ZBrushData folder. The files stored in this folder include your custom interface hotkey configuration. This simplifies reinstallation or upgrading ZBrush, since it will not be necessary to first move or backup these files. Another purpose of this change is to reduce issues with file permissions which can affect some installations. The path of the public ZBrush folder can’t be changed. Another enhancement in ZBrush 4R4 is that it is now possible to change the location where ZBrush will write temporary files when compacting memory. When working with ZBrush, it is often necessary for the operating system to manage very large amounts of data with frequent read and write access. (Approximately 4-8 GB of data.) If your system drive isn’t the fastest on your computer, you can set ZBrush to use a different drive instead. This is done by editing the ZBrushScratchDiskPath.txt file located in the C:\Users\Public\Documents\ZBrushData folder on Windows or Users/Public/ZBrushData folder on Mac OS X.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

III

INSTALLATION, UPGRADE & ACTIVATION

This is the useful information that you will need to know when installing ZBrush® 4R4 on your computer. This chapter also describes the activation and de-activation process.

1. Minimum requirements Recommended: • Operating System: Windows Vista or newer. Mac OS X 10.5 or newer. (32-bits or 64-bits for either platform.) • CPU: Pentium D or newer (or equivalent such as AMD Athlon 64 X2 or newer) with optional multithreading or hyperthreading capabilities. • 6 GB recommended. (ZBrush 4 is a 32-bit application, but can use up to 4 GB of system RAM.) • Disk Space: 750 MB for ZBrush, plus 16 GB for the scratch disk. • Pen tablet: Wacom or Wacom compatible.

Notes: The scratch disk may be a different drive from where ZBrush is installed. Having ZBrush and its scratch disk running on an SSD drive will result in improved performance.

Minimum System Requirements: • Operating System: Windows Vista or newer. Mac OS X 10.5 or newer. (32-bits or 64-bits for either platform.) • CPU: P4 or AMD Opteron or Athlon64 Processor. (Must have SSE2 -- Streaming SIMD Extensions 2. All CPU’s from 2006 or later support SSE2.) • RAM: 1024 MB (2048 MB required for working with multi-million-poly models). • Disk Space: 750 MB for ZBrush, plus 8 GB for the scratch disk. • Monitor: 1280x1024 monitor resolution set to 32-bits or Millions of Colors.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Activation For new installations of ZBrush 4R4 (not an upgrade) this step must be completed in order to launch ZBrush successfully. The single-user ZBrush license allows you to have ZBrush activated on two of your computers, provided that both copies are not actually used at the same time. For example it may be activated on a workstation and a laptop. Please keep in mind that only one copy of ZBrush should be run at any given time. Volume licenses allow only the number of activations for which seats have been purchased. Floating licenses do not use activation and can ignore this section.

ZBrush activation window.

• Launch ZBrush. • From the splash screen, select your desired activation method. • If your computer is connected to the internet (or can be temporarily connected), use Web Activation. This activation method is faster and more accurate. After ZBrush has displayed the End User License Agreement window, your web browser will be opened to a page that requests your serial number, the email address associated with your account, and a description that you can use to identify this computer should you ever need to see a list of your activations. Upon submitting this form you will be given 14


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide an activation code. Click the button to select the code, then press Ctrl+C (Windows) or Cmd+C (Mac) to copy it. Switch back to ZBrush and click the button to “Enter Activation Code”. A new window will open with a red text line. Click in that line and press Ctrl+V (Windows) or Cmd+V (Mac) to paste the activation code. Now press Enter/Return to complete activation.

The Web activation form

Or • If your computer cannot be connected to the internet, use Phone Activation. PLEASE NOTE THAT DURING THE WEEK FOLLOWING THE RELEASE OF VERSION 4R4, HIGH CALL VOLUME MAY MAKE IT VERY DIFFICULT TO REACH SUPPORT FOR PHONE ACTIVATION. After ZBrush has displayed the End User License Agreement window, a new screen will open with your request code and a phone number to call. Please have your serial number ready before calling! When you call you will be asked for your serial number, request code, email address and desired computer description. An activation code will be created and sent to the email address on record for your account. If you cannot conveniently check your email, the phone representative will be able to read the 32-letter activation code to you. To enter your activation code into ZBrush, click the option to “Enter Activation Code”. Click in the red text line within the window that will open, type your activation code and press Enter/Return to complete your activation. • Instead of calling, you may follow the steps above but write down the request code that ZBrush gives you. You may then shut down ZBrush. From any computer that has internet access you can submit a Support ticket at https://support.pixologic.com. In your ticket, provide the following information: The request code from ZBrush, your serial number, your email address, and your desired computer description. You should receive a response to your Support ticket within one business day (often within one or two hours) containing your activation code. At that point, launch ZBrush and choose the option to “Enter Activation Code”. (Note: Do not start a new Phone Activation.) Click in the red text line within the window that will open, type your activation code and press Enter/Return to complete your activation. • Once activated, ZBrush will start immediately. 15


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3. Deactivation If you plan to move ZBrush to a new computer or if you are going to reinstall your operating system, you can make everything easier by first deactivating your current installation of the software. To do this, launch ZBrush and go to the Zplugin >> Deactivation menu. There are two options: Web Deactivation and Manual Deactivation.

The Deactivation plugin in the ZPlugin menu.

Deactivation process: If your computer has internet connection, use Web Deactivation. This will launch your browser to a page that asks for the email address associated with your account. Submit that form and then click the confirmation button to instantly complete your deactivation of ZBrush. or If your computer cannot be connected to the internet, you will need to use Manual Deactivation. In this case you will be given a deactivation code. You may either call the number on the screen to deactivate by phone (only available during normal business hours of 9:00 am to 5:00 pm Pacific Time, Monday through Friday) or you may submit a Support ticket at https://support.pixologic.com. Please note that by either method you will also be required to provide the email address that is associated with the account.

Note: Once deactivation has been started, it is not possible to stop it. The moment you confirm your desired deactivation method, ZBrush will shut itself down and will not be able to be restarted without a new activation. However, the deactivation will not be credited back to your serial number until you have submitted the Web Deactivation form or contacted Support with your manual deactivation code.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

4. Activation Troubleshooting “Activation Failed” after entering activation code: • Make sure you are not trying to use your serial number as an activation code. Serial numbers are 16 characters in length, with both letters and numbers. Activation codes are longer and have all letters. You will never enter your serial number directly into ZBrush. It is always used via Web or Phone activation to create an activation code. • Make sure you are not trying to use an outdated activation code. Any time you install ZBrush you must begin with a new Web or Phone activation to create a new activation code. Codes from previous activations cannot be reused. • Make sure that your system clock is set to the correct date, including year. If the date is wrong, activation will fail. After correcting the date you will need to start the activation process over from the beginning. • Make sure that you are logged into the computer as an administrator when installing and activating ZBrush. After it has been activated it may be run by any user on that computer, but the initial installation and activation must be done under an admin account. • (Mac Users) If you launch ZBrush and immediately receive an error message (such as a virtual memory error) that must be resolved before activation can be done successfully. This error is typically caused by permissions. For most environments, simply get info on the ZBrush OSX 4R3 folder. Unlock permissions and then assign Read & Write permission to the “Everyone” user group. Next, click the gear icon underneath the users list and choose the option to “Apply to Enclosed Items”. When the process completes you should be able to launch ZBrush without an error message and may then proceed to activation. If the above troubleshooting items do not resolve your issue, please contact Pixologic® Support for assistance. Make sure to state from the beginning that you have already tried activation and it failed. Phone activation uses the same system as Web activation, so if Web activation failed you will have the same problem with Phone. We need to resolve the issue rather than just trying under a different method.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

5. GoZ and ZBrush® 4 and ZBrush® 4R2/R2b/R3/R4 ZBrush 4 and ZBrush 4R2/R2b/R3/R4 can be used together with GoZ as main components are remaining the same, but it’s not possible to work on the same project between multiple versions of ZBrush at the same time. Once a file has been created or saved in a newer version of ZBrush, it may not be opened by any earlier version. For example, if you have a file that you’d been working on with ZBrush 4R3 and then save it using ZBrush 4R4, it will no longer be possible to open it in version 4R3. GoZ cannot get around this restriction. It can be used to open files from earlier versions of ZBrush but it cannot be used to send files to an earlier version. The only way to get a file into an earlier version of ZBrush than it was last saved in is through the OBJ format.

6. Un-installation This process completely removes ZBrush from your computer. Un-installation process: 1. In the ZPlugin menu, choose Web Deactivation and proceed with the license deactivation as explained in a section above. If you do not deactivate prior to un-installation, the un-installed machine will continue to count against your serial number and potentially prevent you from reactivating! 2. On Windows, use the Windows Control Panel uninstall utility and follow the steps. On Mac OS X, simply move the ZBrush folder and the Users/Public/Pixologic folder to the Trash. 3. Check the location where ZBrush was installed for extra files which haven’t been deleted by the installer. You can delete those folders if you do not intend to use ZBrush on this computer again.

Note: With the exception of GoZ, ZBrush doesn’t write files outside its own folder.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

7. Support Registration It is required to have a current Support account at http://support.pixologic.com in order to receive technical support for ZBrush. This account is free. Activating an earlier version of ZBrush is not the same as having a registered Support account. The Support system is an independent platform. It does not use any existing log-ins that you might have for ZBrushCentral, Cleverbridge or any other ZBrush-related sites. If you have not already registered on the Support site: 4. Go to https://support.pixologic.com. 5. Click the Register icon. 6. Enter your email address and whatever password you would like to use for the Support site. These will become your login info for the future. 7. Fill in your system information. We need this info in order to respond to your support requests more efficiently. 8. Also provide your ZBrush 4x serial number and the Cleverbridge reference number for your copy of ZBrush. This information identifies you as someone who has actually purchased a ZBrush license. (If you have upgraded from an earlier version of ZBrush 4, your serial number will remain unchanged. All versions of ZBrush 4x use the same serial number.) 9. After you submit the form you will receive a confirmation email at the address you used to register. Follow the instructions in that email to complete your registration. If you have already registered on the Support site: You do not need to change any information. At any time, you can go to https://support.pixologic.com to view your past tickets or create a new one.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

IV

QREMESHER

On the left, the original model as created through Unified Skinning. The middle and right show new topology generated by QRemesher with different polygon density settings.

While classified as a plugin, QRemesher is fully integrated into ZBrush. It is the result of the collective efforts of both Pixologic and Verold. As its name suggests, QRemesher is an automatic remeshing/retopologizing function. As with UV Master (the automated UV mapping plugin for ZBrush), QRemesher has a number of user controls to enhance its automated retopology systems. The QRemesher solution will recreate a new polygonal structure for your model, with a controlled flow of polygons and a global polycount value. In just a few seconds you can convert a 200,000 polygon DynaMesh to a 10,000 poly retopologized model. From there you can project all the fine details from your original sculpture, easily generate UV’s with UV Master, and ultimately create your Vector, Displacement, Normal and Diffuse maps. A fully automatic solution will give very good results for most of your needs, but there will of course be times when you might need more control. For that reason, QRemesher can control local polygon density through masks. It also allows you to draw control curves on your original model to drive its polygon flow and edge loops. QRemesher can be found in the Tool >> Geometry sub-palette. It requires a PolyMesh3D object such as an imported mesh, DynaMesh or ZSphere adaptive skin. If you wish to use it on a parametric primitive you will need to first use the Make PolyMesh 3D feature. If your model is a ZSphere or a ZSketch in preview mode, you must first create an adaptive or unified skin before you can use QRemesher. QRemesher does for your topology what UV Master did for UV mapping. It removes 20


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide yet another creative barrier that often stands in the way of true artistic freedom. With QRemesher you can focus even more on the creative process of model creation and leave the technical hurdles behind!

1. QRemesher in a Few Steps The purpose of these two simple projects is to help you understand how QRemesher operates and how easily you can retopologize your models.

1.1

Environment Sculpting Project

The model used for the project: a DynaMesh composed of 874,000 polygons without subdivision levels. The close-up shows the raw polygon density.

For this project, a simple environment has been sculpted using DynaMesh, a feature which is really powerful but can easily generate too many polygons for quality UV mapping or real-time rendering uses. With QRemesher it is simple to create a new base mesh in just a few seconds. 21


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide Because QRemesher will replace your model, the first step is to make a copy of it. To do this select your SubTool and click Tool >> SubTool >> Duplicate. (CTRL+Shift+D) An alternative is to make a copy of the SubTool by clicking the Tool >> Clone button, found at the top of the Palette.

Duplicate the current SubTool for future projection of details.

The next step is to define the target polycount value for the remeshed model, using the Tool >> Geometry >> QRemesher >> Polycount slider. This setting is in thousands of polygons and QRemesher will do its best to achieve a final mesh density that is close this value. In the current example, we set this value to 4, meaning a target of 4,000 quads.

Define the target polycount value in the QRemesher section.

Press the QRemesher button to start the retopology process. After few seconds, your current model will be replaced by one with the new topology.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

The result of QRemesher’s automatic retopology. The new model is now composed of approximately 4,000 polygons.

From here we must copy the original sculpted details to the new mesh. If you cloned the SubTool rather than duplicating it, append the clone that you created in the first step before proceeding. Select the SubTool with the new topology and add several new subdivision levels (Tool >> Geometry >> Divide; CTRL+D). You want to have approximately the same number of polygons in the new topology versus the original one.

Add enough subdivision levels to reach approximately the same polygon count you had on your DynaMesh model.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide Once the new topology has sufficient polygons to support the details, simply click Tool >> SubTool >> Project All to copy them from the original. If you’re not satisfied with the results, press Ctrl+Z to undo. Adjust the Projection Distance slider and then Project All again.

The original DynaMesh model on top of the retopologized one with its subdivision levels, before reprojection.

The reprojection of details using the Project All function, located in the SubTool sub-palette.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide At this point you will now have a new model complete with revised topology and all details from the original. You’re ready to return to subdivision level 1 to create your UV’s with UV Master and then generate your Normal, Displacement or Vector maps for export.

The final model with 5 subdivision levels and all the original DynaMesh details.

As simple as this process is, you can often simplify it even further by using the Freeze Subdivision Levels function. Doing so will avoid the need for creating a clone and reprojecting the details.

Note: Take care when using the Freeze Subdivision Levels function because it will keep the current levels of subdivision. If after using QRemesher your new base mesh will have significantly fewer polygons than the original, using the Freeze Subdivision Levels feature would result in a loss of detail. This is why unless you are extremely sure of yourself, we recommend that you manually duplicate the model and copy the details.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

1.2

Full Character Retopology Project

In this project we will demonstrate how to quickly retopologize a full body. This can be done in just a few minutes. By using several features of QRemesher and ZBrush, you will be able to improve the results of the retopology. For example, you can use masking to control the density and curves to control the flow of polygons. As in the previous example, the first step is to duplicate your SubTool or clone it in order to be able to later project its details onto the new topology. Select the SubTool that you will be retopologizing and press Tool >> SubTool >> Duplicate (CTRL+Shift+D) or press Tool >> Clone. QRemesher can use ZBrush’s symmetry feature to create keep the new topology symmetrical. If symmetry is not already enabled, activate it in the Transform palette (X hotkey). (Make sure also that the symmetry settings match those of your current model. In most cases this means X symmetry but some models require different settings.) Set the QRemesher Polycount slider to 10, specifying that you wish to have a target polygon count of approximately 10,000 polys after retopology. Now press the QRemesher button. After few seconds, retopology will be complete and you can observe the results. You may notice that in some areas -- mainly small details and thin extrusions -- the results can be improved. This usually happens because QRemesher tries to keep a constant polygon size across the entire model, which means that it may lack sufficient density in some areas like the hands. In these situations we will want to guide QRemesher toward the ideal results.

On the left, the original model. On the right, the retopology. Notice that by default, some thin details like fingers are partially missing due to insufficient polygon density. Model courtesy of Matthew Kean.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide Undo the retopology operation by pressing Ctrl+Z, revert your model to its original state. To control the density of polygons across various parts of the model, you have two options: • Use QRemesher’s Auto Mask function. This will analyze the mesh and automatically try to determine the areas that need denser topology. • Manually paint masks on the areas that you wish to have more polygons. The AutoMask option will work perfectly for most situations. It is recommended to only paint masks manually if you’ve already tried AutoMask and are unhappy with the results.

On the left, the original model with some areas manually masked to define a local change of density. In the middle, the result of retopology using these masks. On the right, the result using AutoMasking. Results are similar, except that on the manually masked areas the details are better, while with AutoMasking, the overall topology is better. Model courtesy of Matthew Kean.

Another feature which can be used to enhance QRemesher’s final results is the QRemesher Guide brush. With this, you are able to draw lines on your model to guide the topology generated by QRemesher toward specific edge loops. Please keep in mind that by default, these curves will only suggest the flow of polygons. By increasing the value of the CStiffness slider, you can force the polygon flow to match your curves, with QRemesher than filling in the areas between your lines. 27


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide Try to use curves only when and where they are absolutely necessary. The more curves you use, the less freedom that QRemesher will have to optimize your model. This is especially true when using a high CStiffness value! Now run QRemesher again. You will see that the result this time is far better in terms of density control and of course, polygon flow.

On the left, the original model with a hand-drawn mask for variable density and curves to as much as possible drive the flow of the resulting polygons. On the right, the resulting retopology. Notice that on some areas, the flow of polygons matches the curves while in other areas it only partially does so. Model courtesy of Matthew Kean.

As with the previous tutorial, the final step is to restore your original sculpting details by projecting them to the new model. Don’t forget to first divide the model enough times to match the original geometry’s polygon count.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Working with QRemesher As shown in the simple starting projects explained in introduction, working with QRemesher is really easy and requires very few mouse clicks -- even when optimizing its results.

2.1

Polygon Count

Unlike with traditional manual retopology, with QRemesher you can define a target polycount. This is very useful when you have restrictions on the number of polygons you can use, such as when you plan to take your work into a specific real-time engine. The minimum polygon count is limited to 1,000 polys. This is because fewer polygons would prevent automatic retopology from producing a usable result. If your budget requires fewer than 1,000 polygons you will need to use a manual retopology solution. In addition to the Target Polygon Count slider, there are three presets. With these you can automatically set the target to be half, equal to or double the number of polygons in your current model (or selection area).

Notes: For best results, keep in mind what your highest subdivision level should have when determining what your target will be. For example, if your detailed model has 10 million polygons you will want a base mesh that divides to be approximately equal to that amount. Remember that each time you divide the model it quadruples the polygon count. That means that a good base mesh for your 10 million polygon model would have approximately 2,500, 10,000 or even 40,000 polygons. On the other hand, a base of 5,000 polys would divide to 5 million polygons and then jump all the way to 20 million! One is half what you would need to successfully project details from your sculpt while the other would risk being too many polygons for your computer to handle. The simplest solution is to see how many polygons your detailed sculpt has and then repeatedly divide that value by 4 until you arrive at an acceptable base mesh count. Now simply use that value as your QRemesher target polygon count.

2.2

Symmetry

QRemesher can evaluate your model’s volume and create its topology symmetrically – even if the original topology is not symmetrical (such as when using scan data). This option uses ZBrush’s standard symmetry controls and so is not found in QRemesher’s options. If you want your retopology to be symmetrical across the model’s X axis, simply make sure that Transform >> Symmetry is turned on with the X axis active. If you need different settings or even no symmetry, simply adjust the Transform >> Symmetry settings accordingly. 29


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2.3

Density with Masks

If your model has masked regions, QRemesher will be aware of this and can use those regions to influence the density of the new topology. To increase the density on a location (such the face of your character), draw a mask on this area and modify the Tool >> QRemesher >> MDensity setting. You can increase or decrease the ratio between the masked and un-masked areas. Increasing the MDensity value will apply a higher density of polygons in the masked areas. If you have curves applied over this masked area, QRemesher must take both into account. This can cause the mesh density to be somewhat different from what you expected, based upon the needs of the edge flow being defined by the curves. QRemesher can also use the Tool >> QRemesher >> AutoMask option to analyze the surface and automatically create masks for you. Areas that have higher amounts of detail will automatically be given more polygons in the retopology. Whatever your needs, using ZBrush’s mask or AutoMask features will dramatically improve the quality of QRemesher’s automatic remeshing.

2.4

Working with Curves: the QRemesher Guide brush

The resulting topology produced by QRemesher tries to respect your model’s shape as much as possible. However, no program can have the same understanding of your model and its needs that you possess. For this reason you can help QRemesher by drawing curves on your model. These curves can be used as guides or they can outright constrain the topology to follow specific paths. The result is that you can ensure that the new topology will have edges where they are needed. The Tool >> QRemesher >> Curve Stiffness slider lets you control how you wish your curves to be used: as guides or as constraints. The lower the Curve Stiffness slider is set to, the more flexibility QRemesher will have when calculating the new topology. This allows the curves to serve as guides. The higher the slider value, the more rigidly QRemesher will adhere to the guide curves. At a value of 100, QRemesher will apply polygon edges in the exact location of the curves. The more curves you apply when this slider is set to 100, the less freedom QRemesher has to create a geometry flow that is clean and free of problem areas and even unexpected results. For this reason, the higher you set the Curve Stiffness slider, the fewer curves you should try to use. It is strongly advised to use curves more as guides for your retopology than as constraints. To draw these curves on your model you must use the QRemesher Guide brushes. 30


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide These brushes work similarly to other Curve brushes, but have certain caveats: these curves cannot be edited except to extend them or to connect a new curve to the end point of an existing curve. The curves can, however be deleted by holding the ALT key and drawing another curve perpendicularly over the curve you wish to delete.

On the left, guides created with the QRemesher Guide brush. On the right, the result. Notice that QRemesher can create a topology flow which is very close to the original one. Model courtesy of Matthew Kean.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3. Partial Mesh Retopology QRemesher has the ability to retopologize only a portion of your model. In this case it will automatically create the necessary connections to maintain mesh integrity with the original portions of the model. This operation is actually quite similar to ZBrush 4R4’s mesh replacement feature, where ZBrush inserts a mesh and connects it to existing topology via a polygon bridge. Partial Mesh Retopology requires a few simple steps: 1. Isolate the polygons of the mesh you wish to retopologize, using the lasso or marquee selection tool (CTRL+Shift hotkey). QRemesher will ignore all hidden portions of the model. 2. Set the desired QRemesher options and target polygon count in the Tool >> Geometry >> QRemesher sub-palette. 3. Click the QRemesher button. When the computation completes, the whole model will become visible with the polygons inserted.

The orange circle shows the polygons which have been remeshed with Double on. In the red circle Half was on.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

4. QRemesher Options: The following section provides a condensed overview of the various QRemesher options.

The QRemesher section, located in the Tool >> Geometry sub-palette.

4.1

QRemesher

This action actually executes the remeshing process, taking into account the various options and settings. This operation can be time consuming depending on your polygon count and/or number of curves.

4.2

Auto Mask

Auto Mask analyzes the surface of the model to detect areas that have more detail. It creates a temporary mask which is then used to drive the new topology density.

Using the Peaks and Valley mask function to simulate Auto Masking on this model. Model cour-

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide tesy of Matthew Kean.

This option is very important because some areas of a model, like the hands and their fingers need more polygons to keep their shape. This option is enabled by default and is recommended to be left alone for most uses. QRemesher uses the new Peaks and Valleys auto-masking routine (covered elsewhere in this documentation) and will respect its modifier settings.

Note: Painting your own mask on the model will automatically override the Auto Mask function. You do not need to disable it in order to use your own masks.

4.3

MDensity (Mask Density)

The Mask Density slider controls just how many additional polygons are added in the masked regions of your model. Higher values result in more polygons. A value of 1 will mean a ratio of 1, which means that the masked portions of the model will have exactly the same polygon density as the unmasked portions. In effect, masking is ignored. Even though the mask created by QRemesher’s Auto Mask option is never visible to you, the MDensity slider will see it and influence the polygon count accordingly.

4.4

Target Polygon Count

The Target Polygon Count slider defines the approximate number of polygons that the retopologized model will have. The target number is an approximation because the exact polygon count will be determined by the needs of the specific model. This slider’s value is in thousands. Thus, a value of 5 would result in a target retopology of 5,000 polys. If you retopologize your model and are not happy with the number of polygons you will need to Undo. You can then change the target setting before retopologizing again.

Note: If this slider is greyed out, it is because the Half, Same or Double button is pressed. Unpress the active one to make the slider available.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

4.5

Half, Same, Double

These buttons serve as an alternate to the Target Polygon Count slider. They instruct QRemesher to set a target that is half that of the model’s current polygon count, equal to it, or double it. These presets are very useful when you wish to keep approximately the same count that your model already has. They are also handy when doing a partial mesh retopology where you don’t know the exact count of the visible mesh portion.

4.6

CStiffness (Curve Stiffness)

The Curve Stiffness slider determines whether QRemesher will use your guide curves as hints or strict instructions. The higher the value, the more rigidly the polygon edges will follow your drawn curves. Using curves as a constraint rather than guide can be very useful when a model needs to have edges in specific places, such as in order to deform well during animation. However, the higher your CStiffness setting, the fewer curves you should use in order to avoid possible conflicts between them that would result in messy retopology.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

With the Curve Stiffness set to 100, QRemesher forces the edge flow to exactly match the curves. This then influences the construction of all remaining polygons. Mode courtesy of Ty Shelton.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

V

CURVE AND STROKE MODIFICATIONS

Curves and Stroke options have been improved and enhanced to support new possibilities which benefit features like the InsertMesh and Topology brushes. In many ways, curves now operate quite differently from earlier versions of ZBrush, but taking the time to learn these changes will give you greater speed and flexibility than ever before.

1. Improving and Editing Existing Curves ZBrush 4R4 introduces new controls to create more accurate curves, as well as for editing them after creating them. Most of these new possibilities can be found in the Topology Brush which internally uses the same curves. When editing an existing curve, surface detection will allow you to conform the curve to the surface you are drawing on. This feature remains active when editing a curve, allowing you to change the path while still holding to the underlying surface. At the beginning and end of each curve you will see a green line indicator. These lines represent the normal direction (path) of the curve at those points.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Operation on the Curves Listed below are the new operations that can be performed with curves. These functions are common to all brushes that make use of curves.

2.1

Moving the Curve along the Surface

By clicking on either end point of the curve and dragging, you will be able to pull the curve to where you want it. Curve segments will follow the original path as long as possible in an effect that resembles a snake’s movement. When Stroke >> Snap is active, the curve will continue to be snapped to the underlying surface as you move the curve.

On the left, the original curve for an Insert mesh. In the other two examples, the curve has been moved with a different point of view. Notice how the mesh snaps to the surface.

2.2

Extending or Shrinking a Curves

If you wish to extend the length of the curve, hover near either the end or start point until a red line indicator appears. Now click and drag to continue drawing the curve, extending its length.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide On the left, the original curve for an Insert mesh. In the other two examples, the curve has been shortened or extended.

Note: This action is possible only as long as a curve is active. Once you start creating a new curve, the new one will become active and you won’t be able to edit the previous curve.

2.3

Deleting a Curve

You can delete a Curve by drawing a negative curve across the one you wish to remove. Simply hold the ALT key while drawing a new curve. Upon ending the stroke, any intersected curves will be deleted. This function will typically be used with the Topology brush to delete curves between intersection points.

2.4

Adding to the Middle of a Curve

If you wish to change the shape of a curve after creating it, simply draw a new curve on top of it. This new curve will become a part of the original one, with anything between the new curve’s start and end points being deleted from the old curve. In this manner you can change the length and path of a curve without modifying its end points.

The example at left shows the original curve in grey and the new curve in red. On the right is the result of the addition of both curves.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2.5

Creating a Straight Line Curve

When creating a curve, press the Shift key to create a straight line curve. If you move your cursor off of your mesh while holding the Shift Key, ZBrush will make the curve wrap around your model. The beginning and end points will be connected and treated as a single point. This allows you to instantly create belts and bracelets, for example.

On the left is the beginning curve. In the middle, the Shift key has been pressed to create a straight line which goes around the mesh. On the right, the resulting insert brush along the curve. (The mask has been inversed for visualization purposes.)

Note: You must press the Shift key after starting to draw your curve. Otherwise, the brush will switch to Smooth, replacing the Curve brush.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3. New Curve Stroke Options These options affect the creation and editing of curves.

The Stroke palette’s Curve options

3.1

Smooth

Located the Stroke palette (Hotkey 6), this option relaxes the curve shape and create a cleaner line. You can repeat the action several times to further enhance the effect.

The top example shows the original curve. The two examples below show the same curve with several smoothing operations. (Hotkey 6)

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3.2

Frame Mesh

Located in the Stroke palette, this option works with the Topology brush to create a curve corresponding to the opening boundaries of the current mesh. This function can be useful when using the Topology brush to manually retopologize a part of your model, starting from a boundary.

An example Frame mesh. Each vertex has a green circle, ready to receive a stroke from the Topology brush.

3.3

Maximum Points

Located in the Stroke palette, this slider defines the number of internal points that will be used to create the next curve you draw. You can also adjust this value before editing your curve, increasing or decreasing the number of points. You may need to increase this value when creating a long curve with a large Draw Size value.

3.4

Curve Snap Distance

Located in the Stroke palette, this slider controls the radius at which your cursor will jump to the nearest curve point. Increasing this value will increase the detection distance, making the snap feature more sensitive. This feature can be especially useful when using the Topology brush or when extending a curve.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3.5

Curve Projection Range

The Curve Projection Range will control how much a curve will follow the underlying surface. A higher value will snap the curve closer to the surface detail.

3.6

Curve Smoothness

Located in the Stroke palette, this setting influences how aggressively ZBrush will relax your curve as you draw it. Depending on the situation, you may instead prefer to use the Smooth function (explained above) after drawing a curve.

3.7

Lock Start

When using an Insert brush with Curve Mode active, this will freeze the curve’s starting point in place, preventing it from being moved while you edit curve. Imagine laying a one foot length of string on a table and holding down one end while moving the other. The length of the curve/string will not change. This feature is most useful when TriParts is active in the Brush >> Modifiers subpalette.

3.8

Lock End

When using an Insert brush with Curve Mode active, this will freeze the curve’s ending point in place, preventing it from being moved while you edit curve. Imagine laying a one foot length of string on a table and holding down one end while moving the other. The length of the curve/string will not change. This feature is most useful when TriParts is active in the Brush >> Modifiers subpalette.

Note: If both Lock Start and Lock End are active, manipulating and end point will override this setting for that point. For example, if you click the end point to move it, ZBrush will assume that you actually want to do so and will act as if only Lock Start is active.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

VI

REPLACING PARTS OF A MODEL

ZBrush is now able to literally fuse different models together, creating clean topology to connect them. This operation will only affect the polygons located at the connecting borders while the rest of the model will remain unchanged. The process can seem similar to how DynaMesh can merge volumes, except that with this process your model will retain as much of its original topology as possible. It is important to note that while this process may look like a boolean operation, it is not. It is simply a bridging operation and so it cannot be used to create differences or negative insertions. For those effects, you must use the Remesh All function. This feature allows you to quickly and easily create an advanced base mesh with only a few clicks, simply by bridging various pre-existing mesh elements together.

Note: If there is a significant difference in polygon density between the support mesh and the replacement mesh, ZBrush may subdivide as necessary to ensure a clean polygon structure.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

1. Creating a Connection The process to create a connection is simple and is based on polygroups: 1. Create a PolyGroup on the support model, where you want to create the connection. The fastest way to do this is to hold CTRL and paint a mask on the area you wish to change into a new PolyGroup. Now click Tool >> Polygroups >> Group Masked Clear Mask or use its CTRL+W hotkey. ZBrush will convert the masked area into a new PolyGroup. (To display the PolyGroups, don’t forget to turn on PolyFrame (Shift+F hotkey).

The two PolyGroups which will receive an inserted mesh.

2. Select an InsertMesh brush with the geometry that you wish to insert. Click on the new PolyGroup that you just created to add this new mesh to the model. It is really important to do the insertion by clicking on the PolyGroup of the support which will be used to create the connection because this is used to define the border of the polygon bridge. Please also remember that this new geometry must have an open surface; the replacement feature cannot work with volumes.CTRL+click+drag on any open area of the document.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

The meshes have been inserted on top of the new PolyGroups.

3. ZBrush will now connect the two meshes and weld the difference with quad geometry.

The bridging connection between the inserted meshes and the PolyGroups border.

An alternative is to tap first on an existing PolyGroup and then doing a CTRL+click+drag on any open area of the document to create the bridge. This method allows you to do a replacement part when working with PolyGroups which have been created previously.

Note: If your Insert brush is composed of more than one part, you must create a PolyGroup which will have the same number of parts. When inserting the mesh, you must click on the polygons of one part of this split PolyGroup.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide Instead of masking you can use ZBrush’s mesh visibility controls. Hide everything except the polygons that will define the border of the bridge. Use InsertMesh on the visible polygons. Upon restoring full mesh visibility, ZBrush will weld the two surfaces together.

Notes: In addition to preparing the support mesh, it is advised to prepare your inserted mesh (the one that will be added via the MeshInsert brush) by creating a PolyGroup to define its connection area. The model must have open topology (unattached edges) at the bridge location. Otherwise you will get topology problems such as non-manifold surfaces. Do not use mesh replacement to insert a solid object!

As with the DynaMesh update operation, holding CTRL while clicking and dragging on a portion of the empty document is what tells ZBrush to calculate the new mesh and bridge between the PolyGroups. If part of your model has been masked, you first need to clear the mask. In this case you can CTRL+Click+Drag twice (once to clear the mask and a second time to complete the mesh replacement) or by pressing CTRL+Shift+A before executing the remesh command. If you used hidden polygons instead of PolyGroups, the model will be restored to full visibility upon executing the remesh operation. It is best to not be in DynaMesh mode when using the mesh replacement technique. If in DynaMesh mode, ZBrush will weld everything together but will not maintain the geometry of the inserted mesh.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Replacement and Topology Brush The replacement feature can also be combined with the Topology brush by creating a new topology, then connecting it to the existing support mesh: 1. Make visible only the polygons which will be connected to the future new polygons. 2. On the top of these visible polygons, select the Topology brush and create new polygons as detailed in the Topology brush section of this document. 3. Click once on the support surface. ZBrush will replace the original PolyGroup or visible polygons, connecting them with those you just created using the Topology brush.

From left to right: The polygons which will be replaced. All other polygons hidden and a new surface created using the Topology brush. The final result after creation of the bridging polygons.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3. Replacement Part Options The replacing parts operation utilizes a few ZBrush options to modify the results: • The inserted or replacement geometry does not need to be solely on the surface of the support mesh. ZBrush will close any gaps with clean quad geometry. • The Tool >> Geometry >> Smt (Smooth) option defines the method by which the connection will be done. If Smt is on (the default setting), ZBrush will create a smooth transition. When Smt is off, any sharp edges in the inserted/replacement topology will be retained. Keep this in mind depending on whether you are doing organic or hard surface sculpting.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

VII

TOPOLOGY BRUSH

The Topology brush offers your two major possibilities: • Creating accessories with a surface thickness. • Creating new topology to replace a patch of existing topology. • Creating a surface for retopologizing your models.

On the left, the drawn curves with the polygons in preview mode. On the right, the new polygons with a predefined thickness, ready to be sculpted. Model courtesy of Mariano Steiner.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

1. Topology Brush Process It is important that the model doesn’t have subdivision levels. This new brush basically draws curves on the model and snaps them to the surface. Unlike with the other Curve brushes, curves created with the Topology brush can’t be edited on the surface of the model. They can only be deleted, extended by starting at the end of an existing point, of closed by connecting both extremities with a new curve. They can also be deleted by holding Alt while drawing a new curve to intersect the one you wish to remove.

Note: It is possible to edit a curve created by the Topology brush (or QRemesher Guide brush) by picking any other Curve brush, making sure that Bend is on and completing your edits. Switch back to the Topology brush when done.

While adding curves, if ZBrush detects an intersection it will display a green circle to indicate this. When any curve crosses over another, ZBrush will detect this intersection as a vertex. When there are three or four green dots connected ZBrush will display a triangle (red) or a quadrangle (orange) indicator. Once the triangle or quad has been completed you can simply click on the mesh to create the new topology.

A green circle indicates the connection between two curves. Notice that ZBrush detects triangles (at the top) and quadrangles. In the bottom example a polygon is missing because the intersecting curves have only two connections and need one or two additional connecting curves.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide When doing this, the Draw Size will control the thickness of the generated geometry. A Draw Size of 1 will generate a mesh with no thickness. Anything higher than 1 will create a mesh with thickness and three PolyGroups (outer surface, edges, inner surface).

2. Using the Curve Actions Some actions will help you with the retopology process: • At any time you may to clean up unused curves (or their unused extremities). Simply hold the Alt key while drawing a new curve over what you wish to remove. This operation will only work if the removal curve begins on the model surface. Otherwise you will rotate the model instead. • To delete a curve between existing points or portions of a curve, do this same Alt+drag to draw a small curve over the portion to delete. ZBrush will remove the segment. If more than 4 edges are detected between the curves, the corresponding polygons in preview mode will be deleted as well. • The Topology brush uses the Stroke >> Curves settings and default actions. This means that when drawing a curve, you can press the Shift key to draw a straight line. Also, Draw Size impacts the curve smoothness of your curve. The other settings also operate as explained under the Curves section of this document.

3. Generating the New Mesh While working, the polygons you see will be a preview. To finalize your new topology as an actual 3D mesh, simply do a single click on the support mesh. This click must be on the support model itself; clicking on empty canvas will have no effect. Thickness of the new model is set by changing the Brush Draw Size value before clicking on the support mesh. This is identical to the Tube style or Curve Fill brushes. If you set the Draw Size to 1, the created polygons won’t have a thickness, which will be perfect for when retopologizing a model.

Note: After generating the new mesh, it is still possible to use the Undo History to go return to the Retopology brush and further edit the curves.

In a manner similar to the Insert brushes, ZBrush will create a Mask on the support mesh while keeping the new topologized mesh unmasked. This allows you to easily manipulate your new model’s polygons. If you don’t wish to have ZBrush auto-mask the 52


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide support mesh, simply disable the Auto Mask Mesh Insert option, located in the Brush >> Auto masking sub-palette. As when doing an Extract operation, the new model will have separate PolyGroups for the inner, outer and edge surfaces. The edges of these groups are automatically creased.

4. Tips • When creating low polygon models for accessories or props, you can use the Clip brushes combined with masks to align vertices quickly create straight lines. • The new model is a part of the support mesh and not a SubTool. If you wish to create a SubTool, you only have to hide it with the Tool >> Visibility >> Hide pt function, then go to the Tool >> SubTool menu and use the Split Hidden function.

Note: Because of the AutoMasking (see above), you only need to do the Hide pt then Split Hidden functions, making this a very quick operation.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

VIII BRUSHES ADDITIONS AND CHANGES The Insert brushes have a new variation in the form of MultiMeshInsert. This brush is able to draw from a catalog of pre-built objects. Rather than sculpting the same item multiple times, you can model it once and then reuse it in all your creations. There have also been a number of additions and changes been made to the insertion system so that it can make use of Curve mode and a new Tri Parts system

A hard edge model sculpted by the Artist Ken Toney. This example includes many of the new brush additions, from the Topology brush to the new Insert type brushes.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

1. Insert Brushes Because of the DynaMesh process, the Insert brush has become a major player in your ZBrush arsenal of features. Now that it also allows you to actually replace portions of a model, several new enhancements have been made. • In addition to inserting a mesh as a negative, holding ALT while inserting a model can also stretch it perpendicularly to the insertion. The mesh is inserted within the surface that it is being drawn upon.

Note: If after using the ALT modifier for drawing one object you continue to draw insertions of the same item, these additional insertions will keep the same transformation.

• Press the CTRL key while inserting the model to respect the original inserted mesh proportions (1:1 ratio). • Press the Shift key while inserting the model to constrain the insert mesh orientation to the closest world axis plane of the model, based on your point of view.

Note: If you need to revert to the original size, just press the CTRL key while inserting the mesh.

• The Z Intensity setting will control the height of the inserted mesh. Keeping Z Intensity at 100 will maintain original height orientation of the mesh. If Z Intensity is set below 100 then ZBrush will reduce the height of the inserted mesh based on this value. • A Projection Strength slider has been added in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette. When using a high value, the inserted mesh will conform itself to the underlying surface. Using a low value will preserve the original shape

Note: If your inserted mesh gives unexpected results, check if the projection strength slider and try modifying its value.

Note: Don’t forget that pressing the Spacebar while inserting a mesh will let you move it across the surface of your model to refine its position.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

2. Insert Brushes Combined with Curve Strokes Any Insert brush (including the InsertMultiMesh brush) can be combined with Curve Mode in the Stroke Palette. This gives you the ability to drop multiple instances of the mesh along the curve. This feature gives you a variety of new possibilities when sculpting. For example, you can create real geometry such as a series of bolts or chain links along a model instead of using an alpha to sculpt them. To create an Insert mesh brush that supports curves or modify one that already has this support, you need only to enable the Curve mode located in the Stroke palette. Once that has been done, creating a stroke will duplicate the mesh along the curve. It will do this in accordance with the Curve mode settings and of course, the Brush modifiers. To define the distance between each inserted mesh, use the Stroke >> Curve Step slider. A value of 1 will touch each inserted mesh to its predecessor. Lower values will cause the inserted meshes to overlap while higher values will separate them from each other. Tip: If you are happy with your curve, but it drew the wrong mesh you only need to swap out the mesh in the Brush >> Modifier >> mesh Insert Preview. Now click once on the already active curve to replace the original mesh with the new selected mesh. Keep in mind that InsertMultiMesh may also be a solution for you, depending on your needs.

Notes: If the (M)RGB mode is enable, the current PolyPainting value will colorized the inserted model based on the RGB intensity slider, partially or totally overriding the RGB color. If the Gradient mode is enabled, the RGBcolor will be progressively following the curve between the start and end point.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

3. Tri Parts Insert Brushes The Insert-type brushes have been enhanced with a new ability to insert copies of one mesh between two “end cap” meshes. For example, you can with a single stroke create a chain where its links are duplicated between two locks or stoppers. The TriParts feature is based on three PolyGroups. The top PolyGroup will be the start of the curve, the middle PolyGroup will be duplicated along the length of the curve, and the last PolyGroup will be at the end of the curve. The Stroke >> Curves mode value sets ZBrush to use the TriParts feature. Once the Curve mode has been enabled for your Insert brush, the related options in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette will become available To create a Tri Parts brush: 1. You first need a specific mesh, composed of three PolyGroups. As mentioned above, these groups define the end caps and duplicated portions of the curve stroke. Remember: The view of the mesh relative to the camera plane will determine how the origin of the mesh will be drawn onto your model. 2. In the Brush palette, click the Create InsertMesh button. This creates a new Insert Mesh type of brush based on the current object. (Read the chapter 5 of this section for more information about creating Insert-type brushes) 3. Enable Curve mode in the Stoke palette and change the Curves settings as desired. 4. In the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette, enable the Tri Parts mode. This instructs ZBrush to replicate the middle PolyGroup between the other two PolyGroups. 5. Depending on your needs, adjust the other options: Soft Curve, Curve resolution and Twist to Turn. Advice for creating Tri Parts brushes: • Create your object along the Y axis, oriented on the X/Y working plane. • Try to create each part (the end caps and the duplicated portion) with the same height. Failing to do so may not result in clean duplication along the curve. • Use the Tool >> Deformations >> Unify command to create a mesh which will be one ZBrush unit in size, with a centered pivot point.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

A model composed of three PolygGroups to create a Tri Parts insert brush. The light green PolyGroup will be replicated between the other two groups when drawn. Model by Geert “Etcher” Melis.

The Draw Size value will define the size of the inserted items. As with the other curve brushes, enabling Bend allows the curve to be edited.

Note: When using the TriParts technique it’s crucial to make sure that the vertical height of all three PolyGroups are relatively the same.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

4. InsertMultiMesh Brush To extend your creativity when using mesh insertion with both DynaMesh and/or the model parts replacement feature, you can now use brushes which contain not only one, but a large panel of meshes, ready to be inserted. This makes it possible to create individual brushes with specific themes such as science fiction, mechanical, organic, flowers and more. You can then select the brush for your desired theme, followed by the specific mesh from within it to insert. You can also change between the brush’s meshes without needing to select or load a new brush for each. After selecting an InsertMultiMesh brush, simply press the M key to display a floating window which lists all the meshes which are available with this brush. Click on the shape of your choice. Your brush will now act as a traditional Mesh Insert one, using the selected shape. To make shape selection easier, the MultiMesh Insert brushes use the ABC selection system found in the Brush floating palette and SubTool selection. While the floating window is open, simply type the first letter to filter meshes starting with this letter, then type the next letter as displayed in remaining list. Curve Mode can also be used in conjunction with the InsertMultiMesh brushes.

The IMM_SpaceShip brush, with the MultiMeshInsert selector window open.

Note: You can change the default M hotkey used to display the list of the MulltiMesh objects by assigning a new hotkey to the Brush >> Modifiers >> MeshInsert button preview.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

An example of a jacket using some of the new options: custom inserted mesh, tri part mode and more. On the top left, the Metal InsertMultiMesh brush created by the Artist Geert “Etcher” Melis.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

5. Creating InsertMesh and InsertMultiMesh Brushes Combined with DynaMesh, insertion brushes become an incredibly powerful too in your ZBrush repertoire. Because of this importance, you can now quickly create new brushes in a few simple steps by transforming your active Tool (and its SubTools) into an Insert brush, allowing you to insert this model into another mesh. Follow the steps below to create your own InserMesht or InserMultiMesh Brush: 1. Load your Tool and define the position that you wish it to have when inserting it on the surface of future meshes. 2. To avoid potential scale issues, you can optionally unify it by clicking on the Tool >> Deformation >> unify button. This automatically resizes the model to the ideal size for ZBrush to work with. 3. If possible, change the orientation of the model to face the positive Z Axis (displayed as blue when the Floor is visible). 4. Create your Insert brush: a. To create an InsertMesh brush, click on the Brush >> Create InsertMesh button. ZBrush will ask if you want to append this current mesh to an existing Insert-type brush or create a new one. • If you choose the first option, your model’s SubTools will be added to the parts in the targeted InsertMultimesh. If the destination brush is an Insert Mesh brush it will become an insert Multi Mesh brush instead. • If you choose the second option, a new brush will appear in the Brush palette with an icon corresponding to the current Tool. b. To create an InsertMultiMesh brush, click on the Brush >> Create InsertMultiMesh button. (This requires a model with multiple SubTools.) A new brush will appear in the Brush palette with an icon corresponding to the last SubTool. The creation of the brush doesn’t consider the visibility of the SubTools, then even if some SubTools are hidden, the brush will use them.

Note: Make sure you’re happy with the SubTool names before you create an InsertMultiMesh brush! Each mesh within the brush will be identified by the SubTool name. ABC selection will therefore be a lot easier with helpful SubTool names.

You may also use only part of your model as an Insert mesh. This is done by hiding the polygons that you do not wish to become part of the brush. Only the visible polygons will be converted to an InsertMesh.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

The Demo Soldier has been converted to a MultiMesh Insert Brush. Each of its SubTools has become a mesh ready to be inserted.

Notes: For DynaMesh it is advised to use volumes. In this case you would not want to hide polygons. For using the Insert brushes to replace polygons within another model, the mesh must have an opening and so you will often need to hide polygons before creating the InsertMesh. Depending the shape of a replacement part, it may be useful to crease the mesh edges before converting the surface to an InsertMesh. The inserted mesh will smooth together with the model it’s being inserted into. Creasing before creating the Insert brush can avoid having to crease every time you use the brush! If you wish to use your InsertMesh or InsertMultiMesh brush in future sessions, you must save it after creating it! Be sure to use Brush >> Save As to retain the brush for future use.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

6. Insert Mesh new Options

The Brush >> Modifiers options for the Insert Mesh and InsertMultiMesh brushes.

6.1

MultiMesh Selector

This slider, located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette lets you select by the MultiMesh of your choice by number. This command is useful for quickly selecting from a few meshes that you regularly switch between.

6.2

MultiMesh Spread Mode

This slider in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette is enabled only when a MultiMeshInsert brush is selected. It provides a way to vary between the insert meshes with each new stroke: • 0 (default): inserts the selected Mesh. • 1: Cycles forward in the item list with each new insertion. • 2: Cycles backward in the item list with each new insertion. • 3: Inserts a random mesh from the list.

6.3

MultiMesh Variation

This slider in the Brush >> Modifier subpalette is enabled only when a MultiMeshIn63


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide sert Brush is selected and the Curve mode is enabled. It alternates between multiple mesh variations along the current curve by using the slider value to set the number of consecutive meshes to use. The selected mesh of the brush become the starting model and the function will populate the curve based of the MultiMesh Variation Selector slider value.

On the left, the TriParts MutiMeshInsert meshes. On the right, the combination of them along a curve.

6.4

MultiMesh Variation Selector

This slider in the Brush >> Modifier subpalette is enabled only when a MultiMeshInsert Brush is selected and the Curve mode is enabled. It defines the order of the inserted meshes used by the MultiMesh Variation setting: 1: Only the selected mesh is used. 2: Cycle forward the meshes. 3: Cycle backward the meshes. 4: Populate randomly the curve.

6.5

Projection Strength

This slider, located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette will conform the inserted mesh to the underlying surface. Using a low value will preserve the original shape while using a high value will create a strong deformation.

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7. Insert Brushes Combined with Curve Options These options are only enable when the Stroke Curve mode is active.

The Brush >> Modifiers options when the Stroke Curve mode is active.

7.1

Tri Parts

The Tri Parts mode, located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette enables use of an insert mesh comprised of three PolyGroups, with the middle one being replicated along the curve’s length. Please refer to the Tri Parts Insert brush section above.

7.2

Weld

If an object is inserted into another and both have the same number of vertices at the boundary, this mode will attempt to weld the points where the two objects meet. The switch to activate Weld mode is located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette. Weld mode provides the best results when also combined with Stretch mode.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

On the left, Weld Points is disabled. Notice a gap between the rails. On the right, the Weld Points mode is enabled. The rails are connected, creating a continuous shape.

7.3

Stretch

Located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette, this option bends the inserted mesh by following the curve shape. When disabled, the mesh is considered a hard body and will only be oriented by the curve rather than deformed. Also, when Stretch is enabled the mesh will twist naturally just as a ribbon would have a slight twist around something like an arm.

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Stretch mode is Off in the top example and On in the bottom example.


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

Note: If the inserted mesh has too few polygons, Stretch mode can cause unexpected deformation if your curve makes an abrupt angle change.

7.4

Overlap

Located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette, this option changes the shape of the inserted element along the insertion axis. Depending on the slider value, it will stretch or skew the new object. This option is available only when Stretch mode is on.

7.5

Curve Resolution

Located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette, this option is used to increase the resolution of your curve for a smoother transition between the inserted meshes. This is ideal when you have drawn out a curve with a large brush size for purposes of object scale but would still like to have a smoother curve.

7.6

Max imum Bend Angle

This slider, located in the Brush >> Modifiers sub-palette uses change in direction (or angle) of the curve to define the behavior of the inserted mesh along the curve. A low value creates a very soft deformation of the curve while a high value creates sharp deformation.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

8. Curve Snap Surface Brush This draws an evenly distributed quad surface between your curves. The thickness of the surface is determined by the Draw Size value. This brush works much like the Curve Tube. Draw Size sets the thickness while hovering over the curve adjusts the shape. Click once on the support mesh to validate your new object before starting a new one.

From left to right, the evolution of a new mesh created from a series of successive curves drawn with the Curve Snap Surface brush.

Note: It is important to follow the same direction for each curve you draw or the brush will generate twisted surfaces.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

9. Brush Creation Credit For each brush, it is now possible to enter the credit for anyone who creates a brush, including text and an URL. We anticipate that many users will use the InsertMesh and InsertMultiMesh features to create and share shape libraries. This new feature allows you to build recognition when you do so.

The brush credits added to the famous DAM Standard brush, created by the ZBrush Artist Damien Canderle.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

10. Other Additions and Changes • The Curve Tube brushes now work relative to the Z Intensity slider. At 100, the tube has its default shape while a lower value will squash it along the curve. • The Curve Tube brushes use the Brush >> Modifiers >> Brush Modifier slider to define the number of segments for each tube section. A value of 4 will create a foursided tube.

Note: A low Z Intensity value combined with a 4 value for the Brush Modifier slider will create a flat band.

• Several new brushes have been added to the Brush palette. These are simply preset brushes based on the new ZBrush features outlined in this chapter. The purpose of these brushes is to help you explore the new features by analyzing their behavior in conjunction with the documentation.

Note: To make room for these new brushes, some previous brushes are no longer loaded when ZBrush launches. They have not been removed from ZBrush, however. You can access them at any time via the Brush tab in LightBox or in the ZBrushes folder within your ZBrush installation.

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IX

DYNAMESH ADDITIONS

Since its introduction, DynaMesh has served as an excellent concepting tool for developing the mesh that you will then sculpt. ZBrush 4R4 introduces refinements to give you even more freedom, such as being able to combine SubTools using DynaMesh and Boolean-type operators.

1. DynaMesh Maximum Resolution In some cases you might wish to create high quality details with DynaMesh, where the maximum resolution of 1024 may not be enough. For this reason, the maximum DynaMesh resolution has been raised to 2048, allowing your DynaMesh figures to have more polygons and thus support more detail.

Notes: Working with high resolution values for DynaMesh will result in models with millions of raw polygons. This can slow down your re-mesh operations. Using DynaMesh options like Project or Polish can take longer computing time with a high resolution. Please bear in mind that DynaMesh is meant as a concepting tool. You will enjoy the best results by keeping your DynaMesh resolution as low as possible and waiting to detail until the base form has been finalized.

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2. Merging SubTools as DynaMesh Combining objects when updating a DynaMesh can now be done through the SubTool sub-palette, in a similar way to the Remesh All function. When doing this, DynaMesh will use the SubTool operator icons found in every SubTool. For more information on Remesh All and its operators, please refer to the ZBrush 4.0 What’s new guide, p.162. The currently selected SubTool must be in DynaMesh mode. The SubTool to be merged must also be assigned the white polygroup (Group As DynaMesn Sub). If both of these are true, performing a Tool >> SubTool >> Merge Down operation will subtract the merged mesh from the current one. Follow along with these steps to use any SubTool as a DynaMesh subtractive: 1. Make sure that the DynaMesh SubTool is above the SubTool you wish to merge with.

2. The SubTool that is immediately below your selected DynaMesh SubTool must have the Difference icon selected. This is the second icon in the SubTool icons. 3. Now select the second SubTool, and in the Tool >> PolyGroups sub-palette click the Group As DynaMesh Sub button. This will convert the SubTool that will be used as a subtraction into a white polygroup. When using DynaMesh a white polygroup is an indicator for ZBrush to use that mesh as a subtraction.

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4. Select the DynaMesh SubTool (the sphere in this example), and click on the MergeDown button found in the Tool >> SubTool sub-palette. 5. Hold CTRL and Click+Drag anywhere in the open document to perform a DynaMesh re-mesh. ZBrush will use the Cylinder to create a hole through the sphere.

The result.

When using the Merge Down command for subtraction, make sure to have the DynaMesh selected. If you instead have the subtractive mesh selected, ZBrush will see this as an addition and combine the SubTools instead of subtracting.

Note: The function Merge Down cannot be undone. If you are not sure of the result of your operation, you can duplicate the SubTools as a backup and hide them.

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3. Convert Inserted Meshes from Positive to Negative Previously, if you hadn’t pressed the ALT key while inserting a mesh, it wasn’t possible to use the new mesh as a negative one and subtract it from the current DynaMesh object. The new Tool >> Polygroups >> Group as Dynamesh Sub function will also allow an inserted mesh to be converted to a subtraction. Please refer to the Polygroup chapter of this documentation for more information on this feature.

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X

HISTORY - UNLIMITED “UNDO’S”

ZBrush now has a larger undo history for various operations, allowing you to go further back into your sculpting history to fix any mistakes -- even after reloading your model in a new ZBrush session! While there is still a maximum number of undo’s which may be performed, this limit is now set at 10,000 which in most cases will be far in excess of what you might need. For clarity, you might think of this simply as a process history. This feature is only available with a ZProject (ZPR format) file. It is not compatible with the .OBJ or .ZTL formats. In addition to the expanded undo/redo ability provided by this feature, the Undo History can be used to replay your creation process and save it as a movie. Some actions with in ZBrush will clear undo history.

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1. Undo History Overview These undo’s can be turned on/off in any Project by toggling the Project >> Undo History setting. It is important to keep in mind that in ZBrush, some operations are not undoable. An example of this when using one of the Merging SubTools functions. Be aware that when using such a feature, it will delete all of the project’s history up to that point. For this reason, ZBrush will warn you and ask for confirmation any time you ask it to perform an operation that will reset the history.

Having this message means your Undo History will be lost beyond the current point.

As with a traditional undo performing a new action will remove any latter steps. For example, if you have steps A, B and C you can undo back to step A. Doing something new at that point will create a new step B, preventing you from being able to redo to reach step C. Even “invisible” operation like storing a MorphTarget will delete the history that follows that point. The Undo History works in exactly the same way as a traditional undo. However, since it is awkward to press Ctrl+Z or the Undo button hundreds or thousands of times a slider has been added which will let you quickly scroll through your history. To improve navigation through the Undo History, ZBrush displays an Undo History selector at the top of the document. It has small rectangles in light and dark grey, representing the History steps. You can easily navigate by clicking on any step. Or you may scrub through the History by draging the light grey rectangle.

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The Undo History selector, located at the top of the Document. The light grey rectangle represents the current step and can be dragged to navigate through the History.

The Undo history commands are located in the Edit >> Tool sub-palette. Notice that Undo History, when enabled, replaces the classic undo/redo commands.

The Edit >> Tool History sub-palette.

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2. History Functions and Commands What follows are descriptions of the functions dedicated to the Undo History.

2.1

Del UH (Delete Undo History)

The Del UH function, located in the Edit >> Tool sub-palette deletes the current Tool (or SubTool) History.

Note: The undo history, depending of the number of undo’s saved, can increase the Project file size. If you don’t need your undo history, don’t forget to delete it every once in a while. Alternatively, turn off the Undo History button in the File palette.

2.2

Undo Counter

The Undo Counter slider, located in the Edit >> Tool sub-palette allows you to scroll and navigate through the current Tool history as an alternative to the Tool >> Undo and Tool >> Redo buttons.

You can easily have a high number of undo’s to navigate through in your history. In the screenshot above, the counter is at step 1,337 out of a total of 3,420 undo’s.

2.3

Restore Placement

The Restore Placement mode, located in the Edit >> Tool sub-palette moves your camera to match where it was at the stored history point. This is useful for a historya history playback.

2.4

Store

This Store function, located in the Edit >> Tool sub-palette replaces the camera position stored in the current history position with the current position. This operation is useful when creating a movie using the history information and when a camera position must be replaced or modified. 78


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3. Undo History for Movie Creation While sculpting with ZBrush, you are always turning around your model, zooming in and out or changing the model’s position to focus on a portion of your model. Simply playing back a recording of your sculpting session can be awkward to watch due to all these movements. The Undo History feature has controls to overcome this and make your recordings more enjoyable for viewers. ZBrush has several actions and options located in the Movie palette and Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette to alter movements to create smooth movies.

Within the Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette, you will find options related to creating movies from the Undo History. Notice that Spin Frames and Spin Cycles have an impact on the Undo History movie.

As with the usual method for creating a movie in ZBrush, your history recording can be combined with BPR rendering and even BPR filters. The process is easy. Simply do a BPR render of your first frame, add your desired BPR filters, then launch the Forward or Backward history command. If you are using a background to illustrate your model creation, the Light >> Background >> Rotate with Object mode setting will synchronize the animation as well. If you wish to have a static background, disable this mode. Click the F/B History buttons located in the Movie palette to play the history in a forward (FHistory) or backward (BHistory) direction from the current history point. This action is similar to the Turntable function and will not only play the actions, it will also record them as a movie, ready to be replayed or exported.

Notes: If you are in a record mode, clicking on the F or B History buttons will add the current movie to the existing one. If you do not wish to have these several movies overlaying each other you can click Delete to clear all previously created movies. Press the Escape key to stop the F/B History recording.

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4. Movie Creation Options 4.1

HFrames (History Frames)

The HFrames slider, located in the Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette defines the quality of the transition between each recorded history operation. A low value will create a movie with no interpolation. A higher value will create a movie with better interpolation between the operations, similar to a blending transition between your strokes or operations. Increasing the HFrames setting will have an impact on the movie recording time and the final movie playback speed because of the extra frames added to create a smoother movie.

4.2

HRecenter (History Recenter)

The HRecenter slider, located in the Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette defines how much the mesh position will be re-centered on the document. A high value will keep the mesh position at the center of the document whiledocument while a low value will keep the mesh position similar to what it was during the creation process.

4.3

HOrientation (History Orientation)

The HOrientation slider, located in the Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette defines how much the original mesh orientation during the sculpting phase will be captured in the movie. A high value will keep the mesh orientation similar to what it was during the creation process while a low value will reduce the mesh orientation and create smoother rotations during movie playback.

4.4

HPosition (History Position)

The HPosition slider, located in the Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette defines how much the mesh position will be maintained as the model was moved and scaled during sculpting. A high value will keep the mesh position similar to what it was during the creation process while a low value will minimize the mesh movements and create smoother playback.

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4.5

History Camera Path Smoothness

The HSmoothness slider, located in the Movie >> Modifiers sub-palette defines how smooth the camera path will be interpolated. A higher setting will have a smoother interpolation of the camera from the original movement during the creation process.

Note: If you wish no camera movements for your recording put the HOrientation, HPosition and HRencenter to 0. You must also set the Movie >> Modifiers >> Spin Cycles to 0 and Spin Frames to 1.

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5. Undo History Preferences To manage ZBrush’s use of the Undo History feature, two preferences control loading or saving history for the loaded Project.

The Undo History preferences, located in the Preferences palette.

5.1

Show Undo Selector

This mode, enabled by default, displays a small rectangle within the Undo History (displayed at the top of the document) each time a new History step is added. The light grey rectangle is the current step and the other darker ones are the previous or next steps. By dragging the light gray indicator for the current step, you can quickly scrub through the Undo History. Alternatively, clicking one of the darker rectangles will move you directly to that history step.

5.2

Show Time Stamp

This option toggles display of the time stamp as a popup on the Undo Selector bar.

5.3

Max Undo History

This slider defines the maximum number History Undo steps that you want to keep available. If you don’t wish to store your Undo History for animation purposes, you can reduce this value to minimize the impact of the Undo History storage space in your Project files.

5.4

Warn When Deleting

This slider defines the number of Undo History steps that ZBrush will automatically delete without warning for confirmation. For example, you can move back 10 steps in 82


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide your Undo History and make a change that would cause the following History steps to be lost. If this slider is set to 20, ZBrush will simply accept the change and delete the following History steps. But if this slider was set to 5, ZBrush would ask for confirmation before allowing the change to be made. The purpose of this option is to prevent you from accidentally deleting your history while navigating through it. When you are working on your model you will typically want to leave this setting at a high value so that you can freely move within the history and start over from any point. But if you are setting up an Undo History movie you will want to reduce this value so that you don’t accidentally lose your work while preparing the movie for recording!

5.5

Enable Saving

The Enable Saving mode, located in the Preferences >> Undo History sub-palette saves your History when saving your Project. Disabling this button will deactivate any undo history. You will not have access to the Undo History feature, but you will also have a smaller file size.

5.6

Skip Loading

The Skip Loading mode will not load ZPR files, but not any History saved within them.

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XI

TOOL AND GEOMETRY

Numerous functions have been added within the Tool Palette in addition to major features like QRemesher. Some of these functions (like Mask Peaks and Valleys) are used internally by tools like QRemesher but have also been made available as a dedicated function in order to give you a larger toolset.

1. Crease All and Uncrease All Crease All and Uncrease All functions have been added to the Tool >> Geometry sub-palette. While these functions were available in earlier versions of ZBrush by Shift+clicking on the Crease and Uncrease buttons, dedicated buttons should make more users aware of these features.

Note: Using the Shift + click on the Crease/Uncrease button is still functional.

2. SubTool Management New commands have been added for SubTool management. Located in the Tool >> SubTool menu, the Delete Other command will delete all SubTools except the selected active SubTool. Additionally, the new Delete All command will delete all SubTools for the current Tool, reverting it to the default PolyMesh3D star primitive. Warning: These commands are not undoable.

Note: Rather than deleting the current Tool entirely, ZBrush deletes its SubTools and replaces the model with a PolyMesh3D star primitive in order to keep the current project in Edit mode, ready to receive a new Tool.

3. Grow All The Tool >> Visibility >> Grow All function makes a partially selected mesh fully visible without actually selecting the previously hidden polygons. This function is useful when working with a tool composed of different inserted meshes. It assists with changing the visibility of just one or several inserted meshes for selection purposes. 84


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4. Mask Peaks And Valleys The Masking >> Mask PeaksAndValleys function creates a Mask which specifically detects the peaks and valleys of your model. This feature can be combined with the PV Range and the PV Coverage features. The first affects the sensitivity of the masking algorithm to your surface’s peaks and valleys while the second influences the distance the mask will extend from the detected points.

Note: This feature is internally used by the QRemesher AutoMask option.

5. Edge Loop Displacement Slider The Tool >> Geometry >> Disp slider adds a surface extrusion when the Edge Loop feature is used.

At the left, the original polygons. In the middle, the original Edge Loop. On the right, the new Displacement option in action.

6. Merge Tris and Weld Points The Tool >> Geometry >> MergeTris and WeldPoints function can be used to clean your model after import or for general mesh cleanup purposes. It merges vertices which are located at the same position as well as attempting to identify triangles which can be merged to create quadrangles.

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7. Mesh Extract Thin Border and Corner Quad to Triangle The Tool >> SubTool >> Mesh Extract feature has been given two new controls: TBorder (Thin Border) and TCorner (Corner Quad to Triangle). The foremer adds a thin quad/loop border around the extracted mesh. The latter cuts the extraction’s corner quads into triangles.

Note: In previous versions, both TCorner and TBorder were internally enabled by ZBrush, but not available to user control in the interface.

8. Split to Similar Parts The Tool >> SubTool >> Split to Similar Parts feature looks for all pieces of geometry that are much alike. It then splits them off into their own SubTool. For example, if you inserted a couple cubes on a model, using this function will move them into their own SubTool.

9. Split to Parts The Tool >> SubTool >> Split to Parts feature moves all geometry shells into individual SubTools.

Note: This feature is different to the Group Split feature which splits each PolyGroup of the model in a different SubTool.

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XII

POLYGROUP ADDITIONS

Many of ZBrush’s features make use of the model’s PolyGroups for control. As ZBrush has been embraced by new industries or artists have found new ways to use the application, we have looked for ways to speed up workflow. Several new additions to PolyGrouping have been added to accomplish this. You will find these new functions in the Tool >> PolyGroups sub-palette.

The new PolyGroups options highlighted.

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1. Group Masked Clear Mask (Hotkey CTRL+W) This action will automatically create a new PolyGroup from the existing mask and then clear the mask. An excellent example of when this operation is useful is when using ZBrush’s new Replacement Mesh feature. This requires a PolyGroup to define the portion of the model’s geometry to be replaced with the inserted mesh topology change. You only need to draw a mask over the area where you wish to replace the polygons with a new mesh, and then press the CTRL+W hotkey to convert this mask to a new PolyGroup.

At the left, the original mask is shown. At the right, Group Masked Clear Mask has created a new PolyGroup and automatically removed the mask.

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2. Group Visible New Options: Coverage and Cluster The Group Visible function gains two new sliders which will impact the PolyGroup being created by the Group Visible feature. • Coverage: This slider creates a unique PolyGroup covering of all the visible polygons. If its value is set to 1 (100%) the result will apply one PolyGroup to all visible polygons. If this slider is adjusted lower, only the set percentage of polygons will be assigned to a new PolyGroup. For example, if you set the value to 0.5, the new PolyGroup will be randomly assigned to only 50% of the the visible polygons. • Clustering: This slider works in unison with the Coverage slider, causing the randomly grouped polygons to be more clustered or more spread out across the region. A high value results in the regrouped polygons being clumped together. With a low value, ZBrush will spread the regrouped polygons throughout the visible surface.

At the left, the original mesh is shown with a Coverage value at around 0.5 and Cluster at 0.75 to create the island effect of the new PolyGroup. At the right, an edge loop has been added with a Displacement Amount value.

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3. Group Masked New Option: Polish The Polish affects the Group Masked function by smoothing the border of the new PolyGroup after it has been assigned to the masked area. If set to 0, the existing boundary of the masked polygons will be unchanged upon PolyGroup creation. Higher values will more aggressively smooth the edges of the PolyGroup boundary.

At the left, the original mask is shown. In the center, the Polish value is set to 0.2 and at the right, set to 0.5. Notice that for this third example, the polished edges go under the mask because the polish value is too high for a concave shape.

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4. Group as DynaMesh Sub The Group as DynaMesh Sub function creates a special PolyGroup type dedicated specifically to the DynaMesh system. It keys the grouped polygons to create a negative (Subtracted) mesh when the next DynaMesh remesh is performed. Previously, it was only possible to define a Subtractive surface when using the Insert brush while holding down the Alt key. Thanks to his new feature it is possible to define surfaces as Subtractive at any time.

Note: Use this function only for a complete inserted mesh or an entire SubTool. Do not use it on a part of a model. DynaMesh is designed to work only with volumes rather than partial surfaces. As a result, trying to use this option to convert just part of a volume will give unpredictable results.

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XIII

TRANSPOSE ADDITIONS

Several new actions have been added to Transpose which will enhance your interactive mesh deformations as well as improving manipulation of your meshes.

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1. Transpose Axis Selectors In addition to the default TransPose action line, world axis indicators have been added. By clicking on the small circle at an axis extremity you can align the action line along the corresponding axis. X = red, Y = green and Z = blue.

On the left, the default orientation of TransPose after being drawn on the model. To its right are different orientations, aligned with the three axes, both in positive and negative space.

2. Transpose Orientation In some circumstances it is useful to orient Transpose exactly to the surface normal. For example, having the action line perpendicular to the surface can be useful for doing a clean extrusion. It is also quite useful when using an Insert brush – both for inserting the shape as well as for manipulating it after insertion. To help achieve this alignment, a single click on any part of the surface will set the Transpose Line to match the normal at the click point. The Transpose line will be placed perpendicular to the surface.

The action line will be aligned to the normal of the clicked polygon.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide However, an exception exists: If you hold the Shift key when inserting the mesh, orientation will be based on the X (red), Y (green) or Z (blue) indicators. To reset these indicators to match the world axis you must hold Shift, click and drag to any open portion of the document.

3. Flatten a Surface The Transpose line in Move mode lets you flatten the model along its action line axis. This is done by dragging the inner circle located at the root of the universe three axis indicator.

Flatten through TransPose in action.

Notes: Clicking on the opposite inner circle will do the same operation as in earlier version of ZBrush, stretching the polygons along the action line. By default, the flattening will be applied to the whole model. To confine the effect to a specific part of the model, use a mask to protect the other areas.

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4. Inflating a Surface The Transpose line in Move mode lets you inflate the model along its action line axis. This is done by right-click dragging the furthest circle away from the universe three axis indicator.

Note: By default, the inflate will be applied to the whole model. To confine the effect to a specific part of the model, use a mask to protect the other areas.

5. Inserting an Edge Loop Edge loop insertion using TransPose can now be done in Move or Scale mode. In Move mode it works as before. In Scale mode it adds a new ability to quickly create topology inserts on a model without subdivision levels rather than a simple extrusion. While Scale mode is active, holding the CTRL key and dragging the action line’s inner middle circle will create an edge loop on the boundary of the non-masked part of the model. Of course, it is possible to simply CTRL+click the appropriate circle to create an edge loop. Take care when doing this, however. The inserted edge loop won’t be visible and you run a risk of overlapping edges. The default workflow to create an edge loop is to mask the area that you wish a new edge loop to border, invert the mask, placing Transpose in Scale mode and use the CTRL key with the inner middle circle to create the insertion.

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XIV BACKGROUND The Light >> background function provides new controls which will be very useful when working with animations, including ZBrush 4R4’s History Animation feature.

1. Tilting The Tilt slider, located in the Light >> Background sub-palette performs a rotation of the background image along the depth axis. Combined with the Longitude and Latitude sliders, this new option makes it possible for you to rotate your background in any manner, across all axes.

2. Rotate With Object

Three different points of view with matching background positions.

Rotate With Object mode, located in the Light >> Background sub-palette (activate by default) synchronizes your mesh orientation with the background. The result is that whenever do a camera rotation, the background will follow. This function is enabled by default. When recording a movie, making a Turntable or creating a History animation, the background image will now match your camera movements.

Note: Only rotation is synchronized; zooming is not.

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3. Snapshoting models and images in the Background image With new Rotate With Object ability, you can apply your reference image as a Background and snapshot (Shift+S) a grid. You can even snapshot your mesh to the background panorama, storing all the views of your choice as one background. Once you’ve done this, rotating your sculpt will still keep your references images exactly where they have been snapshot to the panorama, meaning that they will follow your camera rotations.

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XV

GRID AND REFERENCES

In ZBrush 4R4, the Grid feature is given new functionality, mainly to provide support for reference images. You can easily load your images for the front, side and top views to more easily create artwork based on references.

A model with reference images on the back and side grids.

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1. Shadow on Grid with BPR Render When doing a BPR render, the grids are now in a half transparent mode. This makes the object visible from below the grid, as well as its shadow. This new mode is useful when creating a BPR render using the History movie feature, as the camera may under the model. You can revert to the previous opaque grid behavior by turning off Draw >> Visbility >> BackDots mode.

Note: BackDots mode creates a simulation of transparency by drawing one pixel over two. Rendering your document or movie in HHalf mode will override this effect.

2. Grid Changes When displaying two or three grids they will now be set up as half a cube rather than being centered on all three axes. This is similar to ShadowBox grids and is needed for using reference images. Previously, it was common to change the visible grid from one axis to another to fit your model’s orientation, but it was uncommon to display more than one grid at once. As a result, when displaying more than one grid, the model will be centered between these grids rather than in direct contact with the original grid. When adding a second grid this behavior may give you a sense that your object has jumped in space. However, only its display relative to the grids will be affected; it’s actual coordinates will not be changed.

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3. Images References on Grid A Floor Fill section has been added to the Grid options, located in the Draw palette. These settings allow you to load your reference images for the working planes you want to use. There are also settings to control visibility of these grids, the reference images, and the model itself. ZBrush can display a different image on each side of a grid plane. This is useful in situations such as when you need different front and back reference images. Once you load an image in the Draw palette for any of the planes, its grid will appear immediately even if it was disabled prior to this action. There are separate slots for each side of the grid, which become as soon as two images are loaded. There is also a switch to edit the corresponding image settings. If you wish to remove an image, simple click on its thumbnail to access the Texture pop-up menu. From there, choose the Texture Off item. You can also select a different texture to replace the current image.

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4. Grid Options With these new grid enhancements you have fine control over both placement and manipulation of the images on the grid. The options below operate the same for all working planes. (Front, Back, left, Right, Up and Down)

4.1

Open and Save with LightBox

The Open and Save functions, located at the top of the Draw >> Floor grids section allow you to save your current reference and/or grids setup for other projects. You can also use this setup as a starting project. LightBox has a new section which can accept your saved grid presets so that they can be quickly loaded into ZBrush. To make your presets visible to LightBox, simply save them to the ZBrush 4R4\ZGrids folder. 101


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4.2

Snap Mode

When enabled, this mode moves the active grids from bisecting the object to being outside its bounding box. This positions them so that they are positioned behind the object, in the appropriate place to serve as supports for background images. Disabling this option keeps the grids at their origin position, centered on the current SubTool’s geometric center.

4.3

Fill Mode

The Fill mode slider, located near the top of the Draw palette defines how the grid will be displayed. • 0: The grid is displayed with no transparency. • 1: The grid is displayed with slight transparency. • 2: The grid is displayed with strong transparency. • 3: The grid is displayed with slight transparency and the model with smart transparency. In this mode, the polygons facing forward will be more transparent while those near the edges will be more opaque. The visual effect is closest to a Fresnel effect, producing the best visibility when working with references. You can modify this display mode with the Edge Enhanced and the Edge Opacity sliders, located in the Visibility section.

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The four fill modes, from left to right and top to bottom. Notice that mode 3 (the 4th image) is the most useful, but having dark colors can make the overall visibility more complex.

4.4

Front

Front mode, off and on.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide This mode, located to the right of the Fill Mode slider is enabled only when Fill Mode 3 is not active. It displays the model with flat transparency to see the background through it. Front mode does not have transparency modifiers.

4.5

Snapshot to Grid

This function creates screenshots of your current model from all isometric angles and applies them to the grid planes.

The model has been snapshot and the resulting images have been applied to the corresponding working planes.

4.6

Snapshot Image Size

This slider defines the size of each image created by the Snapshot to Grid function. High values produce images with better quality but will require more memory. 104


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4.7

Snap to Mesh

This mode enables Position and Size modes described in the Snap Mode section (4.2). It causes them to operate based upon the currently selected SubTool.

4.8

Snap to All

This mode is similar to Snap to Mesh mode, except that it causes Position and Size to operate on all SubTools.

4.9

Snap to Axis

This mode is similar to Snap to Mesh, except that it causes the grid planes to align with the world axis.

4.10 Snap to ShadowBox

A reference image applied to the front grid but not applied as a ShadowBox texture.

When starting ShadowBox with this mode enabled, the visible grids will be automatically positioned and scaled to fit the ShadowBox working plane. This option makes it easier to use references images in ShadowBox.

Note: The references images on the grid are not a substitute for the ShadowBox working plane texture. Using both may make it more complex to work with background images.

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4.11 Image Selectors Two selectors are available, letting you select different images for the inside of the grid (first selector) and back/outside of the grid (second selector). If the corresponding grid was previously disabled, assigning an image using these selectors will enable the grid. These selectors are also used to disable to replace the current image.

4.12 One This mode uses the left image slot for both sides of the grid. If an image is loaded into the second slot, it won’t be displayed on the grid.

4.13 PLine (Projection Lines from Cursors to Axis)

Projection Lines go from the cursor to the corresponding working plane.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide This mode projects a line from the cursor to the visible Floor grids with the corresponding axis color. The position is displayed in the ZBrush title bar. These lines make it easy to ensure that your sculpting work remains true to the reference image.

4.14 Switch This function swaps the textures loaded into the associated grid’s slots. The inside texture will be moved to the outside position and vice versa.

4.15 Adjust This option opens a dedicated image editor, similar to ZBrush’s JPG exporter with which you can manipulate your original image directly within ZBrush. The most common use of the Adjust window will be to crop the image. It is also useful for changes such as improving the contrast of your reference images.

This reference image has been cropped to keep only the needed part.

4.16 Rotate, Flip and Inverse These functions provide basic manipulation to rotate the loaded reference image by 90°, flip it horizontally or invert its colors. If you wish to flip your image vertically, simply rotate it 90° twice and then flip it.

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4.17 Scale, Angle, Vertical and Horizontal Offset These four sliders manipulate your image within their respective grid so that you can fine tune the image’s rotation, scale and position. If your image moves partially outside of the grid, it won’t be cropped.

Note: It is not possible to directly scale an image larger than 100%. Instead, increase the Grid Size value, after which you can use Scale to reduce the image’s size as necessary.

4.18 Edge (E) Enhancement and Opacity These sliders are enabled only when the Fill Mode slider is set to 3. (See above for a description of this mode.) The Edge Enhancement slider affects the detection of the angle used to determine transparency. The Edge Opacity slider modifies the opacity of the background image. As a result, it alters the overall strength of the model’s opacity.

4.19 Front Dot This mode makes the model 50% transparent by alternating pixel visibility. It only has an effect when the model is in front of a grid and that grid has no applied texture.

4.20 Back Dot This mode makes the model 50% transparent by alternating pixel visibility. It only has an effect when the model is behind a grid and that grid has no applied texture. This option allows a BPR render to display the model and its shadow through a grid.

Note: This option is mostly used when recording a History movie with the original camera positioning. It will allow your movie to continue to show the model even when the camera moves behind the grid.

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4.21 Grid in BPR This mode shows the grid lines when doing a BPR render, but not any textures assigned to the grids.

4.22 Opacity The Opacity slider sets the universal opacity for all grids, from fully opaque to invisible.

4.23 Axis The Axis slider changes the size of the X, Y and Z axis indicator located at the center of the visible grid. (Or at the center of the model when more than one grid is visible.)

4.24 Grid Color and Floor Color These two colors pickers let you change the color of the grid itself and its background.

4.25 RGB Frame and RGB Fill These two sliders will fill the grid lines and/or the floor surface more strongly with the corresponding axis color: Red for X, Green for Y and Blue for Z.

4.26 Position This option changes the position of the current visible grid, automatically centering it on the current mesh’s geometric center. (For most models, the geometric center will also be the pivot point.)

4.27 Size This option fits the size of the visible grid to that of your current SubTool. (Or to all SubTools if Snap to All is active.) Enabling this mode, overrides the Grid Size slider, causing it to have no effect. 109


ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

XVI OTHER CHANGES AND ADDITIONS Beyond the key features described elsewhere in this document, various minor changes and enhancements have been added to ZBrush 4R4 which don’t fit within one of the main categories. These enhancements are listed here: • Displacement Maps now support the OpenEXR image file format. (.EXR) • U and V Offset modifiers have been added in the Preferences >> Import Export sub-palette. These are useful for compatibility with certain applications when creating vector displacement maps. • The Vibrant Shadows And AO mode (located in the Material >> Environment subpalette) creates shadows which are more color saturated. This option can be turned on/ off individually for each shader channel. • A Rapid Open/Save preference setting has been added. When enabled (by default), it speeds up the loading and saving time of a project with large Undo History data. • The memory usage information displayed in the ZBrush title bar has been modified to be more clear. It also now includes Scratch Disk (virtual memory) usage. The new ZBrush Title bar

• The currently loaded project is now displayed in the ZBrush Title bar. • The Tool >> Layers and Tool >> Geometry sub-palettes have been switched because while these two menus are typically used in conjunction with one another, the Geometry sub-palette is used more often. • The Transform >> XPose function now by default displays the SubTool as a contact sheet rather than as an exploded view. The function gains an axis selector to define the X, Y and/or Z axis on which you wish to explode your model. Depending on your model, it may be necessary to change your point of view in order to frame all the SubTools within the view.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

The Demo Soldier SubTools displayed as a contact sheet.

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ZBrush 4R4 what’s new guide

XVII THANK YOU

Pixologic® would like to thank everyone who has participated as a beta tester for ZBrush® 4R4. Happy ZBrushing, and thank you again!

The Pixologic Team

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XVIII NOTES

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