Page 1





1 2 3 4 5




7 8 9


1.1 Introduction to site



2.1 Plants & Machinery 13-19 g.t.j

PRELIMINARIES WORKS 20-25 Site layout, setting out & earth work



Foundation type & construction process

SUPERSTRUCTURE 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Introduction to Superstructure Beams and Columns 40-42 Slabs 43 Walls 43-46 Staircases 46-48 g.t.j




6.1 Doors 49-53 6.2 Windows 54-57

ROOF 58-65


Roof type & construction process

FLOOR FINISHES 66-76 8.1 Floor Finishes 8.2 Wall Finishes 8.3 Ceiling FInishes

66-69 70-73 74-76

SUMMARY 77-78 References






1.1 Introduction Of Project Brief of permission: We were allowed to do research other than a 4 storey building to enhance our understanding, experience and perspective regarding construction in the present construction industry. We were privileged to be able to study different construction site to further improve our understanding in the construction industry. However, the information in this report will be related to the 4-storey building we’ve been able to do a site visit on. Names of project we’ve visited: Renovation : @ Shah Alam PPA1M (Perumahan Penjawat Awam Putrajaya, 1Malaysia. Taska & Tadika, Precint 9, Putrajaya Holdings.


This project is for a group of 5 to 6 members to do a report regarding the procedures of construction process through undergoing real-life projects, understand the sequence and coordination of construction at site, expose students to construction technology/methods responding to site context and train students to produce manual sketches, drawings and detailing relating to existing construction and allow students to demonstrate their understanding and knowledge of construction, material and technology in the present construction industry.



1.1 Introduction To Site Client: Putrajaya Holdings Sdn. Bhd. Project Manager: KLCC Projeks Sdn. Bhd. Architect: Z&SR Architectural Ventures Planner: SAM Planners Civil & Structural Engineer: DPI Consult Sdn. Bhd. Mechanical & Electrical Engineer: Jurunding KBZ Quantity Surveyor: Pendita Landscape architect: KAC Project Title: The Proposed construction and completion of five (5) blocks public amenity complex which consist of taska & tadika building works and external works on lot 510 (Precint 9), Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya for Putrajaya Holdings Sdn. Bhd.



1.1Â Introduction To Site


1.1Â Introduction To Site


Site Safety Scaffolding Excavation Stairways

2.0.4 Head Protection 2.0.5 Hazard Communication 2.0.6 Falling Protection


2.0 2.0.1 2.0.2 2.0.3



2.0 Site & Safety

Nearly 6.5 million people work at approximately 252,000 construction sites across the nation on any given day. The fatal injury rate for the construction industry is higher than the national average in this category for all industries. Potential hazards for workers in construction include: -Falls (from heights) -Trench collapse -Scaffold collapse -Electric shock and arc flash/arc blast -Failure to use proper personal protective equipment -Repetitive motion injuries

For construction, the OSHA standards most frequently included in the agency's citations in FY 2004 were: -Scaffolding -Excavations (general requirements) -Stairways -Head protection -Hazard communication -Fall protection (training requirements) -Construction (general safety and health provisions)


2.0.1 ScaffoldingÂ

Hazard: When scaffolds are not erected or used properly, fall hazards can occur. About 2.3 million construction workers frequently work on scaffolds. Protecting these workers from scaffold-related accidents would prevent an estimated 4,500 injuries and 50 fatalities each year. Solutions: Scaffold must be sound, rigid and sufficient to carry its own weight plus four times the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. It must be erected on solid footing. Unstable objects, such as barrels, boxes, loose bricks or concrete blocks must not be used to support scaffolds or planks. Scaffold must not be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under the supervision of a competent person.


2.0.2 Excavations

Hazard: Trench collapses cause dozens of fatalities and hundreds of injuries each year. Trenching deaths rose in 2003. Solutions: Never enter an unprotected trench. Always use a protective system for trenches feet deep or greater. Employ a registered professional engineer to design a protective system for trenches 20 feet deep or greater. Always provide a way to exit a trench--such as a ladder, stairway or ramp--no more than 25 feet of lateral travel for employees in the trench. Keep spoils at least two feet back from the edge of a trench. Make sure that trenches are inspected by a competent person prior to entry and after any hazard-increasing event such as a rainstorm, vibrations or excessive surcharge loads.


2.0.3 Stairways Hazard: Slips, trips and falls on stairways are a major source of injuries and fatalities among construction workers. Solutions: Stairway treads and walkways must be free of dangerous objects, debris and materials. Slippery conditions on stairways and walkways must be corrected immediately. Make sure that treads cover the entire step and landing. Stairways having four or more risers or rising more than 30 inches must have at least one handrail.


2.0.4 Head Protection Hazard: Serious head injuries can result from blows to the head. Solution: Be sure that workers wear hard hats where there is a potential for objects falling from above, bumps to their heads from fixed objects, or accidental head contact with electrical hazards.


2.0.5 Hazard Communication


2.0.6 Falling Protection Hazard: Each year, falls consistently account for the greatest number of fatalities in the construction industry. A number of factors are often involved in falls, including unstable working surfaces, misuse or failure to use fall protection equipment and human error. Studies have shown that using guardrails, fall arrest systems, safety nets, covers and restraint systems can prevent many deaths and injuries from falls.

Solutions: Consider using aerial lifts or elevated platforms to provide safer elevated working surfaces; Erect guardrail systems with toeboards and warning lines or install control line systems to protect workers near the edges of floors and roofs; Cover floor holes; and/or Use safety net systems or personal fall arrest systems (body harnesses).



2.0 Introduction to plants & machineries 2.1 Heavy earthmoving 2.4 Lifting & material handling 2.1.1 Crawler excavator 2.4.1 Tower crane 2.1.2 Wheel loader 2.4.2 Hydraulic truck crane 2.1.3 Backhoe loader 2.4.3 Hoist 2.2 Trucking & hauling 2.5 Concrete pumps 2.2.1 Dumper truck 2.5.1 Truck mounted concrete pump 2.2.2 Tipper truck 2.5.2 Static concrete pump 2.3 Paving & compacting 2.5.3 Spider concrete placing boom 2.3.1 Soil compactor 2.5.4 Portable concrete mixer 2.3.2 Mini roller compactor 2.5.5 Concrete placing boom

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2.0   Introduction to plants & machineries The construction sector requires a large number of skilled labour work in a short timeframe to complete the construction in consideration of budgets. This is where plants and machineries come into the picture to significantly speed up productivity, safety and quality of work. More complicated and heavy works can be achieved through the use of machines. There are two types of main machinery that are used in the construction process. -Heavy machinery -Light machinery

2.1   Heavy earthmoving 2.1.1  Crawler excavator  

A type of tracked vehicle for digging and moving loads. They are capable of maneuvering themselves across the site unlike most hydraulic excavators which require towing.


2.1.2  Wheel loader  

To load materials into or onto another type of machinery.

2.1.3 Backhoe loader


A backhoe loader is a versatile, multipurpose machine that can be used as an excavator and as a loader and which allows you to quickly travel on the road to the jobsite. The operator can perform heavyduty jobs that require a large amount of power by moving levers or joysticks with little effort through its hydraulic powered cylinders.

2.2    Trucking & hauling 2.2.1  Dumper truck  

Used for the transportation of various loose materials such as sand, earth and gravel. The dumper typically carries its load in a skip which is situated in front of the driver – using hydraulics, the skip can tip to dump the load. They have payloads of up to 10 tonnes and usually steered by articulating at the middle of the chassis.

2.2.2 Tipper truck

A truck or a lorry of which the rear platform can be raised at the front end to discharge the load by gravity.

2.3    Paving & compacting 2.3.1  Soil compactor  

Compact varying soils and aggregates in applications such as highways, utilities, water retention structures, as well as in large residential, commercial and industrial site preparation.

2.4      Lifting & material handling 2.4.1 Tower crane  

To move loads beyond the capability of man. Used for the loading and unloading of freight, for movement of materials and assembly of heavy equipment.


2.3.2 Mini roller compactor  

A walk-behind roller used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations.

2.4.2 Hydraulic truck crane

Hydraulic truck cranes are mobile cranes that can lift heavy loads using hydraulics. Hydraulics relies on forces being transmitted through oil by pushing the boom’s pistons in opposite directions to lift loads.

2.4.3 Hoist

2.5    Concrete pumps -A tool for conveying liquid concrete -Able to pump concrete much faster than cranes could lift in buckets -Constant flow -The placing hose can be moved around so that concrete can be placed wherever it is needed

To carry personnel, materials, and equipment quickly between the ground and higher floors, or between floors in the middle of a structure. The construction hoist is made up of either one or two cars (cages) which travel vertically along stacked mast tower sections. The mast sections are attached to the structure or building every 25 feet (7.62 m) for added stability. For precisely controlled travel along the mast sections, modern construction hoists use a motorized rack-and-pinion system that climbs the mast sections at various speeds.

2.5.1 Truck mounted concrete pump

A static pump mounted onto a truck chassis without a boom. Perfect for the many quick jobs where a boom might not reach. A normal static pump would need to be towed or delivered on a truck but with the Truck Mounted Static Pump, the operator can drive it straight to site.



2.5.2 Static concrete pump Â

Mounted on a trailer and requires separate pipeline to be attached reaching to wherever the concrete needs to be placed. The pipeline is a series of steel or rubber pipes, known also as concrete placing hoses, linked together and manually attached to the outlet of the pump. The other end of the pipe could either be attached to a separate placing boom, allowing the concrete to be placed with precision quickly over a wide area or it might just finish with a rubber placing hose for manual placement. A Static Pump needs to be towed or separately transported to jobs.

2.5.3 Spider concrete placing boom Â

They have a horizontal reach of 10 meters and can slew through 360 degrees. They are ideal for placing concrete into slabs especially where the concrete is required to be built up in layers. The booms are piped up with 125mm pipeline for speed of placing.


2.5.4 Portable concrete mixer Â

Used to mix half bag of cement with sand, water & other aggregates to produce cement. They are easily carried from slab to slab and used in making cement for column construction and plastering.

2.5.5 Concrete placing boom Â

The concrete is pumped by a diesel or electrically powered static concrete pump, through a fixed 125 mm pipeline, to the stationary placing boom. The boom is mounted on a steel column of up to 20 metres high. The column is supported by a cross base or a system of floor frames set into the concrete floors. If floor frames are used, the whole column/boom assembly can climb with the building as the work progresses. This system is significantly faster than using a crane and is less likely to be affected by high winds.


Preliminary Works External Work Drainage System Setting Out Horizontal Control Technique Vertical Control Technique Methods Used In Setting Out Earth Work Site Clearing


3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.4



3.0 Preliminaries Works Construction Entrance

ii. Signboard

3.1 External Works The external work establishes the framework for the underlying phase of development. External work ranges from freedom of site.It serves to guarantee the usefulness of the building development, and now and then outer work can likewise upgrade the stylish estimation of the building.

For worker to enter for construction iii. Access Road

The sign board displays information about the construction and the various companies involved in the construction process.

iv. Hoarding

Allows vehicles and machineries to access the construction site from the main road.

Erected around the of construction site to shield it from view and prevent unauthorised access.

v. Storage

vi. Site office

Designated places were used to store excess materials

provide space for meetings and to provide storage for site documentation.

3.1.1 Drainage System Drainage pipe system is generally underground. It is used to pass on water from rooftops, cleared zones and sterile fittings to an appropriate transfer establishment. The common technique for transfer is to interface the pipe work to the general population waste which passes on the release to a nearby expert sewage treatment plant for handling. Water waste establishment is fundamental to gather the release from rooftops and cleared regions and pass on it to a reasonable drainage system. It comprise of accumulation channel called canal

drainage system


3.2 Setting Out It is the turn around of studying. While looking over is a procedure for shaping maps and plans of a specific site or region, setting out starts with plans and finishes with the different components of a specific arrangement effectively situated nearby.

Profile Boards

- After the setting out of the main building lines has been completed and checked, profile boards are set up as shown in the diagram of the typical profile board.These are the set up clear of the foundation trench positions to locate the trench, foundation and walls.

Cords between Profiles Wall

Trench Trench width markd with a line/ dots of dry lime powder for hand excavation

Concrete Strip Foundation

Centre line of trench marked with dry lime powder for machine excavationusing trench width bucket

- After the baseline has been set out, a check should be made of the setting out lines for the right angles and correct length.The diagrams below is illustrate the methods of checking the right angles.

150 X 38 Crossboard 50 X 50 Posts

Painted Band

Saw Cuts

3.2.1 Horizontal Control Technique - The design points must be set out to the accuracy stated in the specifications. - The accuracy must be obtained throughout the whole network and this can be achieved by establishing different levels of control based on one of the fundamental tenets of surveying such as working from the whole to the part using two different levels of control.

3.2.3 Methods Used In Setting Out i. Baselines Baselines are situated by setting out their terminals. In the event that co-ordinated they would be set out from a navigate. The length of the standard can be measured and contrasted and its compound qualities. Then again, the standard could be set out with reference to other detail, for example, street centrelines, existing structures, and so forth. Again it is important to check the deliberate length against that given on the drawings. For the most part with the end goal of measuring edges.

3.2.2 Vertical Control Technique In order that design points on the works are positioned at their correct levels, vertical control points of known elevation relative to some specified vertical datum are established.

ii. Offset pegs Offset pegs are normally used in the form of baselines or grids or as horizontal control points used to establish the design of the proposed structure. The offset pegs are only used when the original pegs are unable to be installed.


iii. Transferred or temporary benchmarks The positions of TBMs are fixed during the initial reconnaissance so that their construction can be completed in good time and they can be allowed to settle before levelling them in. In practice, 20mm diameter steel bolts and 100mm long, driven into existing steps, ledges, or footpaths are ideal.

iv. Setting out of pipelines


vi. Sight Rails Sight rails are usually offset 2 or 3 metres at right angles to construction lines to avoid them being damaged as excavations proceed. Plane containing top of sight rails Traveller marked with its length

When top of the sight rails and traveller all in line required depth reached

General considerations: sewers normally follow the natural fall in the land and are laid at gradients which induce selfcleansing velocity.

Off set sight rail Traveller

Reference height

Road work,footings and small diameter pipes

Reference height

Cornes of the building

Reference height

Large diameter pipe

vii. Setting out Equipment v. Optical level, optical square and Theodolite construction The optical level is secured to a tripod which is positioned and levelled by means of levelling screws. When the instrument is as level as possible it is aimed at a levelling staff which has been placed at a designated position. The height or level is then read through the optical level and noted or transferred to another position.

Steel tapes

Spirit Levels

Steel tapes are used for maximum accuracy when setting out. Modern tapes are epoxy coated or nylon coated for longer life.

Spirit levels are used to check whether lines or points of reference are horizontal or plumb. When used for setting out purposes.


3.3 Earth Work Earthwork is the primary work performed on most development activities. It includes a number of exercises, from clearing the site to unearthing for structures or pipes. The earthwork done on a venture readies the site for other development work, for example, building scaffolds and clearing streets. Issues with earthwork regularly don't end up noticeably clear until other development work has been done, and soon thereafter the push to amend the issues is both tedious and costly.

Types of earthwork Excavation

Excavation area - Ensure that the excavation area is extended beyond the foundation of buildings for easy circulation of movement during work execution. - Cleaning of foundation bed: Check that loose and displaced materials are cleaned from the foundation bed.

3.4 Site Clearing The purpose behind this segment is to build up uniform practices to be taken after for expulsion of trees and stumps. Where such expulsions are set up on a single amount premise, changing elucidations with regards to the degree of expulsion are conceivable. It is important to exercise judgment in the organization of this thing to achieve the coveted outcomes.

Compaction Compaction reduces the volume of air space in the soil. This compaction increases the dry unit weight and strength of the soil to better support structures. This is a very important step.


4.5.2 Types of Shallow foundation 4.5.3 Types of deep foundation 4.6 Pile Caps 4.7 Retaining wall 4.8 Pad foundation construction process


4.0 Introduction to foundation 4.1 Foundation settlement 4.2 Defect observation 4.3 Materials 4.4 Choice of foundation type 4.5 Types of foundation

Eric ERIC Lo LO Yann YANN Shin SHIN 0324922

4.0 Introduction to foundation A foundation is the base on which a building rests and its purpose is to safely transfer the load of a building to a suitable subsoil. The function of a foundation is to safely sustain and transmit to the ground the combined dead and imposed load so as not to cause any settlement or other movement in any part of the building or of any adjoining building or works.

27 Be of such a depth, or be so constructed, as to avoid damage by swelling, shrinkage or freezing of the subsoil. Subsoil beneath foundation is compressed and reacts by exerting an upward pressure to resist foundation loading. If foundation load exceeds maximum passive pressure of ground (i.e. bearing capacity) a downward movement of the foundation could occur.

4.1 Foundation settlement  subsiding of a structure as the soil Settlement is the gradual beneath its foundation consolidates under loading.

This consolidation is usually slight and occurs rather quickly as loads are applied on dense, granular soils, such as coarse sand and gravel. When the foundation soil is a moist, cohesive clay, which has a scale-like structure and a relatively large percentage of voids, consolidation can be quite large and occur slowly over a longer period of time.

4.2 Defect observation

4.3 Materials

Cracking in walls - Cracks are caused by applied forces which exceed those that the building can withstand. Severe cracking in walls may result from foundation failure, due to inadequate design or physical damage.

The functions of a foundation can be seen to be the ability to spread its load evenly over the ground on which it rests. It must of course be constructed of a durable material of adequate strength. Experience has shown that the most suitable material is concrete.

Causes of cracking: - Loads applied externally - Climate/temperature changes - Moisture content change - Vibration - Changes in physical composition - Chemical change Types of cracks and remedy:


Grade 35 cement is used for the Concrete structure of the building. Eg: column, Concrete is a mixture of cement + aggregates + beam, pad footing and foundation. water in controlled proportions. Reinforcement bar Reinforcement bar can be classified into Mild steel(R) or high yield steel(T). Both contain about 99% iron, the remaining constituents are manganese, carbon, sulphur and phosphorus. Standard bar diameters - 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32 and 40 mm Examples of steel reinforcement:

4.5 Types of foundation: Foundation are usually made of either mass or reinforced concrete. It can be considered under two headings:

Variety of rebar found at bar bending yard

4.4 Choice of foundation type Factors to consider in selecting and designing the type of foundation system for a building include: - Pattern and magnitude of building loads - Subsurface and groundwater conditions - Topography of the site - Impact on adjacent properties - Building code requirements - Construction method and risk

The average loading for a two storey domestic dwelling of traditional construction is 3050kN/m.

Shallow foundation: Shallow or spread foundations are employed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near to the ground surface. They are placed directly below the lowest part of a substructure and transfer building loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure Deep foundation: Deep foundations are employed when the soil underlying a foundation is unstable or of inadequate bearing capacity. They extend down through unsuitable soil to transfer building loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sands and gravels well below the superstructure. The design of a foundation system requires professional analysis and design by a qualified structural engineer. When designing anything other than a single-family dwelling on stable soil, it is also advisable to have a geotechnical engineer undertake a subsurface investigation in order to determine the type and size of foundation system required for the building design.


4.5.2 Types of Shallow foundation Strip Foundations- These are suitable for most subsoils and light structural loadings such as those encountered in low to medium rise domestic dwellings where mass concrete can be used. Reinforced concrete is usually required for all other situations.

Isolated pad foundation

Isolated pad foundation- the pad footing is ready for concrete filling. Pad Foundations- Suitable for most subsoils except loose sands, loose gravels and filled areas. Pad foundations are usually constructed of reinforced concrete and where possible are square in plan.

A series of combined pad foundation in a row. The workers are still establishing the formwork for footing.



Raft Foundations- These are used to spread the load of the superstructure over a large base to reduce the load per unit area being imposed on the ground and this is particularly useful where low bearing capacity soils are encountered and where individual column loads are heavy.

Ground beam laid on top of stump

4.5.3 Types of deep foundation Specification of foundation: Volume size: 500mm x 500mm x 525mm Reinforcement bar: 12 number of high yield tensile 12mm Concrete grade 35

Piled Foundations- These can be defined as a series of columns constructed or inserted into the ground to transmit the load of a structure to a lower level of subsoil. Piled foundations can be used when suitable foundation conditions are not present at or near ground level making the use of deep traditional foundations uneconomic.


Displacement pile Timber Piles-These are usually square sawn hardwood or softwood in lengths up to 12m with section sizes ranging from 225mm x 225m to 600mm x 600mm. They are easy to handle, and can be driven percussion, usually used for small contracts on sites. Most timber pile are fitted with an iron or steel driving shoe.

Precast concrete piles- These are used on medium to large contracts where soft soils overlaying a firm stratum are encountered and at least 100 piles will be required. Lengths up to 18m with section sizes ranging from 250mm x 250mm to 450mm x 459mm. Precast concrete driven pile has little frictional bearing strength because the driving operation moulds the cohesive soils around the shaft, which reduces the positive frictional resistance.

Preformed Concrete Piles- These are available as reinforced precast concrete or pre-stressed concrete piles. The variety of types available which are generally used on medium to large contracts of not less than one hundred piles where soft soil deposits overlie firm strata. These piles are percussion driven using a drop or single acting hammer.

Jointing with a peripheral steel splicing collar as shown on the preceding page is adequate for most concentrically or directly loaded situations. Where very long piles are to be used and/or high stresses due to compression.

Steel preformed concrete piles There are mainly used in conjunction with marine structures and where overlaying soils are very weak. standard steel sheet pile sections can be used to form box section piles whereas the `H' section piles are cut from standard rolled sections. These piles are relatively light and are easy to handle and drive. Consideration must always be given to the need to apply a protective coating to fight against corrosion.

33 Hot rolled steel sheet pile section Hot rolled steel sheet pile sections have a connection “interlock� at both ends of the section. These interlocks connect with one another to form a continuous wall of Sheet Piling.

The main feature of the Z Profile Sheet Pile is the symmetrical location of the interlocks and the continuous form of the web which has a positive influence on the section modulus. The Z-type piling is primarily used in Barrier and Bulkhead walls, cofferdams and retaining walls. Replacement pile These are often called bored piles since the removal of the spoil to form the hole for the pile is always carried out by a boring technique. They are used primarily in cohesive subsoils for the formation of friction piles and when forming pile foundations close to existing buildings where the allowable amount of noise and/or vibration is limited.


Rotary Bored Pile These can range from the short bored pile used in domestic dwellings to very large diameter piles used for concentrated loads in multi-storey buildings and bridge construction.

Flight Auger

The rotary bored pile is suitable for most cohesive soils, such as clay, and is formed using an auger, which may be operated in conjunction with the steel tube liner according to the subsoil conditions encountered. Construction process: 1. Excavation of pile shaft 2. Cleaning of pile shaft 3. Preparation of reinforcement 4. Installation of reinforcement 5. Concreting using tremie pipe

Bored pile construction process

Driven In-situ Piles It is used on medium to large contracts as an alternative to preformed piles particularly where final length of pile is a variable to be determined on site.

Driving tube

Forming enlarge toe

Forming pile shaft


4.6 Pile Caps

4.7 Retaining wall

Piles can be used singly to support the load but often it is more economical to use piles in groups or clusters linked together with a reinforced concrete cap.

The major function of any retaining wall is to act as on earth retaining structure for the whole or part of its height on one face, the other being exposed to the elements.

It can also be linked together with reinforced concrete ground beams. The load is distributed over the heads of the pile in the group by means of a reinforced cast in-situ concrete pile cap. To provide structural continuity the reinforcement the reinforcement in the piles is bonded into the pile cap.

Most small height retaining walls are built entirely of brickwork or a combination of brick facing and blockwork or mass concrete backing. To reduce hydrostatic pressure on the wall from ground water an adequate drainage system in the form of weep holes should be used, alternatively subsoil drainage behind the wall could be employed.


4.8 Pad foundation construction process (site visit) Process sketches for pad foundation:

1. Excavate pit for foundation (height 1000mm to 1500mm

Retaining walls must be stable and the usual rule of thumb for small height brick retaining walls is for the height to lie between 2 and 4 times the wall thickness. Stability can be checked by applying the middle third rule.


2. Lay lean concrete of 50mm

4. Laid reinforcement bar- main rebar and transverse rebar Erect reinforcement for stump

3.Establish formwork for footings and prepare and place spacer block on top of the lean concrete

38 5. Cast concrete, vibrate the concrete and wait concrete to set

Crane hoisting concrete bucket preparing for placing concreting

6. Dismantle formwork and RC pad footing is completed


Introduction to Superstructure Beams and Columns Beams Available Beams at Site Construction Process Columns Available Columns at Site Construction Process Slabs Construction Process Walls

5.3.1 Types of Walls 5.3.2 Mortars 5.3.3 Types of Mortars 5.3.4 Construction Process 5.4 Staircases 5.4.1 Construction of Concrete Staircase 5.4.2 Staircase On Site 5.4.3 Types of Stair Nosings 5.4.4 Railings & Handrails


5.0 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.2 5.2.1 5.3

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5.0 Introduction to Superstructure Superstructure refers to building parts located above the ground level. It is the part where the height of the building starts to rise whether it serves for structural, enclosure, openings or functional purpose.

5.1 Beams and Columns

5.1.1 Beams Beams are horizontal load bearings which is classified into

main beams and secondary beams. Main beams: Transmit floor and secondary beam loads to the columns. Secondary beams: Transmit floor loads to the main beams.

Concrete needs to be reinforced to resist the tensile stress which can be in the form of ordinary tension or diagonal tension (shear) due to its lack in tensile strength.


Generally, there are three types of beams: ● Simply supported beams


5.1.2 Available Beams on Site

● Fixed beams

5.1.3 Construction Process ● Cantilever beams

Step 1: Fix the reinforcement bar of the beam

Step 2: Fix the wooden formwork for the concrete beam and pour the concrete into the formwork

Step 3: Let it dry up and remove the formwork and now you have your reinforced concrete beam

5.1.4 Columns


5.1.6Â Construction Process

Columns are vertical load bearings which transmit the beam loads to the foundations. It is usually built in storey height therefore reinforcement must be lapped to provide structural continuity.

5.1.5 Available Columns at Site

Step 1: Fix the reinforcement bars of the column

Step 2: Build the wooden formwork around the reinforcement and pour concrete into it

Step 3: Let dry and remove the formwork

Concrete columns are found indoors

Section of concrete column

Brick columns are found outdoors


5.2 Slabs

5.3 Walls

Slab is a large, thick and flat piece of stone, concrete or wood platform and normally in rectangular shape.

5.3.1 Function of Walls

5.2.1 Construction Process

• To provide protection from the weather and animals • To divide the areas • Act as sound barriers • As fire walls to prevent the spread of fire from one building to another • Separate the interior spaces • To improve the building appearance • To improve privacy

1. Assemble and erect formwork.

2. Prepare and place reinforcement.

5.3.2 Types of Walls There are two types of internal walls which are load bearing walls and non-load bearing walls. Load bearing walls accept and transmit structural load to the foundation whereas non-load bearing walls only support their self-weight.

3. Pour and compact or vibrate concrete.

4. Strike and remove formwork in stages as curing proceeds.


5.3.3 Mortar Mortar is a workable paste which consists of cement or lime, or a combination of both with sand and water. It is used as a bonding agent in masonry construction. A standard mortar mix for new brickwork would be 1:1:6 (cement : lime : sand) or 1:4 (Portland cement : sand).

5.3.4 Types of Mortar


5.3.5 Construction Process Step 1: Measure the length of the wall Start by putting a brick down at each end of the wall. Measure from the outer edge of the brick at one end to the brick at the other end to get the length of the wall.

Step 2: Measure the brick Measure the brick and mark a few marks at 10 inches intervals. Add about 3/8" onto the length of the bricks to compensate for the mortar in between the bricks which is a "joint".

Step 3: Consistency Keep the height of all bricks at the same by using a spirit level.

Step 4: Set up the line Hook a line at both ends do it lines up with the very top of the two bricks. Then fill up the middle.

5.4 Staircases Step 5: Continue on the next level Always start at each ends and then fill in the middle until the destined height. Remember to adjust the hook line on every level.

.Step 6: Wiring and piping After constructing the brick until the top, get all kinds of piping ready such as wire, air conditioner, water and etc. Then, craft a cylindrical-like space on the wall vertically or horizontally depending on the piping system. After that, start setting up the pipes.


  5.4.1 Construction of Concrete Staircases

Components of staircase Construction Steps 1. Building the lower & upper slabs that is to be joined by the stairs. 2. Consider floor to floor height to calculate the number and dimension of risers, taking into account the maximum permitted height of riser not exceeding 180mm and total risers of stairs per run not exceeding 16.

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47 3. Building the formwork.

5. Starter bars in staircase Function of starter bars: To be placed at the superjacent floor of the staircase to connect to the subjacent floor.

Typical formwork to lower flight The landing reinforcement is extended towards the direction of the staircase for the next floor. The proper position of the starter bars is secured with spacers between thin formwork strips. Before the positioning of the staircase’s formwork, the starter bars are properly bent at the necessary height.

Typical formwork to upper flight 4. Placing of spacers Spacers are placed in the volume of concrete to secure the rebars in their correct place as well as to prevent long term corrosion of steel bars that would weaken the construction.

During the final phase of the staircase’s reinforcement implementation, the lower rebars (in red color) are wired to their proper position with the distribution bars. The next phase includes the positioning of any necessary additional upper rebars followed by the placement of their distribution bars. The stringers GOH TZE JUNE 0327511 and the risers are placed last.

48 6. Pouring concrete Use a hand float to smooth out the surface of the concrete. Allow it to set before proceeding with the upper layer.

5.4.2 Concrete staircase on site Â

7. Finishing the concrete Remove the riser boards and use a wet sponge to sponge out any air pockets or voids. 12 risers, 1 landing 8. Curing the concrete Cure the concrete by keeping it wet and let the concrete set overnight. The following day, remove the side forms, patch any voids with a concrete patch material and keep the concrete wet by hosing it with water. The longer you keep it wet the better it is for the concrete (2 - 5 days if possible).

5.4.3 Types of stair nosings Vertical Riser

Curved Nosing

Beveled Nosing

Angled Riser


5.4.4 Railings & handrails Commonly used materials for handrails are timber, mild steel, stainless steel, parapet wall etc. However, glass railings with metal supports are more popular nowadays to create a contemporary, chic and sleek image.


Min 230mm at least 30cm


Post supports for handrail

Cast-in-place sleeve

Posts or ballusters

Bracket anchored to concrete

Handrail supports may be anchored to the top of the stair slab or low wall, or to the edge of the stair slab.

at least 30cm

Wall mounted handrail For certain circumstances, handrails may be mounted directly on walls using brackets without railings.

49 Doors act as a moveable barrier secured in a wall opening to provide means of access and egress.

Components of a door

Stop: The projecting part of a doorframe against which a door closes

Head: Uppermost member of a doorframe

Strike jamb Hinge jamb

Door protection (kick plate, mop plate)

Threshold: The sill of a doorway, covering the joint between two flooring materials or providing weather protection at an exterior door

Door jamb detail


Door hardware: Includes metal fastenings & fittings required for operation of door, e.g. hinges, locksets, closers

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Exterior Door Entry

Interior Door Entry Interior casing Drywall

Inside Net frame dimension Door



Interior casing

Rough opening Net frame dimension Studs

Jamb size

Door jamb (frame) Sheeting Rough opening

Masonry opening



Materials used for different types of doors Security doors - steel Showcasing doors - laminate or tempered glass, frosted glass Waterproof doors for wet areas - PVC, aluminium Fire doors - depends on duration of fire resistance Visual barrier doors - various materials

Types of doors

Pocket sliding Swinging

Bypass sliding Provide flexibility of conjoining series of spaces

Surface sliding

Centre pivoted Suitable for public spaces with smaller and controlled crowd

Revolving Generally used in big crowd, public spaces with harsh weather



Types of doors on site

Mild steel framed flush door Location: Utility, staircase 2 & 3, water tank

M.S. frame, 6mm thick clear polycarbonate sheet panel with aluminium louvers below Location: JBA/GAS compartment Polycarbonate sheet is used here due to its impact resistant characteristic, and the aluminium louvers provides ventilation.

M.S. framed double leaf aluminium louvers below Location: Rubbish door component

Mild steel framed plywood flush door with waterproofing laminate internally Location: Toilets

M.S. framed double leaf timber flush door Location: Nursery

M.S. framed double leaf solid timber flush door with fixed glass panel Location: Main entrance


Types of locksets on site

Lever handles

Door knobs

Rose or escutcheon

Length: 90-115mm

Rose: A round or square ornamental plate surrounding the shaft of a doorknob at the face of a door. Escutcheon: A protective or ornamental plate that may be substituted for a rose.

Lever-operated mechanisms, push-type mechanisms and U-shaped handles are generally easier for disabled people to grasp.


Mild steel framed door installation detail Plumb and level the frame, and place it in position.

3. Install spreaders at mid and bottom height to secure exact level and angle.

1. Prepare the door’s rough opening.

Plywood flush door panel

6. Lastly, install the door panel. Metal door frame

4. Infill the hollow of the frame with cement mortar.

5. Continue with wall plastering and tiling when necessary.


Components of a window frame Rough opening Casing trim Head: Uppermost member of a frame


Side casing Sill: Having an upper surface sloped to shed rainwater

Sash: Fixed or movable framework in which glass panels are set

Subsill: Additional sill fitted to frame to cause rainwater to drip farther away from a wall surface

Pane Top rail Muntins Stiles Bottom rail


Drip cap or head casing

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Types of windows on site 1. Bronze anodized aluminium framed 8mm fixed glass panel

2. Aluminium top hung casement windows -Usually of small size for controlled ventilation -Allowing for ventilation even during light rain -Placed high on walls for privacy

Rough opening of window


Advantages & disadvantages of metal windows

Other types of windows Fixed

Double-hung Casement

Awning & Hopper

Adjustable/fixed louvre

Pivoting Sliding



Aluminium framed window installation detail 2. Apply plastering to get the exact dimension and shape of the opening.


1. Prepare the window’s rough opening. 'U' shape gasket Weep hole


RC Lintol


4. Install the subframes and panels.

5. Seal all gaps with proper sealant e.g. silicon. 3. Fix the main window frame to the plastering with screws.


Functions of roof Types of roofs Roof found on site Trusses

7.4 Purlin & rafters 7.5 Sheating 7.6 Components of a roof


7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3


7.0 Â Functions of roof

Roofs are essential for protection from weather and helps reduce heat loss. In Malaysia, the most common types of roofs are warm roofs that acts an insulation against external temperature changes.

Insulation installed along the slope



7.1 Â Types of roofs

Skillion and lean-to roof

Open gable roof

Box gable roof

Hip & valley roof

Gambrel roof

Mansard roof

Dutch gable roof

Hexagonal gazebo roof

Slatbox roof

Butterfly roof

Jerkinhead roof

Pyramid hip roof

Combination roof

Flat roof

M-shaped roof

Dormer roof

Shed roof


7.2 Â Roof found on site

7.3 Â Trusses

Type of truss: Â Light gauge steel roof trusses

Made by welding or bolting together the steel parts that form a triangulated framework. Sometimes steel gusset plates are used to connect the pieces together. Heavier materials require wide flange shapes or structural tubing. In this case, both wide flanged shapes and structural tubings are used.

This is a type of pratt truss in which vertical components are under compression and the diagonal ones are under tension. This is a efficient design as diagonal components can be reduced thus reducing the cost.



7.4  Purlin& Rafters Types of joists:  Lightweight steel

Purlin: A beam placed horizontally along the length of the roof. It supports the rafters. Rafters: Beams placed across the purlin. Beams going downslope which supports the roof deck

Also known as open web steel joists.


7.5 Â Sheathing


7.6  Components of a roof Way for rain water to flow down towarrds the gutter

Water is directed towards the gutter to prevent water ingress in the building’s components

A barrier to prevent water from leaking through into the building and provides aesthetics to the roof by covering the cut ends of the roof panel

Rain water collectively moves down the pipe to be expelled after passing through the flashing which is a channel for the waterflow






8.1 Introduction to floor finishes The type of floor finish to be applied to a floor will depend upon a number of factors such as type of base, room, degree of comfort required, maintenance problems, cost, appearance, safety and individual preference.

Floor finishes can be considered under 3 main headings:

1. In-situ floor finishes 2. Applied floor finishes 3. Timber floor finishes

Mastic asphalt applied on top of concrete floor as a layer of waterproofing

8.1.1 In-situ floor finishes The finishes which are mixed on site,is laid in a fluid state,allowed to dry and set to form a hard jointless surface.

Mastic Asphalt It is a naturally occurring bituminous material obtained from asphalt like those in Trinidad or it can be derived from crude oil. It is a thermoplastic material and has to be melted before being applied to form a jointless floor finish. The finish obtained is smooth and hard but the colour range is limited to dark colours.

The finish surface of asphalt is smooth compared to the solid concrete surface(staircase) which is rough and dull


8.1.2 Applied floor finishes Applied floor finishes are finishes which are supplied in tile or sheet form and are laid on to a suitably prepared base. The finishes are thin flexible materials and should be laid on a subfloor with a smooth finish.

Ceramic  tiles They are made from ordinary or unrefined clays worked into a plastic form, pressed into shape and hard burnt. Being hardwearing and with good resistance to water they are suitable for kitchens and entrance halls but they can be noisy and cold.

Tiles being stored inside the building.

A worker is laying the tiles

8.1.3 Timber floor finishes These are boards, sheets and blocks of timber laid on or attached to a suitable structural frame or base. It is available as a board, strip, sheet or block finish and if attached to joists, as in the case of a suspended timber floor, it also acts as the structural decking.

Timber strip These are narrow boards being under 100mm wide to reduce the chances of shrinkage and consequent opening of the joints. Timber strip can supplied in softwood or hardwoord and is considered to be a superior finish.

Tile installation process: 1. Prepare the surface. The usual screed mix for solid concrete floor is 1:3 cement or sand. The screed thickness is 12mm. 2. Lay the tiles. Then insert grout spacers flat on the floor to create joints. 3. Seal the grout after it has set for 72 hours.







8.2 Introduction to wall finishes External brickwork with an exposed face of facing bricks is a self finish and requires no further treatment. External walls of common bricks or blocks are often treated to give an acceptable appearance by the application of rendering, paint, plastering or tiles.

8.2.2 External rendering This is a form of plastering using a mixture of cement and sand, or cement,lime and sand, applied to the face of a building to give extra protection against the penetration of moisture or provide a desired texture.

Cement and sand mixed will produce a strong moisture resistant rendering. Two common volume mix ratios are: 1. 1: 1/2:4-4 1/2 Cement: lime : sand which is used for dense, strong background of moderate to high exposure 2. 1:1:5-6 cement :lime: sand which is for general use.

Brick wall known as non-load bearing wall constructed by bricks and rendered by cement.

8.2.3 Glazed wall tiles Tiles are fixed with a suitable adhesive, the former requires a flat surface such as mortar screed. The appearance and easily cleaned surface of glazed tiles makes them suitable for the complete or partial tiling of bathroom and the provision of splashbacks for sinks and basins.

They can be classified into: 1. Priming paints 2. Undercoating paints 3. Finishing coat

Priming paints: These are first coat paints used to seal the surface, to protect the surface against damp air, act as a barrier to prevent any chemical substance caught between the surface and finishing coats. The paint is in white colour.

8.2.4 Painting Paint is a mixture of a liquid or medium and a colouring or pigment. The application of paint are used for various purposes. Mostly, it is used to provide a protective coating which will increase the durability of the member and the aesthetic value.

Undercoating paints: These are used to build up the protective coating and to provide the correct surface for the finishing coat.

The most common paints being used in Malaysia is oil based paints. It comprises of 3 different layers or coatings to obtain the final product.

Finishing coat: A wide range of colours and finishes including matt, semi-matt, eggshell, satin and gloss are available. These paints usually contain a synthetic resin which enable them to be easily applied, quick drying and have good adhesive properties.


The facade of the building is painted with blue,red and white colour. However, some parts of the building are only applied with primer coat for temporary protection against sunlight and rain.

The interiors are painted in peach colour.

primer coat







8.3 Introduction to ceiling finishes Ceiling is an overhead interior surface or a living of a room. It can be finished by any of the dry lining techniques, constructed either below the pitch roof or flat roof and either horizontally or following the pitch of the roof.

There are 3 systems of ceiling finishes that can be constructed: Exposed ceiling Fixed ceiling Suspended ceiling.

The 3rd floor is a water tank storage area. Thus, it is directly exposed to the roof trusses.

8.3.1 Exposed ceiling These are simple ceiling finishes construction. It does not require any layer of ceiling sheet. The final product is normally applied plastering and painting to the exposed surface of a floor structure or a flat roof. In some cases, the fittings and services are also exposed.

The interior ceiling exposed to the slabs and it is painted in white colour.


8.3.2 Fixed ceiling It can be constructed either horizontally or following the pitch of the roof. Fixed to ceiling joist and ceiling spacer. The joint between the ceiling panels are covered and finished with timber beading or aluminium strips. The construction of the ceiling structure is similar to the floor structure.

The materials for the ceiling panels is fiberboard which provides better insulation

8.3.3 Suspended ceiling Ceiling are fixed to a framework suspended from the main structure thus forming a void between the 2 components. The system comprises of galvanised steel or aluminium structure and the frame is suspended with wire hanger to the floor or roof structure above it.

Installation process: 1. Cross joists are fixed across the main joist. 2. The spacing of the ceiling frame are depending on the size of the ceiling tiles or panels. 3. The ceiling tiles or panels are screwed to the ceiling frame.


Through the site visit, we felt privileged to be exposed at this early stage of our architecture studies an actual construction site. It was an eye opener about the basic principles and procedures of the construction process and it also deeply furthered our understandings of the practicality and technicality of construction at site.

In a nutshell, it was an advanced step for us as we have observed and learned things that being inside the school itself could not offer.


During the site visit, with the help of architect Sir Zaini Mufti and Miss Izzati, we were allowed to explore larger scale constructions to understand different construction techniques. We understood better, by having discussions with the project manager, site contractor, architect etc and also gained skills to produce manual sketches of which includes drawings regarding construction details.



1. Chudley, R. (1978). Construction technology volume 1. London: Longman. 2. Chudley, R. (2012). Advanced construction technology. Harlow: Pearson Ching, F.D.K., 2008, Building Construction Illustrated, Fourth Edition, Hoboken, New Jersey, John Willey & Sons, Inc. 3. R., & R. (n.d.). Building Construction handbook . Retrieved May 24, 2017, from 4. Chiety Lasim, Attended College Follow. (2012, April 18). Topic 9 finishes. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from 5. Construction plants retrieved May 16, 2017, from 6. Construction plants retrieved May 16, 2017, from 6. Information on concrete pumps retrieved May 16, 2017, from 7. Staircases construction method retrieved May 19, 2017, from 8. Preliminary works retrieved May 21, 2017, from 9. Preliminary works retrieved May 21, 2017, from

Experiencing Construction  

Building Construction 01 Project 01

Experiencing Construction  

Building Construction 01 Project 01