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Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development ​greetings my name is dr. Eric Landrum from the Department of Psychology at Boise State University and this is my psych 487 capstone istrian systems lecture on structuralism the system of structure ISM shortly thereafter or perhaps even overlapping with vaunt and his founding of psychology which we commonly acknowledged in 1879 Edward Tichenor you can see a reproduction of a painting of him for lived from 1867 to 1927 born in England educated Oxford University actually got on the boat went to Germany to study under Leipzig study in Leipzig under vil homeland under his tutelage I comes back to the United States in 1892 he's hired at Cornell University he's essentially the founder of that program there and is active for 35 years he is also a mover and shaker regarding the professionalization within the discipline 1904 you can see there on the screen he founded the Society for experimental psychologists which actually still exists in a modified form to this day you'll see the zeitgeist of the time represented there in the rules in the description I have under the second bullet point for Edward Kitchener he wanted this no holds barred smoke-filled room people are interrupting one another they're not being you know they're not using those you know Victorian manners of that moment in time and so unfortunately a side effect of that was that they prohibited women from becoming members into the Society for experimental psychology because as you can see women were considered too pure to smoke now it's hard to know quite honestly without digging into this deeper was that just an excuse to keep women out or was that really a legitimate at least from their perspective a legitimate reason but in any case it's those types of barriers which really harmed the participation in the formation of psychology and the integration of men women into the psychological sciences for quite some time and so just a little historical footnote there about that so for tensioner he was a structuralist he's the founder of structuralism and to be honest with you to kind of cut to the chase and preview this notion of structuralism really kind of dies with Tichenor you know even said to this day we can still think about that our behaviorist still around there are people who are our gestalt psychologists still around but there really aren't any structuralist this one pretty much has died out there's not even you know old throwback folks who would say yes I'm a structuralist in the kitchen Aryan tradition so just a little bit about the system of structuralism you can see the mind is the sum total of mental processes occurring during the lifetime then tensioner head for conscious experience the mental processes occurring in any one particular moment and so what you're thinking about now is your conscious experience your history of thought so to speak would be your what we would call someone's mind I think one of the things that Tichenor kind of drew a line in the sand if you will is that he clearly defined what psychology or what structuralists would not study which is really kind of interesting approach which i think about you know what something is as opposed to what something isn't and so I think it's really fascinating for you to look at this what is not the subject matter of structuralism Applied Psychology children animals individual differences and higher mental processes if you think about what psychology is today it's all those things we're very much into applied psychology industrial organizational psychologists human factor psychologists a lot of our attention goes to helping children in developmental psychology and understanding you know stages of cognitive development we have a whole area of comparative psychology where we can learn from our study of animals and how their behaviors that relate to the study of human beings individual differences and personality theorists are in in great use in psychology and the whole of cognitive psychology is about higher mental processes and so nner kind of ironically defined what wasn't psychology in the early 1900's as to really the bulk of what psychology is today and so he kind of draws that line in the sand there's a line of demarcation of what is and isn't the purview of structural lists and their approach to psychology as with want a key component of titchener's approach to structuralism a methodology if you will is introspection and so we're interested in describing the processes the task of psychology describe the general human adult mind no interest again in children no interest in animals there and so that he wants to understand the structure of consciousness through this experimental introspection that he learns from Lund when he goes to Leipzig and studies under him however he does like what many pupils do he kind of discards the pieces and parts that don't apply to his view of psychology so Tichenor discards influence at perception and that need for the act of mind that focusing that you know paying attention is discarded by Kitchener and his view of structuralism and understanding consciousness and through introspection so for tensioner science begins with observation and within psychology that observational tool is introspection the observation of one's own consciousness partitioner the aims of psychology were fairly straightforward his goal was to reduce conscious process to their simplest most basic elements and so thinking about

this perhaps from a chemical perspective we've got these compounds out there and from compounds we can go try to get to molecules and elements and the atoms and so again to understand the pieces and parts a very mechanistic zeitgeist approach at the time like taking a clock apart and saying what are the pieces and parts and the gears and the levers that help a clock movements keep time same idea here in psychology we want to take apart the structure of consciousness so we can see the pieces and parts and understand how one part influences the actions of another part of consciousness another aim of psychology from a structuralist perspective determine the laws by which the elements are associated and so so how do these elements get combined so there are rules but elements and molecules and they have they have poles they have electric charges and you can think about you know a chemical analogy of the pieces and parts and how they fit together well this would be our psychological analogy if you will how do these basic structures work together to create this consciousness expectation and finally you bring those elements into connection with their physiological conditions so under what environmental conditions do certain thoughts emerge from consciousness one of those pieces and parts look like so it's very mechanistic it's very mechanical that's the zeitgeist of the time going from the late 1800s into the early 1900s at least in psychology to tear things apart to look for their structural elements to see how the elements interplay with one another and in what conditions do they operate under certain parameters with any approach in psychology we'll try to be fair about this and do this throughout whether it's structuralism functionalism behaviorism neo behaviorism the cognitive revolution and all these good things that we're going to be talking about this semester there's always going to be criticisms of any movement within psychology as you can see most of the criticisms of structuralism are criticisms of introspection in the introspective technique so introspection is innately personal process it goes on inside one person's mind and so there's little agreement there's not a lot of reliability or faith in the reliability of introspective sessions even when introspect errs were giving intensive training and you know to reach those immediate experiences rather than immediate experiences there's just not a lot of agreement I mean two people could introspect about the same topic and come up with different results and conclusions which then meant that introspection lacked generality and you couldn't just teach someone off the street to be highly trained introspect err it took probably months and months of training very sophisticated highly developed skill set according to folks like volt and Tichenor to be able to introspect properly and to extract those immediate experiences and not the immediate experiences other criticisms of structuralism really again our criticisms of the introspective method remembering the contents of introspective sessions and so if you're deep in this thought and you're trying to get those immediate experiences you're doing this for 20 25 30 minutes and then you come out of this little introspective episode what do you write down you know we can think about things from cognitive psychology with regard to the primacy and recency effect and so you know after a 30 minute introspective session you might remember the first five minutes the last three minutes and but what happens with the other 22 minutes in between and so there are some methodological challenges to the introspective technique and data recording from that approach and then some argued that by actually introspecting about some immediate experience you're changing the experience and this is a fairly common argument in other venues and so let's say that you're a student teacher and you're going to be videotaped well think about bringing in you know so your student teaching and you're doing your thing in your classroom and all of a sudden on a certain day there's someone in the back of the room and there's a tripod there's a camera the notion of recording so having someone record what's going on the classroom might change the dynamic of the classroom so that's some pretty straightforward concern and that's the argument here that by trying to deeply examine something that exists the examination itself might impact the event just like being on knowing that you're on tape might change your natural behaviors and so the act of watching it or observing it might actually ruin or change the dimensions of what's being observed so the contributions to sum up after a 35 year career which is pretty remarkable especially in one single department anywhere the contributions of Tichenor and structuralism probably like so many tours of the day his contributions his greatest contributions were probably the students and so you can see 54 PhD so he's actually supervising on average more than one a dissertation every year and by the way I'll just tell you that's a lot this to a supervisor dissertation is an arduous process and so to have 54 PhDs come out of a 35 year career is actually pretty remarkable I've got three of those better-known PhD students on the screen there for you Edward G boring was really of his time leading American historian wrote a book in 1950 1950 1954 of history of psychology and yes in a sad moment of irony yes it's called borings history of psychology that's because of his last name not because of a commentary on the subject matter Margaret Flo Washburn was the first PhD female student I'm sorry the first female PhD student in psychology Titian Aires first PhD student altogether instrumental looking at animal psychology and looking at this notion that of a comparative system where we can study animals to help understand ourselves and then joy be Guilford and that looks like a woman's name is actually a man his area of expertise was intelligence measurement and individual differences and so if you get into Survey Research very deeply you'll see

things like Guilford scales and so and some Guilford tests that he developed that does still exist and still have an impact to this day so those are really some of the key contributions of Tichenor and structuralism and pretty much his students in his legacy like I said earlier structuralism is one of these systems of psychology that that really doesn't survive to this day and in the active form it's clearly an important historical record it follows one teen psychology it's going to be the Segway if you will or the transition between lund and then what's going to come next primarily in American psychology which is going to be functionalism but structuralism focuses primarily on looking at the structure the pieces the parts or how are these parts combined how are they used what is the structure of consciousness and how does it work rapid growth in psychology in America because you know digital goes to Germany he studies with volunteering that back he founds the Cornell University psychology department 1892 again - just to kind of give you the magnitude of this even though there are people who are saying they are psychologists in the 1870s even though there are writings and journals and books coming out with the word psychology in them very much psychology is borne by members of departments of philosophy and so to extract yourself from a department and form a brand new department and a university is an amazing gesture it's an amazing accomplishment think about if a subset of any department on our campus wanted to separate and found its own department that would be we're not going to say impossible but just about impossible as a brand new discipline and so this is a huge contribution that the tensioner brings down into psychology but to Cornell University when he actually extracts the psychologists out of the philosophy department informs and successful in forming a brand new department of psychology at Cornell University State University of New York College at Oneonta.