Design for print
( 2 - 3 ) STOCK ( 4 - 5 ) pAPER TYPES & PRINT QUALITY ( 6 - 7 ) BINDING TECHNIQUES ( 8 ) FOLDING TYPES ( 9 ) CREATIVE TECHNIQUES ( 10 - 11 ) approximate guide of costs
Finishing includes a wide range of processes, all of which can transform an ordinary-looking piece into something much more intresting and dynamic. Although the application of finishing techniques signifies the end of your production process, they need to be taken into account during the planning stages of your design.
Design for print. Stock
The stocks available to designers are so broad that there are various factors that need to be taken into account during the selection process, factors such as; Size, Colour, Texture, Composition, Printability, Suitability. The suitability of a stock can be characterised by its GSM and Grain.
GSM (Grams per square metre) a measurement that is part of a paper specification based on the weight of the stock. The higher the GSM, the heavier the paper. In general, the lower the number, the thinner the paper. If you are given a choice between 80 and 200 gsm, then you will probably be choosing a text or book weight paper (80 gsm) for the inside pages. And 200 gsm for the front and back covers.
Paper Grain refers to the lining of fibres that are made during the manufacturing process, this is determined on the way the paper passes through the papermaking machine. You can use this information to your advantage, understanding the way fibres lay means that your able to identify what stocks are; easier to fold, bend or tear (along its grain direction)
Design for print. Paper types & print quality
Companies are now actively engaging in efforts to reduce their environmental impacts which means the concept of sustainable printing is becoming a growing service in the printing industry. The growing niche of consumers that want to make a difference will only be getting larger so keep this in mind when you next specify your print job. Send PDF's instead of print outs! Obtain print estimates at the start of a job where there may be cost-saving flexibility related to format size.
If your seeking to make an informed and responsible choice when it comes to selecting your stocks, look out for the 'Forest Stewardship Council Logo', A non-profit organisation looking for solutions to the problems created by bad forestry practices.
Factors affecting printability...
+ Smoothness + Opacity High opacity papers have no show-through
+ Absorbency Each stock has its own absorbency levels, meaning that ink penetrates each and every type to a different degree, Absorbent stocks might dry quicker...but they might also cause problems such as 'Dot Gain'
+ Ink Holdout The degree to which a stock resists ink penetration, coated stocks may be particularly prone to ink holdout as the ink sits on the surface, which in turn increases drying time.
types of paper
Antique - a high quality paper with a clay coating on both sides to give a good printing surface, especially for half-tones, where definition and detail are important.
Artboard - Uncoated board, primary uses include Cover stock.
Cast coated - Wet coated paper is pressed against a hot polished metal drum to obtain a high gloss, often used for promotional material, provides a smooth, glossy surface. Flock - Paper coated with flock; very fine woollen surface, used for decorative covers. Other coatings might be refuse or vegetable fibre dust to give a velvety or cloth-like appearance.
Greyboard - Lined or unlined board made from waste paper. Packaging material often used for front covers. Provides a rough texture/ good bulk and grey colour.
Design for print. Binding techniques COMB / SPIRAL / WIRO BOLT OR SCREW / SADDLE-STICHED / LOOP-STITCHED SEWN / PUR
Binding / Securely holding together various pages so that they function as a publication.Many different types of binding are available and they all have different durability, aesthetics, costs and functional characteristics...
Comb Binding - A spine of plastic rings that bind and allow a document to open flat. Rectangular holes are first punched into the pages. The plastic comb is then threaded through the punched holes and wraps around itself to hold the pages in place.
Saddle stitched - This very common binding technique is created by punching wire through the pages at the spine. The wire is then bent flat on the inside to grip all the pages. Similar to, but not the same as stapling.
Spiral bound - Holes are punched or drilled into the pages. Wire is then shaped and threaded into the holes. Each end of the wire is then crimped to prevent the wire slipping off.
Loop stitched - Similar to saddle stitching. The difference being that a loop is created with the wire on the spine so that the document can be inserted into a ring binder.
Wiro Binding - A spine of metal rings that bind and allow a document to open flat. Similar to spiral binding, but in this case the wire passes through each hole twice. By doing this it removes the need to crimp the ends and enables the book to lie exactly flat.
Sewn bound - Similar to saddle stitching at just a few pages, but thread is used instead of a wire and thread is stitched along the whole spine.
Bolts/ Screw bound - This usually requires the insertion of a punched or drilled hole for the bolt or clip to pass through. A barrel post is inserted through and a cap screw is then screwed into the barrel post which holds the pages in place. Often used in swatch books.
Perfect bound/ Pur Binding - The backs of sections are removed and held together with a flexible adhesive, which also attaches a paper cover to the spine, commonly used for paperback books. PUR binding is very similar to perfect binding. But uses a more durable and flexible glue. It is nearly impossible to remove pages from a PUR Bound book, and the spine doesn't deteriorate with age. Ideal for printed items that need to be durable reference tools - Catalogues, price lists, prospectus, brochures, town plans, parish plans etc
Design for print. folding types
Folding a printed sheet into a more dynamic and signature form through a series of peaks and troughs.
SINGLE FOLD; This type of fold is mainly
used for brochures, postcards.It is usually constructed by folding an 8.5 x 11 / 8.5 x 14 / 11 x 17 or 11 x 25.5 sheet of paper once, creating 2 equal halves. The inner pages are usually used for the content, while the front and the back page presents some company information.
C-FOLD; This common fold, used for
mailings and brochures, is much like a letter folded by hand for inserting in an envelope. Basically folding an 8.5 x 11 / 8.5 x 14 / 11 x 17 or 11 x 25.5 sheet of paper twice. The inside right panel folds to the left and the inside left panel folds to the right on the top, forming the cover page.
GATE FOLD; The gate fold is very attractive as the succession of message presentation is dramatic. It requires either handwork or specialised equipment. Lining up images that cross over the inside flaps can be very difficult. The left and right edges fold inward with parallel folds and meet in the middle of the page without overlapping.
Z-FOLD; The “Z” style offers an advantage for multi-page letters to be collated and hand inserted for mailing. Because the pages nest together, the letter is opened with the pages in sequence. Folding the sheet of paper twice (the outside left panel folds to the left and the inside right panel folds to the left, forming the brochure cover) as a result it shapes as the letter “Z”. TRIPLE FOLD; This is the four panel version of the previously mentioned “Z” fold. It makes a nice presentation. Zigzag type of fold, permitting the paper to be extended to its full size with a single pull. Used for travel brochures and directmails.
Embossing and Debossing
Two techniques that require a design to be stamped into a substrate to produce a raised or indented surface.
This requires a megnesium, copper or brass die which holds the image to stamp into the stock and leave an impression of your design as a raised surface. A good trip to remember is your design should be slightly oversized with heavier lines and extra spacing between letterforms. Copper or brass are the most popular for high print runs, used when you have a highly detailed design or using a thicker stock.
A deboss uses a metal die containing a design which is stamped from above on to the stock to leave an indentation. Debossing also produces better results on a thicker stock because a deeper indentation can be applied. Generally thinner stocks can hold finer lines, but there is a danger of puncturing the stock, on the other hand thicker stocks are more robust, but lose detail as there are more paper fibres. Choosing the right stock for the process is essential and so is the design; you need to make sure you have the balance right.
If your choosing to impression a detailed design, using a thinner stock would work more effectively, however it doesn't reproduce well. If you are embossing on a coated stock make sure the coating doesn't crack. An uncoated stock works more efficiently because not a lot can go wrong in the process. Slight embossing is used alongside foil blocking to add more depth and effect to the area.
Design for print. Approximate guide of costs
Don't rely on a quote from ONE printers! Always identify at least 3 printers and compare costs, you'll be surprised how much you could save. Don't just think your paying for your prints! in some cases you'll have to consider distribution costs! The following guide of figures should just be used as a benchmark of costing, giving you an idea of the costs relating to different papers.
120 GSM Recycled FSC approved
170 GSM, Recycled FSC approved
Quantity 1 /
Quantity 1 / A4 = £ 34 A3 = £ 34 A2 = £ 41 A1 = £ 48 A0 = £ 60
A4 = £ 16 A3 = £ 16 A2 = £ 23 A1 = £ 30 A0 = £ 45 Quantity 10 / A4 = £ 25 A3 = £ 25 A2 = £ 95 A1 = £ 165 A0 = £ 315 Quantity 25 / A4 = £ 30 A3 = £ 40 A2 = £ 215 A1 = £ 397 A0 = £ 775 Quantity 50 / A4 = £ 35 A3 = £ 55 A2 = £ 275 A1 = £ 401 A0 = £ 780 Quantity 100 / A4 = £ 55 A3 = £ 90 A2 = £ 280 A1 = £ 408 A0 = £ 795
Quantity 10 / A4 = £ 43 A3 = £ 43 A2 = £ 120 A1 = £ 197 A0 = £ 362 Quantity 25 / A4 = £ 48 A3 = £ 59 A2 = £ 252 A1 = £ 452 A0 = £ 868 Quantity 50 / A4 = £ 54 A3 = £ 76 A2 = £ 318 A1 = £ 461 A0 = £ 873 Quantity 100 / A4 = £ 76 A3 = £ 115 A2 = £ 323 A1 = £ 465 A0 = £ 889
Large Format, Inkjet Quantity 1 / A4 = £ 18 A3 = £ 20 A2 = £ 23 A1 = £ 30 Quantity 2 / A4 = £ 21 A3 = £ 25 A2 = £ 31 A1 = £ 45 Quantity 3 / A4 = £ 24 A3 = £ 30 A2 = £ 39 A1 = £ 60 Quantity 4 / A4 = £ 27 A3 = £ 35 A2 = £ 47 A1 = £ 75 Quantity 5 / A4 = £ 30 A3 = £ 40 A2 = £ 55 A1 = £ 90
130 GSM, Gloss
170 GSM, Gloss
Quantity 1 /
Quantity 1 /
A4 = £ 16 A3 = £ 16 A2 = £ 23 A1 = £ 30 A0 = £ 45
A4 = £ 34 A3 = £ 34 A2 = £ 41 A1 = £ 48 A0 = £ 60
Quantity 10 /
Quantity 10 /
A4 = £ 25 A3 = £ 25 A2 = £ 95 A1 = £ 165 A0 = £ 315
A4 = £ 43 A3 = £ 43 A2 = £ 120 A1 = £ 197 A0 = £ 362
Quantity 25 /
Quantity 25 /
A4 = £ 30 A3 = £ 40 A2 = £ 215 A1 = £ 397 A0 = £ 775
A4 = £ A3 = £ A2 = £ A1 = £ A0 = £
Quantity 50 /
Quantity 50 /
A4 = £ 35 A3 = £ 55 A2 = £ 275 A1 = £ 401 A0 = £ 780
A4 = £ 54 A3 = £ 76 A2 = £ 318 A1 = £ 461 A0 = £ 873
Quantity 100 /
Quantity 100 /
A4 = £ 55 A3 = £ 90 A2 = £ 280 A1 = £ 408 A0 = £ 795
A4 = £ 76 A3 = £ 115 A2 = £ 323 A1 = £ 465 A0 = £ 889