1 Logbook (Construction Environment)

Week 1 Strength- strong or weak?

Stiffness Shape-

Material behaviours-

Economy and Sustainability-

Basic Structural Forces ď&#x201A;ˇ ď&#x201A;ˇ

A force is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body. Collinear forces occur along a straight line, the vector sum of whichis the algebraic sum of the magnitudes of the forces,acting along the same line of action.

Direction: line of action of force Sense: the arrow direction

2 Logbook (Construction Environment) ď&#x201A;ˇ

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Tension forces: When the external load pulls on a structural member, the particles composing the material move apart adn undergo tension. Amount of elongation depends on (1)stiffness of the material (2)cross sectional area and the (3)magnitude of the load. Compression force has the opposite effect of tension force and result in shortening of the material. Mass construction- construction based on actual matter, volume Eg. Brick as opposed to frame construction with cables. MDF= medium density partical fibre

Load path: The path that a load (weight) is transferred down to the ground. Is represented by an arrow. The load will always take the most direct route down to the ground, hence a need for weight distribution. Masonry: A way of building using small individual units laid and connected together with mortar. An example of masonry is a brick wall. Masonry materials can include bricks, granite, stone, glass and concrete. Compression: Is where a weight or external factor applies pressure to a structural member (for example a brick), making that bond between that member and the next even stronger. Reaction force: The force of one object in response to a force applied. Point load: A specialised spot on a structure where a load or mass is directly applied. Eg a walker on a bridge Beam: A structural element that is capable and is used to hold loads and not bend. Beams are generally made from strong materials, such as steel or hardwood. Dead load= force that are permanent eg. Wall, floors and permanent furnitures Live load= moving forces such as people, tables

Bluestone Story Bluestone- basalt- igneous rock form from volcanoe lava Gives dark coloring to the city unlike sydney- sandstone Perth- bricks and limestones Disadvantages - prone to wheel ruts of carriages in 19th century - Water damage and impact damage from trucks - Stiletto heel damage Bubbles indicate lava flow, most of important buildings in melbourne are made of bluestone foundations (the main local building material), rough stones underneath.... by looking at the past where basalt hasnt formed, it shows the natural landscape has shaped the cultural landscape thats occuring these days. ( Envs10003 Youtube, 2014)

3 Logbook (Construction Environment)

No supporting for those elements

Load path diagram Figure 1 how the load is transferrred down to the ground (Load path diagram)

Building of Tower with MDF This tower making doesnt require much about planning and can be achieved even by stacking the blocks in order and in some sort of geometrical shape in this case the cylindrical one. However, in the middle, in trying to achieve the dome shape, it would be wise if we used the strategy adopted in other groups like stacking them all in horizontal orientation towards the centre. This allows the towel to become more enclosed within a short time frame.

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Even though our towel managd to stand the tallest among the four in our studio, the main reason is because of this idea. Here its important to stack the blocks into changing orientation so that it becomes firmer due to its stronger line of axis. And this would add the towel height very quick and save materials but on the other hand, it wont be that stable.

Another thing to note here is that rather than making the towel in solid materials, it would be wise to take out some blocks from the base since the forces would still act on both sides of arches and furthermore, it would save materials and maximise the use of the structure since there can be pathway through the towel. This also proves how buildings real life can stand with arches underneath.

Week 2 Building tower with cut thin fibre strips Even though this is what we planned to do in the first place due to many bracing, we thought it would give more stability and strength than any other designs but however, even to finish the first layer, it would reqiuire at least 15 strips for all three sides and moreover, it wouldnt stand tall if

5 Logbook (Construction Environment) we cut the strips. So with the total amount of strips we had, we had to change our designs while making the triangles. So in the end, our design turns out like this.

Without proper bracing, our structure turns out very weak instead and when being pressed by a force from top, the structure fails at joints and since they the joints are only glued at the tips, they werent strong enough to hold the structures.

Here we note that having joints in side the pointy ends actually is is much stronger than having on tips.

Things to note from other group works Rather than making the would be better to put in opposide force more and will lessen the chance of both tension and compression forces and

Another thing is structure becomes

bracing in same direction for all sides, it directions so that it can withstand the failing. This is due to the structure having need to consider them.

that if we use the pins at the joints, the firmer.

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- early buildings working with stones, bricks and compression is the main structural action

- membrane and steel frame

- to cover large areas efficiently and cheaply and can withstand tension

Structural systems

- sydney opera house example

- frame system – efficient way of transferring loads to the ground

Structural System- To support and transmit applied gravity and lateral loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in its members. (Ching, D.K. 2008)

 Superstructure-vertical extension of the building above foundation  Supporting elements- columns, beams and load bearing walls for floor and roof structures  Substructure- underlying structure forming the foundation of a builiding

Enclosure system-Shell or envelope of building, consisting of the roof, exterior walls, windows, and doors (Ching, D.K. 2008).

 The roof and exterior walls to protect from weather and control moisture, heat, and air flow through the layering of construction assemblies.  Exterior walls and roofs also dampen noise and provide security and privacy for the occupants of a building.  doors provide physical access.  Windows provide access to light, air, and views.

7 Logbook (Construction Environment) 

Interior walls and partitions subdivide the interior fo a buiilding into spatial units.

Mechanical systems-for essential services such as water supply system(Ching, D.K. 2008)

    

sewage disposal stsyem for removing fluid waste and organic matter Heating, ventilating and air conditioning systms for envioronmental comfort Electrical system- distributes power supply for lighting, power and communication systems Vertical transportation system- to carry people from one level to another Fire fighting system- to detect and extinguish fires

R

performace requirements

construction practices

Aesthetic qualities

Economic constraints

• structural compatibilityfor safety reasons • fire resistance • heat and air flow control • accomodation for expansion and contraction • noise reduction • resistance to wear, corrosion and weathering • cleanliness and maintenance

• safety requirements • division of labor and coordination of building rades • budget constraints • construction equipment required • erection time required

• relationship of building to the site, properties or to neighbourhood • Prefer qualities in form, massing, color, pattern, texture and detail.

• cost including material, transportation, equipment, and labour costs • life cycle costs including initial costs plus maintenance and operating costs, demolition and replacement cost

Reference: (Ching, D.K. 2008)

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Common ESD Strategies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Local materials Material efficiency Thermal mass- to conduct heat across the walls through bricks Night air purging- convention system buildings deal with hot air escaping and cold air moving in Solar energy Wind energy Cross ventilation- having two openings create air flow Smart sun design Insulation Water harvesting Key terms Bracing- strengthening the structure by placing additional structural member in building framework

Reference List Ching, F. D.K,2008, Building Construction illustrated, John Wiley & Sons, inc. U.S.A ENVS10003 Construction environment Youtube channel e-learning module

Logbook- (Stella) SU Htoo Ywe 657929
Logbook- (Stella) SU Htoo Ywe 657929