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Drivers of Project Management (PM) Education in India A Research Study

For More info visit www.pmi.org.in

Authors Dr. M.G. Korgaonker Dr. Mona N. Shah Dr. J. K. Koner Prof. M.V. Madurwar Prof. Smruti Sanjeevani

Sponsored by Project Management Institute速, India

October 2010 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH, PUNE, INDIA 1


Balewadi, Pune – 411 045 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to the Project Management Institute ® (PMI®) India for their sponsorship of the pioneering study at the National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune, India. We would like to specifically acknowledge the overwhelming support and encouragement received from Mr. Raj Kalady, Country Director, Project Management Institute ® (PMI®) India, throughout the duration of the study. We thank him for his unlimited patience, in accepting the somewhat inevitable time overrun in the completion of the study and finalization of the report. The study team deeply acknowledges the valuable guidance provided by Dr. M.G. Korgaonker, Director General and Project Director, whose extensive experience in the area of project management as a researcher and pioneer of the 2 years fulltime course on Project Engineering and Management in India at NICMAR, helped the team gain appropriate perspectives about the field of Project Management. His keen interest and leadership throughout the study enabled us to remain on track. We remain indebted to all the respondents to our survey who gave us huge amounts of time unselfishly, helped us to patiently complete the in-depth questionnaires, and hosted our research team with warmth and concern. If the study has seen a successful completion, it is in no small measure due to the vital inputs provided by each one of our institutional respondents. We wish to place on record the valuable assistance provided by Dr. Jonardan Koner, Prof. Mangesh Madurwar and Prof. Smruti Sanjeevani who as members of the investigating team worked with enthusiasm and dedication to complete the survey of institutions, executives and human resource managers and collate it for analysis. We thank Mr. A.R. Jadhav, Sr. Librarian at NICMAR, whose unstinted and cheerful support was always forthcoming throughout the study. We thank Mr. Rajanikant Sagwekar who helped in the page-setting and layout. Dr. Mona N. Shah Principal Investigator October, 2010 2


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study is an initial attempt, to investigate the factors that are responsible in driving the growth of Project Management Education in India. The study throws light on specific factors that emerge after studying the available literature on the subject as well as the responses compiled from a cross-section of the primary stakeholders namely the Government, Academic Institutions, Practising Executives and Human Resource Managers connected with project management education and training. We begin with a discussion on the need for PM education to take root and grow in India in the interest of its major stakeholders and users like the government, and industry – both of whom have enormous investments tied up in a range of mega, major and medium sized projects. As per Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI), in the year 2009 alone, a total outlay of

607,188 crores ( 6072 billion) was tied up in 941 Central

Government projects alone. In the private sector, the investment value tied up in projects stood at over

100 trillion. As per CMIE data, the aggregate employment in projects sector

stood at over 160 million persons. In chapter 2, we review the literature using journals and reports that assess the current status of project management education at a global level as well as in India. The European, North American countries, and Australia show tremendous progress in establishing PM in almost all realms of activity –governmental, industrial, academic, research and societal, through myriad initiatives. In case of China, India’s closest comparable country, PM appears to have taken firm roots since the 1990s decade, using a systematic ‘top down’ approach. In India, efforts to promote PM education in a structured mode appear to have only just begun. Chapter 3 of the study explains the design of the research study, the hypotheses formulated, the scope and methodology. The study has made use of primary and secondary data and was carried out within India. It covered a cross section of faculty/heads of departments of leading technical and management academic institutions from eighty one institutes from all over India. Data was collected using the Personal Interview Technique. The next set of respondents was the practising executives from project based organisations. Eighty eight executives responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire that had questions ranging 3


from work experience and value of projects previously engaged in or currently working, to their perception on the inclusion of subjects that enabled them to perform better on projects and in the careers, as well as other gains that accrued to them after undergoing PM training. The study raised questions about the factors that they perceived were important in influencing the growth of PM in India. The third set of respondents was drawn from a pool of select and leading project based companies from a cross section of construction, power, engineering and IT industries. The respondents were twenty human resource managers with considerable experience in designing training programmes for their companies. Care was taken to ensure that the respondents were geographically distributed, over India. Statistical tools used in compiling and analysing the results were Pie charts, Bar and Column Diagrams, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Chapter 4 presents findings of the survey emerging from responses received from Academic Institutions. Significant results were obtained in this analysis. There is a clear case for strong promotion of PM education in technical and business schools, with faculty emphatically admitting that the employability of the students who undergo the PM courses is significantly improved. Overall the faculty has advocated a broad based project management subject curricula to be taught in technical, business, architectural, planning and infrastructure institutes. However their clear preference was for the core PM subjects of i) Operations Management, ii) Project Planning, Execution, Monitoring and Control iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, iv) Health, Safety and Environment, v) Operations Research and vi) Accounting and Control Systems. The faculty suggest that subjects like Macro Economic Policy, Project Strategy, Risk Management, Project Financing, Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects in projects should be considered important for curriculum at the post graduate level. The subject in the Behavioural Sciences Area, deemed most important was Managerial Skills. All subjects in the Information Technology Area like Prima Vera, Microsoft Projects (MSP), engineering software, SPSS etc were considered to be uniformly important in PM education. The faculty respondents considered the coverage of sector specific issues in the curriculum to be very important, but appeared unsure about the relative importance of the sectors of economic activity where PM teaching should be directly focused. The correlation analysis provides very good basis for structuring courses in all the subject areas considered in the study. In the Technology and Management area, the results indicate 4


that the subjects Project Site and Equipment Management, Project Procurement and Materials Management, Contract Management, Facilities Engineering and Management and Process Design / Engineering / Testing / Commissioning are correlated. This is expected since these issues arise during project execution and have to be dealt with in a coordinated manner. Similarly correlation among the subject areas Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Transportation Management, Facilities Engineering and Management are also quite expected and in most projects, these would be dealt with together. The correlation between subject areas Operations Management and Operations Research, and also between Project Formulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering are also along expected lines. There is also good correlation between Quality Management and HSE subjects and therefore combining these into a single course would be quite appropriate. It is not surprising that in the project management fraternity, the precise differences among these subject areas are not very clear. While most of the subjects grouped in these subject areas are found to be very important, there is a case for combining some of these together, in order to emphasize the importance of managing projects in a coordinated and integrated manner. A direct outcome of the correlation analysis is that in institutions and curricula where it is difficult to introduce several execution oriented courses, it will be quite adequate if a single course emphasizing project execution is included. In the Economics and Strategy area, the subject Social Cost benefit Analysis is most heavily correlated with other subjects including Macroeconomic Policy, Project Strategy, Project Financing, Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects. Thus if this course is included as a separate course, care must be taken to ensure that the content is not duplicated in other courses. Alternately the course need not be included, if other courses reflect the content. There is a case for combining the courses Project Financial Management and Project Financing, courses Project Strategy and Macroeconomic Policy, and courses Legal, Commercial & Taxation Aspects and Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances & Special Purpose Vehicles. The correlation analysis provides very good guidelines on the way courses in this subject area could be grouped and introduced in the PM curriculum. In the Behavioural Sciences area, three subjects are correlated to each other, namely Industrial/ Labour Relations, Conflict Management and Diversity Management. So from the point of view of the respondents, these subjects reflect some common issues and concerns 5


and there is a case for combining these together to achieve an integrated approach to deal with these issues and concerns. The other courses may be taught independently. The correlation analysis results provide a useful way of structuring courses in IT area in the PM curriculum. For instance, ERP and e – Business Applications courses could be combined into a single course. Similarly Specialized Engineering Software and Common Software such as Excel, SPSS, DBMS could also be structured as a single course, in case there is difficulty in offering these as separate courses. Only Project Management Software needs to be taught as a separate course. Majority of the sample felt that resources were generally easily available in the institutes in terms of library, course materials, classrooms, laboratories, computer labs, qualified faculty and availability of research facilities. The respondents also strongly endorsed the existence of management vision to support PM endeavours. It takes on average about a year to build the necessary physical resources. On average, the faculty recruitment and training process takes 14.7 months. The research involvement of the institutions is found to be quite low and only about 20% institutions reported funded research. Chapter 5 presents findings of the survey of practicing executives from leading project based organisations in India. The respondents offered their responses on a variety of issues such as their first systematic exposure to PM training, the ideal PM curricula, from their perspective, the gains from PM training and the factors that they consider important to improve PM training at graduate level. Majority of the practising executives responding to the questionnaire were from the middle management cadre, from technical institutions with no prior exposure to PM training. Most of these were working on projects with value between 200–300 crores using very elementary PM techniques such as PERT/CPM. It is interesting to note that ratings assigned to practically all the subjects in the Management and Technology area by executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by the institutions. The courses rated as ‘extremely important’ include Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health, Safety and Environment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and Materials Management; Contract Management. Furthermore, some courses are considered far more important by executives compared to the institutions. These are : Contract Management; Project Procurement and Materials Management; Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Cost 6


Estimation and Budgeting; Health, Safety and Environment Management. One possible explanation is that these courses have a strong ‘execution’ and ‘practical’ bias. Naturally executives seem to realize their importance far more than the institutions. In the Behavioural Sciences area, the overall ratings for all subjects in the area averaged ‘Very Important’, except for Managerial Skills subject rated ‘extremely important’. This subject is rated much higher by the executives, while the other subject ratings in this area are comparable to those assigned by the institutions. In the IT area, PM Software, ERP and Excel/DBMS/SPSS are rated ‘extremely important’ and the other subjects are rated ‘very important’. The ratings assigned to these subjects are very comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives have assigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software. The coverage of all the specific sectors is considered ‘very important’ by the executives. Sectors like Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega Property Developments are considered relatively more important than others. Chemical Engineering and Defence sectors have received relatively lower ratings. The executives’ ratings are generally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assigned somewhat higher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, Urban Infrastructure sectors. In terms of gains derived in developing a better strategic overview of projects, PM training ‘helped immensely’ in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping. At the direct project level, training ‘helped immensely’ in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control. Training ‘helped substantially’ in other areas including Contract Management, Costing, HSE, Quality Management and Communication Skills. The gains derived in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control are particularly noteworthy. Thus the executives affirmed that training has helped them to acquire an integrated view of the project, role clarity, understand work breakdown structures and responsibility mapping on projects, and envision the exact fit of a project in the overall corporate strategy. In individual career enhancement, executives saw improvement on two factors, namely improved decision making ability and improved understanding of human related factors i.e. interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. Some experienced higher responsibility coming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appear to be significant gains in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the job. The executives shed light on their perception of the factors they consider important for the growth 7


of PM education in India. According to them, the most important factors inhibiting growth of PM education, in order of priority are i) the lack of awareness amongst the students and educators about PM, ii) lack of trained instructors at the undergraduate and post graduate level and iii) being a practical field PM cannot be taught in the classroom, iv) mastery comes only from practical experience and v) prior knowledge is not a prerequisite for working in this field. Chapter 6 presents findings of the in depth survey of twenty Human Resource (HR) managers of leading project based organisations on issues such as; the training design, types of PM training, costs of training, factors affecting PM training, cadres to whom PM training is to be imparted, and training efficacy. The HR managers chosen had substantial exposure and expertise in conceiving, designing and organising PM related training for executives within their organisations. On the average, most of the companies have taken steps to initiate PM training in the past five years. The companies generally prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre for training. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle and senior managers for receiving PM training. The important objective in organising PM training is to prepare the executives with key skills in planning, controlling, execution, contracts and such other areas that would enable them to contribute directly to project success. For deputing executives for training, the companies are found to particularly emphasize the following factors: perceived gains from PM training, employee retention, career development, ability to execute complex projects, ability to monitor and control projects, ability to plan projects, ability to manage contracts in projects, ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality. Thus project planning, monitoring & control; execution of complex projects and employee retention & career development emerge as the key areas for seeking training inputs. ‘In house Training’, ‘On the Job Training’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’ are the most preferred methods of training. Given that both skills and knowledge are key components of competencies, training must clearly aim at improving skills and knowledge base of executives. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are: elementary for Operatives, basic for Supervisory, Advanced for Middle level managers, Strategic for Senior Level executives. These findings highlight a planned approach for PM training. Overall the perception amongst the HR managers is that PM training is quite 8


expensive on various counts such as trainees’ salaries and time, materials for training, expenses for trainers, expenses for trainees, facilities and equipment, lost productivity. However HR managers do not mind the loss of productivity of executives during their absence, which they feel will be more than compensated by the large scale benefits expected from training. HR managers view training to be ‘quite benefitial’ on all the factors considered including : increase in production/ performance, reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards, employee retention, lesser supervision, ability to use new skills and capabilities, improved delivery performance, attitude changes, and growth of business oportunities. HR managers strongly endorse the benefits derived from Attitude changes. One factor - Increase in production / performance, is not viewed as benefitial as other factors. One interpreation is that they look for direct benefits from training in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘output improvement’. Certified franchisee trainers are considered most efficacious training providers, followed by internationally certified trainers, independent trainers and academic institutions. This may be attributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers. However HR managers highly value the highly qualified faculty, specialised competence, research experience, reasonable cost of academic institutions, which they believe are a great advantage for developing good training content, even though they may not be able to deliver highly custom designed training.. The most frequent academic institutions for PM related training appear to be the management institutions together as group, followed by in house trainers and NICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of 11.43% in PM training is most enviable by comparable industry standards. It is reassuring to know that the HR managers consider international accreditation to be of value. But the managers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditation with respect to their organisation. Chapter 7 presents the results of the factor analysis. The analysis reveals that only 6 subjects (factors) included in the Management and Technology Area namely (i) Operations Management for Projects, (ii) Planning/ Scheduling/ Monitoring and Control Techniques, (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research for Projects, (v) Project Quality Management, (vi) Health Safety and Environment in Projects account for the highest proportion of the subjects (factors) that are absolutely essential to be included in PM curricula (i.e. 74%). The correlation analysis carried out earlier helped establish that Operation 9


management and Operations Research, Quality Management and HSE are strongly correlated. Therefore in effect, only four subject areas, suitably combined account for the courses that are ‘absolutely essential’. Alternatively this means that the balance 25 subjects account for only a small fraction of the total PM curricula (26%). Therefore for the sake of simplification, this can be interpreted to mean that the top six subjects (four combined) that emerge from the analysis of academic institutions, are considered most crucial for inclusion in PM curriculum by the academics. Similar results are found in other subject areas also. An intriguing fact is that only a limited number of subjects (factors) continue to describe the whole scope of PM curricula amongst academics in institutions. This could be attributed to Indian institutions being in the early development stages of PM. It may also imply that except in the well recognized Management and Technology Area, in which the above subjects have been grouped, other subject Areas (and individual subjects contained therein) such as Behavioural Sciences and IT, are not yet considered pivotal to PM education in the Indian technical and management education system. Viewed with the actual ratings awarded by the respondents to the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, it shows that almost the whole sample has rated subjects in this Area as ‘Extremely Important’ and ‘Very Important’. Multiple regression analysis suggests that the three types of institutions wherein PM education is essential are Technical, Management, and Planning & Design. The remaining two namely architectural institutions and infrastructure management institutions were not explained by the available data and may require some other data. Generally Architectural institutions, barring a few exceptions, are not known to emphasize PM in their curriculum. Similarly there is probably lack of critical mass of institutions in infrastructure management capable of providing full fledged, comprehensive curriculum with enough emphasis on PM. The infrastructure related to library, availability of course material, classrooms and qualified faculty are found to be important variables in imparting PM education although these factors alone are not enough. This means that some other factors are required to explain the relationship of PM education and the institutes’ infrastructure. Majority of the institutions were AICTE, university affiliated and accredited institutions. They are bound by the structured processes of approval which may take protracted periods of time from government agencies in the form of receiving sanctions to introduce courses. Therefore the type of the 10


infrastructure currently prevailing is more dictated by the regulatory requirements rather than the targeted requirements of PM education. Further multiple regression analysis suggests that two other factors namely introduction of PM courses and effect on employability are also having some impact on the rating of PM education in India. Thus the type of institutions, the availability of infrastructure, management support in introduction of PM courses and employability of graduates emerge as significant factors impacting the PM education in India. In summary, we find that there is a supply gap in capacity for PM training in the country. The causes can be attributed to the disinclination of technical and business academic institutions to introduce and attract students exclusively in the area of PM. Only a handful of elite institutions in India appear to have taken concerted steps in this direction. Executives working in project based companies enter with little or no prior orientation of project requirements that are special to project environments. Thus training them to be ‘project ready’ is an imperative for project based organisations. HR managers are charged with the responsibility of designing training modules that would bring direct gains to the project and companies. Currently the options to choose experts are relatively less and therefore the training costs are high. Only limited cohorts of ‘project ready’ personnel available adversely affect the ability of the organisations to deliver consistently on projects. This affects the projects industry as a whole and ultimately the national economy. Chapter 8 concludes the study by identifying the barriers to the growth of PM education. The main barriers are; i) the lack of awareness amongst managements of technical and business management institutions about the importance and relevance of teaching PM, ii) lack of systematic curriculum development with a focussed view to develop PM competencies, iii) low interest in researching PM related subjects amongst faculty, iv) lack of trained instructors, v) long winding procedures for regulatory approvals for introducing approving PM courses, vi) provision of qualified faculty and infrastructure and vii) the costs of training that have to be borne by organisations. Finally we make some recommendations to ensure a more sustained growth of PM education in India. Concerted efforts in the area of curriculum development, research, creation of awareness regarding the application of PM techniques to the project business are recommended, even resorting to mass media support. Sustained advocacy at all levels of government is also strongly recommended. In conclusion we propose some Model Curricula 11


for PM education and training in technical and business management institutions as well as for executives in project based organisations.

Sr. No. A B 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

CONTENTS TOPIC Acknowledgements Executive Summary Chapter 1 - Introduction The Government Imperative Key Questions raised in the Study The Private Sector Imperative in PM Key India Level Statistics Of Project Announcements By Indian Corporations Initiatives of Indian Government and Industry, in the Promulgation of PM Education

Page No. 2 3 16 19 20 21 23 12


Chapter 2 - Literature Review of Project Management education on a global scale 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 PM Education in America and Europe 27 2.3 PM In Academia – A Global Snapshot 28 2.3.1 PM in other European Countries 28 2.4 Indian PM Growth 29 2.4.1 Specific Cases in India 31 a) Indian Institutes of Management, MBA Institutions, 31 Engineering Colleges b) National Institute of Construction Management and Research 32 c) Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management 32 d) National Institute of Technology and Industrial Engineering 32 2.5 PM in Research 33 2.5.1 PM Research in India 35 2.6 PM in Industry 36 2.6.1 Training and Development Expenditure in Indian Projects 37 Industry – A Bird’s Eye View 2.7 India and China: Comparison of PM Education 40 Chapter 3 - Research Design 3.1 Basic Approach to the Study 42 3.2 Objectives of the Study 42 3.3 Scope of the Study 43 3.4 Hypotheses 43 3.5 Methodology 44 3.6 Academic Institutions 45 a) Sources of Data 45 b) Data Collection Instrument - Schedules (Questionnaires) 45 c) Data Collection Method - Direct Interview Method 45 d) Sampling Procedure 46 d.1) Sampling Area 46 d.2) Sample Size 46 d.3) Sample Unit 46 d.4) Sampling Technique 46 e) Statistical Tools and Techniques 46 f) Analytical Software 46 g) Multiple Regression Model 47 3.7 Practicing Executives of Project Based Companies 48 a) Sources of Data 48 b) Data Collection Method – Indirect Method 48 c) Data Collection Instrument 48 d) Sampling Procedure 48 d.1) Sampling Area 49 d.2) Sample Size 49 d.3) Sample Unit 49 e) Statistical Tools and Techniques 49 f) Analytical Software 49 3.8 Human Resource Managers of Project- Based Companies 49 a) Sources of Data 49 13


b) Data Collection Method 49 c) Data Collection Instrument 50 d) Sampling Procedure 50 d.1) Sampling Area 50 d.2) Sample Size 50 d.3) Sample Unit 50 e) Statistical Tools and Techniques 50 f) Analytical Software 50 Chapter 4 - Data Analysis of Survey of Technical and Business Institutions in India 4.1 Introduction 52 4.2 PART I : Respondent’s Particulars And Details 53 4.3 PART II: General Opinion On Existing State Of PM Education 55 In India 4.4 Part III: Curriculum Development 61 4.5 PART IV – Infrastructure, Management Support, Regulatory 74 Factors And Current Status Of PM Research In Institute Chapter 5 - Data Analysis Of Survey Of Working Executives Employed In Project Based Companies In India 5.1 Introduction 91 5.2 PART I – A & B : Respondents’ Particulars And Project Details 93 5.2.1 PART I – A 93 5.2.2 PART I – B 95 5.3 Part II: Project Management Curricula 96 A Management and Technology Area 96 B Behavioural Sciences Area 98 C Information Technology Area 98 D Sector Specific Area 99 5.4 PART III: Changes And Work Performance After Completion 100 Of PM Programme 5.5 PART IV: Current Position Of Project Management In India 103 Chapter 6 - Data Analysis of Survey of Human Resource Managers employed in Project-based Companies in India 6.1 Introduction 108 6.2 PART I : Respondents’ Particulars 109 6.3 PART II: Dimensions Of Project Management Training Design 111 Chapter 7 – Interpretations Of Data Analysis And Findings Of PMI Survey 7.1 Introduction 122 7.1.2 Commentary on the Extent and Depth of PM Education and 123 Research in India 7.2 Institutional Data Analysis and Inferences 125 7.2.1 Results and Interpretation of Factor Analysis for Subjects rated 128 by Faculty from Academic Institutions 7.3 Multiple Regression Analyses of the Factors Affecting 132 Introduction of PM course 7.3.1 Findings from Multiple Regression Analysis of Significance of 132 PM Education in Technical/ Business/ Specialised Academic Institutions 7.4 The Practising Executives Data Analysis and Inferences 138 14


7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 8.1 8.1.1 8.2

Human Resource Managers’ Data Analysis And Interpretation Synthesis of Stakeholders of PM Education – Academic Institutions, Practising Executives and Industry Limitations Of the Research Scope For Future Research Chapter 8 - Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Barriers Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURES

Annexure 1 A List Of Respondents Participating In Institutional Survey B List Of Respondents Participating In Working Executives Survey Annexure 2 a (DEC - 2005) b (DEC - 2006) c (DEC - 2007) d (DEC - 2008) Annexure 3 Questionnaire For Institutions Annexure 4 Correlation Matrix Of Factors (Subjects) Contained In Questionnaire For Academic Institutions (Part III A) Annexure 5 Questionnaire For Executives Annexure 6 Questionnaire For Human Resource Managers Annexure 7 Model Course Curriculum Designs In Undergraduate Programmes Of Technical And Business Management Schools Annexure 8 Master Database File Of Primary Data

144 147 148 148 150 151 152 154 159 159 164 168 169 170 171 172 187 190 203 210 215

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1

The Government Imperative

The promulgation of Project Management education in India has assumed great significance considering the position in which India finds herself in this millennium. From the pursuit of economic liberalization, aligning with the global economy, and embarking on ambitious projects with the help of privatisation, India is committed to fulfil the economic growth 15


targets, fast and furiously. This is seen in the launch of mega and major projects by the Central Government departments to cover the historical gap between what is available and what is required. In addition, the State Governments and Local Government agencies too, have been given project targets in order to improve infrastructure and aid development under various programmes such as Bharat Nirman Scheme. The estimated investment plan for infrastructure development stands at $ 514 billion during the Eleventh Plan. This is more than twice that of $ 217.86 billion allocated during the Tenth Plan. In the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012- 2017), it is slated to rise to $ One Trillion (www. planningcommission.nic.in/plans). The country faces a challenge in bridging the existing infrastructure gaps, imperative to maintain the economic growth rate of around 9%. India plans to increase the gross capital formation in infrastructure from 5% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to 9% by 2012, in order to be on par with, more advanced economies in Asia1 According to the reports of McKinsey Consulting Group (Reports 2001, 2010), it is the consistent lack of responsiveness of Indian government, industry as well as the people to solve the infrastructure bottlenecks that are retarding India’s momentum. According to the 2010 report, due to the global financial crisis, and the funds that could have entered the country, being withdrawn, India currently faces a deficit of between $150 billion and $190 billion in infrastructure funding. The government is looking at 25% of the infrastructure investment to be funded through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). Out of the total target that has been set for investment in infrastructure ($514 billion), $430 billion is earmarked only for the transport and utilities sector. In the Twelfth Five Year Plan, the investment through Public Private Participation (PPP) route is sought to be raised to the extent of up to 50% of the Plan outlay (ET, 2010). Sustained pursuit of the twin objectives of the government, namely, (i) ensuring a steady GDP growth rate of around 9% and (ii) elevating the major section of India’s populace from poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy and unemployment, remains the greatest challenge for administrators and stakeholders alike. In any country, the government itself is a huge sponsor and initiator of projects, initiating mega and major development projects in various sectors. Because of this, the government too assumes the role of a key stakeholder (owner) and therefore is affected by any project related problems and issues. Table 1 indicates the number of mega and major projects under the aegis of the Central Government in the year 2009 1

(www. planningcommission.nic.in/plans)

16


alone. There were 941 such projects and involved a total outlay of Rs. 6,07,188 crores (MOSPI, 2009). The table indicates that majority of the projects (466) are in the delayed mode with 195 projects not having any clear indicated Date of Completion (DOC). Table 1 Sector –Wise Implementation Status of Central Government Projects 2009 (Status as on 30.06.2009)

Sector ATOMIC ENERGY CIVIL AVIATION COAL I&B MINES STEEL PETROLEUM POWER HEALTH & FW RAILWAYS ROAD TRANSPORT & HIGHWAYS SHIPPING & PORTS TELECOMMUNICATIONS URBAN DEVELOPMENT WATER RESOURCES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Total

Ahead Lates Original t 0 0 1 1 7 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 16

2 3 0 1 0 0 18

On Schedule Lates Original t 2 2 4 4 49 52 0 0 0 0 11 11 24 24 50 51 0 0 6 24 26 10 6 10 0 2 200

26 11 6 9 0 2 222

(Number of Projects) Delaved Without DOC Lates Original Original Latest t 3 3 0 0 22 22 0 4 55 51 5 18 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 37 37 0 6 33 33 0 1 33 32 3 2 0 0 0 1 67 65 131 122 159 24 27 12 1 0 474

159 23 27 12 1 0 466

0 3 0 3 0 0 146

9 15 11 5 0 0 195

Source: Quarterly Project Implementation Status, MOSPI, Government of India

The Table 2 shows the most important causes for delay of projects as listed by MOSPI. Table 2 Causes of Delay of Projects Sr. No. 1 2 3

4 5

Factors Fund Constraints Land Acquisition Problems Slow Progress in Works other than Civil Works Law and Order Delay in Supply of Equipment

No. of Projects 31 (28 projects are of Railways, 1 Coal and 2 projects in Power sectors) 20 (12 Railways, 6 Coal, 1 Petroleum and 1 in Power sectors) 78 (63 in Railways, 6 Petroleum, 5 Power, 3 Coal and 1 in Power sectors) 11 (5 in Railways, 4 Power and 2 in Coal sector) 5 (2 Petroleum, 2 Power and 1 in Railway sectors)

17


6 7

Environmental clearance Others

1 (Railways sector) 47 (these include the problems of technology selection, award of contract, delay in civil work, geo mining, court cases, inadequate infrastructure, bad weather and Govt. clearance)

Source: Quarterly Project Implementation Status, MOSPI, Government of India

In addition, the same report attributes the causes of delay to the following 1. Lack of supporting infrastructure facilities 2. Delay in finalisation of detailed engineering plans, release of drawings and delay in availability of fronts 3. Changes in scope/delay in finalisation of the scope 4. Industrial relations and law and order problems 5. Delay and uncertainty in feedstock supply 6. Pre commissioning teething troubles 7. Technology problems 8. Geological surprises The severity of the lack of project management expertise is now being felt at the highest level of governance in India. The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation ( MOSPI ) has felt a strong need to introduce a full time MBA type programme in Project Management. The National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), has had the longest running pioneering Post Graduate Programme in Advanced Construction Management (focussing on construction project management) in the country. This was followed by another pioneering two year full time Post Graduate Programme in Project Engineering and Management for all types of mega and major projects and their management. The Institute has further innovated and introduced another two year Post Graduate Programme, the first of its kind in the country, in the field of Real Estate and Urban Infrastructure Management. Another programme, the two year full time Post Graduate Programme in Infrastructure Finance, Development and Management is due to be launched from the next academic session in 2011. This programme too devotes substantial attention to managing projects in these sectors. 1.2

Key Questions Raised In The Study

18


In view of the burning intensity of this problem, the key questions that are sought to be investigated and reported in this study relate to the factors that are affecting the growth of PM education and training in our country. The study specifically aims to explore issues from the perspectives of academic institutions, industry users and industry sponsors of executive training and development. For instance, we would like to know : •

At present what is the role that educational institutions are playing in the technical and business education domains to create capacity?

How is the industry overcoming the problem of skills and competency deficiency in PM?

To what extent the recipients of PM training and education find it useful and are able to apply their skills and knowledge in the real world of managing and executing projects?

Further, do we have adequate human resources to undertake and see a series of mega projects through? Is the PM human resource base expanding?

Is research in PM adequate and of the kind that would help the industry? Is it solutions driven? Is it helping the creation of theoretical precepts and is it integrative in its nature?

Globally the demand for Project Management professionals is increasing and as a result there is a growing interest as well as availability of PM education at all levels i.e. undergraduate, postgraduate, advanced / doctoral level programmes with developed regions like North America, Europe, Australia and some advanced nations in Asia leading the race (Turner & Heumann, 2001). The maximum growth in project management education in the near future is foreseen in the world’s two most significant countries, namely India and China, with the objectives of both countries being the same, i.e. to alleviate poverty through economic development. More discussion on China’s efforts in spreading PM education is contained in the next chapter of the report. 1.3

The Private Sector Imperative In PM

A hypothesis may be offered, that the Private Sector has a better track record in building PM competency as against Public Sector enterprises, as the former are often contractors to many governmental projects, face intense competitive pressure arising out of tight bidding frameworks like ‘lowest bid’ acceptance criteria, etc. and therefore would require use of latest and best techniques of managing and completing projects on time and within the 19


stipulated costs and quality parameters, to ensure better project returns. Also of importance is the industry’s desire to be awarded projects that would fetch them high value and high visibility while conceptualising and executing complex projects. Inevitably this would be achieved only under conditions wherein the companies have developed prior capabilities in bidding and executing such complex projects. Therefore it was felt relevant to study the extent of the effort taken by these industries in preparing the personnel and staff through training to meet the above challenges and narrow the existing competency gaps. The economic growth model adopted by the Indian government involves greater use of Public Private Participation in infrastructure and other development projects, which has resulted in Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) model and other variants such as Build, Own, Operate, Transfer, (BOOT); Build, Own, Lease, Transfer (BOLT); or Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) being increasingly adopted to award projects to companies. Such companies or ‘concessionaires’ therefore find that adoption of superior project management techniques is fundamental to their success. Any delays in project completion could result in delayed revenue realisation for the companies, resulting in future losses and hamper their business opportunities. According to the Planning Commission’s targets, public private infrastructure projects are being made monitorable and achievement oriented, especially for sectors like roads, power and ports. Thus the private sector views project management skills as a necessity.

1.4

Key India Level Statistics Of Project Announcements By Indian Corporations

Traditional industries credited with PM practices include: construction, manufacturing, power and heavy engineering. Added to these are the IT/ITES/ Telecom companies and service sector companies. Besides a significant number of large social development oriented schemes of Government such as in health, nutrition, family welfare, rural employment, etc. are implemented through Project / Programme mode. In order to find out the overall “projects” activity of Indian companies in the public and private sector, the CMIE database was used. The Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy – Capex Data, (CMIE- Capex) is an authentic information database which catalogues industry information of Indian companies obtained largely through companies’ financial reporting. In the basic search conducted to list the total number of projects announced by Indian companies in the year 2010, it was revealed that a total of 16,145, projects had been listed in different stages of development, viz. 1) 20


announcement stage, 2) under implementation, or 3) stalled for some reason. Data for 385 projects was ‘Not Available’, though the project name and company were listed. Refer Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1

Project Announcements/Under Implementation/Employment Year 2010

Category

Projects Project Projects Under Implementation Total Employment Announcements Implementation Stalled Projects

Construction

472

1372

29

1873

7,695,272

Power

1050

827

43

1920

37,390

Manufacturin g

1844

1561

121

3526

1,077,380

Mining

222

350

16

588

53,691

Services

3612

4112

129

7853

7,306,096

Total

7200

8222

338

15760*

1,61, 69,829

CMIE Capex Database, 2010 * Data for 385 projects appeared ‘Not Available’ in the database

Exhibit 1 offers a quick view of the magnitude of the project industry in India as whole. More than one hundred and sixty million persons are currently employed in this sector. Though the data is by no means complete, due to the limitations faced in capturing the full data, it serves as a good indicator of the current potential of the projects industry. Project Announcements were to the tune of 7200 in the year 2010 alone, with the most projects being announced in the Services sector. This sector consists of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) projects, shipyard expansion, hotel and tourism, outlets, IT parks, SEZ, malls, etc. Project Announcements in manufacturing sector, comprising electrical machinery, iron products, plants installation, exploration, diesel engines etc. were to the tune of 1844. In case of services, 3612 projects have been announced in the year 2010. The total projects in Services sector account for more than 50% of the projects announced. The second highest employment is seen in this sector with 73, 06, 096 persons being employed in Service sector 21


projects. Power projects consist of activities in the area of thermal power projects, transmission lines, hydro electric, gas based, coal based, and renewable power projects. Announcements in the year 2010 were as high as 1050. Construction projects included townships, residential, industrial parks, SEZs construction, processing and logistics; commercial, etc. Very few projects in construction were in the ‘stalled’ category. The employment generated in this sector is the highest with almost 76, 95,272 persons employed. The majority of the projects by value were in the range of less than Rupees 1000 crores, numbering 9454, followed by project value in the range of Rs. 1001- 2000 crores. Refer Exhibit Nos. 2 a and 2 b, in which the number of projects and their sector wise value (at cost) are shown in the select sectors of Construction, Power, Manufacturing, Mining and Services. The figures provide an idea of the enormous importance of these sectors to the national economy. The data in both the Exhibits 2a and 2b suggests that over

one hundred trillion rupees

remains invested in 11,187 of the 16145 projects for the year 2010, mentioned in the CMIE Capex Database. Though the data is only indicative in nature, it is presented with a view to draw attention to the significance of this sector and its sensitivity to the investment and economic growth of the country. Any delays, due to time or cost would only result in direct losses to the national exchequer as well as retard planned economic growth.

Exhibit 2 A Number Of Projects Sector-Wise By Cost Year 2010, ( Crore) Project Cost in Crores Less than 1000 1001 to 2000 2001 to 3000 3001 to 4000 4001 to 5000 above 5001 NA* Total

Construction

Power

Manufacturing

Mining

Services

Total

713 74 28 14 8 45 992 1874

805 91 97 84 84 251 523 1935

2363 133 60 27 16 125 1059 3783

291 27 9 8 5 15 237 592

5282 272 87 39 38 96 2147 7961

9454 597 281 172 151 532 4958 16145

G.T.

16, 145

CMIE Capex Database, 2010 *Data for 4958 projects appeared as ‘Not Available’

22


Exhibit 2 b Sector – wise Project by Value (at cost) Category < Rs.1000 crs Rs.1001 to Rs. 2000 crs Rs.2001 to Rs3000 crs Rs.3001 to Rs. 4000 crs Rs.4001 to Rs.5000 crs > Rs. 5001 crs Total Grand Total

Construction

Power

Manufacturing

Mining

Year 2010, Rs ‘000 crs Services

1,91,915

1,63,251

3,93,963

61,643

7,53,092

15,63,863

1,19,111

1,33,556

2,03,261

38,907

4,03,785

8,98,620

71,163

2,65,437.30

1,52,872

22,514

2,20,427

7,32,413

50,916

2,74,151.74

98,531

27,611

1,38,370

5,89,581

38,100

3,88,757.60

73,399

21,708

1,78,508

7,00,472

6,93,172

26,26,671

18,47,308

1,93,014

12,28,236

65,88,402

11,64,378

38,51,825

27,69,334

3,65,397

29,22,418

1,10,73,351

Total

2,21,46,703

1.5 Initiatives Of Indian Government And Industry, In The Promotion Of PM Education A series of initiatives to promote PM education have been undertaken by the government as well as industry, in the form of individual company led initiatives, and/or industry associations such as Project Management Institute®, (PMI®), International Project Management Association® (IPMA®) and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). All the entities mentioned are actively involved with key government departments such as the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India (MOSPI, GoI), the Planning Commission of India, etc. to expedite the efforts in training and education of PM practices. Recent initiatives by the government include the expressed need by MOSPI to organise certification level programmes for persons working at lower and middle levels within the project industry, as well as full time advanced project management courses in leading institutions. The Planning Commission has made project targets ‘monitorable’ to various ministries and departments of the government, which are linked to the performance and future fund disbursements to the latter. Chapter 2, covers this is greater detail. In order to accurately gauge the current and future efforts made by stakeholders in the projects industry, a need was felt to support the secondary data sources with primary studies covering academic institutions, industry and the recipients of PM education. In this chapter, the government’s desire and seriousness to play an active role in ensuring the contribution of the project sector in expediting national development goals was sought to be described. The 23


next chapter takes a closer view of the efforts made by Indian stakeholders and similar initiatives in other countries as well.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT EDUCATION ON A GLOBAL SCALE 2.1

Introduction

An indicator of the maturity of any profession is the availability of quality academic programmes that provide the advantages of research backed teaching and learning. The greater the research, the better the replication and standardisation of the process of learning so that Knowledge, Skills and Attitude – the trinity of any learning are easily transferred to the student in a systematic manner. This helps the recipient of training to perform and deliver much faster on the job. With the rapid growth of ‘projectised’ and project led companies, organizations are found to be replacing their traditional management structures, like the corporate divisional or departmental structures with those that are leaner and more objective oriented (Bergrenn and 24


Soderlund, 2008). Earlier works based on a survey, documented the widespread growth of project management and its rising interest amongst the top managements of companies (Soderlund, 2004). From being a mere ‘add-on’ to a system engineer’s or civil engineer’s role, project management has grown as a deliberate choice of career, in many countries. This is reflected in the growth of the leading professional association of project management – Project Management Institute (PMI®), USA which had less than 15,000 members in 1993 has well over 500,000 members in 2010 (AMA Handbook 2005, PMI, 2010). The AMA quotes that this membership is growing at the rate of approximately 5000 per month indicating the ‘mainstreaming’ of the project manager’s role in the industry. In formal bidding processes related to contractual services, client organizations call for certified project professionals, thus reaffirming project management’s growing importance as a discipline. Globally, apart from academic institutions, four major bodies are engaged in the provision of standardised instruction in project management namely PMI® in North America and other countries, the Project Management Association in England (PMA), with over 9000 certified project managers), the International Project Management Association (IPMA) representing over 24 countries in Europe and over 5000 certified project managers and lastly the Australian Institute of Project Management with over 1000 certified project managers (AMA Handbook, 2005). In 2010, according to the PMI®, there were over 500,000 qualified Project Management Professionals® (PMPs®), (PMI, 2010) worldwide. In 2004, a large scale survey of around 1000 Registered Education Providers (REPs) of PMI® worldwide revealed that in 2004 alone, over 500,000 individuals participated in some form of PM training or education offered by the REPs and other educational institutions. The same report asserted that this was slated to increase in the coming years. The Figure 1 below depicts the share of Registered Education Providers of PMI ® worldwide in the year 2005. As is seen, the Asia/Pacific region accounts for the second highest share of Registered Education Providers of PMI® next only to North America,. Also seen is the huge gap in the proportion of REPs® between the two regions. Figure 1: Worldwide R.E.P. Distribution (2005)

25


Source: Price et al, 2006

However there has been huge growth in degree programmes being offered in this area, from a mere 10 in 1994 to over 185 in 2006 in the USA and Europe. Most of these programmes are tailored to suit the IT industry (73.1%) as compared to sectors like Financial, Business Management, Construction, etc (Michael Price et al, 2004). There are over 65 degree programmes in more than 25 academic institutions currently accredited by the Global Accreditation Centre for Project Management Programmes of the PMI ® in North America. Several other programmes are at various stages of the accreditation process (PMI®, 2010). In contrast in India, one finds a huge demand for training in PM primarily for Information Technology as well as in Construction Industry. However the number of listed REP ®s in India is merely 70 in all 2. In China, PM education is more widespread in sectors like construction, oil and gas, power and so on. The financial services sector in both countries is yet to fully utilise the importance of PM training. The status of PM education and skill building in these countries is further discussed later in this section. The growth of PM education and training in Asia and Pacific regions suggests that it is spreading in newer geographies; it has also been spreading into newer areas of application. In fact PMI®’s own publication titled Project Management Circa 2025, looks at newer applications of PM in such emerging and diversified fields like nanotechnology and future energy, new frontiers like earth sciences, monitoring of planet, extreme weather response and climate control. It also gives an insight into the emerging countries where PM will take roots such as in India, Spain, China, Asia Pacific and Arabian regions3. 2.2

PM Education In America And Europe

2

(https://ccrs.pmi.org/Search.aspx)

3

(www.pmi.org/PM2025)

26


Scientific PM education has its earliest origins in the well known discipline of Operations Management. Therefore one can say that the bases of early development can be found in the works of Frederick Taylor and Henry Gantt, (1915 - 40). Since the 1950s, the advances in PM as an organised discipline within management took root in these regions. PM as a discipline has grown from these roots and is now well entrenched in the business and research realms worldwide. The extent and depth of PM education is witnessed more in these continents than in other parts of the world. In these regions, PM education has attained such recognition, as to be made mandatory, and a prerequisite in the procurement and management of large scale and complex projects either within the country or internationally. Most of the literature records the systematic development of this discipline as experienced in these advanced regions. In case of developing countries and emerging economies, especially in India and China, use of formal PM techniques to acquire and execute projects in an organised manner, appears to have taken roots only over the last one and a half decade. A survey of the relevant literature in international journals focussing on PM reveals relatively less work emanating from countries like India and efforts to initiate PM programmes in academics and research.

2.3

PM In Academia – A Global Snapshot

The introduction of project management courses in the universities and business schools in North America, Europe and leading Asian countries is on the rise. In 1993, it is documented that there were only 5 universities that offered degree programmes in Project Management in North America. Ten years later, there were 33 such programmes in USA and Canada alone. In their research, Professors Thomas Mengel, Janice Thomas (2008), Bill Zwerman (2004), Kent Crawford (2006), Dinsmore and Cabanis – Brewin (2006) have tried to find answers to the question of systematizing the study of project management to offer it as a preferred career option. The ultimate aim of the Project Management Programmes is to induce three major competencies in the student – project management skills, leadership and technical skills. According to Turner and Huemann (2001), a study of mature project management societies, such as UK, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland, revealed that around 10% of the universities offered Masters’ degrees in Project Management. PM education began ‘top down’ in case of United Kingdom, through existing Masters’ degree or Doctoral programmes in concerned disciplines. For instance, it is observed that in the United Kingdom, the Master’s Programme 27


in Science or Business Administration exists with PM as a speciality. It also exists as a specialist degree like in Construction Project Management. Also it was observed that in the case of degree courses in Information Technology, no course by the name ‘Information Systems Project Management’ existed, even though PM subjects are covered within courses such as Information Systems Management. Later educational programmes emerged focusing on Project Management. Further, these ‘percolated’ down from higher level education into the secondary and even the primary level education. 2.3.1

PM In Other European Countries

In case of other countries in Europe, Turner and Huemann (2001) observe that in Austria, Switzerland and Germany, different ways are being adopted to reach a common goal of making all these into ‘project oriented societies’. In Austria, PM education began first with taught masters’ degrees, either as programmes specialising in project management, or with project management as an essential component of wider programmes. From there, it spread upwards and downwards to other levels. Austria has also embarked upon a project to popularise the use of PM in industries and then take it to the municipalities, students and families under the ‘Programme 1 Austria’ to raise awareness of project management as a profession. Austria and Germany also offer doctoral level programmes in PM. Certificates and Diplomas are offered by professional or other bodies. Vocational qualifications such as in the UK are not available in these countries. Switzerland has set a goal of becoming a quality competence centre in PM. 2.4

Indian PM Growth

In India, there does not appear to be any clear evidence of studies covering the growth of PM education and research, in the public domain. Unlike its European and American counterparts, there appears to be less focussed attention in this area of study as compared to Operations Management wherein Indian academic programmes and research are in an advanced state. This study attempts to find out the current state of this emerging field in India. The scope is limited to the technical and management education institutions. Given below is the state wise table, listing the number of approved institutions offering business engineering/administration/management courses in India. The list is that of the All India

28


Council of Technical Education (AICTE) which is an apex government body formed to regulate technical, professional and management education providers. A total of 3904 AICTE approved institutions offer afore mentioned degrees in India. Apart from this, there are many Central, State and ‘Deemed to be Universities’ as well as autonomous ones that offer degrees, diplomas and certificates in management and technical education. (Refer Table No. 3). Table No. 4 describes the Number of Proposals received for the establishment of New Technical Institutes for the Academic year 2009-2010, upto 31.12.200 The data in Tables 3 & 4, point towards a rapid growth of technical and business schools in India. With the increase in such institutions, PM education could be suitably emphasized to secure a better share of coverage with a rapid rate of growth. Almost all technical schools include within their syllabi, a subject matter that covers PERT/CPM techniques under a variety of nomenclatures. In case of business schools, these techniques are included under the typical heading of Operations Management as a compulsory base course, and also as a specialisation in the second year under the same head with more advanced exposure to the subject. One finds very few instances in the country wherein a course with the title “Project Management” is included or is taught in full time programmes of technical/business institutions. A general search on the Google search engine titled ‘project management courses in India’ showed up 12,057 results only for India 4. A more detailed description obtained from the website of important and specific cases covering institutes such as IIMs, NITIE and SIOM is covered in the section below. Table 3 : Statewise List Of Institutions Offering Management Degrees As On 31/08/2008 Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4

States/UTs Madhya Pradesh Chhatisgarh Gujarat Mizoram Sikkim Orissa West Bengal Tripura Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Andaman & Nicobar Assam Manipur

Engg & Tech. 161 41 55 1 1 68 71 3 1 1 0 7 1

MBA 56 7 51 0 1 29 27 0 0 0 0 5 1

PGDM 7 2 11 0 0 15 2 0 0 0 0 1 0

(www.emagister.in, Site accessed on Aug, 2010)

29


14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Nagaland Jharkhand Bihar Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal Chandigarh Haryana Jammu & Kashmir New Delhi Punjab Rajasthan Himachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Pondicherry Tamil Nadu Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Goa Daman & Diu, Dadar, NH Total

1 13 15 241 19 5 116 7 19 70 81 9 527 9 352 157 94 239 3

0 4 11 125 23 0 56 9 13 55 49 8 231 1 154 109 37 168 1

0 3 1 88 2 1 10 0 24 4 15 0 24 0 4 15 7 48 1

0

0

0

1231

285

2388 3904

Gr. Tot Source: www.aicte.ernet.in/ApprovedInstitute.htm

Table 4 : Number Of Proposals Received By AICTE To Establish New Institutions Region Central

East

North

Chandigarh

State Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Orissa Assam Meghalaya Manipur Mizoram West Bengal Nagaland Jharkhand Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Tripura Andaman & Nicobar Uttar Pradesh Uttranchal Bihar Chandigarh Delhi Haryana Himachal Pradesh J&K Punjab Rajasthan

Engg.

PGDM

MBA

50 10 43 53 9 0 0 0 23 0 2 1 0 1

16 2 8 10 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0

63 7 67 24 5 0 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 0

1

0

0

83 13 12 0 1 38 11 0 16 49

84 3 2 0 3 11 0 0 1 12

130 14 3 1 2 36 6 0 30 65

30


South

South West West

Tamil Nadu Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Goa Daman & Diu Total

Grand Total

144 4 176 32 29 85 0 0 886

3 0 31 18 1 37 2 0 250

38 0 178 26 8 123 0 0 834

1970

Source: www.aicte.ernet.in/ApprovedInstitute.htm

2.4.1

Specific Cases in India

a) Indian Institutes of Management, MBA Institutions, Engineering Colleges Practically all the IIMs offer some elective courses either directly named “Project Management” or some other titles dedicated to the coverage of important themes in project management. In general management oriented, Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) programmes, PM related subjects are included in almost all curricula of management institutions, but do not always appear specifically in the form of full length courses. Usually the Operations Management courses, cover selective subject matter from the PM domain. Only specialist courses cover a wider gamut of PM subject content and emphasis, but these are not commonly found in MBA programmes. Similarly almost all the courses covered in technical colleges, especially those covering construction, engineering and information technology include project management, within their ambit at introductory level, usually in the form of a module. b) National Institute Of Construction Management And Research The National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), offers the Post Graduate Programmes in Advanced Construction Management and Real Estate and Urban Infrastructure that have a host of dedicated subjects covering the PM domain; yet the term ‘Project’ does not always appear distinctly in the nomenclature of the said programmes. However, the institute’s Post Graduate Programme in Project Engineering and Management, has clear descriptions of subjects in project domain as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge® (PMBOK®)5. This two year full time programme is arguably India’s only course of its type, and combines subject matter from all the major domain areas i.e.

5

The PMBOK® includes 5 Process Groups and 12 Knowledge Areas that are covered in the domain of PM, PMI, 4 th Edition 2008.

31


General Management, Project Management, Behavioural Sciences, Engineering and Technology and Information Technology. c) Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management In case of Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management (SIOM), a specialist degree, the Masters in Business Administration in Operations Management (MBA Operations Management) is offered, which covers subjects such as Operations, Projects and Resource Planning6. d) National Institute of Technology and Industrial Engineering The National Institute of Technology and Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai, runs the Post Graduate Diploma in Industrial Engineering (PGDIE), Post Graduate Diploma in Industrial Safety and Environmental Management (PGDISEM), Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology Management (PGDITM), and Post Graduate Diploma in Industrial Management (PGDIM)7. The PGDIE has such subjects that are of core importance to industrial operations such as Operations Planning and Control, Project Management, Work System Design, Operations Research, Systems Engineering, etc., in addition to other subjects. In India, as is observed in the United Kingdom, most of the post graduate management courses covering the PM domain are seen sans the ‘Project’ term included in the title of the course, though the curriculum adequately reflects to varying degrees the subject matter related to the same. The exception however, is noticed in the Post Graduate Programme in Project Engineering and Management offered by NICMAR, wherein the entire ‘Project’ term is explicitly included in the title of the programme, and provides the most comprehensive coverage of all the relevant knowledge domains. 2.5

PM in Research

Project Management (PM) has evolved since the sixties as an area of interest for researchers and academicians alike. Up until then, PM existed more in the realm of practice than as a pursuit of systematic study and research. The early evolution of the discipline could be attributed to the works of Frederick Taylor and Henry Gantt (1900s – 1920s) which 6

(www.siom.in/mba_operations.aspx Site accessed as on August 2010)

7

(http://www.nitie.edu Site accessed as on August 2010)

32


emphasised the organisation of work in such a way that would be amenable for scientific analysis, measurement and improvement as well as its systematic planning and scheduling. In the decades following World War II, massive reconstruction work had to be undertaken in the hugely affected areas of Europe and Japan. Simultaneously the newly independent countries especially in Asia, began the path of economic development. In this, businesses and organizations saw great opportunity to undertake projects which were complex, unique and very large in scope. The growing use of energy, fed by growing economies everywhere, was on the rise, fuelling strong demand for petroleum products, natural gas, and electric power. The need for production, processing, and transportation facilities increased dramatically. New projects began getting bigger and more venturesome. This was also the time for nations to prove their prowess over others by launching space flights, submarines, constructing high rise buildings, building dams and laying high altitude rail lines and roads. Obviously the mainstay of all such ventures was the proper deployment of technology, manpower and resources in a way that the financial resources committed by the governments could derive optimum leverage in the face of given constraints. ‘Managing by Projects’ became a term that gained prominence at this time. With the protracted success of PM as a useful discipline in implementing projects, there was interest amongst researchers to study projects and the processes adopted that made some projects successful while others failed to add to the return on investment (Thomas and Mullaly, 2008). From the early decades of the twentieth century, the private sector had begun the widespread use of sophisticated means of deployment of resources to obtain high levels of productivity in their markets. Thus PM emerged and was developed as a sub discipline of industrial engineering and operations management (Crawford et al, 2006). In the 1960s, the formation of Project Management Institute ® (PMI®), in USA, International Project Management Association (IPMA) in Europe and Australian Institute of Project Management (established in 1976), gave further impetus to the study and practice of PM. These associations collaborated with research scholars and launched publications dedicated to the theory and practice of PM. It was in the 1960s that researchers commenced a systematic study of how projects are conceived and managed and an attempt began to be made to organise the practice as a discipline. Empirical studies commenced either as research pursuits of doctoral students or commissioned research from these associations. Journals such as the ‘International Journal of Project Management’ (IPMA), the ‘Project Management Journal®’ 33


(PMI®), the ‘Project Management Journal’ of Soviet Russian Project Management Association -SOVNET8, ‘Project Manager’ of Australian Institute of Project Management, are some examples of the rapid growth and dissemination of PM related literature. The fast developing Asian countries have to ‘catch up’ in this area. Research in the area of PM has continued to evolve steadily over the past 30 decades. A study was commissioned by the UK government in 2003, (UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)) on “Rethinking Project Management”. It was a bid to extract PM research from mere theoretical paradigms and relate it to empirical practice. Thus the study sought to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations (Crawford et al, 2006). The objectives of this study were the following : 1) To research Theory about practice of PM. This meant the effort towards the development of new models and theories which recognise and illuminate the complexity of the project and PM at all levels. 2) To develop Theory for practice which meant understanding projects as a social process, creation of value as the prime focus of its existence and a broader conceptualisation of projects to include multi disciplinary approach, existing for multiple purposes instead of very narrow definitions of scope and purpose. 3) To develop Theory in practice which meant the creation of training for PM in such a way as not to restrict the practitioners to merely following detailed procedures and techniques, as prescribed by PM methods and tools but to create ‘reflective practitioners’. Anbari and Young (2009) mention the work of Kloppenberg and Opfer whose research identified project management research published in articles, papers, dissertations, and government research reports since 1960. They found that the emphasis has moved from development and use of automated project management software and tools to risk management, earned value management and then to human resource aspects. They also determined that research focus moved from large government defence projects to commercial applications in construction, information systems, and new product development. They concluded that project management has extensive current opportunities and a bright future. In 8

(www.pmforum.org/library/journals.htm Site accessed as on August 2010)

34


the same paper, Anbari and Young (2009) mention Bredillet’s conclusions that PM is becoming increasingly linked with the implementation of organizational strategy. 2.5.1

PM Research In India

The quantum of research generated in India in relation to PM in its present state remains miniscule. A study of the publications appearing in one of the most acclaimed journal showcasing PM dedicated studies and literature i.e. the International Journal of Project Management (IJPM®) was carried out. A search was run of the articles contained in this journal to develop an idea about the number of articles that included India-centric studies in the period ranging from 1988 – 2010. The Graph 1 shows that the search yielded a total of only 101 results, in which India features either in the main title of the article or at times in its contents too. (IJPM®, 1988-2010). Graph 1: Articles In IJPM Containing India – Centric Content

An advanced search was done to arrive at the ‘affiliations’ data i.e. how many of these research papers originated from India. The search has revealed that only 26 papers in the same period (1988-2010) have been published by academics and occasionally by industry practitioners in the journal from India. 2.6

PM In Industry

A study conducted by the Centre for Business Practices of 53 practitioners at Toronto, Canada, revealed that in 62 - 91% of organizations, project management training resulted in moderate to extreme improvement in employee knowledge and skills, on the job performance, and on schedule performance (Michael Price et al, 2004). Though the number is too small to be an indicator of the larger universe, other statistics help to prove the point.

35


The growth of PM training could be attributed to the formation of the PM associations that took great initiative to replicate the formal learning and training of practitioners to enhance as well as standardise project performance while ensuring favourable project outcomes (Soderlund, 2004). Through the formation of the Bodies of Knowledge along with their associated certification programmes, these associations have tried to propagate PM education around the world. However in the same paper, Soderland argues that the field of project management has a narrow focus and that though a number of teaching programmes have been developed, commensurate research in these areas is found wanting. Shenhar and Dvir (1996) continued in the same vein maintaining that PM suffers due to a limited theoretical basis and lack of concepts. The duo has been credited with the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Diamond Frameworkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for strategic project management. Other researchers have raised concerns regarding the level and quality of research that has been produced in the area of PM. Bibliometric analyses of the type of research articles and papers published in leading PM journals such as International Journal of Project Management (IJPM), Project Management Journal (PMIÂŽ) and a host of conference presentations etc, lament the depth and variety of research in this area. A study by Crawford et al (2006) revealed the trends in PM research and the emphasis of articles in the period 1993-2003 and found that these are changing. According to her, project management is regularly facing new challenges as a field of study, as the tools, methods and approaches to management that comprise the discipline are applied to different areas, for different ends, and in different cultures. Another decade wise bibliometric analysis following the one by Crawford (2006) by Turner in 2010, revealed that in 1987, the most popular topics of research were engineering and construction, computer support, time, execution and control. Operation and maintenance followed next in importance. Topics such as life cycle cost, operation and maintenance were not covered in the next two decades till 1997 or 2007. Interest in Construction Sector grew, with the number of papers covering the subject going up to 36% of the article contribution. The next most popular subjects in 1997 were in the area of computer support, time management and risk management. Risk Management continued in importance in 2007, but a growing interest in partnerships and alliances; interest in human resource management and developing individual competence gained ground by 2007. The interest in Program Management appeared in 1997 and Portfolio Management in 2007. The study helps to 36


understand that the scope of PM study and research interests has become more diverse and now encompass many more areas that cover the field of enterprise management as a whole. 2.6.1

Training And Development Expenditure In Indian Projects Industry – A Bird’s

Eye View The American Society for Training has estimated training spend to be in the range of 2-2.5 per cent of company turnover on employee skill development programmes (Rao, 2009). Some companies are known to spend up to five per cent of their turnover on training. In the previous chapter, there was an attempt to arrive at the magnitude of project industry by presenting a cross sectional data on the employment figures and amount of capital invested in this industry in the year 2010 alone. It is necessary to understand the industry’s efforts in capacity building and development of human resources. Once again, CMIE Database – Annual Reports 2005-08 data was used to estimate the training and development budgets of project companies. In order to find out the current state of affairs regarding the allocation of funds by companies to Training and Development (T&D) of its personnel, a full search of the annual reports of project based companies, i.e. construction, manufacturing, power generation, mining, petrochemicals, railways etc. was made. The objective was to obtain the budgetary allocations made by project based companies in PM related training. An advanced search was conducted to find out whether the companies had budgets earmarked for ‘training and development’ or ‘staff training’ expenses so as to draw some meaningful conclusions about the size of training budgets of project based companies in India. From among the 16, 145 companies, the search showed up only a total of 1761 companies who had a category named ‘staff training’ in their annual financial statements. In the period between 2005- 2008, though there was a minor increase in the number of companies who had some allocation under the ‘Staff Training’ or ‘Training and Development’ (T & D) category, the overall record appears too minor to mention. In 2008, only around

59.42 crores were spent by 42 CMIE listed

project companies on T&D, a moderate improvement over the 2005 spend of

31.59 crores

by 22 CMIE listed companies (Refer Annexure 2, a, b, c and d). This data is insufficient to arrive at any meaningful conclusion regarding the training budgets of project based companies related to PM training. However the data helps to explain some of the difficulties in capturing T&D figures of project companies. A closer look at the above tables reveals the anomalies wherein the typical industry leaders known for their training 37


impetus like HCC Ltd., GMR, Simplex Ltd., Reliance Industries, Gammon, L&T, GVK, JP Group, and so on, are consistently missing from the list. These companies have full fledged training departments and are known to conduct training at almost all levels of project activity. To understand the reason behind the inadequate data, the issue was followed up with a few human resources /training managers of these companies, and an industry association expert using the personal discussion method (reference, pp 139). Most HR managers of project companies corroborated the point that T & D expenses of project based companies are not reflected in annual reports but are added primarily in the following ways : 1) Added to the general ‘staff welfare’ expenses and not listed separately under clear training and development head in the annual reports. Thus it is difficult to isolate the exact and actual budgets that are dedicated by project based companies to this activity (FICCI, HCC) 2) Added to the overall project expenditure and billed within the ambit of Project related expenses (Gammon, Simplex) 3) Billed separately in case of in house training, as most of the resource persons used are from within the organisation (Gammon, Simplex, HCC) In software project companies also, the picture is similar. The most training intensive software companies like Infosys and Wipro Technologies do not have ‘T&D’ or ‘Staff Training’ as heads of expenses in their financial statements (Refer Box No.1).

38


It is a well known fact that Training and Development investment contributes to an improved quality of human resource which in turn contributes to customer satisfaction and improved financial performance. Senior management’s role in providing sufficient resources including training, leads to a high degree of customer satisfaction (Feuss et al, 2004). Box No.1

INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

A case in point is that of INFOSYS Ltd., the largest software development transnational organisation in the country. A section in the annual report, containing ‘Human Resources Valuation’ attempts to list out the value addition made by the company’s human resource, in the form of a ratio (Annual Report, 2009). The human resource value addition ratio was pegged at 0.19 in 2009, an increase from the earlier year (2008) of 0.15 as value addition to the company. Also the return on human value as a percentage of the cost of human resources (welfare/salaries/wages etc.) grew from 4.7% to 5.9%. A study of Infosys annual reports from 2005-09, reveals there is no separate category or head under which training is listed. However the company is known as the most training intensive company in the industry. The company boasts of the best corporate training infrastructure in the country, with a capacity to train 13,500 software project personnel simultaneously, under one roof at Bangalore, apart from huge exclusive training facilities in every campus of the company. Source: Infosys Annual Reports 2005-09

Despite the fact that the literature related to the use of PM by the heavy engineering industry in India is very sparse, some literature is available for the Information Technology sector. This again is not surprising, as it is strongly linked to international client requirements and is based almost entirely upon acquisition and execution of software projects. However, as found in the former case, no dedicated training budgets appear in the financial statements of the companies. Barring a few exceptions, it can be concluded that there is a lack of clear statistics in the public domain with respect to the training and development of PM competencies of the public and private sector. Thus the need for a primary survey of HR managers was considered essential. 2.7

India and China: Comparison of PM Education

India and China are considered important as the economic development plans in these two countries require the launch and successful completion of mega, major and a host of medium 39


sized projects to cover the historical gap in Infrastructure. In case of India, the growth of PM education in the form of certifications is clearly rising, as very often project terms and conditions mandate certified professionals. According to PMI®, which is the most active and vigorous organisation in this arena, in the year 2006, there were around 6000 PMPs® in India . In the year 2010, this number has grown to 20,000 PMPs® in management and technical fields (Source: PMI®, India Office). In the case of China, the effort to introduce PM was very systematic and ‘top-down’. It began with the World Bank giving a grant for training followed by the PMI® stepping in, in the early 1990s. Other entities like IPMA ® etc. followed suit. One such monumental instance of this initiative was that of the Ministry of Construction (MOC). One hundred and forty educational institutions or training centres had been accredited by MOC as project management training providers up to the end of 1995. During the same period, 321,983 project managers took the training courses and 297,774 of them were certified by the MOC. By 2004, 500,000 project managers in total, were certified by the MOC. Other ministries in China such as Nuclear, Defence, and Oil & Gas etc too have made mandatory, the PM certification even to apply for a job with them (Lu et al, 2004). Another initiative was undertaken in 1998 by the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs along with the Project Management Institute ®. The first REP® was established in 1999, the BMMTEC International Education Group became the first subsidiary in China certified by PMI providing Project Management Professionals® (PMP®) certification training and examination services as well as other training and education on project management. By the year 2004, there were 46 REPs in China, and about 70,000 people had participated in PMP® training, 4000 persons had been certified as PMPs® by the REPs®. PMI® has had a longer and stronger presence in China in promoting its project management standards and certifications with regional offices in both Beijing and Hong Kong. PMI ® had signed a cooperative accord with the China National Steering Committee of Professional Education of Master of Engineering (SCME) on 7 March, 2008. The SCME oversees a national consortium of 103 higher education institutions that have been authorised by the Chinese government to offer Master of Engineering degree programmes in project management. Due to the huge projects that China has launched in the construction, information technology, manufacturing and aeronautics industries, the government has committed significant resources to this effort. According to SCME, more than 14,000 40


students are enrolled in dedicated engineering masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree programmes in project management in China (Pells, 2009). In this Chapter, it is seen that the growth of PM towards being recognised as a discipline has been systematically driven through the efforts of the government, academic institutions and associations in the developed nations like UK, USA, Germany, Australia and Canada. In other nations such as Russia and China, a lot of structured emphasis has been given to popularise PM education. In India, modest efforts have begun in this direction. The next chapter discusses the research design, scope and methodology adopted to collect primary data from the stakeholder respondents of PM education.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN 3.1

Basic Approach To The Study

The study is mostly based on primary data and the basic purpose is to find out the factors inhibiting the wide spread initiation of Project Management Education in Indian technical and business academic institutions and to suggest ways to broaden its present scope in India. The study is restricted to India, and includes only leading technical/ business educational institutions. It seeks to find the factors that aid, and those that inhibit the acceptance of project management education in such academic institutions. It simultaneously includes active executives who at graduation, had not undergone PM education but have subsequently done so in the course of their employment. The aim is to obtain their views on the extent of the added benefits of PM training, in fast tracking their 41


career growth. Lastly, we have covered a cross section of the select recruiters (Human Resource Managers) in our study sample and obtained their views on the efficacy of PM education in enhancing their executivesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to manage projects. 3.2

Objectives Of The Study

The main objectives of the research study are as follows: 1. To find the awareness and current state of PM education in the country amongst the technical and business academic institutions, human resource managers and the recipients of PM related training among active executives. 2. To determine the nature and depth of PM education prevalent in technical and business schools in India. 3. To understand the degree of importance assigned to PM subjects for overall competency development and employability in PM. 4. To investigate the subjects considered important by executives as essential to the practice of PM. 5.

To determine the personal and professional gains obtained from undergoing formally taught courses in PM by practicing executives.

6. To find out factors considered most important in inhibiting the growth of PM education in India. 7. To determine the extent of existing institutional support for the growth of PM teaching and research. 8. To investigate the nature of training imparted to employees in PM competencies by human resource departments of project based companies. 9. To find out which factors are the most important to companies for allocating time and budgets for PM related training. 10. To identify the type of training that is most preferred by the PM based companies. 3.3

Scope Of The Study

The study covers the whole of India except the North â&#x20AC;&#x201C;East in case of academic institutions. Working executives are also from different parts of India across project based companies. Human resource managers were drawn from construction, heavy engineering, IT and services sectors. 3.4

Hypotheses 42


We formulate the following hypotheses: 1) H0 = Overall the current status of PM education in India is poor. H1 = Overall the current status of PM education in India is not poor.

2) H0 = The necessity of PM education in engineering/technical schools in India is very high. H1 = The necessity of PM education in engineering/technical schools in India is not very high.

3) H0 = The necessity of PM education in management schools in India is very high. H1 = The necessity of PM education in management schools in India is not very high.

4) H0 = The necessity of PM education in architecture/planning schools in India is very high. H1 = The necessity of PM education in architecture/planning schools in India is not very high. . 5) H0 = There exist regional differences in the establishment of PM education in India. H1 = There exist no regional differences in the establishment of PM education in India.

6) H0 =There exist faculty wise differences in the establishment of PM education in India. H1 = There exist no faculty wise differences in the establishment of PM education in India.

7) H0 =There exists a difference in the establishment of PM education in India at the under graduate and post graduate levels. H1 = There exists no difference in the establishment of PM education in India at the under graduate and post graduate levels. 43


8) H0 = There exists a difference in the understanding of the strategic role of projects in the overall business context, after undergoing PM related training. H1= There exists no difference in the understanding of the strategic role of projects in the overall business context, after undergoing PM related training.

9) H0 = There exists a difference in the overall understanding of the project context. H1 = There exists no difference in the overall understanding of the project context.

10) H0 = There exists a difference in the level of remuneration, enhancement of work related responsibilities, and conflict resolution ability of individuals. H1 = There exists no difference in the level of remuneration, enhancement of work related responsibilities, and conflict resolution ability of individuals.

11) H0 = Training in Project Management helps to build the employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competencies. H1 = Training in Project Management does not help to build the employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competencies.

12) H0 = PM training results in greater accrual of benefits as against costs incurred on the training. H1 = PM training results in lesser accrual of benefits as against costs incurred on the training.

13) H0 = PM training offered by certified trainers is more efficacious than that of others. H1 = There is no difference in the efficacy of PM training offered by certified trainers and others. 3.5

Methodology

The research covers a comprehensive search of secondary literature available in the public domain to determine the efforts of all stakeholders in promoting PM education. This is followed by a primary research of academic institutions, HR managers and active executives 44


of PM based companies. The analysis is based on statistical tools and techniques. We have relied more on primary data, a widely accepted technique of analysis for the purpose of the study. The study is based on cross sectional data and therefore has made use of the multiple regression analysis technique to arrive at conclusions. The main purpose of this technique in some cases, is to find out the factors necessary to promote the wide spread initiation of Project Management (PM) Education in technical and business schools in India. Cases of six institutions where PM is being taught are described separately in Chapter 4, Section A covering Academic Institutionsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Analysis, (Refer Chp. 4). A case of an executive who has undergone PM training while in active service is included in Chapter 5. The study is divided into three sections. In section One, we analyze and discuss the state of PM education in academic institutions offering technical and management education. In sections Two and Three, the findings from the segments of practicing executives and human resource managers respectively, have been discussed. The period in which the survey and primary research work was carried out was March â&#x20AC;&#x201C; May, 2010. 3.6

Academic Institutions

a) Sources of Data: The study uses primary sources of data obtained from academic institutions. b) Data Collection Instrument - Schedules (Questionnaires) : A questionnaire was prepared as a research instrument and was administered by two means 1) personal in depth interviews 2) by correspondence (email/courier). A total of 120 questionnaires were printed. The bulk of the survey was conducted through the personal interviews administered to faculty employed in engineering and management institutions in India. c) Data Collection Method - Direct Interview Method : A total of 81 units of responses were obtained of which 5 were received by mail/courier. In the southern region, of the 29 institutions approached, 19 interview responses were obtained. In the central and eastern zones, a total of 25 institutions were approached and 18 responses were received. In the northern region, 21 institutions were approached and 16 interview responses were received. In the western region, a total of 25 institutions were approached and the responses received were 21. Questionnaires were also sent via email and 2 questionnaires by courier. Of the 15 questionnaires sent by email, responses for 7 were received. Thus a total of 81 responses 45


were received from a mix of government aided, autonomous and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;deemed to be universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; institutions. d) Sampling Procedure: The key features of the sampling procedure are stated below. d.1) Sampling Area: All India, as per 5 Zones within India (given below) d.2) Sample Size: 81 [Eastern India-05, Western India-21, Northern India-16, Southern-26 and Central India-13.] d.3) Sample Unit: Academic Institutions d.4) Sampling Technique: The survey was conducted based on zone wise proportionate sampling of technical schools in India. In case of management institutions, it was based on proportionate as well as convenience sampling technique. Thus in the sample, western and northern regions have a greater representation of the business institutions due to their density as well as the easy access of the researchers to the same. e) Statistical Tools and Techniques: Pie Charts, Bar Diagrams, Column Diagrams, Correlation & Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis have been used. Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of faculty, their perceptions of the state of PM education in India, the essentiality of teaching PM in technical and management academic institutions, their ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula, impact on employability, etc. the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical averages were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents. f) Analytical Software: The software used included MS - Excel, SPSS and EVIEWS The study uses descriptive statistics like pie charts, bar diagrams wherever a simple descriptive data is being sought. For e.g. in case of the type of academic institutions; years of service of faculty respondents, their personal PM related research pursuits, the funding of PM related research in their institutions or whether the faculty has published papers in the same, and such type of questions, the data have been presented using the above mentioned methods. In order to find out the extent of interrelationship within the factors, the Correlation Matrix (Multi-Colinearity) was used, like in the case of subjects that are necessary to be included in 46


PM curricula. Another tool, the multiple regression analysis was used to find out (1) the factors that are viewed by respondents from institutions as essential for introduction of PM courses in technical, architectural and business management curricula, (2) the importance of PM education as rated by the faculty respondents and (3) the resource availability and management support within the institute. The Multiple Regression Model is discussed below. g) Multiple Regression Model: The Multiple Regression Model as described in detail below has been used to find out the ratings given by the individual respondents to specific questions related to the subject matter of PM education. In the study, three models have been attempted. Model 1:- Multiple Regression Analysis of PM Education Ratings as Dependent Variable and Essentiality of PM education in Engineering, Management, Architecture, Planning and Design, and Infrastructure Management Institutions as Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable) Here, the dependent variable is the Overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Ins) and it is on a 5-point scale, i.e., 1=Poor, 2=Fair, 3=Good, 4-Very Good and 5=Excellent. The explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Essentiality of PM education in Engineering (REng), Management (RMgnt), Architecture (RArch), Planning and Design (RPND), and Infrastructure Management (RInfra) academic institutions. Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows. RPME(Ins) = r1 REng + r2 RMgnt + r3 RArch + r4 RPND + r5 RInfra + C

(I)

Where, RPME(MNT) is the rating of PM Education and r1, r2, r3,r4, r5, are the regression coefficients of the corresponding ratings of the Essentiality of PM education in Engineering (REng), Management (RMgnt), Architecture (RArch), Planning and Design (RPND), and Infrastructure Management (RInfra) Institutions. C is the Constant Term. Model 2: Multiple Regression Analysis of PM Education Ratings as Dependent Variable and Institute Infrastructure Support as Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable) The dependent variable is the overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME

Infra

). The

explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Institute Infrastructure Support. The important infrastructure is Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib), Course Material (RCM), Classrooms (RCR) and Qualified Faculty (RQF). C is the Constant Term. Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows. 47


RPME Infra = r1 RLib +r2 RCM + r3 RCR + r4 RQF Where RPME

Infra

(II)

is the PM Education rating, r1, r2, r3, r4 are the regression of the

corresponding ratings of the Availability of Library and e-resources, Course Material, Classrooms, and Qualified Faculty. C is the Constant Term. Model 3: Multiple Regression Analysis of PM Education Ratings as Dependent Variable and Management Support as Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable) Here, the dependent variable is the Overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Mgmt) and it is on 5-point scale, i.e., 1=Poor, 2=Fair, 3=Good, 4-Very Good and 5=Excellent. The explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in the Institute (RPMCourse) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM). Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows. RPME(Mgmt) = r1 RPMCourse + r2 REPM + C Where, RPME

(Mgmt)

(III)

is the rating of PM Education and r1, r2, are the regression coefficients of

the corresponding ratings of the Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in the Institute (RPM Course) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM). C is the Constant Term. 3.7

Practising Executives Of Project Based Companies

a) Sources of Data: The study uses primary sources of data b) Data Collection Method - Indirect Method : Questionnaires were handed over to the respondents and they were asked to fill them out at their own convenience. The research team member then went back to collect the filled out questionnaires. c) Data Collection Instrument: Schedules (Questionnaires) were used for data collection. d) Sampling Procedure: The Judgment Sampling technique was used for the executives who have undergone the training as they were the best prospects to elicit accurate information. NICMAR is perhaps the only techno â&#x20AC;&#x201C; management institute in the country in PM centric training with the most extensive PM training programmes being conducted through its School of Executive Education (SOEE). d.1) Sampling Area: the sampling are encompassed all India 48


d.2) Sample Size: The total sample size is 88. The given sample has been drawn from the executives participating in NICMAR’s executive training programmes. In the year 20092010, NICMAR has trained a total of 721 executives from 30 different companies. Out of the total executives trained by SOEE, a sample of 88 executives was selected. Their distribution is as follows. Northern India – 7, Southern India – 20, Eastern India – 4 and Western India fifty – 6 executives. The sample size represented 12.2% of the population of executives trained by the SOEE. d.3) Sample Unit: The sample unit comprised executives from various large project based organizations who have undergone training in Project Management at NICMAR. e) Statistical Tools and Techniques: Pie Charts, Bar Diagrams, Column Diagrams, Correlation & Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of executives, value of projects, ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula, gaining perspectives related to project strategy, their perceptions as to why PM education is not taking roots in India, the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical averages were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents. f) Analytical Software: Software used includes Excel, SPSS and EVIEWS The study uses pie charts to show the experience of the executives in organization. Bar diagrams are used to show the total size of the projects, major techniques that are used during the projects and other similar cases. 3.8

Human Resource Managers Of Project Based Companies

a) Sources of Data: The primary sources of data for the study are human resource managers working in project based companies. b) Data Collection Method: Direct Interview Method is used c) Data Collection Instrument: Schedules (Questionnaires) are used for data collection. d) Sampling Procedure: Judgment and Convenience sampling technique has been used. Over 32 human resource managers had been approached through personal telephonic appointments for interview. In most of the cases, they asked for a copy of the questionnaire 49


for prior viewing. A follow up via telephone and email was done. From the northern region, only one respondent, i.e., a human resource manager from DLF Ltd. responded to the survey. From the southern region, 5 managers responded, in case of eastern region, 2 managers, from the western region 9, and lastly from the central region, 3 managers’ responses have been taken into consideration. The researchers felt that a slightly smaller size is adequately representative of the whole, as this set of persons is responsible for the planning and deployment of PM related training, company wide. Moreover the respondents chosen in this sample had considerable experience in the design of such training programmes around the year. It was felt that as a result of their continuous planning and monitoring of PM related training programmes, they would be appropriate to offer views on the exact nature of PM training as “experts”. Thus the judgment and convenience method of sampling was used for the purpose. d.1) Sampling Area: the sampling are includes all India. d.2) Sample Size: A total sample of 20 was interviewed from all over India, drawn from project based companies. d.3) Sample Unit: The sample unit comprises human resource managers from leading PM companies in India. e) Statistical Tools and Techniques: Pie Charts, Bar Diagrams, Column Diagrams. Using the responses in selected areas such as the inception of PM training in companies, factors considered essential before planning PM training programmes, training cost benefits, training efficacy, the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical averages were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents. f) Analytical Software: The software used includes Excel, SPSS and EVIEWS The study uses pie charts to show the various types of training imported in the organizations and various bar diagrams and graphs to highlight the outcome of the training, and expenditure during the training as given by the respondents. Annexures 1 – 8 give all the details of questionnaires designed, institutions, executives and companies responding to the survey, master database generated from the research study, etc.

50


CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY OF TECHNICAL AND BUSINESS INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA 4.1

Introduction 51


The Questionnaire was designed for eliciting response from faculty, actively serving in technical and business institutions on a wide range of issues surrounding PM education in the respondent’s institution as well as in his/her general opinion as an important stakeholder in this arena. The questionnaire was divided into four parts. The first part asked for the responding faculty’s background information. The second part aimed at discovering his/her general opinion on project management (PM) curricula in India. The third part aimed at identifying any distinguishing factors that characterize the specific PM curriculum development vis a vis the usual curriculum. The fourth part dealt with finding out about the existing educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management support available to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered were regulatory aspects that affect the institute’s decision in launching new curricula. For every question, the respondent was asked to provide a tick/score as per his/her opinion. The Likert type 5 – point scale was included in order to be able to quantify the data. In case of rating of subjects, along with the simple percentage calculations, numerical average rating scores have been computed and shown in brackets in front of the ratings of subjects and levels. The average rating score contained in the brackets is to be interpreted as follows 0–1

: not important

1–2

: somewhat important

2–3

: important

3–4

: very important

4–5

: extremely important.

Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of faculty, their perceptions of the state of PM education in India and the essentiality of teaching PM in technical and management academic institutions, ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula, impact on employability etc. the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical average rating scores were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents. In subsequent sections, we discuss the data findings for the technical and business academic institutions from different zones in India. 4.2

PART I : Respondent’s Particulars And Details 52


Part I of the Questionnaire was to find out the details of the respondents chosen for the survey. The questions in this part were included with a view to elicit the description of the sample in terms of the region (Fig 3) in which the institution was located and the average experience of the respondents in academics. It was also necessary to know the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;categoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the institution (Fig 2). As seen in Fig 2, the majority of respondents represent private institutions vis a vis government sponsored institutions. Figure 2: Category of Institutions

The sample chosen reflects the proportion of technical and business institutions zone wise (Tables 3 and 4, AICTE List, 08, Chp 2). As per AICTE data, the maximum number of Technical institutions are located in the Southern and Western regions of the country. In case of Management institutions, the highest number are found in the Northern and Western zone. Thus the combined sample reflects this in its coverage; South Zone followed by West, North, Central and finally the Eastern zone. In case of total academic experience, the majority of the sample falls in the range of between 16-20 yrs followed by 21-25 yrs. The respondents were highly experienced academicians (avg. experience 21.27 years, Fig 4). Figure 3: Graph Showing Region Wise Distribution Of The Academic Institutions

53


Figure 4: Experience Of Responding Faculty

A separate question was asked to find out the experience of the sample in designing new types of courses. (Fig 5). Majority of the sample had a wide experience in curricula design. Majority of the respondents fell in the category of 11 -15 years. This is a welcome finding, as this indicates good experience in the introduction of new courses or reviewing existing ones. Figure 5: Experience In Curriculum Development 54


4.3

PART II: General Opinion On Existing State Of PM Education In India

It was important to know the perception of the academics with respect to the current state of PM education in the country. Majority of the sample felt ( Fig 6 ) that the current state of PM education is only ‘fair’ (49.38%) and ‘good’ (25.93%). The average rating score of 2.05 reflects this perception. This implies that the respondents consider the current status of PM education as Fair. The next query was to elicit a response about the respondent’s own institution’s efforts to introduce PM curriculum. (Fig 7). A clear majority of the sample responded that there have been prior attempts in the past to introduce PM curricula in the courses offered by their institutions.

Figure 6: Perception Of The Current Status Of PM Education In India

55


Figure 7 reflects the level at which a particular institution has introduced the course in their curricula. In the sample, in 85% of the cases, the courses related to PM were introduced at the undergraduate stage and the post graduate level. Only in around 15% cases, the courses exist at other levels like in research, advanced levels such as at the doctoral level programmes and certificate level courses. Figure 7 : Attempts At Introducing PM In The Curriculum

It was also important to know in which category, the course had been introduced, i.e. whether the institution preferred to include PM courses as electives or as a compulsory subject. As seen in Figure 8, the sample is equally distributed in its choice. This indicates that both options are made available. Around 5% of the sample did not respond to question. 56


Figure 8 : Level At Which PM Course Has Been Introduced

Courses in academic institutions follow a certain rigour and intensity of teaching. They are designed in such a way as to match the required degree of competence necessary to be internalised by the student opting for that course. Courses are designed to achieve this objective. The institute may introduce these courses either as electives or compulsory subjects. (Fig 9). Most of the respondents are teaching PM courses at Elementary and the Intermediate stages only. Figure 9: Type of PM Related Course

On the basis of built in rigour and intensity of the course, the levels are classifed as : elementary, intermediate, advanced (Figure 10). Majority of the sample prefers PM to be taught at the Intermediate level with 47.67% of respondents opting for the same, followed by 29.07% opting for inclusion of PM at the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Elementaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; level. 57


Figure 10: Intensity Of The Course

In order to find out the importance the sample attaches to the inclusion of PM related courses in professional schools, the respondents were asked to rate the inclusion of PM courses on a scale of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;essentialityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for various professional educational categories such as engineering, management, architecture /planning, infrastructure schools. Figures 11 A, 11B, 11Ci, 11Cii, 11Ciii describe the degree of essentiality as perceived by the respondents of various types of academic institutions viz. Engineering/Technical and Business/Management. Refer Figure 11 A. 86.42% of the sample suggest that PM is Very Essential to Absolutely Essential in Engineering/Technical institutions (avg. Rating 4.31). This indicates that in engineering institutions PM educaion is absolutely essential.. Similarly majority of the respondents (90%) felt that PM is a must in Management/Business institutions (avg. Rating 4.47). This indicates that in management institutions PM educaion is absolutely essential. However 17.4% of the sample is pursuing PM at the advanced stages such as at the level of doctoral programmes. The sample was asked to rate the essentiality of PM courses in Specialised Courses such as Architecture, Planning, and Infrastructure. Figures 11Ci, 11Cii, 11Ciii show the level of importance attributed to PM education in these three areas respectively. A similar response ranging from Very Essential to Absolutely Essential (a total of 88.64%) was seen in the case of specialised courses. Each of the categories that include Architecture (avg. Rating 4.34), Planning (avg. Rating 4.50) and Infrastructure (avg. Rating 4.50) on its own has a response which is comparable to that seen in the engineering and managment courses on the essentiality factor. Thus, overall, it can be inferred that PM courses are deemed absolutely 58


essential inclusions in academic curricula of all such institutions falling in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Professional Educationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; category. Figure 11 A: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of Institutions A. Engineering Course

Figure 11 B: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of Institutions B. Management Course

Figure 11 C: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of Institutions C.Specialised Courses Figure 11 C i. Architecture Course

59


Figure 11 C ii. Planning And Design

Figure 11 C iii. Infrastructure Development

4.4

Part III: Curriculum Development

In this section, a detailed subject wise rating was sought to be obtained using a dual rating scale namely ‘Importance Rating’ and ‘Level Rating’ (Refer Annexure 3 for copy of Questionnaire to Academic Institutions). The objective was to find out which subject areas as 60


well as individual subjects contained within the subject area, are important to be included in the curriculum of PM. Along with this, the level of learning exposure considered necessary by the respondents was included in the choice. Both the parameters were on a 5-point scale. The two parameters were the ‘degree of importance’ that was being assigned by the respondent to a particular subject and the second was the ‘level’ at which this subject was found important to be taught. So for example, if the subject was Operations Management within the Management and Technology Area, the respondent had to assign a dual rating which would indicate 1) How important he/she felt the subject was for inclusion in the teaching curriculum? and 2) At what level of sophistication (Certificate/undergraduate/post graduate/advanced/applied research) was the subject required to be taught?. All subject areas included in this section were consolidated into four major areas, namely : A – Technology and Management Area B – Strategy, Economics and Finance Area C – Behavioural Sciences Area D – Information Technology Area A fifth major area was not subject, but Sector Specific. This is described as ‘E’. This area sought to determine the degree of importance of teaching PM in the specified sectors. The findings of PART III are discussed below. Technology And Management Area The Technology and Management Area comprised a total of 20 subject areas. Figures 12 A and 12 B depict the importance ascribed by respondents to each subject area on a rating scale ranging from ‘Not Important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. The average ratings assigned to various subjects in this area are as follows : AR1-Operations Management for Projects (3.79); AR2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques (3.98); AR3-Statistical Methods for Projects Analysis (3.81); AR4Operations Research for Projects (3.87); AR5-Project Quality Management (3.93); AR6Health/Safety/Environment in Projects (3.60); AR7-Cost Estimation and Budgeting (3.74); AR8-Accounting and Control Systems (3.26); AR9-Quality Surveying and Estimation (3.43); AR10-Projects Marketing (3.30); AR11-Project Site and Equipment (3.40); AR12-Project Procurement & /Materials Management (3.40); AR13-Contract Management (3.31); AR14Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning (3.48); AR15-Facilities Engineering and 61


Management (3.12); AR16-Logistics & Supply Chain Management (3.37); AR17Transportation Management (3.12); AR18-Technology and Engineering Management (3.46); AR19-Project Formulation and Appraisal ( 3.46); AR20-Project Engineering (3.46). On the basis of average rating scores, it can be inferred that these subjects are very important and necessary to be included in the curricula. However importance assigned is higher for certain subjects including Operations Management; Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Statistical methods, Operation research techniques; Project Quality Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Health, Safety and Environment Management. It was important to know the Level at which the above mentioned subjects could be taught. Figure 12 B describes the same. Majority of the respondents want the courses to be taught at Undergraduate (47.37%) and Post Graduate (44.21%) level. Some respondents (3.16%) would like Operations Research for Projects (avg. Rating 2.72), Contract Management (avg. Rating 2.76), Project Procurement and Materials Management (avg. Rating 2.73), Project Formulation and Appraisal (avg. Rating 2.84) to be included in the Post Graduate and Advanced teaching also. Some respondents are aware of the importance of research in areas like Operations Research for Projects, Technology and Engineering Management (avg. Rating 2.83), and Project Engineering (avg. Rating 2.78) and have opted for this. Thus it can be inferred that the academics are well aware and understand the importance of subjects and the levels at which they should be included in PM curricula related to the area of Technology and Management.

Figure 12 A: Ratings Of Subjects In Management And Technology

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AR1-Operations Management for Projects; AR2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; AR3-Statistical Methods for Projects Analysis; AR4-Operations Research for Projects; AR5-Project Quality Management; AR6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects; AR7-Cost Estimation and budgeting; AR8-Accounting and Control Systems; AR9-Quality Surveying and Estimation; AR10-Projects Marketing; AR11-Project Site and Equipment; AR12-Project Procurement & /Materials Management; AR13-Contract Management; AR14Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning; AR15-Facilities Engineering and Management; AR16-Logistics & Supply Chain Management; AR17-Transportation Management; AR18-Technology and Engineering Management; AR19-Project Formulation and Appraisal; AR20-Project Engineering.

Figure 12 B: Level Of Teaching Of Subjects In Management And Technology

AL1-Operations management for Projects; AL2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; AL3-Statistical Methods for Projects Analysis; AL4-Operations Research for Projects; AL5-Project Quality Management; AL6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects; AL7-Cost Estimation and budgeting; AL8-Accounting and Control Systems; AL9-Quality Surveying and Estimation; AL10-Projects Marketing; AL11-Project Site and Equipment; AL12-Project Procurement & Materials Management; AL13-Contract Management; AL14Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning; AL15-Facilities Engineering and Management; AL16-Logistics & Supply Chain Management; AL17-Transportation Management; AL18-Technology and Engineering Management; AL19-Project formulation and Appraisal and AL20-Project Engineering.

Strategy, Economics and Finance Area

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The next Section B, deals with the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area. Figures 13 A and 13 B depict the opinions of respondents regarding the subjects to be included in PM curriculum from this area. All subjects in this area were considered to be in the range of Very Important to Extremely Important. The following subjects are considered very important : BR1 – Macro Economic Policy (3.52), BR2- Project Strategy (avg. Rating 3.46), BR3 – Social Cost Benefit Analysis (avg. Rating 3.55), BR4 – Financial Management (avg. Rating 3.58), BR5 – Project Financing (avg. Rating 3.62), BR6 – Risk and Insurance Management (avg. Rating 3.60). Only in the case of BR 7 -Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects, close to 20% of the respondents felt it was only ‘Somewhat Important’ (avg. Rating 3.30) followed by around 18% of the respondents expressing the same opinion about BR -8 Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, SPVs. None of the respondents opted for the ‘Not Important’ option in case of these subjects (avg. Rating 3.27). However going by their average rating scores, these subjects also fall in the very important category. Figure 13 A: Ratings Of B Group Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And Finance

BR1-Macro-Economic Policy; BR2-Project Strategy; BR3-Social Cost Benefit Analysis; BR4-Financial Management; BR5-Project Financing; BR6-Risk and Insurance Management; BR7-Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects and BR8-Project Joint Ventures/ Strategic Alliances/ Special Purpose Vehicles.

Figures 13 A and Figure 13 B depict the level at which the subject knowledge is considered important by the respondents. Majority of the respondents considered that most of the subjects included in this section should be ideally at the Post Graduate Level with an exception of BL1 - Macro Economic Policy (avg. Rating 2.51), wherein the respondents have given almost equal weights to the subject to be taught at UG (43.68%) and PG (44.83%) . The inference is that the subjects should be preferably taught at the Post Graduate level. 64


Figure 13 B: Levels Of B Group Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And Finance

BL1-Macro-Economic Policy; BL2-Project Strategy; BL3-Social Cost Benefit Analysis; BL4-Financial Management; BL5-Project Financing; BL6-Risk and Insurance Management; BL7-Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects; BL8-Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, Special Purpose Vehicles

Behavioural Sciences Area Section C attempts to find out the opinion of the respondents regarding the importance of the subjects in the Behavioural Sciences Area as necessary to be included in the PM courses. Figures 14 A and 14 B below depict the same. The majority of the respondents rated this area ranging from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’. Less than 10% of the sample considered some of the subjects in this area ‘Not Important’ or ‘Extremely Important’. The average ratings for the subjects grouped in this Area are : CR 1 – Project Organization and Structure ( 3.63 ), CR 2 – Managerial Skills (3.87) , CR3 – Human Resource Management in Projects (3.80), CR4 – Industrial / Labour Relations (3.46), CR5 – Conflict Management ( 3.33 ), CR6 – Diversity Management (3.44 ). On the average, all subjects in the category are found to be very important, with slightly less importance for Conflict Management and Diversity Management.

Figure 14 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Group C Behavioural Sciences Area

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CR1-Project Organization and Structure; CR2-Managerial Skills for Projects (Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation, other soft skills); CR3-Human Resource Management in Projects; CR4-Industrial / Labour Relations; CR5-Conflict Management; CR6Diversity Management

As regards of the level at which these should be taught, (Refer Figure 14 B), the average ratings for levels are : CR 1 – Project Organization and Structure ( 2.73 ), CR 2 – Managerial Skills (2.89) , CR3 – Human Resource Management in Projects (2.88), CR4 – Industrial / Labour Relations (2.73), CR5 – Conflict Management ( 2.98 ), CR6 – Diversity Management (2.86 ). Clearly most of the respondents preferred that the subjects in Behavioural Sciences Area should be included at the Post Graduate level, followed by Undergraduate. In case of Conflict Management subject, no respondents opted for the subject to be included for teaching at the Advanced level. However the same subject had a section of the respondents wanting it to be included at the level of Applied Research.

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Figure 14 B: Levels Of Subject Areas In Group C Behavioural Sciences Area

CL1-Project Organization and Structure; CL2-Managerial Skills for Projects (Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation, other soft skills); CL3-Human Resource Management in Projects; CL4-Industrial / Labour Relations; CL5-Conflict Management; CL6Diversity Management

Information Technology Area The next Section D deals with subjects to be included in the Information Technology area as essential to be taught to students of PM. The average importance ratings for the subjects included in the area are : DR1-PM Software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management (4.10); DR2-Enterprise Resource Planning (3.70); DR3- e-Business Applications (3.59); DR4-Engineering Software (4.18); DR5-Excel / SPSS / DBMS (4.20). Three subjects, namely PM Software, Engineering Software and Excel/SPSS/DBMS are rated as extremely important. ERP and e â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Buainess Applications are rated very important. Clearly the respondents strongly endorse the importance of teaching IT related subjects. The average ratings for the Level at which these subjects should be covered are : DR1-PM SoftwarePrimavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management (2.64); DR2-Enterprise Resource Planning (2.78); DR3- e-Business Applications (2.77); DR4-Engineering Software (2.61); DR5-Excel / SPSS / DBMS (2.70). Majority of the sample want IT Area to be included in primarily at the Post Graduate level followed by Undergaduate level courses of academic institutions.

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Figure 15 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Group D Information Technology

DR1-PM Software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management; DR2-Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); DR3-e-Business Applications; DR4-Engineering Software (Auto-Cad, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan); DR5-Excel / SPSS / DBMS

Figure 15 B: Level Of Subject Areas In Group D Information Technology

DL1-PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management; DL2-Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); DL3-e-Business Applications; DL4-Engineering Software (Auto-Cad, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan); DL5-Excel / SPSS / DBMS

Sector Specific Area 68


With the rise of PM in almost all aspects of industry, it was felt necessary to find out which sectors within the industry require and would benefit from PM education; as also, the level of academic input to be given to the students to improve PM proficiency. This was with a view to know, how important and essential PM training is in particular sectors. This section deals with the importance of PM in various sectors. Figure 16 A and B below depicts the findings for the same. Figure 16 A: Ratings Of Group E Sector Specific Importance Of PM

ER1-Information Communication Technology (ICT); ER2-Telecom; ER3-Research and Development; ER4-Space Exploration; ER5Technology; ER6-Defense; ER7-Roadways; ER8-Railways; ER9-Civil Aviation; ER10-Ports; ER11-Shipbuilding; ER12-Urban Infrastructure; ER13-Mega Property Developments; ER14-Petrochemicals; ER15-Chemical Engineering; ER16-Oil and Gas Exploration; ER17-Services; ER18-International Project Management

The specific average importance ratings for various sectors are : ER1-Information Communication Technology (ICT, 3.39); ER2-Telecom (3.23); ER3-Research and Development (3.46); ER4-Space Exploration (3.46); ER5-Technology (3.61); ER6-Defense (3.52); ER7-Roadways (3.55); ER8-Railways (3.56); ER9-Civil Aviation (3.5); ER10-Ports (3.43); ER11-Shipbuilding (3.5); ER12-Urban Infrastructure (3.72); ER13-Mega Property Developments (3.66); ER14-Petrochemicals (3.56); ER15-Chemical Engineering (3.49); ER16-Oil and Gas Exploration (3.58); ER17-Services (3.57); ER18-International Project Management (3.65). It is observed that PM is rated as very important across all the sectors covered with slightly lesser importance assigned to ICT and Telecom sectors. The specific average Level ratings for various sectors are : ER1-Information Communication Technology (ICT, 3.61); ER2-Telecom (3.68); ER3-Research and Development (3.76); ER4Space Exploration (3.83); ER5-Technology (3.85); ER6-Defense (3.77); ER7-Roadways 69


(3.93); ER8-Railways (4.04); ER9-Civil Aviation (3.92); ER10-Ports (3.98); ER11Shipbuilding (3.97); ER12-Urban Infrastructure (4.05); ER13-Mega Property Developments (4.06); ER14-Petrochemicals (4.09); ER15-Chemical Engineering (4.02); ER16-Oil and Gas Exploration (4.00); ER17-Services (3.92); ER18-International Project Management (4.14). It is very interesting to note that across all sectors, the sample opted for Applied Research followed by Advanced level teaching as the most appropriate levels for sector specific coverage of PM in teaching curriculum. It can be inferred that as per the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; view sector specific issues in PM are intensely practice driven and therefore teaching should reflect the study of this practice more closely. Figure 16 B: Levels of Group E Sector Specific Teaching Focus

EL1-Information Communication Technology (ICT); EL2-Telecom; EL3-Research and Development; EL4-Space Exploration; EL5Technology; EL6-Defense; EL7-Roadways; EL8-Railways; EL9-Civil Aviation; EL10-Ports; EL11-Shipbuilding; EL12-Urban Infrastructure; EL13-Mega Property Developments; EL14-Petrochemicals; EL15-Chemical Engineering; EL16-Oil and Gas Exploration; EL17-Services; EL18-International Project Management

Findings From Correlation Analysis In order to find out whether each and every subject included within the overall subject domain was of significance or not, a Correlation Analysis was carried out for every subject (factor) with other subjects in that Area. For e.g. in the area of A. Management and Technology Area, there is a subject included, namely Operations Management for Projects. A correlation matrix was generated for this subject (factor) vis a vis other subjects (factors) in that area such as Planning, Scheduling Monitoring and Control Techniques; Statistical Methods for Project Analysis; and so on for 20 subjects in that area. Results were obtained on the degree of correlation observed amongst the subjects. 70


In the same way, all individual subjects in the remaining areas like B. Economics, Finance and Strategy, C. Behavioural Sciences Area, D. IT Area were put through a similar correlation analysis. The statistical correlation analysis is used because it helps in arriving at the strength of relationships between two factors. The idea in doing this for all the subjects, was with to understand the uniqueness of each of the subjects contained within the generalised Area (A. Management and Technology, B. Economics....., Annex 3) under which it has been included. Section E has not been included for correlation analysis as it is Sector Specific and as such has an in built uniqueness (randomness). A correlation analysis for this section would therefore be meaningless. Refer Annexure 4 for a complete result for all areas. The salient findings using SPSS software are reproduced below9. Management and Technology Area: This subject area included in a total of 20 subjects which were considered to have a direct bearing on the operations and technical aspects of the project business or project organisation. A detailed list of the subjects within this area is contained in Figure 12 A. Based on ratings obtained from the sample, each one of the subjects was run for correlation with each of the other subjects, to find out whether the subjects are similar or there is considerable overlap in their content. The correlation coefficients showed a value less than 0.90. For any factor to be closely related with another factor, the Correlation Coefficient should have values tending towards 1. Most of the values in the Table 5, Annexure 4, Part A, indicate that the Correlation Coefficient lies in the range of 0.3 to 0.8, thus indicating weak to moderate positive relationships (Refer foot note 10). However subjects with correlation coefficients greater than 0.7 would have significantly strong relationship. The subjects having correlation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows : Operations Management for Projects AR3 – Operations Research for Projects AR 4 (0.7), Project Quality Management AR5 – Health/Safety/Environment in Projects AR6 (0.7), Projects Marketing AR10 – Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 (0.7), Project Site and Equipment Management AR11 – Project Procurement & /Materials Management AR 12 9

Correlation Analysis generates the Correlation Coefficient. The Correlation Coefficient is the measure of the covariance of the actual and predicted values of factors. The correlation coefficient is a number between 0 and 1. If there is no linear relationship between the predicted values and the actual values the correlation coefficient is 0 or very low (the predicted values are no better than random numbers). 10

As the strength of the relationship between the predicted values and actual values increases so does the correlation coefficient. A perfect fit gives a coefficient of 1.0. Thus close relationships tend towards 1 while weak relationships tend towards 0. Values between 0 and 0.3 (0 and -0.3) indicate a weak positive (negative) linear relationship. Values between 0.3 and 0.7 (0.3 and -0.7) indicate a moderate positive (negative) linear relationship via a fuzzy-firm linear rule. 0.7 and 0.9 indicates highly positive linear relationship. If it is above 0.9 then the two factors can be treated as one and the same because they cannot be distinguished clearly.

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(0.8), Project Site and Equipment Management AR11 – Contract Management AR13 (0.8), Project Site and Equipment Management AR11 – Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 (0.7), Project Procurement & /Materials Management AR12 – Contract Management AR13

(0.7),

Contract

Management

AR13

Process

Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning AR14 (0.7), Contract Management AR13 – Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 (0.7), Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 – Logistics & Supply Chain Management AR 16 (0.7), Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 – Transportation Management AR17 (0.7), Logistics & Supply Chain Management AR16 – Transportation Management AR17 (0.7), Project Formulation and Appraisal AR19 – Project Engineering AR20 (0.8). The results indicate that as a group, the subjects Project Site and Equipment Management, Project Procurement and Materials Management, Contract Management, Facilities Engineering and Management and Process Design / Engineering / Testing / Commissioning are correlated. This is expected since the issues dealt with in these subject areas arise primarily during project execution and often times have to be dealt with in a coordinated manner. Similarly correlation among the subject areas Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Transportation Management, Facilities Engineering and Management are also quite expected and in most projects, these would be dealt with together. The correlation between subject areas Operations Management and Operations Research, and also between Project Formulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering are also along expected lines. There is also good correlation between Quality Management and HSE subjects and therefore combining these into a single course would be quite appropriate. It is not surprising that in the project management fraternity, the precise differences among these subject areas are not very clear. Thus the correlation analysis results strongly validate our belief that many issues arising during project execution need to be addressed in an integrated coordinated away. Similarly many techniques and methods adopted during the project formulation, appraisal and engineering need to be taken up in an integrated coordinated manner. A direct outcome of the correlation analysis is that in institutions and curricula where it is difficult to introduce several execution oriented courses, it will be quite adequate if a single course emphasizing project execution is included. Similarly Operations Management and

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Operations Research could be combined into a single course. Project Formulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering could also be combined into a single course. The results indicate that nearly half of the subjects included in this area are fairly unique and have their own individual importance and therefore need to be included in the curriculum. There is scope for combining course contents of other courses as suggested above, when there is difficulty in all of the courses contained in this subject area. Refer Table 5, Annexure 4, Part A for complete results. Strategy, Economics and Finance Area: In this Area too, it was observed that all subjects had a correlation coefficient less than 0.90. Therefore it can be concluded that subjects in this section too are fairly unique (refer Table 5, Annex 4, Part B). Here too, subjects with correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 would have strong significant relationship. The subjects having correlation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows : Macro Economic Policy BL1 - Project Strategy BL2( 0.73), Macro Economic Policy BL1 Social Cost Benefit Analysis BL3 (0.72), Project Strategy BL2 - Social Cost Benefit Analysis BL3 (0.76), ; Project Strategy BL2 - Financial Management BL4(0.71), Social Cost Benefit Analysis BL3 - Project Financing BL5 (0.71); Social Cost Benefit Analysis BL3 - Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects BL7 (0.72), Financial Management BL4 Project Financing BL5 (0.8), Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects BL7 Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, Special Purpose Vehicles BL8 (0.86). The subject Social Cost benefit Analysis is most heavily correlated with other subjects including Macroeconomic Policy, Project Strategy, Project Financing, Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects. Thus if this course is included as a separate course, care must be taken to ensure that the content is not duplicated in other courses. Alternately the course need not be included, if other courses reflect the content. There is a case for combining the courses Project Financial Management and Project Financing, courses Project Strategy and Macroeconomic Policy, and courses Legal, Commercial & Taxation Aspects and Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances & Special Purpose Vehicles. The correlation analysis provides very good guidelines on the way courses in this subject area could be grouped and introduced in the PM curriculum. Behavioural Sciences Area: In this Area too, it was observed that all subjects had a correlation coefficient less than 0.90. Therefore it can be concluded that subjects in this 73


section too are fairly unique. Subjects with correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 have strong significant relationship. Refer Table 5, Annexure 4, Part C. The subjects having correlation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows : Industrial / Labour Relations CR4 - Conflict Management CR5 (0.79); Industrial / Labour Relations CR4 - Diversity Management CR6 (0.78); Conflict Management CR5 (0.79) Diversity Management CR6 (0.81). Three subjects are correlated to each other, namely Industrial/ Labour Relations, Conflict Management and Diversity Management. So from the point of view of the respondents, these subjects reflect some common issues and concerns and there is a case for combining these together to achieve an integrated approach to deal with these issues and concerns. The other courses may be taught independently. Information Technology Area: In this Area also, it was observed that all subjects had a correlation coefficient less than 0.90. Therefore it can be concluded that subjects in this section too are fairly unique. Subjects with correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 have strong significant relationship. Refer Table 5, Annexure 4, and Part D. The subjects having correlation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows : Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) DR2 - e-Business Applications DR3 (0.72), Engineering Software DR4 - Excel / SPSS / DBMS DR5 ( 0.81). The correlation analysis results provide an useful way of structuring courses in IT area in the PM curriculum. For instance, ERP and e â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Business Applications courses could combined into a single course. Similarly Specialized Engineering Software and Common Software such as Excel, SPSS, DBMS could also be structured as a single course, in case there is difficulty in offering these as separate courses. Only Project Management Software needs to be taught as a separate course. 4.5

PART IV â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Infrastructure, Management Support, Regulatory Factors And

Current Status Of PM Research In Institute This section of the study was dedicated to finding out the nature of curriculum development and research that is currently being supported by the management of institutions in the area of PM. Along with this, it was also necessary to find out the extent of departmental and individual interests of the faculty in this area. Also, the average time taken by institution managements to introduce new curricula needs to be studied in order to assess the 74


‘responsiveness’ factor of managements to new ideas and curriculum development. The following section analyses the same. Part IV was again divided into sub sections covering factors like the availability of infrastructure, management support, regulatory issues and the current position of PM research in the respondent’s institute. The findings of the analysis are presented below. The first question dealt with finding out the extent of availability of existing infrastructure that was at the disposal of the institute (See Figure 17). The average ratings obtained from the survey are : IR1-Avalability of Library and e-resources (3.87); IR2-Course Material (3.74); IR3-Class Rooms (4.03); IR4-Laboratories (3.80); IR5-Computer Labs (3.90); IR6-Qualified Faculties (3.96); IR7-Avalability of Research Facilities (3.69); IR8-Management Vision (4.03). Majority of the sample felt that resources were generally easily available in the institute in terms of library, course materials, classrooms, laboratories, computer labs, qualified faculty and availability of research facilities. The respondents also strongly endorsed the existence of management vision (avg. rating 4.03) to support PM endeavours. Around 8% of the sample felt that management vision was lacking and hence PM education was not very popular in their institutions. Figure 17: Ratings Of Institute’s Infrastructure

IR1-Avalability of Library and e-resources; IR2-Course Material; IR3-Class Rooms; IR4-Laboratories; IR5-Computer Labs; IR6-Qualified Faculties; IR7-Avalability of Research Facilities; IR8-Management Vision

The next question centred on understanding the institute’s prior attempts to starting PM courses with a view to knowing whether such an attempt was successful or not. Figure 18 shows that majority of the institutions have made attempts earlier to start PM courses. It is noticed that majority of the sample (64%) have made earlier attempts at introducing PM courses in their institutes. 75


Merely knowing whether earlier attempts had been made was not considered enough. It was important to find out in case of those who had made such attempts, to what degree progress had been made in their introduction. Figure 19 shows the extent of progress made by those institutions that attempted to introduce PM courses. It may be noticed, that barring only 17% of the institutes, considerable degree of advance has been made by the majority of technical and business schools in launching courses related to PM. 27% of the sample refrained from answering this question. Figure 18: Earlier Attempts Of Institutions To Introduce PM Courses

Among those who had attempted to introduce PM courses in the past, it was necessary to know how far they have succeeded in their efforts to launch these courses. The following graph (Figure 19) shows the same. For 11% of the sample, the progress was in advanced stage, for 29.63% of the sample, progress made is considerable. Combining the two, around 40% of the sample suggest that there is reasonable effort in introducing PM courses, in their respective institutions. The avg. rating of 2.47 indicates that overall, the progress made has been considerable.

Figure 19: Progress Of Introduction Of PM Courses Introduction

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In almost all professional institutions, courses are chosen and introduced with the twin objectives of developing competencies as well improving employability of the students. The respondents were asked to rate the effect of introducing PM courses and its effects on the employment potential of the students. The result showed that majority of the sample (65.43%) rated the impact on employability of the students as ‘Considerably High’ and ‘Immensely High’. Another 25.93% of the sample rated this as ‘Good’ (Fig 20). The avg. rating of 3.79 indicates that the employability potential of the students undergoing PM training is considerably high. Figure 20: Impact Of PM Courses On Employability Of Students

The study also sought to establish whether there exists any link between PM’s employment potential and the requirement of the industry as a whole. A direct and pointed question was included to find out whether the companies, at the time of recruitment, specifically ask for PM competencies in the students. And if they did, what was the level of competence that they expected in the students? The results are given below in Figure 21. As seen in the graph, majority of the sample said that the companies did look for considerably high levels of 77


competency in PM amongst the students (avg. rating 2.68). Only 11.11% of the sample felt that PM competency was not a criterion for selection. Figure 21: Company Specifically Looking For PM Competency In Students

Part C of the institutional questionnaire focussed on eliciting response on whether the institution faced challenges with respect to regulatory issues, while introducing PM related courses. This section was added with the intention of finding out whether regulatory â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;red tapeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; acts as a barrier in the establishment of PM in the institution. The respondents were asked to comment on the time frame required to sort out issues like introduction of new courses, sanctioning of budgets, training of faculty, building library resources, etc. The following section deals with the responses generated. Figure 22 shows the category of the institution that the respondent belonged to, and Figure 23 shows the average time taken by the institute to introduce new courses. Figure 22: Category Of Institutions

Majority of the institutions (43.27%) were affiliated to the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), the apex government accreditation body. 24.04% of the institutions 78


interviewed were university affiliated. Figure 23 throws up a very interesting statistic. Only a small percentage (12.35%) responded that it requires only up to 6 months to get an academic approval for a new course. Another 27.16% said that it took around 6-12 months to do so. Approx 51% of the sample took more than a year to get the approvals in starting new courses (avg. rating 3.04). This indicates that most of the institutions have to take into account a considerable time lag of up to 1- 2 years in introducing PM courses. The average time taken is little over 19 months. It may be noted that Academic Council approvals are internal ‘in principle’ sanctions at the institutional level. Figure 23: Academic Council Approval

The respondents were asked to rate the time taken to receive approvals from government and other external bodies for commencement of such courses. These are statutory bodies which give final permissions. These approvals are therefore ‘external’ in nature to the academic institution. These require the institution to apply and wait for the sanctions from these statutory agencies. As seen in Figure 24, majority of the sample ( 34.57 % ) responded that regulatory approvals took between 6-12 months, 20.99% sample took 1- 2 years, 13.7% of the sample took 2- 3 years. Around 12.35 % of the sample took more than 2-3 years to receive approvals to start new courses from statutory bodies (avg. rating 2.75). This indicates that regulatory approval requires one to two years, with an average of around 16.5 months. Combining the two results, it is quite surprising that the average time taken internally to introduce a course is higher than the time taken for regulatory approval. Figure 24: Regulatory Approval 79


Figure 25 shows the average time taken by the institutions in building resources such as library and publications, etc in the area of PM. 26.32% of the sample said that it took up to 6 months to build the resources, 39.47% took 6-12 months, 19.74 % took 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2 years, 14.47 % took more than 2 years (avg. time 13.9 months). This indicates that it takes on average about a year to build the resources. Figure 25: Resource Building

Majority of the sample i.e. around 80% said that it took anywhere up to 2 years to complete the process of recruitment and training the faculty in PM curriculum. 10.67% opted for a period of more than 2-3 years to complete this activity, while 8% said it took over 3 years for the same. On average, the faculty recruitment and training process takes an average of 14.7 months. See Figure 26. Figure 26: Recruitment And Training Of Faculty

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Part D of this questionnaire was devoted to finding out the current status of research related to PM in these institutions. The purpose was to find out to what extent the institution was engaged in actively encouraging and funding PM research among the instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s faculty members. Questions on the state of existing PM research as well as funding opportunities within the institutions yielded interesting details. As seen in Figure 27, majority of the sample (65.43%) was not involved in PM research. A modest 34.57% felt that they are engaged in PM related research. Figure 27: Involvement In Project Management Research

When asked whether the institution had either its own funding or undertook sponsored research in PM, majority of the sample did not answer the question. Only 20.99% accepted that funded research was being carried out in the institute while 4.94% said that there was no funded research happening in the area of PM in their institute. Figure 28: Funded Research 81


Conclusion This chapter aimed at presenting the perceptions of the faculty employed in technical and management academic institutions running courses at undergraduate, post graduate and in some cases even at doctoral levels. In summary, it was found that the respondent sample perceived the current state of PM education to be â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fairâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; implying there is much further scope for improvement. They admit that PM education definitely improves employability and therefore academic institutions of the professional kind must make effort in teaching PM. This would enable the institutions to build strong PM skills amongst the students. All the subjects included in the Management and Technology Area were found to be very important. On the basis of average rating scores, it can be inferred that these subjects are very important and necessary to be included in the curricula. However importance assigned is higher for certain subjects including Operations Management; Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Statistical methods, Operation research techniques; Project Quality Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Health, Safety and Environment Management. Majority of the respondents want the courses to be taught at Undergraduate and Post Graduate levels. Most of the subjects in the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area were considered to be very important at the post graduate level with the exception of Macroeconomic Policy which could be taught at undergraduate level. In the Behavioural Sciences Area, all the subjects were rated as very important and the subject rated most important was Managerial Skills. In the 82


Information Technology Area, three subjects, namely PM Software, Engineering Software and Excel/SPSS/DBMS are rated as extremely important. ERP and e â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Buainess Applications are rated very important. Clearly the respondents strongly endorse the importance of teaching IT related subjects. There is also strong preferrence for thse sibjects to be covered at the post graduate level.

Faculty agreed that the effect of PM education on the employability of the students was very positive and therefore PM should be strongly encouraged. Coverage of sector specific issues in PM curriculum was considered very important across all the sectors included in the study but the respondents strongly emphasized that such sector specific issues are best addressed at applied research level or in advanced courses. The correlation analysis provides very good basis for structuring courses in all the subject areas considered in the study. In the technology and Management area, the results indicate that the subjects Project Site and Equipment Management, Project Procurement and Materials Management, Contract Management, Facilities Engineering and Management and Process Design / Engineering / Testing / Commissioning are correlated. This is expected since these issues arise during project execution and have to be dealt with in a coordinated manner. Similarly correlation among the subject areas Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Transportation Management, Facilities Engineering and Management are also quite expected and in most projects, these would be dealt with together. The correlation between subject areas Operations Management and Operations Research, and also between Project Formulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering are also along expected lines. There is also good correlation between Quality Management and HSE subjects and therefore combining these into a single course would be quite appropriate. It is not surprising that in the project management fraternity, the precise differences among these subject areas are not very clear. While most of the subjects grouped in these subject areas are found to be very important, there is a case for combining some of these together, in order to emphasize the importance of managing projects in a coordinated and integrated manner. A direct outcome of the correlation analysis is that in institutions and curricula where it is difficult to introduce several execution oriented courses, it will be quite adequate if a single course emphasizing project execution is included. In the Economics and Strategy area, the subject Social Cost benefit Analysis is most heavily correlated with other subjects including Macroeconomic Policy, Project Strategy, Project 83


Financing, Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects. Thus if this course is included as a separate course, care must be taken to ensure that the content is not duplicated in other courses. Alternately the course need not be included, if other courses reflect the content. There is a case for combining the courses Project Financial Management and Project Financing, courses Project Strategy and Macroeconomic Policy, and courses Legal, Commercial & Taxation Aspects and Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances & Special Purpose Vehicles. The correlation analysis provides very good guidelines on the way courses in this subject area could be grouped and introduced in the PM curriculum. In the Behavioural Sciences area, three subjects are correlated to each other, namely Industrial/ Labour Relations, Conflict Management and Diversity Management. So from the point of view of the respondents, these subjects reflect some common issues and concerns and there is a case for combining these together to achieve an integrated approach to deal with these issues and concerns. The other courses may be taught independently. The correlation analysis results provide a useful way of structuring courses in IT area in the PM curriculum. For instance, ERP and e â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Business Applications courses could be combined into a single course. Similarly Specialized Engineering Software and Common Software such as Excel, SPSS, DBMS could also be structured as a single course, in case there is difficulty in offering these as separate courses. Only Project Management Software needs to be taught as a separate course. Majority of the sample felt that resources were generally easily available in the institute in terms of library, course materials, classrooms, laboratories, computer labs, qualified faculty and availability of research facilities. The respondents also strongly endorsed the existence of management vision to support PM endeavours. It takes on average about a year to build the necessary physical resources. On average, the faculty recruitment and training process takes 14.7 months. The research involvement of the institutions is found to be quite low and only about 20% institutions reported funded research. The academic institutions consider the employability potential of the students undergoing PM training to be considerably high. They said that the companies did look for considerably high levels of competency in PM amongst the students. At present appreciable time is required to obtain internal as well external regulatory approvals for introducing new courses. Most of the institutions have to take into account a considerable time lag of up to 1-2 years in introducing PM courses. The average internal lead time is little over 19 months. The regulatory approval 84


requires 1-2 years, with an average of around 16.5 months. It is quite surprising that the average time taken internally to introduce a course is higher than the time taken for regulatory approval. There is a general agreement that much of the PM curriculum should be preferrably introduced at the Post Graduate level, followed by Undergraduate level. On the question of introducing sector specific coursework in PM curriculum, there is a strong preference for introducing such curriculum, but the overwhelming suggestion is that such curriculum is best introduced at applied research level or in advanced courses. The present emphasis on research and publications, in particular sponsored research, is rather low and as a consequence, PM research and publications are few and sporadic.

Box 2: Project Management Courses In Indian Institute Of Management, Ahmedabad, (IIM A) Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad was established by Government of India, Government of Gujarat and Indian industry as an autonomous institution under the Act XXI of 1860 for the Registration of literary, scientific and charitable societies. The Institute functions under the overall administrative control of Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India. IIMA has evolved from being India's premier management institute to a notable international school of management in just five decades. 85


The Institute had initial collaboration with Harvard Business School. This collaboration greatly influenced the Institute's approach to education and teaching methods. Gradually, it emerged as a confluence of the best of Eastern and Western values. The institute offers Post Graduate Programmes in Management in which Project Management is offered as an advanced level elective subject. The Institute assigns high level of importance to PM related coursework. The Institute has already made attempts in the past, and runs elective courses in the area of Project Management since the last few years. The IIMAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s faculty believes that the introduction of Project Management courses helps improve the employability of the students to a good extent. At an individual level, faculty have research interests in the area of PM. Many faculty members have published research papers and addressed seminars and conferences in the area of PM. The Institute also conducts regularly executive development programmes/workshops in PM. The Institute has also provided consultancy services in PM to a variety of organisations in government, public and private sectors as well as some international agencies. A few of the research theses have been written on issues related to PM in the Instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fellow Programme in Management (FPM). Source: NICMAR Survey Data, 2010

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Box 3: Project Management Courses In Indian Institute Of Management, Calcutta, (IIM C) The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (IIMC) was established as the first National Institute for Post Graduate Studies and Research in Management by the Government of India in November 1961 in collaboration with Alfred P. Sloan School of Management (MIT), the Government of West Bengal, The Ford Foundation and Indian industry. Over the years, IIMC has grown into a mature institution with global reputation, imparting high quality management education. It has been playing a pioneering role in professionalising Indian management through its Post Graduate and Doctoral level programmes, executive training programmes, research and consulting activities. Today, the institute serves as an autonomous body, continually evolving to meet its goals in an ever changing business environment. The vision of the Institute is to emerge as an International Centre of Excellence in all facets of management education. Over the past four decades, IIM Calcutta has blossomed into one of Asia's finest business schools. The Institute offers various post graduate programmes in management in which Project Management is offered as an intermediate level elective subject. One of the biggest strengths of the Institute is its world renowned faculty. The faculty members have distinguished academic achievements in different areas of management and the related basic disciplines and are actively involved in teaching, training, and research and consulting. According to the opinion of IIMC faculty, Project Management courses are very essential for Engineering and B-Schools and they believe that the introduction of Project Management courses improves the employability of the students to good extent. The Institute offers executive development programmes in PM, undertakes consulting projects in PM and of the research areas in the FPM programme.

Source: NICMAR Survey Data -2010

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Box No.4 Project Management Courses In Indian Institute Of Technology, Kharagpur, The history of the IIT system dates back to 1946 when a committee was set up by Hon'ble Sir Jogendra Singh, Member of the Viceroy's Executive Council, Department of Education, Health and Agriculture to consider the setting up of Higher Technical Institutions for post war industrial development in India. The 22 member committee headed by Sri N.R. Sarkar, in its report, recommended the establishment of four Higher Technical Institutions in the Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern regions, possibly on the lines of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, with a number of secondary institutions affiliated to it. On Sept. 15, 1956, the Parliament of India passed an Act known as the Indian Institute of Technology (Kharagpur) Act declaring this Institute as an Institute of National Importance. The Institute was also given the status of an autonomous University. IIT Kharagpur runs both Graduate and Post Graduate Programmes in which Project Management related subjects are taught as compulsory as well as elective courses. The levels of subjects vary from Intermediate to Advanced. According to the Project Management faculty, PM courses are very essential for the Engineering as well as Management Schools and they believe that introduction of Project Management courses improves the employability of the students to a great extent. Several faculty members have interests in the area of Project Management and PM related research. They have published research papers and presented seminars papers in PM and guided in Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and Ph. D level project work/thesis work in PM. The overall thrust of PM is however more at the research level than training and education. Source: NICMAR Survey Data -2010

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Box 5: Project Management Courses In National Institute Of Industrial Engineering: (NITIE), Mumbai The National Institute of Industrial Engineering, popularly known as NITIE established by the Government of India in the year 1963, is located in Mumbai, India. The institute, which started off as an Industrial Engineering institute, now offers full time Post Graduate programmes in both, Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management. In addition, the institute also offers Fellow Programme, and Executive Education Programmes. It is considered by the Government of India as an apex institution on the lines of IITs, IIMs & IISc. It has been recognized as one of the 15 Centres of Excellence along with the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and Indian Institute of Science (IISc) by the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India. NITIE has decided to act as a driving force not only in the manufacturing sector but all sectors of the Indian economy such as infrastructure and services. It has been offering Project Management as one of the compulsory as well as elective courses at the post graduate as well as the research level for a very long time. The management feels that the introduction of the PM related courses in the academic curriculum will definitely provide the students better employability options and thus they continue to support PM courses. They also rework the courses and from time to time, revise and bring changes in the course curriculum. Being an institution dedicated to manufacturing operations and management, the management has laid emphasis on PM related courses. The respondent from NITIE feels that the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Management and Technologyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; subjects are more important in the field of Project Management when compared to the subjects of the Strategy, Economics and Finance, and the Behavioural Sciences areas. The subjects related to the Information and Technology like the Primavera, MSP, ERP and other e business applications were considered of less importance in the context of Project Management. The faculty is also involved in contributing towards research and publications in this area and are encouraged to attend various training programmes and conferences related to PM. Source: NICMAR -Survey data, 2010

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Box 6: Project Management Courses In Shailesh J. Mehta School Of Management, IIT Bombay (SJSOM) IIT Bombay, founded in 1958, has established itself as a premier world class teaching and research institution in technology and interdisciplinary programmes. About twenty percent of its alumni are entrepreneurs - many of them first generation. The pre eminence of the Institute is evident from its varied and effective academic programmes for manpower development to meet the rapidly changing needs of the organizations. To promote interdisciplinary learning and to keep up with the changing environment, IIT Bombay established its management school in 1995 with the objective of transforming professionals with technological background to "Renaissance Leaders" of tomorrow. In the year 2000, the school was renamed as Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management, in honour of Dr. Shailesh J. Mehta, a distinguished alumnus of IIT Bombay. The School of Management already leads the way in preparing its graduates to respond to the new challenges by drawing on the varied intellectual resources of IIT Bombay. SJSOM has some PM courses included in the Managerial Development Programmes (MDP) for the executives. The introduction of such courses in the MDPs is aimed towards developing and maintaining a strong interface with industry. They also enable the School to identify the current trends in business processes. The faculty member responding to our survey was asked to rate the subjects in the 5 areas listed in the questionnaire. In the Management and Technology Area, he rated ‘very low’ subjects like accounting and control systems, quantity surveying, project procurement & materials management, as compared to the other subjects like operations management; planning, scheduling, monitoring and control; operations research, quality, etc. Likewise he felt that subjects like project organisation and structure, conflict management and diversity management under the Behavioural Sciences area also have less importance in the PM subject areas. Except the ones mentioned above, all other subjects were rated ‘important’ by the faculty member. The School’s faculty members are actively contributing publications and are encouraged to attend various training programmes and conferences in the area of PM. The faculty also guides research work in PM related Ph. D theses. Overall it was observed, that the School assigned importance to PM albeit more so in select subjects and has some coursework, training and research experience in PM. Source: NICMAR -Survey data, 2010 90


CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY OF WORKING EXECUTIVES EMPLOYED IN PROJECT BASED COMPANIES IN INDIA

5.1

Introduction

A separate questionnaire was designed to elicit the gains derived from PM education and training by practising executives, who are currently employed in project based organisations, and for the major part of their working life, have been working on a variety of projects (Refer Annexure 5). The objective was to find out the efficacy of PM learning in relation to performance on the projects. The typical sample chosen comprised graduates in engineering and /or management who have been working with project based organisations after their graduation. The study sought to find out whether they had received any formal PM related training and the extent of time they were with PM in general. The idea was to determine the ‘before and after’ effects of undergoing PM training. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: PART I, II, III and IV. The first part (PART I A & B) covers the executives’ professional details such as the number of years that they have been in service, the number of projects in which they have had experience, in terms of their active involvement, the value of the project, the particular role of each one of them in various projects, etc. PART II covered the subjects that needed to be included as learning modules in PM. Three subject areas and individual subject contained within these areas in the questionnaire for practising executives were the same as those covered in the Academic Institutions’ Questionnaire. The subject Area of Economics, Finance and Strategy was omitted. Thus the subject areas included were: A. Management and Technology Area B. Behavioural Sciences Area C. Information Technology Area The respondents were asked to rate the importance of particular subjects on a 5 point scale, in the 3 subject areas listed above. The subjects contained herein were the same as those that were included in the questionnaire administered to the Academic Institutions. The specific 91


objective for this part was to find out the perception amongst the working executives about the subjects that were important to them in PM careers. This was to gain an insight into what the respondents viewed as necessary knowledge inputs in their project related jobs. The findings of the study are discussed later in this chapter. Section D, was Sector Specific, wherein they were asked to rate whether teaching PM skills through prior education or training were important for the variety of sectors listed such as Oil & Gas, Roads, Petrochemicals, Aerospace, Mega Property Development, etc. PART III of the questionnaire was included, to find out the extent of gains perceived by the respondents after completing the PM related training. The candidates were asked whether they had undergone any prior PM related training during their student graduation as part of their engineering curriculum. For those who had not, it was necessary to find out whether the PM related training they had received while in service, has benefitted them on parameters like improvement of efficiency and effectiveness at work, career enhancement, monetary benefits, changed roles and responsibilities, etc. Questions were also asked to glean information about the knowledge accrued to the respondents regarding the strategic perspective of projects as well the project itself. The last part, PART IV asked the executives to rate the current state of PM education in India. Respondents were asked to rate on a scale of 1-5 the importance of individual parameters that were hindering the progress of PM education and training base in India. The five factors/parameters identified were : (i) The general lack of awareness amongst students and educators about PM in general, (ii) Lack of trained instructors at the undergraduate and postgraduate level, (iii) Because PM is a practical field, it cannot be ‘taught’ in the classroom, (iv) Mastery in PM comes only from practical experience, and (v) The feeling that prior knowledge is not essential for working in this field. In rating the importance and the level of teaching the subjects, along with the simple average percentages of respondents opting for a particular choice, the numerical average rating scores have been computed and shown in brackets in front of the corresponding subjects. The average rating value contained in the brackets is to be interpreted as follows 0–1 1–2 2–3 3–4

: Not important : Somewhat important : Important : Very important 92


4–5

: Extremely important

Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of executives, value of projects, subject ratings and levels to be included in the PM curricula, gaining perspectives related to project strategy, their perceptions as to why PM education is not taking roots in India, ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula, impact on employability etc. the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical average rating scores were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents. In subsequent sections, we discuss the data findings for the technical and business academic institutions from different zones in India. 5.2

PART I – A & B : Respondents’ Particulars And Project Details

5.2.1

PART I – A

The findings of this part, dealing with the details such as years of working experience and PM training, etc. are presented herein. Figure 29 represents the average experience of the executives in project environments. Most of the respondents (37.84%) had an experience of less than five years, followed by 25.68% who had an experience between 6-10 years. 16.22% of the sample had a work experience of 11-15 years. Around 9% of the sample had experience of over 20 years. The average work experience of the group was 9.12 years. Figure 29: Years Of Experience Of The Working Executives

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Figure 30 depicts whether the academic institutions from where the respondent graduated, offered PM teaching as part of the curriculum. Surprisingly 75% of the sample replied in the negative. Figure 30: Institutes Teaching PM Related Curriculum

Further the respondents were asked whether they have at any time earlier either on their own or by other means, undergone training in PM. Figure 31 describes the same. A huge majority (89%) of the respondents admitted to not having undergone prior training in PM. Figure 31: Executives With Prior PM Related Training

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5.2.2

PART I â&#x20AC;&#x201C; B

PART I-B elicits details from the respondents on the value of the projects in which they have served and the techniques employed on projects to improve project efficiency. Figures 32 and 33, show the average value of the projects and the tools and techniques used to make projects more efficient. The single largest majority of respondents (37.29 %) had worked on projects ranging between.

100-200 crores. However taken together, the combined majority

of the sample (39%) had worked on projects whose value ranged between than

400 crs. The average value of projects worked is

200 crs to more

211 crores.

Figure 32: Value Of Projects In Rupees

The next question was to find out the extent of the use of software and statistical techniques by the executives during the project. The most predominant techniques used on projects were the very basic ones such as PERT and CPM techniques, (65.31%), which are regularly taught in technical as well as business schools. Modern techniques such as the industry wide accepted PM software packages like Prima Vera and Microsoft Projects are hardly popular and generally not used by the executives on projects. Arrow Diagrams and Fishbone Diagrams came a distant second and third respectively with 20.41% and 6.41% of the sample indicating the use of these techniques. Refer Figure 33.

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Figure 33: Tools And Techniques Used On Projects

5.3

Part II: Project Management Curricula

This part deals with the subject wise importance accorded by respondents on a rating scale similar to that of the academic institutions. The scale ranges from 1-5 with 1 being ‘Not Important’ to 5 being ‘Extremely Important’. Findings for the same are presented below. A.

Management and Technology Area: Figure 34 shows the ratings accorded by the

respondents to each subject in this area. All ratings, ranged from ‘Important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. The average rating scores assigned to various subjects in this area are as follows : A1: Operation Management for Projects (3.85), A2: Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques (4.60), A3: Statistical Methods for Project Analysis (3.66), A4: Operation Research for Projects (3.37), A5: Project Quality Management (4.09), A6: Health/Safety/Environment in Projects (4.19), A7: Cost Estimation and Budgeting (4.46), A8: Accounting and Control Systems (4.00), A9: Quantity Surveying and Estimation (4.26), A10: Projects Marketing (3.52), A11: Project Site and Equipment Management (4.10), A12: Project Procurement and Materials Management (4.11), A13: Contract Management (4.16), A14:

Process

Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning

(3.96),

A15:

Facilities

Engineering and Management (3.41), A16: Logistics and Supply Chain Management (3.63), A17: Transportation Management (3.50), A18: Technology and Engineering Management (3.83), A19: Project Formulation and Appraisal (3.82) and A20: Project Engineering (3.95). It is interesting to note that ratings assigned to practically all the subjects by executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by the institutions. Several courses have on 96


the average been rated as “extremely important”. These include Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health, Safety and Environment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and Materials Management; Contract Management. The rest of the subjects have been rated on average as “very important”. Furthermore, some courses are considered far more important by executives compared to the institutions. These are: Contract Management, Project procurement and Materials Management, Quantity Surveying and Estimation, Cost estimation and Budgeting, Health, Safety and Environment Management. One possible explanation is that these courses have a strong ‘execution’ and therefore ‘practical’ bias. Naturally executives seem to realize their importance far more than the institutions. Figure 34: Subjectwise Ratings For Management And Technology Area

A1: Operation Management for Projects, A2: Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques, A3: Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, A4: Operation Research for Projects, A5: Project Quality Management, A6: Health/Safety/Environment in Projects, A7: Cost Estimation and Budgeting, A8: Accounting and Control Systems, A9: Quantity Surveying and Estimation, A10: Projects Marketing, A11: Project Site and Equipment Management, A12: Project Procurement and Materials Management, A13: Contract Management, A14: Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning, A15: Facilities Engineering and Management, A16: Logistics and Supply Chain Management, A17: Transportation Management, A18: Technology and Engineering Management, A19: Project Formulation and Appraisal and A20: Project Engineering.

B.

Behavioural Sciences Area: Figure 35 shows the ratings given for subjects in this

area. 97


Figure 35: Subject-Wise Ratings For Behavioural Sciences Area

B1: Project Organisation and Structure, B2: Managerial Skills for Projects, B3: Human Resource Management in Projects, B4: Industrial/ labour Relations, B5: Conflict Management and B6: Diversity Management.

The overall ratings for all subjects in this area ranged from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’. Significant exception is the subject B2 – Managerial Skills for Projects in which majority of the sample (54%) rated it as ‘Extremely Important’ (avg. rating 4.42). All other subjects like B1 - Project Organisation Structure (avg. rating 4.0), B3 - Human Resource Management (avg. rating 3.95 ), B4 - Industrial Relations (avg. rating 3.80 ), B5 - Conflict Management (avg. rating 3.60) and B6 - Diversity Management (avg. rating 3.4 ) were considered ‘Very Important’. Except for Managerial Skills subject which is rated much higher by the executives, the other subject ratings in this area are comparable to those assigned by the institutions. C.

Information Technology Area: C1 - The average ratings for the subjects grouped in

this area are as follows: C1: PM Software – Primavera, MSP, GIS/GPS for Project Management (4.18), C2: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, 4.07), C3: e-Business Application (3.53), C4: Engineering Software (3.77) and C5: Excel/SPSS/DBMS (4.08). PM Software, ERP and Excel/DBMS/SPSS are viewed as ‘extremely important’ and the other two subjects are in the ‘very important’ category. The ratings assigned to these subjects are very comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives have assigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software. Overall all the subjects in the IT area were rated in the range of ‘very important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. Figure 36 describes the same. Figure 36: Subjectwise Ratings For Information Technology Area 98


C1: PM Software – Primavera, MSP, GIS/GPS for Project Management, C2: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), C3: e-Business Application, C4: Engineering Software (Auto-CAD, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max and CalQuan) and C5: Excel/SPSS/DBMS.

D.

Sector Specific Area: In this section, the respondents were asked to rate the

importance of PM education in specific sectors. Interestingly no particular sector was rated with an ‘Extremely Important’ option. All the sectors ranged from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’. The average ratings assigned to the coverage of various sectors are as follows : D1: Information Communication Technology (ICT, 3.60), D2: Telecom (3.50), D3: Research and Development (3.52), D4: Space Exploration (3.28), D5: Technology (3.85), D6: Defence (3.29), D7: Roadways (3.98), D8: Railways (3.91), D9: Civil Aviation (3.71), D10: Ports (3.64), D11: Shipbuilding (3.41), D12: Urban Infrastructure (3.84), D13: Mega Property Developments (3.70), D14: Petrochemicals (3.56), D15: Chemical Engineering (3.26), D16: Oil and Gas Exploration (3.55), D17: Services (3.65) and D18: International Project Management (3.78). On the average, coverage of all the specific sectors is considered ‘very important’. Sectors like Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega Property Developments are considered relatively more important than others. Chemical Engineering and Defence sectors have received relatively lower ratings. The executives’ ratings are generally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assigned somewhat higher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, Urban Infrastructure sectors. Figure 37: Ratings For Importance Of PM Education In Sector Specific Areas

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D1: Information Communication Technology (ICT), D2: Telecom, D3: Research and Development, D4: Space Exploration, D5: Technology, D6: Defence, D7: Roadways, D8: Railways, D9: Civil Aviation, D10: Ports, D11: Shipbuilding, D12: Urban Infrastructure, D13: Mega Property Developments, D14: Petrochemicals, D15: Chemical Engineering, D16: Oil and Gas Exploration, D17: Services and D18: International Project Management.

5.4

PART III: Changes And Work Performance After Completion Of PM

Programme This part of the questionnaire was designed to find out the individual professional gains that the executives experienced after undergoing training in PM. The respondents were asked to rate to what extent they gained in their careers in terms of the job content, promotion, enhancement in remuneration, etc. Respondents were asked to rate the various factors on a scale of 1-5 ranging from 1- Not Helped, 2- Somewhat Helped, 3- Helped, 4- Helped Substantially, 5- Helped Immensely, in order to differentiate the extent to which PM education/ training has helped in their careers. The part was divided into 2 sections A & B. The first Section A, dealt with the strategic overview gain for the executives i.e. their improved understanding of the project within the larger context of the organisation and its strategic fit. The second section, Section B, sought to identify the gains experienced at the project level, due to the skill based training to improve project level performance. Responses to Part III were analysed and the findings are discussed in the subsequent sections. As seen in the Figure 38, almost all the respondents have recorded their gains to be in the range of ‘Helped’ to ‘Helped Immensely’. The average ratings assigned for gains in different areas of strategic overview included in the questionnaire are as follows :

100


A1: To get an integrated view of the project (3.59), A2: Role clarity (3.87), A3: Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility mapping (4.1), A4: Understanding the exact placement of a project in the overall corporate strategy (3.75), A5: Importance of Earned Value of a project to the company (3.74), A6: Understanding project profitability (3.92), A7: Importance of Human relations and Conflict management in project success (3.71) and A8: Management vision (3.91). Gain in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping is rated ‘ helped immensely. In all the remaining areas, the gains are rated ‘ helped substantially’. Clearly the training in PM helped executives very substantially in gaining a better strategic overview of the projects. Figure 38: Gaining Perspectives Related To The Strategic Context Of Projects

A1: To get an integrated view of the project, A2: Role clarity, A3: Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility mapping, A4: Understanding the exact placement of a project in the overall corporate strategy, A5: Importance of Earned Value of a project to the company, A6: Understanding project profitability, A7: Importance of Human relations and Conflict management in project success and A8: Management vision.

Section B of this part aimed at finding out the direct project related gains to the respondents with reference to the direct project management skills. Figure 39 shows the response. Here too, respondents were near unanimous in ascribing gains by way of direct improvement of their project based skills after undergoing training. A highly significant majority opted in favour of ‘Helped Substantially’ to ‘Helped Immensely’ on almost all parameters. The average ratings assigned are : B1 - Importance of Project Planning and Scheduling (4.39); B2 –Importance of Monitoring and Control (4.20); B3 – Project Contract Management (4.02); B4 - (4.01) B5-Costing (4.01), B6 –HSE (3.86), B7 -Quality Management (3.97) and B8 101


Communication Skills (3.89). The gains derived in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control are particularly noteworthy. Figure 39: Understanding Of Project Context

B1: Importance of Project Planning/Scheduling/Execution, B2: Importance of Monitoring & Control, B3: Importance of Contract Management, B4: Project Risk Management, B5: Project Costing, B6: Importance of Health/Safety/Environment, B7: Quality Management, B8: Communication and Soft Skills

After assessing the gains that executives derived from understanding the Strategic and Projects contexts, they were asked to assess the gains that they perceive to have received in their individual careers after undergoing PM training. Figure 40 shows the gains accrued to an individual in his/her career range in almost all areas of personal development, namely decision making power, and interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. Very clear gains were attributed by the respondents on two factors, namely improvement in decision making ability (33%) in their project setting and an improved understanding of human related factors i.e. interpersonal relations and conflict resolution (30%). Interestingly, 25% of the respondents in the sample claimed that they experienced higher responsibility coming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appears to be a huge gain in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the job Figure 40: Gains In The Individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Career

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5.5

PART IV: Current Position Of Project Management In India

This Section attempts to find out the perceptions of the executives regarding the factors that matter the most in the systematic establishment of PM education. This was thought to be necessary since it would enable us to study the executives’ viewpoints regarding the set of factors they think, are preventing PM education from taking firm roots in India. Figure 41 summarises the perceptions of these executives in the form of a bar diagram. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of different factors on scale of 1-5 with 1 – Not Important; 2 – Somewhat Important; 3 – Important; 4 – Very Important; 5 – Extremely Important. The average ratings assigned to the factors considered in this analysis are : Q1- The Lack Of Awareness Amongst Students And Educators ( 3.70), Q2 -The Importance Of Trained Instructors At Undergraduate And Post Graduate Levels ( 3.69), Q3 - Being A Practical Field It Cannot Be ‘Taught’ In The Classroom (3.43), Q4 - Mastery In PM Is Acquired Only Through Practice (3.62), Q5 – Importance Of Prior Knowledge In This Field (3.29). From the responses of the executives, lack of awareness of PM among students and educators, lack of trained teachers, greater practice orientation of PM are the key factors emerging as the main inhibiting factors affecting the growth of PM education.

Figure 41: Factors In Order Of Importance Affecting Growth Of PM Education

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Q1- Importance of awareness amongst students and educators, Q2- Importance of trained instructors at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, Q3- It is more practical so practical training is required, Q4- Mastery only comes through practical experience,Q 5- Importance of prior knowledge in the field of PM.

Conclusion Majority of the practising executives responding to the questionnaire were from the middlemanagement cadre, from technical institutions with no prior exposure to PM training. Most of these were working on projects with value between

200–300 crores using very elementary

PM techniques such as PERT/CPM. It is interesting to note that ratings assigned to practically all the subjects in the Management and Technology area by executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by the institutions. Several courses have on the average been rated as “ extremely important”. These include Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health, Safety and Environment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and Materials Management; Contract Management. The rest of the subjects have been rated on average as “ very important”. Furthermore, some courses are considered far more important by executives compared to the institutions. These are : Contract Management, Project procurement and Materials Management, Quantity Surveying and Estimation, Cost estimation and Budgeting, Health, Safety and Environment Management. One possible explanation is that these courses have a strong ‘execution’ and therefore

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‘practical’ bias. Naturally executives seem to realize their importance far more than the institutions. In the Behavioural Sciences area, the overall ratings for all subjects in this area averaged ‘Very Important’, except for Managerial Skills subject rated ‘extremely important’. This subject w is rated much higher by the executives, while the other subject ratings in this area are comparable to those assigned by the institutions. Overall all the subjects in the IT area were rated in the range of ‘very important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. PM Software, ERP and Excel/DBMS/SPSS are rated ‘ extremely important’ and the other subjects are rated ‘very important’. The ratings assigned to these subjects are very comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives have assigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software. On the average, coverage of all the specific sectors is considered ‘very important’. Sectors like Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega Property Developments are considered relatively more important than others. Chemical Engineering and Defence sectors have received relatively lower ratings. The executives’ ratings are generally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assigned somewhat higher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, Urban Infrastructure sectors. In terms of gains derived in developing a better strategic overview of projects, PM training ‘ helped immensely’ in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping. Training ‘ helped substantially’ in all the remaining areas listed. Clearly the training in PM helped executives very substantially in gaining a better strategic overview of the projects. At the direct project level, training ‘helped immensely’ in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control. Training ‘ helped substantially’ in other areas including Contract Management, Costing, HSE, Quality Management and Communication Skills. The gains derived in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control are particularly noteworthy. In individual career enhancement, executives saw improvement on two factors, namely improved decision making ability and improved understanding of human related factors i.e. interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. Some experienced higher responsibility coming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appear to be a significant gains in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the job. 105


From the responses of the executives, lack of awareness of PM among students and educators, lack of trained teachers and greater practice orientation of PM are the key factors emerging as the main inhibiting factors affecting the growth of PM education.

Box No.7 Mr. A.K. Asthana, Asst. General Manager, Afcons Ltd.

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Mr. A.K. Asthana enrolled in the Executive Post Graduate Project Management (EPGPM) Programme at the National Institute of Construction Management (NICMAR), Pune in the year 2005-06 batch for a period of one year. The EPGPM is designed for Working Executives, working in the junior and middle management levels especially at the project sites. This programme aims at enhancing the skills in project planning, execution, monitoring, contract management, quality, safety and technology. Another important component of this is the enhancement of their communication skills and soft skills for better interpersonal relations and leadership abilities. Approximately 270 hours of teaching is imparted to the participants, and regular examinations on the curriculum, conducted at intervals. Mr. Asthana recounts the positive changes that he experienced in his professional career, after undergoing the course at NICMAR. According to him, the course made a difference in two major ways a) It changed his perceptions and attitude in looking at the issues in his professional work life, in all areas such as contract management, project management, conflict resolution, better communication vertically as well as laterally and b) The tremendous confidence that he experienced after â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;coming out of the process of trainingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. He admitted that having adapted the learning in his own way at the workplace, he became more confident and therefore, it also helped to achieve recognition in his career. Further Mr. Asthana admits that the training exposed him to the concept of continuous improvement and working in a systematic way. He learnt time management and cultivated a systematic working style which has overall led him to work efficiently and also achieve a work life balance. Lastly Asthana now, leads his teams in a way that all members are provided a platform to perform to the best of their ability. He provides result oriented support, training system for skills development, judges the probable conflict points and steps in to remove them, in a timely manner. After the completion of the course at NICMAR, Mr. Asthana was immediately promoted to Senior Manager and thereafter he is currently designated Assistant General Manager in a space of approximately four years at AFCONS. Source: Email to NICMAR faculty.

CHAPTER 6 107


DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS EMPLOYED IN PROJECT-BASED COMPANIES IN INDIA 6.1

Introduction

It was considered necessary to incorporate the views of the industry on Project Management (PM) education and training. It was decided to seek responses from the Human Resource Departments of project based organisations, as human resource managers are directly involved in the design and deployment of PM training and development activities within their organisations. So, in project based organisations, a cross section of human resource managers were approached from heavy engineering industries, construction, information technology and banking services. The questionnaire is divided into two Parts. PART I seeks details about the general information and opinions of the HR executives and officers on PM training within their organisations. It also covers information on current and past initiatives undertaken for training and development of project related skills and the cadre/s of employees that the company trains in this area. (Refer Annex 6). Part II, deals with the set of factors that are considered important by the organisations for imparting PM training and develop PM competencies amongst their executives. Part II (B) of the questionnaire, also has questions on the preferred training methods and the training outcomes considered by the human resource managers. Part II (C) deals with the level of training and the grades of the employees for whom PM related training is directed. Part II (D) deals with the perceptions of the managers on the extent of costs incurred on the training. Part II (E) focuses on the perceived benefits that accrue from the training in PM. Part II (F) deals with the set of Project Management (PM) related fields essential to develop PM competencies. Part II (G) is based on the opinions of the efficacy of PM training in PM imparted by the various training entities. Part II (H) attempts to find out if the company values international accreditation extended to executives undergoing PM training as an added benefit. All questions within the various parts of this questionnaire were to be rated on a scale of 1-5 with 1 indicating the least score accorded to the specific question and 5 being the highest, by the respondent. Presented below are the findings from the survey. 108


In rating the response on various issues like the period of inception of PM training in companies, factors considered essential before planning PM training programmes, training cost benefits, training efficacy, etc. along with the simple average percentages of respondents opting for a particular choice presented graphically, the numerical average rating scores have been computed and shown in brackets in front of the corresponding subjects. 6.2

PART I : Respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Particulars

The questions in this section dealt with issues regarding the earlier training effort of the companies. Respondents were asked whether their respective companies have in the past trained their executives in PM. An overwhelming 95% of the respondents answered affirmatively, while only 5% replied in the negative. This is a very encouraging finding. Refer Figure 43 Figure 42: Companies With Prior PM Training Record

As seen in Figure 43, majority of the companies have taken to specialised PM related training less than 5 years ago (63%), followed by companies that have begun the process between 510 yrs ago (27%). Only 5% each of the respondents have been organising training for executives for longer periods (avg. 5.13 years). This indicates that on the average, the respondents have taken steps to initiate PM training in the past five years. Figure 43: Inception Of PM Training In Companies

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As regards the most frequently deputed cadre/s of personnel for PM related training by project based companies, it is observed that the majority of executives sent for training were drawn from the managerial cadre (39%), followed by the technical and non technical category (30%), and operational staff (25%) Surprisingly, the employee category of purely technical personnel was the least frequently selected for PM based training. Refer Figure 44. Figure 44: Category Of Employees Sent For PM Training

As for the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;levelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or grade of managers that were chosen for training, the level i.e. seniority of the executives was given the highest consideration by the company The most frequently chosen employees were drawn from the middle level manager group (34%), closely followed by the senior level managers (32%), junior level managers ( 22%) and supervisory personnel ( 12%). Clearly most training effort is directed at middle and senior levels of management. Refer Figure 45. 110


Figure 45: Level/ Grade Of Managers Chosen For PM Training

In summary, Part I shows that companies in the sample have embarked on PM related training fairly recently and prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre for training. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle and senior managers for receiving PM training. 6.3

PART II: Dimensions Of Project Management Training Design

A. Essentiality Of Factors For Executives In Developing PM Competencies Part II of the Human Resource Managers questionnaire aimed at finding out the factors that are considered essential by the company for developing PM competencies. These range from mandatory ones e.g. like ‘stipulation in the contract’, to project skill related, like employee’s ability to plan, execute, monitor and control projects or HR considerations like employee retention, career development of individuals in the organisation and so on. Fifteen different factors were listed out for consideration. The respondents were asked to rate on a scale of 1-5, how essential a particular factor was while considering PM training for the company’s executives. Figure 46 presents the findings.

The average ratings assigned to various factors are as follows: M1-Stipulation in the contract (3.6), M2- Improving the effectiveness of project operations (3.85), M3- Understanding Global projects (3.95), M4- Percieved Gains from PM training 111


(4.10), M5- Human Resource Development for better performance (3.85), M6- Employee retention (4.20), M 7- Career development (4.20), M8- Prerequisite for project based organisation (4.00), M9-Improves ability to bid for complex projects (4.00), M10- Improves ability to execute complex projects (4.20), M11- Improves ability to monitor and control projects (4.20), M12- Improves ability to plan projects (4.30), M13- Improves ability to manage contracts in projects (4.20), M14- Improves ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality (4.40). Several factors are rated as ‘extremely high essentiality’ factors. These include : Perceived gains from PM training, Employee retention, Career development, Ability to execute complex projects, Ability to monitor and control projects, Ability to plan projects, Ability to manage contracts in projects, Ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality. All the other factors are rated as ‘very high essentiality’ factors. The HR managers are seen to strongly endorse all the factors listed in the study. They emphasize particularly factors like project planning, monitoring & control; execution of complex projects; employee career development and retention; contract management and project delivery. Figure 46: Factors Considered On A Scale Of Essentiality In PM Training

M1-Stipulation in the contract, M2- Improving the effectiveness of project operations, M3- Understanding Global projects, M4- Percieved Gains from PM training, M5- Human Resource Development for better performance, M6- Employee retention, M 7- Career development, M 8- Prerequisite for project based organisation, M9-Improves ability to bid for complex projects, M10- Improves ability to execute complex projects, M 11- Improves ability to monitor and control projects, M 12- Improves ability to plan projects, M13- Improves ability to manage contracts in projects, M14- Improves ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality.

B.

This Section contained questions to elicit information regarding the most preferred

type of training method preferred by HR managers and the most significant outcomes of the training that were desired before designing the training. Figure 47 shows the type of training most preferred in the organisation. It was found that 41% of the sample laid emphasis on the 112


‘In house Training’ method. The next preferred options (28% each) were ‘On the Job’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’. Only 3% of the sample sent employees to obtain a comprehensive formal diploma/degree qualification offered by academic institutions. Figure 47: Type Of Training

The outcomes considered most important by the HR Managers before planning the training of executives, are shown in Figure 48. The most prominent outcome was the improvement of the skills of the executives. The next key outcome is the building of the knowledge base of the executives (28%) followed by competencies (26%). Interestingly the ‘soft’ skill, such as building the ‘right’ attitude has not been considered a dominant outcome (13%). In summary HR managers look to improve skills, knowledge and competencies of executives from PM training. Given that both skills and knowledge are key components of competencies, training must clearly aim at improving skills and knowledgebase of executives.

Figure 48: Predominant Outcome Of The Training

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C.

This Section deals with the level of training (Elementary/Basic/Advanced/Strategic)

imparted to a particular grade of executives (Operatives/ Supervisory/Middle level/Senior level), to comprehend the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;depthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of PM based training offered in companies. Figure 49 represents the preferences given by the HR managers for the same. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are as follows : Operatives : Elementary training (48%), Supervisory : Basic training (47%), Middle level managers : Advanced training (47%), Senior Level executives : Strategic training (61%). These findings are along expected lines, and highlight a planned approach for PM training. Figure 49: Type Of Training And Level Of Executives Sent For PM Based Training

D.

This section deals with the costs of PM based training covering items like training

costs, course material, traineesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; salary and loss of productivity during the training period, etc. 114


considered expensive by the HR managers. Figure 50 depicts the same. On almost all factors, the HR managers’ view was that the training of trainer, materials, expenses of trainees, costs of facilities and equipment etc. are ‘Quite Expensive’. The average ratings assigned to the various factors considered are as follows : Trainees’ salaries and time (3.6), Materials for training (3.45), Expenses for trainers (3.5), Expenses for trainees (3.45), Cost of facilities and equipment (3.7), Lost productivity (3.05). Figure 50: Ratings Of Training Costs Of PM Training

N1- Trainer’s salary and time, N2- Trainee’s salary and time, N3- Materials for training, N4-Expenses for trainers, N5- Expenses for trainees, N6- Cost of facilities and equipment, N7- Lost productivity.

Overall the perception amongst the respondents is that PM training is quite expensive. However it is very encouraging to note the lowest rating assigned to the factor N7 – Lost Productivity of executives, which implies that HR managers do not regard the loss of productivity of executives during their absence to be as expensive as other factors, which they are quite willing to accept in anticipation of the large scale benefits expected from training E.

This Section attempts to find out the benefits of PM based training to companies.

Benefits included were: increase in production, reduction of errors, employee retention, less supervision, ability to use new skills, attitudinal changes and growth in business/revenue. Respondents were asked to rate on a 5 point scale, with 1 being the rating of least beneficial to 5 being highly beneficial. The findings in this section were quite satisfactory. The overall

115


ratings on all factors were in the range of ‘Beneficial’, ‘Quite Beneficial’ and ‘Highly Beneficial’. The average ratings assigned to various factors considered are as follows : K1- Increase in production/ performance (3.15), K2- Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards (3.47), K3- Employee retention (3.68), K4- Less supervision necessary (3.57), K5- Ability to use new skills and capabilities (3.52), K6- Improved delivery performance in terms of cost, quality and time (3.68), K7- Attitude changes (3.60), K8Growth of business oportunities (3.68). On the average, all factors are rated ‘Quite benefitial’ which is very encouraging. It is quite interesting to note that HR managers strongly endorse benefits derived from Attitude changes. One factor - Increase in production / performance, is not viewed as benefitial as other factors. One interpreation of the findings is that the HR view direct benefits from training to be more discernible in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘output improvement’. Figure 51 shows the results for this section. Figure 51: Ratings Of Benefits Of Training

K1- Increase in production/ performance, K2- Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards, K3- Employee retention, K4- Less supervision necessary,K5- Ability to use new skills and capabilities, K6- Improved delivery performance in terms of cost, quality and time, K7- Attitude changes, K8- Growth of business oportunities.

F.

This Section deals with the efficacy of PM based training. An HR manager has

various options to choose from while designing and deploying training within the company. Technical and business institutions offer training to companies in the form of open Executive Development Programmes, customised Company based Programmes or medium/long duration Executive Education Programmes. Also available are Independent Trainers, Certified Franchisee Trainers, and Internationally Certified Trainers who offer PM based 116


training. Companies may also exercise the option of employing its own senior and experienced executives to impart in house training in specific PM areas. The company may encourage the executives to undergo training at the executives’ own expense and effort. Therefore it was necessary to find out the perception of the efficacy that HR managers attribute to each of the above mentioned training providers. Figure 52 shows the ratings accorded by the respondents to the same. The average ratings obtained by various options are as follows : U1-Technical/ Business Institute (3.60), U2- Independent trainer (3.65), U3- Certified franchisee trainer (3.80), U4- Internationally certified trainer (3.70), U5- In house trainers (3.40), U6- Self Training (2.75). The highest average rating is for Certified Franchisee Trainers, followed by Internationally Certified Trainers, Independent Trainers and Academic institutions. In house trainers are not rated as high on efficacy. The high ratings for certified franchisee trainers, international certified trainers and independent trainers may be attributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers in imparting PM based training as per the requirements of the company. Self training Method had the least overall preference, implying that even HR managers do not prefer to leave PM training to the individuals per se. Thus most of the options are rated ‘Quite efficacious’ except the Self training Method which is rated just ‘efficacious’. However it is important to mention that the highest percentage preference in the ‘Most Efficacious’ category was assigned to academic institutions, with 20% of the respondents indicating that Academic Institutions are the ‘Most Efficacious’ medium of imparting training in PM. It could be inferred that because such institutions have a good concentration of highly qualified faculty, a fair degree of specialised competence available and research being carried out in institutions, the training content may reflect the same. Also the reasonable cost of such institutions is an added advantage in favour of academic institutions. However the downside could be that academic institutions may not always be able to effectively deliver purely custom designed training programmes. Figure 52 shows the distribution of scores amongst the various Trainer Options and Efficacy ratings attributed to each by the respondents.

Figure 52: Efficacy Ratings Of Various Types Of Trainer Options 117


U1-Technical/ Business Institute, U2- Independent trainer, U3- Certified franchisee trainer, U4- Internationally certified trainer, U5- In house trainers, U6- Self Training.

G.

In this Section, the respondents were asked to list the top five training institutions

where they regularly sent their executives for PM training. Most of the organisations adopt in house training techniques and therefore were not able to respond effectively to this question. The most frequent institutions of PM related training appeared to be the IITs/IIMs/ Indian Institute of Planning and Management together (57.14%), followed by in house trainers and NICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of 11.43% in PM training is most enviable by comparable industry standards. Figure 53: Most Preferred Training Options Of HR Managers

H.

This Section sought to find out whether an international accreditation accompanying

the training was considered of value and had potential benefits to their organisations. Figure 54 shows the preferences of the sample. It is reassuring to know that a clear 47% of the 118


respondents consider it to be of value. Of the 53% who opted for ‘Maybe’, the reason could be because the managers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditation with respect to their organisation. Figure 54: Value Of An International Accreditation Accompanying PM Training By Organisations

Conclusion: On the average, most of the companies have taken steps to initiate PM training in the past five years. The companies generally prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre for training. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle and senior managers for receiving PM training. For deputing executives for training, the companies particularly emphasize the following factors : Perceived gains from PM training, Employee retention, Career development, Ability to execute complex projects, Ability to monitor and control projects, Ability to plan projects, Ability to manage contracts in projects, Ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality. Thus project planning, monitoring & control; execution of complex projects and employee retention & career development emerge as the key areas for seeking training inputs. ‘In house Training’, ‘On the Job Training’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’ are the most preferred methods of training. Given that both skills and knowledge are key components of competencies, training must clearly aim at improving skills and knowledge base of executives. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are : Operatives : Elementary training, Supervisory : Basic training, Middle level managers : 119


Advanced training, Senior Level executives : Strategic training. These findings highlight a planned approach for PM training. Overall the perception amongst the HR managers is that PM training is quite expensive vis a vis majority of the factors such as : Trainees’ salaries and time, Materials for training, Expenses for trainers, Expenses for trainees, Cost of facilities and equipment, Lost productivity. However the lowest cost rating assigned to the factor ‘Lost Productivity of executives’ implies that HR managers do not mind the loss of productivity of executives during their absence, which they feel will be more than compensated by the large scale benefits expected from training. HR managers view training to be ‘quite benefitial’ on all the factors considered including : Increase in production/ performance, Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards, Employee retention, Lesser supervision, Ability to use new skills and capabilities, Improved delivery performance, Attitude changes, and Growth of business oportunities. HR managers strongly endorse the benefits derived from Attitude changes. One factor - Increase in production / performance, is not viewed as benefitial as other factors. One interpreation is that they look for direct benefits from training in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘output improvement’. Certified Franchisee Trainers are considered most efficacious training providers, followed by Internationally Certified Trainers, Independent Trainers and Academic institutions. This may be attributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers. However it is important to mention that the highest percentage preference in the ‘Most Efficacious’ category was assigned to academic institutions. Their good concentration of highly qualified faculty, a fair degree of specialised competence and research experience are a great advantage for developing good training content. The reasonable cost of such institutions is an added advantage. However the downside is that they may not always be able to effectively deliver purely custom designed training programmes. The most frequent academic institutions for PM related training appear to be the management institutions together as group, followed by in house trainers and NICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of 11.43% in PM training is most enviable by comparable industry standards. It is reassuring to know that the HR managers consider international accreditation to be of value. But the managers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditation with respect to their organisation. 120


CHAPTER 7 INTERPRETATIONS OF DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS OF PMI SURVEY 121


7.1

Introduction

All the previous chapters have covered the various aspects of research study and the findings on PMI education in India. A literature review in Chapter 2, covering the field of PM provides the overall status of PM education and research in India, when compared to the global levels and standards. This chapter presents the analysis and inferences drawn from the findings of the secondary literature as well as the primary survey. Also included, is a statistical analysis of some important areas that would help highlight some key findings on PM education in India, using Multiple Regression and Factor Analysis techniques. While India’s western counterparts have established the formal growth and systematic study of PM and created for it a formal Body of Knowledge (BoK) to stimulate applied and theoretical research, India appears to be lagging considerably behind. Drawing a comparison with her closest neighbour China, the latter appears far ahead in the widespread promotion of PM education, training and research, with the government and industry sponsoring serious initiatives in this area. The scenario in China appears overwhelmingly in favour of following a systems driven approach to PM propagation among the stakeholders, with a view to facilitate the procurement and execution of large sized projects in core, key and heavy sectors as well as manufacturing. On a global scale, it is seen that PM as a discipline has emerged slowly and steadily from such established disciplines like Operations Management, long impacting the manufacturing sector for over a century. Bibliometric studies presented in the form of research papers in leading journals, namely ‘International Journal of Project Management®’ and ‘Project Management Journal®’ dedicated solely to PM, reveal the steady transition of PM research from very limited focus areas of research interests, such as Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control, Contract Management, Project Organisation Structure, etc into more universal subject matters such as Risk Management, Partnerships and Alliances, Programme Management, Leadership, Team building in cross cultural project settings, and so on. In India, the discipline of Operations Management remains in greater focus and enjoys considerable popularity and familiarity with steady amount of research being published on the application of Operations Management techniques in manufacturing and services sectors. However, issues and problems surrounding PM are very sparsely researched and published by the academic community of technical and business schools in India. As is well known, for any discipline, to acquire the status of a formal academic discipline, a sustained quantum of 122


original research and innovation need to be undertaken and findings disseminated through forums such as paper publications, and/or conferences, etc. In fact in India, very few offer such avenues, with the exceptions like the NICMAR Journal of Construction Management which supports empirical and applied research in this area. The earlier search contained in Chapter 2 (p. 35) points to a very low generation of international research work emanating directly from India. On the backdrop of the huge investments in project works by the public and private sectors, 26 articles in a span of over 22 years is an issue of grave concern. (p. 35) 7.1.2

Commentary On The Extent And Depth Of PM Education And Research In

India The general awareness of project management research is not only modest amongst the educational institutions but also further exacerbated by the general lack of public or private funding to carry out research in this area. A construct to describe this phenomenon is represented in Figure 55, which shows the position of India compared to other countries vis a vis PM education and research. The X axis shows the ‘extent of PM’ education and practice prevalent in the country in terms of the widespread adherence of the discipline amongst academic institutions and civil society in general (project oriented society). The Y axis shows the ‘depth of PM’, as signified by the evolution of the discipline of PM due to sustained research in the area. This construct has been arrived at based upon the secondary literature available and contained in Chapter 2. As seen in Figure 55, the USA, certain West European countries, UK, Australia and New Zealand are far ahead in the penetration of PM as a taught discipline in academic institutions, in research and practice amongst industry as well as in society at large. Russia and China are moving forward quite rapidly to catch up and close the advantage of these nations. These countries are encouraged by the formal agencies in the government as well as professional associations that support and encourage the growth of PM education. However at the moment they may appear slightly behind in PM research as compared to the developed nations but are catching up very fast. In the category of Business Schools, India has a total of 1,516 institutions that offer Masters in Business Administration and Post Graduate Diploma in Management programmes. A sizeable number of institutions, 2,388 in all, offer technical engineering education at the undergraduate and post graduate levels. Another 1,970 institutions were awaiting approval with the apex AICTE approving body as in 2008. (Refer AICTE data on Page Nos.16 and 17 123


and Table No. 3 & 4 respectively). This indicates a very high rate of growth in technical and management education in the Indian polity. However, the number of schools offering either dedicated courses in PM or courses with this nomenclature within a wider discipline, appear few and far between. India is yet to catch up in terms of widespread teaching and use of PM principles and techniques by industry and society. Also in case of ‘depth of PM’, there is almost negligible research taking place in the country as mentioned earlier in this chapter. Considering the number of academic institutions engaged in education in technical and business areas, the rate of publications is too low. Most of the 2611 research papers contained in the IJPM® are contributed by the Indian Institutes of Technology, (Delhi/Madras/Kharagpur) followed by scientists from the Indian defence establishments, the industry practitioners and one each from NIT, IIM (Indore), NITIE and IBS respectively. Figure 55: Mapping PM Penetration In Across The World

The survey of all three stakeholders namely, the academic institutions imparting PM related education, the working executives serving in project based companies in India and the human resource managers who are engaged in designing and deploying training related to PM yielded data which has been presented and analysed using descriptive statistics in the previous chapters viz. Chapters 4, 5 and 6. In this chapter we attempt to draw statistical inferences from the data obtained. Additionally, an in depth analysis of key issues that require to be treated using advanced statistical analysis was found necessary to bring out a more precise and meaningful understanding. 11

Search of all IJPM issues between 1988 -2010, conducted on 18 th September 2010, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleListURL&_method=list&_ArticleListID=1472440278&_sort=r&_st=13&view=c&_acct=C000072695&_version=1&_urlVersi on=0&_userid=7735364&md5=398b1a5fbe7252198a37055d9198832e&searchtype=a

124


7.2

Institutional Data Analysis And Inferences

The survey coverage was well dispersed geographically and included fair representation of government run as well as private academic technical and management institutions. The inclusion of private institutions in the sample was because a) These are generally known for their flexibility and responsiveness in introduction of new courses because it is perceived as offering a competitive advantage to them, b) These courses improve the employability of the students, due their immediate applicability and contemporary nature, c) PM education and training have wide global acceptance and mobility. In contrast, government run institutions are perceived as more ‘rule bound’. The private institutions tend to use this as an effective ‘leverage’ to attract industry users. The technical institutions are mostly found in the southern parts of India and similarly it is reflected in the proportion of the sample chosen by the researchers. Most of these institutions are private, self funded ones. The respondents who took part in the survey were highly experienced, with the maximum (61.73%) falling in the category of 16-30 years experience (avg. experience 21.27 years). These individuals are most likely to have witnessed the radical changes that have taken place in the economy post liberalisation of 1991, as well as the burgeoning growth of infrastructure projects, IT and telecom, ports and shipping, railways and urban development projects. It can be inferred that the respondents possessed appropriate experience and credibility to do justice to the questionnaire. From the findings, it appears that the respondents consider the current state of PM education in India to be at best, ‘fair’. Almost all the institutions covered had earlier introduced courses in PM at the undergraduate or the postgraduate levels. A very small fraction of the respondents had introduced these at advanced levels. One can infer that due to its limited penetration amongst academic institutions and mostly at undergraduate and graduate levels, PM in India continues to remain understated. Pursuit of PM at doctoral level programmes was reported by only 17% of the sample, and a closer analysis reveals that these were offered only by India’s elite institutes of technology and management. Our survey rules in favour of PM education to be made mandatory in engineering, management, architecture, infrastructure and planning schools as perceived by the experienced faculty. PM educational curricula must necessarily draw from established theoretical knowledge as well as focus on generating new knowledge after researching real time practice. Thus the classification of subject matter that could be deemed essential for inclusion in PM curricula 125


was drawn up and presented for response. The courses were grouped into four Areas namely, A) Management and Technology Area, B) Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, C) Behavioural Sciences Area and D) Information Technology Area. The subjects to be included in the Management and Technology Area are highly favoured by the academics for inclusion in the syllabus at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Subjects such as: (i) Operations Management, (ii) Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research for Projects, (v) Projects Quality Management and (vi)Health, Safety and Environment in Projects, (vii) Cost Estimation & Budgeting and (viii) Accounting and Control Systems are most favoured among other subjects in this area. A Factor Analysis (FA) carried out on all the subjects to obtain the most important subjects, is described further on in this chapter. In case of Strategy, Finance and Economics Area, most of the respondents preferred that it be taught at post graduate levels. In the Behavioural Sciences Area, the academics did not rate the subject area of as much importance as the executives did. Clearly the perception of the academics regarding this subject area differs greatly from those of the practising executives. In case of the Information Technology Area, the responding faculty unanimously voiced its importance for inclusion in the curriculum. The same was true for the practicing executives in this area. Based on the data obtained in the study, all of the hypotheses have been accepted as null hypotheses and have been proved, except Hypothesis 1 which refers to the overall status of PM education in India ‘being poor’. Data shows that the alternative hypothesis requires to be accepted. Thus in Hypothesis No.1, it can be said that the overall status of PM education in India was found to be ‘not poor’ (p. 43). It can be inferred that there is already a high potential existing in India for PM education to grow substantially in the coming years. Continuing the discussion on the data obtained on importance of various Subject Areas, another related issue pertinent to PM education was the ‘Level’ at which the Areas and the individual subjects should be taught. The data obtained points to interesting responses. The academics voted unequivocally in support of inclusion of the subjects in the Management and Technology Area at the postgraduate level and even at the undergraduate level. In case of the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, almost all subjects were rated very high in importance. A small proportion of the sample (20%) gave lower importance to subjects like Legal, Commercial & Taxation Aspects of Projects, Project Joint Ventures, Strategic 126


Alliances, and SPVs. It could be inferred that the academics were not sure whether the above subjects required to be assigned the status of a full course or whether they could be taught as such within an existing discipline like Legal Aspects in Projects or International Project Management. The majority of the respondents rated this area ranging from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’. The average ratings for the subjects grouped in this Area are : On the average, all subjects in the category namely : Project Organization and Structure, Managerial Skills, Human Resource Management in Project, Industrial / Labour Relations, Conflict Management, Diversity Management are found to be very important, with slightly less importance for Conflict Management and Diversity Management. It is well known in the industry that the following are crucial areas in projects: Conflicts (at departmental, project, resource allocation, or interpersonal levels) and Diversity (of cultures, backgrounds, behavioural processes & systems). They require systematic understanding and treatment because project scenarios have distinct characteristics, contexts and compulsions as compared to traditional organisational establishments. A section of the academics even wanted conflict management to be taught at the Applied Research level and majority at the post graduate level. A very small percentage opted for Conflict Management to be included at the undergraduate level or at a certificate level. The executives assign high ratings to these areas. The executives feel that these subjects are ‘Very Important’. From this it can be inferred that there exists a gap between the academics and the practicising managers’ views with respect to the importance of conflict management and diversity. Often, the practicing managers, at their level have to face the consequences of conflicts on projects and would therefore like to learn how to deal with them. In the Information Technology Area, almost the whole of the respondent group in academic institutions (both technical and management oriented), accepted the huge importance of IT software to enhance overall project performance. The implication is that the academic institutions strongly endorse the importance of learning and using sophisticated techniques that would help efficient performance on projects. Therefore as a consequence, they also endorse the teaching of software at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. A very small section wanted the courses to continue in the advanced and research programme levels. The next question was to find out the importance of teaching PM to select sectors in the economy. The academics considered the coverage of all the sectors included to be either very 127


important or extremely important. It is very interesting to note that across all sectors, the sample opted for Applied Research followed by Advanced level teaching as the most appropriate levels for sector specific coverage of PM in teaching curriculum. It can be inferred that as per the respondents’ view, sector specific issues in PM are intensely practice driven and therefore teaching should reflect the study of this practice more closely. Academics therfore strongly endorse the coverage of sector specific issues in PM curriculum but would rather like these issues to be dealt with at advanced teaching level or at the level of applied research. In the next section we discuss some findings obtained from Factor Analysis for the Subjects to be included in the curriculum. 7.2.1

Results And Interpretation Of Factor Analysis For Subjects Rated By Faculty

From Academic Institutions A Factor Analysis12 was carried out on the subjects rated as most necessary to be included in the curriculum involving PM. Out of the four subject Areas mentioned (p. 67), a list of 31 subjects was chosen for analysis. Factor Analysis (FA) was carried out after determining the factors, from individual subjects in the 4 areas and their associated Eigenvalues 13, and the percentage of variance determined, along with cumulative percentages. These results are included in the Table No. 5 and 6. Refer Table No. 5. It is found that the Eigenvalues of six ‘components’’ are greater than one and after they are ‘extracted’, they can explain the variation upto 74%. This means that all factors (subjects) that were included in the questionnaire were rated by the respondents to be important for inclusion in PM curriculum. For ready reference, their average ratings are reproduced below. AR1-Operations Management for Projects (3.79); AR2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques (3.98); AR3-Statistical Methods for Projects Analysis (3.81); AR4-Operations Research for Projects (3.87); AR5-Project Quality Management (3.93); AR6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects (3.60); AR7-Cost Estimation and Budgeting (3.74); AR8-Accounting and Control Systems (3.26); AR9-Quality Surveying and Estimation (3.43); AR10-Projects Marketing (3.30); AR11-Project Site and Equipment (3.40); AR12-Project Procurement & /Materials Management (3.40); AR13-Contract Management (3.31); AR14-Process 12

Factor analysis is used to analyze interrelationships among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in terms of their common underlying dimensions (factors). The statistical approach involving finding a way of condensing the information contained in a number of original variables into a smaller set of dimensions (factors) with a minimum loss of information (hair et al., 1992). 13

Eigenvalues explain the Total variance accounted by each factor. The sum of all eigenvalues = total number of variables.

128


Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning (3.48); AR15-Facilities Engineering and Management (3.12); AR16-Logistics & Supply Chain Management (3.37); AR17-Transportation Management (3.12); AR18Technology and Engineering Management

However the analysis reveals that only 6 subjects (factors) included in the Management and Technology Area namely (i) Operations Management for Projects, (ii) Planning/ Scheduling/ Monitoring and Control Techniques, (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research for Projects, (v) Project Quality Management, (vi) Health Safety and Environment in Projects account for the highest proportion of the subjects (factors) that are absolutely essential to be included in PM curricula (i.e. 74%). The correlation analysis carried out earlier helped establish that Operation management and Operations Research, Quality Management and HSE are strongly correlated. Therefore in effect, only four subject areas, suitably combined account for the courses that are ‘absolutely essential’. Alternatively this means that the balance 25 subjects account for only a small fraction of the total PM curricula (26%). Therefore for the sake of simplification, this can be interpreted to mean that the top six subjects (four combined) that emerge from the analysis of academic institutions, are considered most crucial for inclusion in PM curriculum by the academics. An intriguing fact is that only a limited number of subjects (factors) continue to describe the whole scope of PM curricula amongst academics in institutions. This could be attributed to Indian institutions being in the early development stages of PM. It may also imply that except in the well recognized Management and Technology Area, in which the above subjects have been grouped, other subject Areas (and individual subjects contained therein) such as Behavioural Sciences, and IT, are not yet considered pivotal to PM education in the Indian technical and management education system. Viewed with the actual ratings awarded by the respondents to the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, it shows that almost the whole sample has rated subjects in this Area as ‘Extremely Important’ and ‘Very Important’ (p.62) individual subjects ratings). Figure 56 below represents the same in graphical format. Figure 56: Composite Importance Rating On Percentage Basis For Strategy, Economics And Finance Area By Academics

129


BR1-Macro-Economic Policy; BR2-Project Strategy; BR3-Social Cost Benefit Analysis; BR4-Financial Management; BR5-Project Financing; BR6-Risk and Insurance Management; BR7-Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects and BR8-Project Joint Ventures/ Strategic Alliances/ Special Purpose Vehicles.

Component

Table No. 5 Total Variation Explained Of Factors (Subjects) Included In Institutional Questionnaire

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

14.3692 2.444626 1.950424 1.62253 1.418033 1.163584 0.94764 0.843646 0.719408 0.631873

46.35225 7.885889 6.29169 5.233969 4.5743 3.753498 3.056904 2.721438 2.32067 2.038301

46.35225 54.23814 60.52983 65.7638 70.3381 74.0916 77.1485 79.86994 82.19061 84.22891

14.3692 2.444626 1.950424 1.62253 1.418033 1.163584

46.35225 7.885889 6.29169 5.233969 4.5743 3.753498

46.35225 54.23814 60.52983 65.7638 70.3381 74.0916

5.065974 4.951679 3.906904 3.901062 2.707042 2.435735

16.34185 15.97316 12.60292 12.58407 8.732392 7.857209

16.34185 32.31501 44.91793 57.502 66.23439 74.0916

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11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

0.580143 0.495776 0.435307 0.416837 0.374019 0.324673 0.294669 0.283742 0.237781 0.218579 0.183098 0.172249 0.156518 0.130994 0.124885 0.109208 0.098095 0.088039 0.071055 0.059716 0.033656

1.871429 1.599277 1.404217 1.344637 1.206514 1.047334 0.950545 0.915298 0.767036 0.705092 0.590639 0.555641 0.504897 0.42256 0.402854 0.352284 0.316435 0.283998 0.229208 0.192631 0.108566

86.10034 87.69961 89.10383 90.44847 91.65498 92.70232 93.65286 94.56816 95.33519 96.04029 96.63093 97.18657 97.69146 98.11402 98.51688 98.86916 99.1856 99.46959 99.6988 99.89143 100

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

The Scree Plot 14describes the distribution of Eigenvalues amongst the different subjects. Figure 57: Scree Plot Representing The Eigenvalues For Each Factor (Subject) And The Predominant Factors

14

Scree Plot â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the eigenvalues for successive factors can be displayed in a simple line plot. This scree plot can be used to graphically determine the optimal number of factors to retain. No more than the number of factors to the left of this point should be retained.

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7.3

Multiple Regression Analysis Of The Factors Affecting Introduction Of PM

Course Apart from the Factor Analysis on subjects, it was necessary to find out exactly which factors have a bearing on the Institution’s decision to introduce courses in PM. Thus by combining some of the relevant data obtained from the respondents, a Multiple Regression Analysis was carried out on variables defining significance of PM education to particular genres of academic institutions, using the extent of infrastructure and other relevant support ratings given by the respondents. Also a Multiple Regression test was carried out to find out the extent to which PM education ratings are corroborated by their ratings for Management Support to introduce or continue PM courses. Analysis and findings from these studies are presented in the next section. 7.3.1

Findings From Multiple Regression Analysis Of Significance Of PM Education

In Technical/ Business/ Specialised Academic Institutions In this analysis, ‘PM Education Ratings’ was taken as the Dependent Variable and Significance of PM education in Engineering, Management, Architecture, Planning and Design, and Infrastructure Management Institutions as Explanatory Variables (Independent Variables). Some models were formulated to carry out the multiple regression analysis. These are discussed below. Model 1:- Multiple Regression Analysis Of PM Education Ratings As Dependent Variable And Significance Of PM Education In Engineering, Management, Architecture, Planning And Design, And Infrastructure Management Institutions As Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable) 132


The dependent variable in this model, is the Overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Ins

). The explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Significance of PM

education in Engineering (REng), Management (RMgnt), Architecture (RArch), Planning and Design (RPND), and Infrastructure Management (RInfra) Institutions. Therefore, the regression equation for this part is as follows : RPME(Ins) = r1 REng + r2 RMgnt + r3 RArch + r4 RPND + r5 RInfra + C Estimated Equation is : PMIOR = 0.079*REng + 0.15*RMgnt - 0.26*RArch + 0.05* RPND - 0.08* RInfra + 2.27â&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;Ś (I) Dependent Variable: RPME(Ins) Method: Least Squares Included observations: 81 Variable

Coefficient

Std. Error

t-Statistic

Prob.

REng

0.078773

0.116781

2.674533

0.0020

RMgnt

0.153601

0.124024

2.238485

0.0194

RArch

-0.262704

0.240309

-1.093194

0.2778

RPND

0.050762

0.388730

1130584

0.1965

RInfra

-0.074853

0.314845

-0.237744

0.8127

C

2.273605

0.624008

3.643552

0.0005

R-squared

0.459362

Mean dependent var

2.049383

-0.003347

S.D. dependent var

0.739953

S.E. of regression

0.741191

Akaike info criterion

2.310069

Sum squared resid

41.20226

Schwarz criterion

2.487436

F-statistic

0.946625

Prob (F-statistic)

0.456114

Adjusted R-squared

Log likelihood Durbin-Watson stat

-87.55780 1.926252

Most of the explanatory variables are individually significant. The coefficients of three explanatory variables named Ratings on Engineering, Management and Planning & Design are positive, which indicates that they have positive impact on the dependent variable. The explanatory variable Ratings on Engineering and Management are highly significant at 1% level (Two Tailed Test), as their t-statistics are high and p values are near 0. Similarly, the

133


explanatory variable Rating on Planning & Design is also significant at 10 % level (Two Tailed Test). The R-squared value of 0.46 indicates that the explanatory variables are able to explain the variation of dependent variable to the extent of 46 %. The Durbin-Watson statistics is 1.93, which indicates that there is no autocorrelation among explanatory variables. Explanation: The 3 types of institutions wherein PM education is essential are Technical (REng), Management (RMgnt), and Planning and Design (RPND). The remaining two namely Architecture and Infrastructure Management were not explained by the available data and may require some other data. Generally Architectural institutions, barring a feqw exceptions, are not known to emphasize PM in their curriculum. Similarly there is probably lack of critical mass of institutions in infrastructure management capable of providing full fledged, comprehensive curriculum with enough emphasis on PM. Model 2: Multiple Regression Analysis Of PM Education Ratings As Dependent Variable And Institute Infrastructure Support As Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable) The dependent variable is the overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME

Infra

). The

explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Institute Infrastructure Support. The important infrastructure considered is Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib), Course Material (RCM), Classroom (RCR) and Qualified Faculty (RQF). Therefore, the regression equation for this part is as follows : RPME(Infra) = r1 RLib + r2 RCM + r3 RCR + r4 RQF + C RPME(Infra) = 0.188618*RLib + 0.175842* RCM + 0.224866* RCR + 0.808134* RQF + 1.527748........( )

Dependent Variable: RPME(Infra) Method: Least Squares Sample: 001 081 Included observations: 81 Variable

Coefficien Std. Error t

t-Statistic

Prob.

134


RLib

0.188618

0.127446

2.695339

0.0190

RCM

0.175842

0.160170

1.997851

0.1008

RCR

0.224866

0.135332

1.922669

0.0592

RQF

0.808134

0.117306

2.688903

0.0130

C

1.527748

0.332415

4.595901

0.0000

R-squared

0.417297

Mean dependent var

2.061728

Adjusted R-squared

0.388969

S.D. dependent var

0.747424

S.E. of regression

0.713400

Akaike info criterion

2.244907

Sum squared resid

37.66156

Schwarz criterion

2.451835

Log likelihood

-83.91874

F-statistic

2.302105

Durbin-Watson stat

1.906860

Prob (F-statistic)

0.043055

In this modified case, most of the explanatory variables are individually significant (Highly significant in this model). The coefficients of all explanatory variables namely Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib), Course Material (RCM), Classroom (RCR) and Qualified Faculty (RQF) are positive, which indicates that they have positive impact on the dependent variable. The explanatory variable Ratings on Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib) and Qualified Faculty (RQF) are highly significant at 1% level (Two Tailed Test), as their tstatistics are high and p values are near 0. Similarly, the explanatory variable rating on Course Material (RCM) and Classroom (RCR) are also significant at 5 % level (Two Tailed Test). The R-square value of 0.42 indicates that the explanatory variables are able to explain the variation of dependent variable to the extent of 42 %. The Durbin-Watson statistics is 1.91, which indicates that there is no autocorrelation among explanatory variables. Explanation: The infrastructure related to library, availability of course material, classrooms and qualified faculty are important variables which explain the variation in the dependent variable to the extent of 42 % . This means that some other factors are required to explain the relationship of PM education and the institutesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; infrastructure. These results could be seen along with the results of the Type of Institutions (p.58) of which only 11.54% of the respondents were autonomous institutions. 87.15% were AICTE, University Affiliated and Accredited Institutions. The latter are bound by structured processes of approval which may 135


take protracted periods of time from government agencies in the form of receiving sanctions to introduce courses. Therefore the type of the infrastructure currently prevailing is more dictated by the regulatory requirements rather than the targeted requirements of PM education. Such factors along with the limited data size may be the reason why the equation is explained to the extent of 42%. Model 3:- Multiple Regression Analysis Of PM Education Ratings As Dependent Variable And Management Support As Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable) The dependent variable is the overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME

Mgmt

). The

explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in the Institute (RPMCourse) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM). Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows. RPME(Mgmt) = r1 RPMCourse + r2 REPM + C RPME(Mgmt) = 0.26* RPMCourse + 0.07* REPM + 1.13………............................................................(III)

In this case, both the explanatory variables are individually significant. The coefficients of the explanatory variables namely, Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in the Institute (RPMCourse) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM) are positive, which indicates that they have a positive impact on the dependent variable. The explanatory variable Ratings on Effect on Employability of PM (REPM) is also significant at 5 % level (Two Tailed Test). The explanatory variable Ratings on Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in the Institute (RPMCourse) is highly significant at 1% level (Two Tailed Test), as their tstatistics are high and p values are near 0. The R-squared value of 0.26 indicates that the explanatory variables are able to explain the variation of dependent variable only to the extent of 26 %.

The Durbin-Watson statistics is 1.89, which indicates that there is no

autocorrelation among explanatory variables. Dependent Variable: RPME(Mgmt) Method: Least Squares Included observations: 81 Variable

Coefficient

Std. Error

t-Statistic

Prob.

RPM Course

0.256991

0.087833

2.925887

0.0045

136


REPM

0.068224

0.079605

1.857033

0.0941

C

1.127361

0.363748

3.099288

0.0027

R-squared

0.254942

Mean dependent var

2.061728

Adjusted R-squared

0.092248

S.D. dependent var

0.747424

S.E. of regression

0.712115

Akaike info criterion

2.195180

Sum squared resid

39.55444

Schwarz criterion

2.283863

F-statistic

5.064917

Prob(F-statistic)

0.008549

Log likelihood Durbin-Watson stat

-85.90478 1.887506

Explanation: This implies that apart from the two factors namely introduction of PM courses (RPMC) and effect of Employability (REPM), there are other factors that are obviously affecting the rating of PM education in India. For example our previous results already indicate that the variation in emphasis on PM education across various types of institutions, nature and extent of infrastructure support provided by the institutions have considerable impact on the PM education ratings. Only good employability, management support and introduction of PM courses in Technical and Management Institutes will not therefore improve the overall rating of PM Education. Some other variables like awareness and importance of PM education amongst the institutesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; faculty and management, the academic and physical infrastructure of the institutions will also be equally important. 7.4

The Practising Executives Data Analysis And Inferences

The next set of responses was drawn from practising executives, so as to find out their views and perceptions regarding project management learning. The sample consisted of executives who had not undergone prior training in PM before joining the course at NICMAR, but are employed with PM based organisations and particularly deployed on projects. Majority of the executives had upto 10 years of experience, they are young and have very few years working in the field. The practising executives responding to the questionnaire were from the middle management cadre. Most of these were working on projects with value between

200â&#x20AC;&#x201C;300

crores. This assumes significance against the backdrop that India has been riding on a high growth path, with enormous public and private funds riding on the back of the projects industry. The executives claim that academic institutions have not provided them with PM competencies at graduation level before they entered the world of employment. This also 137


corroborates the data obtained from faculty respondents regarding their perception of overall PM education in India which was rated as only ‘Fair’. According to the respondents, the skills learnt in the technical institutions were limited to PERT/CPM techniques, with Arrow and Fishbone techniques coming in a distant second and third respectively. Dedicated project management softwares like Primavera and Microsoft Projects came last. The ratings assigned to practically all the subjects in the Management and Technology area by executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by the institutions. Several courses have on the average been rated as “ extremely important”. These include Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health, Safety and Environment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and Materials Management; Contract Management. Furthermore, some courses are considered far more important by executives compared to the institutions. These are : Contract Management, Project procurement and Materials Management, Quantity Surveying and Estimation, Cost estimation and Budgeting, Health, Safety and Environment Management. These courses have a strong ‘execution’ and therefore ‘practical’ bias. Naturally executives seem to realize their importance far more than the institutions. In the Behavioural Sciences area, the overall ratings for all subjects averaged ‘Very Important’, except for Managerial Skills subject rated ‘extremely important’. This subject is rated much higher by the executives, while

the other subject ratings in this area are

comparable to those assigned by the institutions. Overall all the subjects in the IT area were rated in the range of ‘very important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. The ratings assigned to these subjects are very comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives have assigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software. The executives consider the coverage of all the specific sectors to be ‘very important’. Sectors like Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega Property Developments are considered relatively more important than others. The executives’ ratings are generally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assigned somewhat higher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, Urban Infrastructure sectors. In terms of gains derived in developing a better strategic overview of projects, PM training ‘ helped immensely’ in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping. At 138


the direct project level, training ‘helped immensely’ in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control. Training helped executives in improved decision making ability and improved understanding of human related factors i.e. interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. Some experienced higher responsibility coming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appear to be a significant gains in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the job. From the responses of the executives, lack of awareness of PM among students and educators, lack of trained teachers and greater practice orientation of PM are the key factors emerging as the main inhibiting factors affecting the growth of PM education. When faculty respondents were asked to evaluate their progress in introducing PM related courses in India, majority of the responses were in the category of Negligible, Initial and Considerable. Only 11% of the sample admitted to the efforts being in the ‘Advanced’ stage. Also the multiple regression results point to factors like institute infrastructure in terms of library, course materials, and existence of management vision and lastly management support as crucial to the introduction of the PM courses in the institutes. Data collected on both counts point to the fact that there appears to be a clear gap in the present curriculum of technical and business schools and the actual skill requirements of the industry. Furthermore when viewed with the systematic efforts taken by the Chinese government within the government ministries, as well as in the educational system, the efforts of the Indian technical and business educational institutions remains far short of the ideal. This appears to be even more acute when the average quantum of project value that the executives have served in the past or are currently serving in, is considered. When so much finance and scarce resources are at stake, the performance of the operational and project human resource does assume strategic importance. In fact existence of project skills and competencies can turn the fortunes in favour of the business and industry as a whole. Once again the Factor Analysis (FA) method was used to extract subjects (factors) that they consider important for inclusion. In order to maintain parity with the Institutional Factor Analysis, the same factors contained in the former are selected for analysis in the case of executives. After determining the factors and their associated Eigenvalues, the percentage of variance was determined, alongwith cumulative percentages. In Table 6, all the estimated parameters are presented.

139


It is found that the Eigenvalues of ‘components’ are greater than one and when extracted, explain the variation up to 71%. This means that all factors (subjects) that were included in the questionnaire are rated by the respondents to be important for inclusion in PM curriculum. However 8 subjects included in the Management and Technology Area, namely (i) Operations Management for Projects, (ii) Planning / Scheduling / Monitoring and Control Techniques, (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research for Projects, (v) Project Quality Management, (vi) Health Safety and Environment in Projects, (vii) Cost Estimation and Budgeting and (viii)Accounting and Control Systems, formed the highest proportion of the factors (i.e. 71%). Alternatively this means that the balance 23 subjects form a small component of only 29% of the total PM curricula. The top 8 subjects that emerge from the analysis are considered most crucial for inclusion in PM curriculum by the executives. Two of the top 8 subjects not figuring among the top 6 subjects rated by the academics are : Cost Estimation and Budgeting and Accounting & Control Systems. Obviously executives consider the issues related to cost management and control to be of much greater importance than the academics. Table 6 shows the Eigenvalues and Total Variance explained. A further analysis was conducted to find out in which of the sectors the executives perceive that prior education in PM is necessary to build PM competencies. It is found that the Eigenvalues of 3 ‘components’’ are greater than one when extracted, and can explain the variation upto 69%. These three sectors are: Information & Communication Technology, Telecom and Research and Development. The Space Exploration Sector follows very closely with 0.949 (almost 1), which implies even this sector is considered very important for PM education. Surprisingly, for the Sector –International Project Management, eigenvalue was as low as 0.087, which shows the general lack of awareness among practicing executives of the importance of building project management competencies to handle international projects at the degree level and perhaps even after.

140


Table No. 6 Total Variation Explained Of Factors (Subjects) Included In Practising Executives Questionnaire

Component

Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues % of Cumulative Total Variance %

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings % of Cumulative Total Variance %

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Cumulative Total Variance %

1

10.17328 32.81702

32.81702 10.17328 32.81702

32.81702 4.809169 15.51345

15.51345

2

2.756306

41.70833 2.756306

41.70833

3.17283 10.23493

25.74838

3

2.363979 7.625739

49.33407 2.363979 7.625739

49.33407 3.125478 10.08219

35.83057

4

1.632442 5.265942

54.60001 1.632442 5.265942

54.60001 2.765583 8.921237

44.75181

59.55717

59.55717

2.23332 7.204259

51.95607

5

1.53672

8.89131

4.95716

1.53672

8.89131

4.95716

6

1.372484 4.427367

63.98454 1.372484 4.427367

63.98454 2.191048 7.067898

59.02396

7

1.205142 3.887556

67.8721 1.205142 3.887556

67.8721 2.106039 6.793673

65.81764

8

1.077504 3.475819

71.34791 1.077504 3.475819

71.34791 1.714386 5.530278

71.34791

9

0.887366 2.862472

74.21039

10

0.873485 2.817692

77.02808 141


11

0.775828 2.502671

79.53075

12

0.694898 2.241607

81.77236

13

0.627206 2.023244

83.7956

14

0.578756 1.866956

85.66256

15

0.483409 1.559382

87.22194

16

0.464103 1.497106

88.71905

17

0.444625 1.434273

90.15332

18

0.399242 1.287877

91.4412

19

0.377663 1.218269

92.65947

20

0.353314 1.139724

93.79919

21

0.32893 1.061065

94.86025

22

0.2661 0.858386

95.71864

23

0.232301 0.749358

96.468

24

0.226792 0.731588

97.19959

25

0.186956 0.603085

97.80267

26

0.166592 0.537394

98.34007

27

0.137391 0.443197

98.78326

28

0.135593 0.437396

99.22066

29

0.10033 0.323645

99.5443

30

0.079777 0.257346

99.80165

31

0.061489 0.198351

100

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Figure 58: Scree Plot That Represents Graphically The Distribution Of Eigenvalues And Subjects (Factors)

142


Another set of factors that merit some attention and analysis are the views of the executives in relation to the perceptions as to why PM education has not taken adequate roots in India. Two factors emerged with Eigenvalues more than 1. These two factors explained 54% of the variation. These 2 factors were (1) Lack of Awareness (eigenvalue 1.515) and (2) Lack of Trained Instructors ( eigenvalue 1.161). The executives believe that PM education received early would help them perform better in the project environment.

Component

Table No. 7 The Distribution Of Eigenvalues And Subject (Factors)

1 2 3 4 5

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Initial Eigenvalues Total 1.514662 1.161167 0.978579 0.765958 0.579634

% of Var 30.29324 23.22333 19.57159 15.31916 11.59268

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Cum % Total % of Var Cum % Total % of Var Cum % 30.29324 1.514662 30.29324 30.29324 1.509628 30.19256 30.19256 53.51658 1.161167 23.22333 53.51658 1.166201 23.32401 53.51658 73.08817 88.40732 100

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Figure 59: Scree Plot That Represents Graphically The Distribution Of Eigenvalues And Subjects (Factors) 143


7.5

Human Resource Managers’ Data Analysis And Interpretation

On the average, most of the companies have taken steps to initiate PM training in the past five years. The companies generally prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre for training. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle and senior managers for receiving PM training. The companies emphasize the following factors : Perceived gains from PM training, Employee retention, Career development, Ability to execute complex projects, Ability to monitor and control projects, Ability to plan projects, Ability to manage contracts in projects, Ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality. HR managers assign the highest importance to executives’ improved ability to plan, execute and control projects better as the most important objective of planning training and deploying personnel for PM training. When this data is matched with the data obtained from executives on whether they had received instruction in PM related subjects while in college, a clear majority have answered in the negative. Also majority of the executives interviewed have work experience ranging from less than 5 years up to 10 years. Therefore the HR managers have to arrange PM related training in order to make the executives ‘project ready’ and ensure a certain degree of parity with other project personnel such as project managers, operations executives, purchase managers, etc. The companies believe that the direct benefits from training accrue to middle and senior managerial cadres the most, as executives in these two categories are directly involved in driving projects, taking decisions and overall project responsibility. From the responses of the executives, it is apparent that the objectives of the HR managers has been 144


fulfilled since the executives feel that their most direct gains are in their improved ability to plan, execute, monitor and control projects better. ‘In house Training’, ‘On the Job Training’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’ are the most preferred methods of training. ‘In house’ may be preferred as it is considered more cost effective compared to the residential training programmes. This was also confirmed by the top training and HR managers (See Refer ref no. 48, Bib) when they stated that most of the times, companies preferred this method, because it formed an integral component of a very large ongoing project, and therefore training of the executives had to be completed within available timeframes. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are : Elementary for Operatives, Basic for Supervisors, Advanced for Middle level managers, Strategic for Senior Level executives. The scope and complexity of training content must match the grades and responsibilities at various levels in the organisational hierarchy. HR managers are seen to keep this in mind when importing PM training. The findings highlight a planned approach for PM training. Overall the perception amongst the HR managers is that PM training is quite expensive vis a vis majority of the factors such as : Trainees’ salaries and time, Materials for training, Expenses for trainers, Expenses for trainees, Cost of facilities and equipment, Lost productivity. The high training costs can be attributed to the fact that PM training penetration and availability of specialist PM trainers in India, are still very low and less ubiquitous compared to other training themes in technical and management arena. HR managers do not mind the loss of productivity of executives during their absence, which they feel will be more than compensated by the large scale benefits expected from training. HR managers view training to be ‘quite benefitial’ on all the factors considered including : Increase in production/ performance, Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards, Employee retention, Lesser supervision, Ability to use new skills and capabilities, Improved delivery performance, Attitude changes, and Growth of business oportunities. They look for direct benefits from training in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘output improvement’. Certified Franchisee Trainers are considered most efficacious training providers, followed by Internationally Certified Trainers, Independent Trainers and Academic institutions. This may be attributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers. However it is important to mention that the highest percentage preference in the ‘Most Efficacious’ 145


category was assigned to academic institutions. Their good concentration of highly qualified faculty, a fair degree of specialised competence, research experience and reasonable cost are a great advantage for developing good training content. However they may not always be able to deliver purely custom designed training programmes. The most frequent academic institutions for PM related training are the management institutions together as group, followed by in house trainers and NICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of 11.43% in PM training is most enviable by comparable industry standards. It is reassuring to know that the HR managers consider international accreditation to be of value. But the managers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditation with respect to their organisation. The share of Registered Education Providers ® (REP®s) in the Asia – Pacific region is very low at 16 percent compared to North America. Particularly in India, there are only 70 PMI® accredited REP®s (PMI, 2010). Thus the relatively lower awareness combined with very low penetration of PM training accreditation and its benefits among the HR community of project based organisations could be the most plausible causes why HR managers are not clear about the value from International accreditation. The training is predominantly designed to develop the project skill base followed by the knowledge and competency base. Building the right attitude is not a clearly defined outcome. This could be due to the fact that soft skills competence is built into the normal PM training design. This matches with the responses of the executives on their improved understanding of human related factors especially, interpersonal relations and conflict resolution as the second highest area of gain next only to improved decision making ability. Moreover, the executives have assigned high importance to subjects like Project Organisation Structure, Human Resource Management, Industrial Relations, Conflict Management and Diversity Management. Therefore it is inferred that attitude competency can be viewed as an essential subset of the overall ‘hard’ skills that are required on projects. Thus there remains a much greater and direct emphasis on the development of ‘hard’ skills.

7.6

Synthesis Of Stakeholders Of PM Education – Academic Institutions, Practising

Executives And Industry

146


Synthesizing the data obtained from all three interest groups, i.e. the academic community, the practising executives and the HR managers (representing the industry fraternity), it is apparent that there exists a supply capacity gap in PM training in country. The origins can be traced to the limited inclination of academic institutions to introduce and attract students to the area of PM as a whole. In fact the efforts of the academic institutions to garner for PM the status of a ‘discipline’ with a built in academic rigour and requisite supporting research effort to provide a theoretical and applied bulwark to PM, remains understated and relatively low. Only a handful of institutions like the NICMAR, IITs, IIMs, SPJIMR, NITIE and Symbiosis appear to have taken conscious and concerted steps in this direction. This limitation carries through into the real world of project based organisations. Figure 60: The Cycle Of Education, Research And Training In PM And Its Effects On National Economy

Executives working in project based companies enter with little or no prior orientation of project requirements that are special and unique to their industry. With very limited tools such as PERT/CPM, etc. they find it difficult to comprehend holistically, the distinct requirements of operating in project based organisations. They are therefore required to be trained to bring out their best potential while in employment. HR managers are then charged with the responsibility of designing dedicated PM training modules that would bring direct gains to the project and company. With very few options to choose experts due to the general paucity of experts and recognised PM trainers, in academic institutions, and REP®s, the training costs increase considerably. At the same time the benefits of PM training are not fully utilised. The net loser in this is the industry and eventually the country as a whole which 147


pays for the delayed projects and higher costs to the National Exchequer. Figure 60 depicts the above as a construct. 7.7

Limitations Of The Research

This research is one of the few studies of its kind in India. Therefore as is common with such early efforts, the challenges faced are commensurate with the advantages. A few of these are described here. The first challenge lay in determining the sample size as well as the type. Questions regarding the ideal size and type of institutions i.e. government run, autonomous, private etc and their academic rankings as appearing in leading media were taken into consideration to arrive at the best possible sample mix. Only those institutions offering technical and management programmes at undergraduate and post graduate levels have been included in the study. The second limitation is that of time availability, as data had to be collected just before the close of annual academic year (months of April - May) in order to avoid the closure of institutions for annual vacation. In case of executives, they were curious to know more about PM education, but were unable to devote much time due to the academic year closure constraints. Thirdly the industry perspective could have been further researched for the type and depth of PM training, in house trainers and their approach to PM training etc. However budgetary constraints did not make this feasible. Future studies should address this issue in greater depth. Fourthly the government though a major stakeholder as well as promoter of new educational initiatives, has not been directly approached in this study. The views of the government with regard to PM, in either its user departments or its education arm, have not been researched to obtain a wider understanding of PM and its benefits. 7.8

Scope For Future Research

The future scope of study could include awareness in other types of institutions such as Industrial Training Institutes, graduate business management colleges, and in house corporate training centres. The governmental departments that initiate new projects as Clients, such as Urban Development, Housing, Roads, Railways, Ports, Irrigation, Airports, Rural Development, Healthcare, Education, Defence, Space, Science and Technology, etc. need to be researched more to understand their perspectives on PM in general, especially against the backdrop of increased Public Private Participation mode of investment. At the Central Government level, 148


Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) provides detailed and voluminous data on projects executed in the Central Sector. No such elaborate data is available at the State Government level. In both cases, there is no data on training activity undertaken as part of execution of projects. It should be relatively easy to undertake separate study on training and developmental activities in projects being monitored by MOSPI, with support from the Ministry. Furthermore, the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in initiating and advancing the PM approach through systematic top down channels such as Ministry of HRD, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation also needs to be studied. Lastly the existing awareness and view of students as stakeholders and investors will be a good study on PM education and its effects on their career prospects. The next chapter derives conclusions and recommendations for improving PM education in India.

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

149


The study began by asking a few pertinent questions regarding the status of PM education in India especially compared to its global counterparts in more advanced ‘projectised’ societies. These were •

Why is project management as a profession not yet adequately recognized in India?

Is India still found wanting in being classified as a ‘project oriented society’?

Why have the technical institutes, some of which are many decades old, not introduced PM modules in their curricula?

What inhibits leading business schools from introducing a PM curriculum in their course offerings?

Should the PM education in technical/business schools be knowledge based or competency based; which leads to the problem of availability and competence of the faculty and instructors required for teaching the discipline?

What is the role played by professional associations/societies in promoting PM education amongst the industry and government?

To what extent is the regulatory authority’s role conducive or insidious in the promulgation of PM education?

In the course of the study, the questions above were answered in a number of ways that helped the researchers to arrive at some key conclusions. Based on them, we make some recommendations. 8.1

Conclusions

From the analysis of the secondary literature on the state of PM in India as compared to global standards, we conclude that, in its current state, India needs to initiate and sustain greater effort in propagating the benefits of PM to all stakeholders. It appears that in its current state, PM is yet to be understood as a subject of such universal application and versatility that encompasses all types of businesses and organisations and across almost all sectors of the economy. Viewed from the perspective of the global standards, India appears far behind what can be considered as an acceptable threshold level of practice of PM. Compared to our immediate neighbour China, India’s efforts in propagating the PM mindset and methodology of accomplishing organisational and national goals remain substantially behind compared to other developed countries.

150


Against the backdrop of the enormous amount of money invested in projects and the quantum of upcoming investments in public as well as private initiatives, the entrenchment of PM principles in project procurement, planning, implementation and control is of utmost significance. However, it appears from the study that the significance does not appear to have been completely absorbed by the decision makers from the industry, government and even by the majority of the academic world. All this is reflected in the current status of PM education in India being assessed as ‘below par’ especially when compared against existing global standards. However there exists a huge untapped potential for the widespread establishment of PM in India with a section of the faculty, executives and organisations realising the need for the same. It is obvious from the study, that PM training is considered directly beneficial to the practitioners as well as the organisations in terms of better project planning and implementation. PM training has resulted in direct gains to both, the companies as well as the executives. 8.1.1

Barriers

The most prominent barriers to the propagation of PM education in India are found to be the following •

There exists a lack of awareness amongst the managements of technical and management institutions, about the importance and relevance of teaching PM for capacity building of the technical and professional graduates.

Systematic curriculum development with a focussed view to develop PM competencies is found quite absent at graduate and post graduate levels of technical and management schools.

In majority of the cases, it was found that if at all PM interests are pursued by faculty, it is more as a consequence of their individual interest and not so much arising out of an institutional vision to encourage these pursuits (except in the cases of a handful of the institutions such as, NICMAR, IITs, IIMs, NITIE, S.P. Jain, Symbiosis etc).

The lack of trained instructors in the educational institutions.

Lack of research and publications, with only the leading institutions of national repute producing limited original research in the area of PM. 151


Regulatory approvals took anywhere from more than a year upto 3 years with average of 16.5 months to introduce new curriculum. The average internal lead time is found to be even higher at 19 months. Viewed against the response time of a year or more, to build institutional capacity in terms of qualified faculty, library and other infrastructure, the overall delays have tended to magnify. When most of the faculty have admitted that the companies that come for recruitment do look specifically for PM competencies amongst the students, the response time in introducing PM courses on the part of the institution assumes utmost importance due to the ‘employability’ enhancement feature of PM education. Thus institutions should take active steps to cover this need gap.

Though working executives are clearly in favour of gaining PM competencies at the time of graduation, the limiting factors are the lack of awareness, inadequate availability of faculty, training and instruction material in the technical and business schools as well as in the Indian system as a whole.

Though efficacious, training in PM is still considered more expensive as compared to training in other fields by the HR departments of project organisations.

8.2

Recommendations

Curriculum development related to PM requires to be more competency focused rather than just knowledge based. Overall it is recommended that Project Management and Technology Area subjects should be taught to develop project level competencies. Curricula in Strategy, Economics & Finance Area and Behavioural Sciences area should focus on generic knowledge and skill based competencies. Our specific recommendations stemming from the detailed research findings are as follows: •

Train the Trainers initiatives and the accreditation of Registered Education Providers®s (REP®s) like PMI need to be pursued vigorously, by all major stakeholders: Government, Industry and Academic Institutions

Academic institutions should patronise and encourage research in PM at the faculty and students level, in a phased manner to cover a wider net of institutions that are also regionally distributed all over India. Sustained efforts are needed on the part of

152


academic institutions to obtain research funding support from national funding agencies and the private sector •

PM research pursuits have to be more broad based and penetrate all fields where its benefits are palpable

There is an urgent need to improve awareness through mass media coverage about the PM and the application of PM techniques to business. This will be an important area for joint academia-industry initiative

Arrange seminars and symposia to deliberate on PM at the national, state and local levels, covering academic institutions, government officials and industry

Sustained advocacy of PM in different forums such as industry, academia and government needs to be understood as an essential component of organisational success

Based on the research study, we recommend model curricula covering introductory level project management courses in general management programmes, and undergraduate engineering programmes that can be offered to students in their final year. Shorter duration courses suited for middle management and senior management professionals and finally a course specially designed for Project Leaders would be helpful. Annexure No.7 suggests the Model Course Curricula for the courses mentioned above in longer duration as well short duration modes.

153


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158


ANNEXURE 1 A. List Of Respondents Participating In Institutional Survey Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11

Name of The Institute Jaypee Institute of Information Technology JBS, Jaypee University ABES Engineering College AKG Engineering College IMS Engineering College Inderprastha Engineering College Dept. of Management Studies, IIT-Delhi Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IITDelhi ABS, Amity University Army Institute of Management and Technology Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology

City

Respondents Details

Designation

Noida

Samir Dev Gupta

Associate Dean

Noida

Prof. A. K. Vodera

Professor

Ghaziabad

Dr. S. N. Gupta

Professor & Head, ME Dept.

Ghaziabad

Prof. A. K. Arora

Professor

Ghaziabad

Dr. Akshay Dvivedi

Ghaziabad

Prof. D. Ganguli

Delhi

Dr. Banwet / Jain / Gupta / Shankar

Delhi

Dr. Saroha/Konda/Gupta

Noida

Dr. Sanjeev Bansal

Greater Noida

Prof. Sanjeev Tandon

Greater Noida

Dr. M. N. Deshmukh

Professor & Head, ME Dept. Professor & Head, ME Dept. Professor & Group Chair Associate Professor Director & Head Ph.D. A.P. & Area Chairperson Marketing Professor & Head, ME Dept. 159


12

13

14 15

Sr. No. 16 17 18 19 20

Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology Lal Bhadur Shastri Institute of Management and Development Studies ACCF, Amity University IEM Management College

Name of The Institute Institute of Environment and Management Deccan College of Engg & Tech Vasavi College of Engg M. J. College of Engg. & Technology University College of Engg

Greater Noida

Dr. Raju G

Professor & Head, MBA Dept.

Lucknow

Dr. Sunil Kumar

Director

Noida

Dr. Shipra Maitra

Anwari, Lucknow

Dr. Padma Iyer

City

Respondents Details

Designation

Lucknow

Chandan Ghosh

Associate Prof. & Head

Hyderabad

Dr. M. A. Malik/Dr. Mir Iqbal Faheem

Principal/Professor

Hyderabad

Prof. M. Bhasker

Hyderabad

Prof. Syed Yousufuddin

Hyderabad

Prof. V S S Kumar

21

JNTU Hyderabad

Hyderabad

Prof. K . M. Lakshmana Rao

22

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University

Hyderabad

Prof. K. Swamy

23

Engg Staff College of India

Hyderabad

Prof. C L N Sastry

24

YCCE

Nagpur

Prof A. V. Patil

Nagpur

Dr. N. M. Kanhe

Nagpur

Prof. Shrikrishna Dhale

25 26

G.H. Raisoni College of Engg Priyadarshni College of Engg

27

SRKNEC

Nagpur

Dr. N. V. Deshpande

28

VNIT

Nagpur

Dr. Rajesh Gupta

Professor & Director Professor & Director

Prof & Head Civil Engg deptt Prof & Head Civil Engg deptt Prof & Head Civil Engg deptt Prof & Head Transporatation Engg Deptt. Prof & Head of Business Mgmt Head Water Resource Dept Asst. Prof & Head Civil Engg Deptt. Prof & Head Civil Engg deptt Asst. Prof & Head Civil Engg Deptt. Prof & Head Civil Engg deptt Prof & Head Civil Engg deptt 160


Asso. Prof. & Head Arch. Deptt. Reader & Head Mechanical Engg Deptt Asst. Prof & Head Civil Engg Deptt.

29

NIT Raipur

Raipur

Dr. Abir Bandyopadhyay

30

UIT RGPV, Bhopal

Bhopal

Dr. A. C. Tiwari

31

RKDFCT & R

Bhopal

Prof. Sohail Bux

32

Shree Institute of Science & Tech

Bhopal

Prof. Bharat Gupta

Director R & D

33

MANIT

Bhopal

Dr. N.D. Mittal

Professor & Professor I/C Academics

Sr. No.

Name of The Institute

City

Respondents Details

Designation

34

Shree G.S. Institute of Tech & Science

Indore

Dr. Deepak Killedar

Prof & Dean Student Welfare

35

Indore Institute of Science & Tech

Indore

Dr. S. R. Lapalikar

Principal

Bangalore

Dr.K.L.Kumaraswamy

Principal and Professor

Bangalore

Dr.Nethaji S. Ganesan

Principal

Bangalore

Dr.G.N.Sekhar

Vice Principal

Bangalore

Dr.Venugopal K.R

Principal

Bangalore

Ms.Purnima K.P

Professor and academic coordinator

36

37 38 39

40

Dayanand Sagar School of Management studies Dayanand Sagar College of Engineering BMS College of Engineering University OF Viswesvariya College of Engineering Institute of Businness Management nad Research (IBMR)

41

Alliance Bussiness Academy

Bangalore

Dr.s.Prabhakaran

Professor

42

Christ University

Bangalore

Prof.Alex Joseph

Associate PRO and Lecturer

43

Oxford College of Bussiness Management

Bangalore

Dr.Chandraswamy T.P

Professor

44

R.V.Institute of Management

Bangalore

DR.R.K.Gopal/ Ms.Jayanthi Patil

Professor and Head,MBA deptt

45

AMC College of Management

Bangalore

Dr.B.Balaji

Professor and Head,MBA deptt 161


46

Community Institute of Management and Sciences

Bangalore

Dr. V.Vekateswaran

Director and Professor

47

AMC College of Engineering

Bangalore

Dr. D.V.S.S.R.Prakash

Director and Principal

Chennai

Dr.Sushil Lal Das

Principal

Chennai

Dr.P.Tanve

Head,MBA Deptt

Chennai

Prof Muthukumar

Professor, Mechanical deptt

City

Respondents Details

Designation

Chennai

Prof.A.S.Mohanram

Chennai

Dr.K.Maran

Chennai

Dr.C.V.Jayakumar

Princpal

48 49 50 Sr. No. 51 52 53

Jeppiar Engineering College Jeppiar School of Management St.Josephs College of Engineering Name of The Institute St.Josephs College of Management Sai Ram Institute of Management studies Sai Ram College of Engineering

Professor and HOD, MBA Deptt Professor and Director

54

Vellore Institute of Technology

Vellore

Dr.P.Kuppan

Professor and Programme manager,Mech Deptt

55

Indian Institute of Management

Ahmedabad

Prof. Satish Yashwant Deodhar

Professor

56

CEPT

Ahmedabad

Prof. Rajan Rawal

Professor

57

Indera Institute of Management

Pune

Prof.Krishnan Ramanathan

Professor

Pune

Prof. M.Joshi

Dy. Head & Professor

Pune

Prof. Sujata Deshmukh

Professor

Pune

Prof. M.Divekar

Professor

Pune

Prof. P.Kumar

Professor

Pune

Dr.P.K.De

Executive Director

58

59

60

61

62

MKSSS's Smt. Hiraben Nanavati Institute of Management Abhinav Education Society's College of Architecture MKSSS's Cummins College of Engineering for Women Genba Sopanrao Moze College of Engineering International School Of Business and Media

162


63

College Of Engineering, pune

Pune

Dr. Sukhanand.S.Bhosale

Professor

64

SOM, IIT, Bombay

Mumbai

Prof.Kiran Kumar Momaya

Professor

65

Sardar Patel College Of Engineering

Mumbai

Prof. R.R.Easow

Professor

66

Rajiv Gandhi Institute Of Technology

Mumbai

Prof. udhav Bhosale / Prof.N.N.Bhostekar

Principal

Sr. No.

Name of The Institute

City

Respondents Details

Designation

67

IIM , Kolkata

Kolkata

Prof. Sanjeev D. Vaidya

Professor

68

IES College of Architecture

Mumbai

Prof. G. Chandawarkar

Principal InCharge

69

NIT, Rourkela

Rourkela

Prof. Baliarsingh

Professor

Kharagpur

Prof. T.P. Bagchi

Professor

Pune

Prof. Indrajeet Jain

Principal

70 71

VJSOM, IIT Kharagpur Padma Bhushan Vasant Dada Patil Institute of Technology

72

IIT , Bombay

Mumbai

Prof. N. Hemachandra

Professor

73

NITIE

Mumbai

Dr.Shankar Murthy

74

IES College of Engineering

Mumbai

Prof.M.W.Shaikh

Professor Professor & Programme Coordinator

Mumbai

Prof. Vrinda P. Ullas

HOD & Professor

Mumbai

Prof.Mhaske. S.T

Professor

Mumbai

Prof.J.S.Main

Head & Professor

Mumbai

Prof.Vijay Waragade

Head & Professor

Chandrapur

Dr. Rajiv G. Weginwar

HOD & Professor

75

76 77 78

79

KJ Somaiya Institute of Engineering & Information Technology Institute of Chemical Technology VJTI Indira College of Engineering & Management Rajiv Gandhi College of engineering and Technology

163


80 81

Government College of Engineering KIIT, Management School

Chandrapur

Dr.C.P.Kalambe

Professor

Bhubaneswar

Dr. Vijaya Bandyopadhyay

Asst. Professor

B. List Of Respondents Participating In Working Executives Survey Sr. No . 1

Name of The Organisation

Respondents Details

Designation

NSN

Mr. Kamran Ganai

2

Technip KT India Ltd.

Mr. Ajay Vishwakarma

3

TATA Consulting Engineers Ltd

Mr. Rohit Bansal

Field Manager -TI Group Leader- Project Management Project Control Engineer

4

Mr. Vineet Kumar

Sr.Engineer

Mr. Nitin N Shah

Project Manager

6

Technip KT India Ltd. Nokia Siemens Networks Pvt. Ltd Lodha Group

Asst. Site Engr.

7

Lodha Group

8

Lodha Group

Mr. Rahul Chavan Mr. Mahadev Ashok Mohite Mr. Prakash S. Keni

9

Lodha Group

Sector Engr.

10

Lodha Group

11

Lodha Group

Mr. Sahil Sadashiv Kave Mr. Amol Shashikant Bidwai Mr. Amit Poddar

12

Lodha Group

Mr. Hemat Ratnakar

Project Engr.

13

Lodha Group

Mr. Ravindra U.Bhagat

Site Engr.

14

Lodha Group

Mr. Anand V. Kulkarni

Sector Engr.

15

Lodha Group

Mr. Bari Mohit Kamlakar

Asst. Site Engr.

16

Lodha Group

Mr. Bhushan Pramod Joshi

Site Engr.

17

Lodha Group

Site Engr.

18

Lodha Group

19

Lodha Group

Mr. Amar Raghunath Putta Mr. Prashant Ashokrao Shrisath Mr. Jitendra Yadav

20

Lodha Group

Mr. Pandurang Chopade

Site Engr.

21

Lodha Group

Mr. Durgaprasad Pandey

Sector Engr.

22

Lodha Group

Mr. Amol Kesarkar

Site Engr.

5

Junior Engr. Site Engr.

Sector Engr. Manager-Projects

Sector Engr. Site Engr.

164


23

Lodha Group

Mr. Sachin Tiwari

Site Engr.

24

Lodha Group

Mr. Nivrutti Davekar

Site Engr.

25

Lodha Group

Mr. Ravindra Bhagat

Site Engr.

26

Vijay Infrastructure Ltd

Mr. Devendra Singh

Manager (Audit & MIS)

27

DLF Projects Ltd

Mr. Ashish Khaparde

Asst. Manager – Civil

28 Sr. No . 29

TATA Projects Ltd

Mr. P.Anbu Ganapathy

Cons.Engr.

Ramky Infrastructure

Mr. Manasa Rayabhari

Trainee Engr.

30

DLF Projects Ltd

Mr. Dhananjay K.Saha

Asst. Manager-Projects

31

Miskin & Associates

Mr. Suraj T. Miskin

Trainee Engr.

32

Ramky Infrastructure Ltd

Mr. Sandeep Kodandapani

Sr. Engr.-Planning

33

Motherson Group of Companies

Mr. Ravindra Lande

Asst. Manager

34

Systematic Cons Com Ltd Structwel Designers & Consultants Pvt.Ltd Rourkela Steel Plant Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd.

Mr. Virendra Kumar Singh

Manager – Civil

Mr. Vijay Ashok Bhore

Sr. Engr. – Project

Mr. D. P. Mahapatra

A.G.M. – Projects

Mr. Ravi Chandra

Manager - Contracts

Mr. Harikrishna V S

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Jegonathan N.

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Prattipati Mallikarjun Rao

Manager - Contracts

Ms. Shweta Phansalkar

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Sri Devajit Das

Manager - Contracts

Mr. Mahendra Jayant Dhanve

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Madhav Nizalapur

Manager - Contracts

Mr. Sagar Kanade

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Prakash Hiremath

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Nikhil Solanki

Management Trainee

Mr. Sachin Jadhav

Q.S. & Engineer Contracts

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Name of The Organisation

Respondents Details

Designation

165


51

Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

52

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. R. Chakrapani

Sr. A.G.M.

53 Sr. No . 54

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. M. Srinivasan

Manager - Projects

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. E. Neelakandan

A.G.M. - Projects

55

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. N. Kandasamy

Manager - Projects

56

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. V. Krishnan

D.G.M. - Projects

57

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. C. Manikandan

Sr. Engineer

58

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. A. Thamil Nathan

D.G.M. - Projects

59

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. A. Vijayakumar

A.G.M. - Projects

60

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. A. Saravanan

A.G.M. - Projects

61

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. Siva Shanmugam

Trainee Engr.

62

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. M. Vetrivel

A.G.M. - Projects

63

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

A.G.M. - Projects

64

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

65

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. A. Muthu Rathinam Mr. S. Navaneetha Krishnan Mr. C. Loganathan

66

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. S. Rajaguru

A.G.M. - (B & E)

67

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode

Mr. R. Udhayakumar

Manager - Projects

68

URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd.

Mr. Vishal Fiske

Asst. Manager - Projects

Mr. Avinash Momle

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Ashutosh Mukherjee

Engineer - Planning

Ms. Suvidha Aherkar

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Sushanta Kumar Guha

Manager - Planning

Mr. Y. Sandeep

Engineer - Planning

Mr. C. Bhaskar Ganesh

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Mahesh Somvanshi

Manager - Planning

49 50

69 70 71 72 73 74 75

Name of The Organisation

Mr. Ezra Praveen. P

Engineer - Contract

Mr. Neelabh

Manager - Contracts

Mr. Murugaiah

Sr. A.G.M.

Respondents Details

Designation

D.G.M. - Projects Manager - Projects

166


76 77 78 79

Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd.

Mr. M. Karunakar

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Anand D. Rituraj

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Ketan Shah

Engineer - Planning

Mr. T V N S S Sri Charan

Engineer - Planning

167


Sr. No .

Name of The Organisation

Respondents Details

Designation

84

Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Hindustan Construction Comapany Ltd. Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd

85

Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd

Mr. P. Virupakshaiah

Sr. Manager - Construction

86

Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd

Mr. Tushar Hire

Dy. Manager

87

Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd

Mr. Rajesh Sharma

D.G.M. - Projects

88

Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd

Mr. Siddhartha Nath

Sr. Manager - Construction

80 81 82 83

Mr. Shashank Pitale

Engineer - Planning

Ms. Soumya Roy

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Nitin Krishnaji Pathak

Manager - Planning

Mr. Winner Mattoo

Engineer - Planning

Mr. Vinod Ramrao Surve

Sr. Manager - Construction

ANNEXURE 2 a (DEC - 2005) 168


S. No.

Company Name

Staff training Annual (Rs. Crore)

1. A P Power Generation Corpn. Ltd.

0.56

Bhagheeratha Engineering Ltd.

0.01

Bhoruka Power Corpn. Ltd.

0.22

Engineering Projects (India) Ltd.

0.04

Engineers India Ltd.

0.31

Geo Connect Ltd.

0.2

Gujarat Industries Power Co. Ltd.

0.15

H L S Asia Ltd.

0.34

Ircon International Ltd.

0.49

Jindal Drilling & Inds. Ltd.

0.05

Mecon Ltd.

0.1

N T P C Hydro Ltd.

0.02

N T P C Ltd.

26

Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd.

2

North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd.

0.03

N P D C Co. of Andhra Pradesh Ltd.

0.03

O N G C Videsh Ltd.

0.12

S J V N Ltd.

0.57

Sunil Hitech Engineers Ltd.

0.01

Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd.

0.04

Tata Projects Ltd.

0.29

Utility Powertech Ltd. Total

0.01 31.59

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

169


CMIE Database, 2010

ANNEXURE 2 b (DEC - 2006) S. No.

Company Name

Staff training Annual(Rs. Crore)

1. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corpn. Ltd.

0.68

Bhoruka Power Corpn. Ltd.

0.08

Brigade Enterprises Ltd.

0.24

Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd.

0.02

Engineering Projects (India) Ltd.

0.06

Engineers India Ltd.

0.47

Geo Connect Ltd.

0.07

Gujarat Energy Transmission Corpn. Ltd.

0.13

Gujarat Industries Power Co. Ltd.

0.18

H L S Asia Ltd.

0.22

Ircon International Ltd.

0.47

Lanco Infratech Ltd.

0.01

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 170


13. Lodha Developers Ltd.

0.01

Lurgi India Co. Pvt. Ltd.

2.55

N T P C Hydro Ltd.

0.05

N T P C Ltd.

30.7

Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd.

1.68

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd. 19. Northern Power Distribution Co. Of Andhra Pradesh Ltd. 20. Orissa Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 21. Promac Engineering Inds. Ltd. 22. S J V N Ltd. 23. Tamil Nadu Electricity Board 24. Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd. 25. Tamilnadu Adidravidar Housing & Devp. Corpn. Ltd. Total

0.03 0.02 0.36 0.01 0.53 1.88 0.02 0.14 40.61

CMIE Database, 2010

ANNEXURE NO.2 c (DEC - 2007) Sr. No. 1. 2.

Company Name

Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corpn.

Staff training Annual (Rs. Crore) 0.64 171


Ltd. 3. Brigade Enterprises Ltd.

0.26

D L F Commercial Developers Ltd.

0.36

D L F Home Developers Ltd.

0.32

D L F Laing O'Rourke (India) Ltd.

0.79

Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd.

0.09

Engineering Projects (India) Ltd.

0.04

Engineers India Ltd.

0.47

Geo Connect Ltd.

0.01

Gujarat Energy Transmission Corpn. Ltd.

0.17

H L S Asia Ltd.

0.4

Ircon International Ltd.

0.51

J M C Projects (India) Ltd.

0.19

Jindal Drilling & Inds. Ltd.

0.18

K Raheja Corp Pvt. Ltd.

0.35

Lanco Infratech Ltd.

0.13

Mahindra Water Utilities Ltd.

0.03

N T P C Hydro Ltd.

0.02

N T P C Ltd.

29.2

Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd.

1.6

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd. 23. Northern Power Distribution Co. Of Andhra Pradesh Ltd. 24. Orissa Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 25. R N S Infrastructure Ltd. 26. S J V N Ltd.

0.09 0.31 0.4 0.1 0.54 172


27. Tamil Nadu Electricity Board

2.26

28. Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd. 29. Tamilnadu Adidravidar Housing & Devp. Corpn. Ltd. 30. Tata Projects Ltd. 31. Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. Total Total

0.04 0.07 1.26 1.69 42.52

CMIE Database, 2010

ANNEXURE 2 d (DEC - 2008) S. No. Company Name

Annual (Rs. Crore) Staff training

Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corpn. Ltd.

0.62

Bhoruka Power Corpn. Ltd.

0.37

Brigade Enterprises Ltd.

0.31

D L F Commercial Developers Ltd.

0.84

D L F Home Developers Ltd.

1.02

D L F Laing O'Rourke (India) Ltd.

1.92

Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd.

0.35

Engineering Projects (India) Ltd.

0.07

Engineers India Ltd.

1.47

Ganesh Housing Corpn. Ltd.

0.01

Gujarat Energy Transmission Corpn. Ltd.

0.83

H L S Asia Ltd.

0.45

Hinduja Properties Ltd.

0.02

Ircon International Ltd.

0.84

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 173


15. J M C Projects (India) Ltd.

0.33

Jindal Drilling & Inds. Ltd.

0.09

Jubilant Infrastructure Ltd.

0.01

K Raheja Corp Pvt. Ltd.

1.3

Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Ltd.

0.01

Kei-Rsos Maritime Ltd.

0.01

Kirloskar Constructions & Engineers Ltd.

0.03

Lanco Infratech Ltd.

1.89

Lodha Developers Ltd.

0.16

Mahindra Water Utilities Ltd.

0.06

Marg Ltd.

0.96

Mecon Ltd.

0.27

N T P C Ltd.

34.6

Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd.

1.08

North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd.

0.13

Northern Power Distribution Co. Of Andhra Pradesh Ltd.

0.51

Omaxe Buildwell Pvt. Ltd.

0.11

Orissa Power Generation Corpn. Ltd.

0.54

Promac Engineering Inds. Ltd.

0.03

S J V N Ltd.

0.44

Sheth Developers Pvt. Ltd.

0.19

Shipra Estate Ltd.

0.11

Tamil Nadu Electricity Board

2

Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd.

0.02

Tamilnadu Adidravidar Housing & Devp. Corpn. Ltd.

0.1

Tata Projects Ltd. U Tech Developers Ltd.

1.06 0.03

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

174


42. Utility Powertech Ltd.

0.04

43. Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. Total CMIE Database, 2010

4.19 59.42

ANNEXURE 3 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INSTITUTIONS This is a pioneering effort being carried out for the first time in India to find out the factors that are aiding or hindering the establishment of project management curricula in our technical and business management institutions. Based on secondary research of developed countries, a major finding that emerges is that project management as a scientific discipline is deeply entrenched in the educational fabric of these countries; as also amongst popular psyche thus earning them an appellation of being ‘project-oriented societies’. A major reason for this may be attributed to project management being included as necessary curricula in all streams of education. Universally, governments, large private corporations, and non-governmental organizations practice the ‘projects’ approach to fulfill their targets and goals. If so be the case, project management as a discipline would have had a much higher acceptance by the industry and Project Management (PM) courses would have been taught in India’s technical and business schools. The study from the point of view of educational institutions is to determine the factors that affect the inclusion of project management curricula. Survey Instructions The survey is divided into four parts. The first part asks for your background information. The second part aims at discovering your general opinion on project management (PM) curricula. The third part aims to identify any distinguishing factors that characterize the specific PM curriculum development. The fourth part deals with finding out about the existing educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management support available to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered are regulatory aspects that affect the decision-making and launch of new curricula. For every question, you are asked to provide a tick/score as per your opinion. This research does not involve any sensitive issues. It is designed to gather information based on your personal experience, knowledge and opinion alone. It will not be taken to represent or reflect your institution’s view-points. The information provided will be kept strictly confidential and will be used solely for the purposes of this research. If you have any comments or enquiries, please contact Dr. Mona N. Shah at mnshah@nicmar.ac.in or 020 27291342/ 65102745. Thank you for your interest. 175


PART I RESPONDENT'S PARTICULARS Name Name of Institution Designation Address of institution

Tel (O): Mobile No. Fax (O): Email

Office Personal

How many years of

Years:

work/research experience do you have in academics? How many years of

Years:

experience do you have in curriculum/syllabus development? Would you agree if we

Personal name:

acknowledge you in our report for your contribution and assistance in the survey? If yes, kindly give

Please indicate whether

Organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name:

Yes: 176


you would like to receive a summary of the report upon completion of this

No:

research

177


PART II GENERAL OPINION ON EXISTING STATE OF PM EDUCATION IN INDIA

1. What in your

Poor

Fair

Good

Very Good

Excellent

Certificate

opinion is the current status of PM education in India? 2. Has your

Yes:

No:

institute considered introducing PM in curricula of any programme ? 3. If yes, at what

Under

Post-

Advanced

Research

level has this

Graduate:

Graduate:

Level:

Level:

been considered? Please also mention the name of the programme 4. Which type

Elective Course:

Compulsory Course:

of PM related courses do you run? Please also mention the name of the course

178


5. Of what

Elementary:

Intermediate:

Advanced:

intensity is the course? 6. In your

Somewhat

Fairly

opinion how

Essential

Essential

Essential

Very

Absolutely

Essential

Essential

essential is it to teach PM in 1. Engineering Colleges? 2. Management Institutions 3. Specialized institutions : - Architecture - Planning and design - Infrastructure management - Any other

179


PART III CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Given below are the set of subject areas essential to develop PM competencies among students. Rate them according to the following scale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below. Scales: 1-Not Important; 2-Somewhat Important; 3-Important; 4-Very Important; 5Extremely Important. Also, in the box marked ‘Level’, please tick the level / levels at which these competencies should be covered. Course-Levels:

1-Certificate;

2-Under-Graduate;

3-Post-Graduate;

4-Advanced

(Doctoral / Post Doctoral); 5– Applied Research A: MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY Ratings 1-5

Levels 1

2

3

4

5

1. Operations management for Projects. 2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques 3. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis 4. Operations Research for Projects 5. Project Quality Management 6. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects 7. Cost Estimation and budgeting 8.Accounting and Control Systems 9. Quantity Surveying and Estimation 10. Projects Marketing 11. Project Site and Equipment Management.

180


12. Project Procurement & Materials Management 13. Contract Management 14. Process Design./Engineering/Testing/Commissioning 15. Facilities Engineering and Management 16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management 17. Transportation Management 18. Technology and Engineering Management 19. Project Formulation and Appraisal 20. Project Engineering 21. Any other ( Please specify )

B: STRATEGY, ECONOMICS AND FINANCE Ratings 1-5

Levels 1

2

3

4

5

1. Macro-Economic Policy 2. Project Strategy 3. Social Cost Benefit Analysis 4. Financial Management 5. Project Financing 6. Risk and Insurance Management 7. Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects 8. Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, Special Purpose Vehicles 9. Any other ( Please specify )

181


B: BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES AREA Ratings

Levels 1

2

3

4

5

4

5

1. Project Organization and Structure 2. Managerial Skills for Projects (Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation, other soft skills) 3. Human Resources Management in Projects 4. Industrial/Labour Relations 5. Conflict Management 6. Diversity Management 7. Any other ( Please specify )

C: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Ratings

Levels 1

2

3

1. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management 2. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) 3. e-Business Applications 4. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan) 5. Excel / SPSS / DBMS 6. Any other ( Please specify ) 182


D: SECTOR SPECIFIC Score 1

2

3

Level 4

5

1. Information Communication Technology (ICT) 2. Telecom 3. Research and Development 4. Space Exploration 5. Technology 6. Defense 7. Roadways 8. Railways 9. Civil Aviation 10. Ports 11. Shipbuilding 12. Urban Infrastructure 13. Mega Property Developments 14. Petrochemicals 15. Chemical Engineering 16. Oil and Gas Exploration 17. Services 18. International Project Management 19. Any other ( Please specify )

183


PART IV INFRASRUCTURE, MANAGEMENT SUPPORT, REGULATORY FACTORS AND CURRENT STATUS OF PM RESEARCH IN INSTITUTE This section deals with the existing issues faced by institutions’ management in setting up courses related to the PM area. These issues are internal in nature. The last part deals with the regulatory environment and the extent to which it affects the institution’s management in taking decisions for the same. Rate them according to the following scale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below. Scales: 1-Not Available; 2-Somewhat Available; 3- Available; 4-Easily Available; 5Very Easily Available. A : INSTITUTE INFRASTRUCTURE Ratings 1

2

3

4

5

1. Availability of library and eresources 2. Course Material 3. Classrooms 4. Laboratories 5. Computer Labs 6. Qualified faculty 7. Availability of research facilities 8. Management vision 9. Any other ( Please specify )

B : MANAGEMENT SUPPORT 1. Have there been

Yes:

No:

attempts in the past to introduce 184


courses/more courses in PM in your institute? 2. If yes tick the

Negligible

Initial

Considerable

Advanced

Established

0 to 6 Mths

>6

>1 to 2 yrs

> 2yrs to

> 3 yrs

degree to which the progress was made in their introduction. 3. If interested, when are you planning to

Mths to

introduce PM courses

1yr

3yrs

in the institute? 4. In your opinion,

Somewhat

Fairly

will the introduction

Good

Considera

Immensely

bly

of PM courses improve the employability of the students? 5. During recruitment,

Yes:

No:

do companies specifically ask for PM competencies in

- To some extent

the students?

- To considerable extent

If so to what extent ?

- To great extent

C : REGULATORY FACTORS You are required to respond to the extent of regulatory challenges that are faced by engineering/business institutes in the introduction of new courses. The latter part of the questionnaire revolves around how institution's management overcomes regulatory limitations.

185


This section deals with the approximate time period in which new courses may be introduced, after the course design is ready. 1. Tick the category in which your institution exists (There may be more than one

Autonomous Unaffiliated, non AICTE

Univ.

AICTE

International

Affiliated

Accredited ( Please

/Univ.

specify )

Department

simultaneous category) 2. Academic Council /

0 to 6 mths

>6m to 1yr

BoS approval >6m to 1yr

3. Regulatory approvals 0 to 6 mths

>6m to 1yr

>1 to 2

> 2yrs to 3yrs

> 3 yrs

>1 to 2

> 2yrs to 3yrs

> 3 yrs

> 2yrs to 3yrs

> 3 yrs

> 2yrs to 3yrs

> 3 yrs

yrs 0 to 6 mths

>6m to 1yr

(library/journals etc) 6. Which of the above

> 3 yrs

yrs

training of faculty 5. Resource building

> 2yrs to 3yrs

yrs 0 to 6 mths

4. Recruitment and

>1 to 2

>1 to 2 yrs

0 to 6 mths

>6m to 1yr

activities takes place

>1 to 2 yrs

simultaneously

D : CURRENT POSITION OF RESEARCH IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AREA This section deals with the current position of PM related research in the Institution, availability of resources and funding for the same. It also covers the factors that impede the research / publications in PM area.

1. Have you personally been involved in

Yes:

No:

project management related research? If the answer is Yes, then tick the following option/s 1a. Funded Research ( If yes, please specify the funding source ) 1b. Own Professional Interest If the answer is No, then tick the following option/s to state which of the following 186


factors impede the research in PM area in your Institute 1c. Lack of awareness of PM as a systematic academic and research discipline 1d. Level of Courses Offered 1e. Availability of Literature

Books

Journals

E-Resources

Others

1f. Inadequate information regarding sources of funding for PM Research 2. Do you/any member of the faculty have Yes:

No:

any published work in this area? If the answer is Yes, then tick the following option/s 2a. Articles 2b. Research Papers 2c. Conference/Seminar Papers 2d. Books 3. Have you/any other member of faculty

Yes for

Yes for

undergone a programme / certification in

Program:

Certificate:

No:

PM area? 4. Would you like to state anything else ? If yes, please specify

INTERVIEWERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S DETAILS Name: Signature: Date: Time:

187


ANNEXURE 4 CORRELATION MATRIX OF FACTORS (SUBJECTS) CONTAINED IN QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS (Part III A) The correlation matrix gives the correlation coefficient of each and every subject (factor) with rest of the subjects (factors). If the correlation coefficient between two subjects is very high, i.e., 0.90 or above, then both the subjects (factors) are to be treated as single factor. Here, we check the same for selected different groups of subjects.

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.8 1

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 1

0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 1

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 1

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.7 1

0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.5 1

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6

0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6

0.7 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.5

0.7 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.5

0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5

0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.3

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4

0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4

A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20

Part III A. MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY

188


In the group of Management and Technology, the correlation coefficient of each subject/factor with rest of the subject is below 0.90. Therefore, all the selected subjects in this group is significant of their own capacity. Part III B. STRATEGY, ECONOMICS AND FINANCE

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

B1 1.00 0.73 0.72 0.61 0.60 0.21 0.64 0.55

B2 0.73 1.00 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.23 0.65 0.64

B3 0.72 0.76 1.00 0.67 0.71 0.27 0.72 0.68

B4 0.61 0.71 0.67 1.00 0.80 0.14 0.56 0.52

B5 0.60 0.65 0.71 0.80 1.00 0.18 0.65 0.58

B6 0.21 0.23 0.27 0.14 0.18 1.00 0.17 0.38

B7 0.64 0.65 0.72 0.56 0.65 0.17 1.00 0.86

B8 0.55 0.64 0.68 0.52 0.58 0.38 0.86 1.00

Similarly, here also the correlation coefficients of each subject/factor with rest are not more than 0.90. So, all the subjects in this group is significant.

189

0.7

A20 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

A19 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

A18 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5

A17 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

A16 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

A15 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6

A14 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 1

A13 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.7 1

0.7 0.6

0.8 0.8 0.6

A12 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

A11 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 1

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

A10 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3 1

A9 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 1

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

A8 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 1

A7 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 1

0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

A6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 1

A5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 1

0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

0.7 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

A4 0.6 0.4 0.7 1

A3 0.6 0.4 1

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

A2 0.5 1

A1 1

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14


Part III C. BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCES AREA C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 1.00 0.66 0.57 0.66 0.53 0.59 0.66 1.00 0.68 0.50 0.45 0.38 0.57 0.68 1.00 0.58 0.54 0.43 0.66 0.50 0.58 1.00 0.79 0.78 0.53 0.45 0.54 0.79 1.00 0.81 0.59 0.38 0.43 0.78 0.81 1.00

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6

In this group also all the coefficients is less then 0.90 and they show their importance for including this group. Part III D. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5

D1 1.00 0.64 0.47 0.46 0.49

D2 0.64 1.00 0.72 0.39 0.54

D3 0.47 0.72 1.00 0.35 0.35

D4 0.46 0.39 0.35 1.00 0.81

D5 0.49 0.54 0.35 0.81 1.00

According to the results given above, the correlation coefficients of each subject/factor with rest factors are below 0.90. Therefore, all the subjects included in this group is significant.

0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 1 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1

1

0.9 0.9 1 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1

1

0.8 0.9 1 1 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1

0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1 1 0.9 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1

0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7

E8

E9

E10 E11 E12 E13 E14 E15 E16 E17 E18

CORRELATION MATRIX OF FACTORS (SUBJECTS) IN THE SECTOR SPECIFIC AREAS (Part III.E)

190


E18 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9

E17 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.9

E16 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

E15 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

E14 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8

E13 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

E12 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9

E11 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9

E10 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8

E9 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9

E8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9

E7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.8 1

0.8 E6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.9 1

0.9 0.9 E5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 1

0.7 0.8 0.7 E4 0.7 0.7 0.8 1

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 E3 0.6 0.6 1

0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 E2 0.8 1

0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 E1 1

E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1

In this Sector Specific Group, we included 18 sectors, but the results given above, show that the correlation coefficients of so many sectors with other sectors are greater than 0.90. For example, the correlation coefficient of the sector Oil & Gas and Telecom is 0.92, which means that they are highly correlated and for the further analysis we can not treat them as different sectors. There are so many similar results in this correlation matrix. ANNEXURE 5 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EXECUTIVES This is a pioneering effort being carried out for the first time in India to find out the factors that are aiding or hindering the establishment of project management curricula in our technical and business management institutions. Based on secondary research of developed countries, a major finding that emerges is that project management as a scientific discipline is deeply entrenched in the educational fabric of these countries; as also amongst popular psyche thus earning them an appellation of being ‘project-oriented societies’. A major reason for this may be attributed to project management being included as necessary curricula in all streams of education. Universally, governments, large private corporations, and non-governmental organizations practice the ‘projects’ approach to fulfill their targets and goals. If so be the case, project management as a discipline would have had a much higher acceptance by the industry and Project Management (PM) courses would have been taught in India’s technical and business schools. The study from the point of view of educational institutions is to determine the factors that affect the inclusion of project management curricula. Survey Instructions

191


The survey is divided into four parts. The first part asks for your background information. The second part aims at discovering your general opinion on project management (PM) curricula. The third part aims to identify any distinguishing factors that characterize the specific PM curriculum development. The fourth part deals with finding out about the existing educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management support available to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered are regulatory aspects that affect the decision-making and launch of new curricula. For every question, you are asked to provide a tick/score as per your opinion. This research does not involve any sensitive issues. It is designed to gather information based on your personal experience, knowledge and opinion alone. It will not be taken to represent or reflect your institutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s view-points. The information provided will be kept strictly confidential and will be used solely for the purposes of this research. If you have any comments or enquiries, please contact Dr. Mona N. Shah at mnshah@nicmar.ac.in or 020 27291342/ 65102745. Thank you for your interest.

192


PART I A RESPONDENT'S PARTICULARS Name Name of Institution Designation Address of institution

Tel (O): Mobile No. Fax (O): Email

Office Personal

How many years of

Years:

work experience do you have? Would you agree if we

Personal name:

acknowledge you in our report for your contribution and assistance in the survey? If yes, kindly give

When did you complete

Organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name:

Degree earned

Year

Univ/ Institute

Yes

No

Some topics taught

your graduation/post graduation course? At that time were there any courses that were

(please mention)

offered in your institution related to 193


PM?

Did you undergo any

Name of

formal certification in

certification

Certifying Agency

Year

Duration Year

PM. If so, please mention Did you receive any

Name of the

Institute/Agency

formal training in PM

training

conducting the

related areas? If so

programme

programme

please mention.

PART IB Have you been involved as a project team member/leader in a project in any of the following areas? (Tick the appropriate choice) Conceptualisation Design Planning Engineering Execution

Please state the 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

name of project size in rupees year of starting year of completion client your role in the project team period of involvement in project major techniques you used for e.g. PERT/CPM/Decision tree/ Fish bone/Arrow Diagram 9) major skills you found useful

Commissioning For more than one project, please fill out the rest of the details in the space provided at the end of the form. PART IC Have you been invited to teach Project Management by any college /institute /Inhouse management training centre If so, please mention

1) Course/ Module taught: 2) College/Institute/In-house MDP centre: 3) Class for which taught: 194


4) Year of teaching: 5) No. of sessions taught: 6) If any test/evaluation was conducted after teaching: For more than one institution/module/course, please fill out the rest of the details in the space provided at the end of the form.

195


PART II PROJECT MANAGEMENT CURRICULUM Given below are the set of subject areas essential to develop PM competencies among management executives. Rate them according to the following scale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below. Scales: 1-Not Important; 2-Somewhat Important; 3-Important; 4-Very Important; 5Extremely Important. A : MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY Ratings 1

2

3

4

5

1. Operations Management for Projects. 2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques 3. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis 4. Operations Research for Projects 5. Project Quality Management 6. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects 7. Cost Estimation and budgeting 8.Accounting and Control Systems 9. Quantity Surveying and Estimation 10. Projects Marketing 11. Project Site and Equipment Management. 12. Project Procurement & Materials Management 13. Contract Management 14. Process Design./Engineering/Testing/Commissioning 196


15. Facilities Engineering and Management 16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management 17. Transportation Management 18. Technology and Engineering Management 19. Project Formulation and Appraisal 20. Project Engineering 21. Any other ( Please specify )

B: BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES AREA Ratings 1

2

3

4

5

4

5

1. Project Organization and Structure 2. Managerial Skills for Projects (Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation, other soft skills) 3. Human Resources Management in Projects 4. Industrial/Labour Relations 5. Conflict Management 6. Diversity Management 7. Any other ( Please specify )

C : INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Ratings 1

2

3

1. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management 197


2. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 3. e-Business Applications 4. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan) 5. Excel / SPSS / DBMS 6. Any other ( Please specify )

D : SECTOR SPECIFIC Score 1

2

3

4

5

1. Information Communication Technology (ICT) 2. Telecom 3. Research and Development 4. Space Exploration 5. Technology 6. Defense 7. Roadways 8. Railways 9. Civil Aviation 10. Ports 11. Shipbuilding 12. Urban Infrastructure 13. Mega Property Developments 14. Petrochemicals 15. Chemical Engineering 16. Oil and Gas Exploration 198


17. Services 18. International Project Management 19. Any other ( Please specify )

199


PART III CHANGES IN WORK PERFORMANCE AFTER COMPLETION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME These issues are internal in nature. This part deals with the extent of difference PM training has made to you in your workplace. Rate the factors listed below according to the following scale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below. Scales: 1-Not Helped; 2- Somewhat Helped; 3- Helped; 4-Helped Substantially; 5Helped Immensely. A : STRATEGIC PROJECT OVERVIEW Ratings 1

2

3

4

5

1. To get an integrated view of the project 2. Role clarity 3. Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility mapping 4. Understanding the exact placement of a project in the overall corporate strategy 5. Importance of Earned Value of a project to the company 6. Understanding project profitability 7. Importance of Human relations and Conflict management in project success 8. Management vision 9. Any other ( Please specify )

B : PROJECT SKILLS OVERVIEW 200


1.Importance of Project Planning/Scheduling/Execution 2. Importance of Monitoring & Control 3. Importance of Contract Management 4. Project Risk Management 5. Project Costing 6. Importance of Health/Safety/Environment 7. Quality Management 8. Communication and Soft Skills

Please Tick In The Appropriate Box/S 1. How did PM Training help in your profession?

Remuneration

Incentive Responsibility Promotion

Decisionmaking Power

Better Interpersonalrelation & conflict resolutions.

201


PART IV CURRENT POSITION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN INDIA This section deals with your opinion regarding the current position of PM related education offered in the academic institutions. To what extent in your opinion are the factors given below affecting PM education from taking root in India. Rate them according to the following scale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below. Scales: 1-Not Important; 2-Somewhat Important; 3-Important; 4-Very Important; 5Extremely Important. Ratings 1

2

3

4

5

1. Lack of awareness amongst students and educators. 2. Lack of trained instructors at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. 3. Being a practical field it cannot be ‘taught’ in the classroom. 4. Mastery comes only from practical experience. 5. Prior knowledge not essential in working in this field.

INTERVIEWER’S DETAILS Name: Signature: Date: Time: 202


PART IB Have you been involved as a project team member/leader in a project in any of the following areas? (Tick the appropriate choice) Conceptualisation Design Planning Engineering Execution Commissioning

Please state the 1) name of project 2) size in rupees 3) year of starting 4) year of completion 5) client 6) your role in the project team 7) period of involvement in project 8) major techniques you used for e.g. PERT/CPM/Decision tree/ Fish bone/Arrow Diagram 9) major skills you found useful

203


PART IC Have you been invited to teach Project

1) Course/ Module taught:

Management by any college /institute /Inhouse management training centre. If so, please mention

2) College/Institute/In house MDP centre: 3) Class for which taught: 4) Year of teaching: 5) No. of sessions taught: 6) If any test/evaluation was conducted after teaching:

ANNEXURE 6 204


QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS This is a pioneering effort being carried out for the first time in India to find out the factors that are aiding or hindering the establishment of project management curricula in our technical and business management institutions. Based on secondary research of developed countries, a major finding that emerges is that project management as a scientific discipline is deeply entrenched in the educational fabric of these countries; as also amongst popular psyche thus earning them an appellation of being ‘project-oriented societies’. A major reason for this may be attributed to project management being included as necessary curricula in all streams of education. Universally, governments, large private corporations, and non-governmental organizations practice the ‘projects’ approach to fulfill their targets and goals. If so be the case, project management as a discipline would have had a much higher acceptance by the industry and Project Management (PM) courses would have been taught in India’s technical and business schools. The study from the point of view of educational institutions is to determine the factors that affect the inclusion of project management curricula. Survey Instructions The survey is divided into four parts. The first part asks for your background information. The second part aims at discovering your general opinion on project management (PM) curricula. The third part aims to identify any distinguishing factors that characterize the specific PM curriculum development. The fourth part deals with finding out about the existing educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management support available to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered are regulatory aspects that affect the decision-making and launch of new curricula. For every question, you are asked to provide a tick/score as per your opinion. This research does not involve any sensitive issues. It is designed to gather information based on your personal experience, knowledge and opinion alone. It will not be taken to represent or reflect your institution’s view-points. The information provided will be kept strictly confidential and will be used solely for the purposes of this research. If you have any comments or enquiries, please contact Dr. Mona N. Shah at mnshah@nicmar.ac.in or 020 27291342/ 65102745. Thank you for your interest.

205


PART I RESPONDENT'S PARTICULARS Name Name of Organization Designation Address of institution Tel (O): Mobile No. Fax (O): Email Office Personal

Has your organization in the past Yes: sent employees for PM related training?

No:

If yes, since when has this been done?

0- 5 years

What is the nature of the employees sent for this training?

Only Technical

Technical and Nontechnical

Operational

Of what level

Supervisory

Junior managers

Middle level managers

are these?

>5-10 years

>10-15

>15 years

years Managerial

staff

Senior level

PART II Given below are the set of Project Management (PM) related fields essential to develop PM competencies. Rate them according to the following scale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below. Scales: 1-Not High; 2-Somewhat High; 3-High; 4-Very High; 5-Extremely High. 206


A: What is the need for PM related fields in the company?

1

2

3

4

5

1. Stipulation In The Contract 2. Improving Effectiveness Of Project Operations 3. Understanding Global Projects 4. Perceived Gains From Such Training 5. Human Resource Development For Better Performance 6. Employee Retention 7. Career Development 8. Prerequisite For Project Based Organizations Such As Yours 9. Improves Ability To Bid For Complex Projects 10. Improves Ability To Execute Complete Projects 11. Improves Ability To Monitor And Control Projects 12. Improves Ability To Plan Projects 13. Improves Ability To Manage Contracts In Projects 14. Improves Ability To Deliver Projects In Right Time, Right Costs And Right Quality 15. Improves Any Other Ability, Please Specify B: 1. Which type of training method is preferred by your organization?

On the job training

In class training (for e.g. in house training sessions)

In class training with on the job projects

Comprehensive Degree / Diploma level training

(Tick in the 207


space provided) 2. What predominant outcome is sought after the training?

Building knowledge base of trainees

Building Building a Building the right attitudes of skills set of the employees towards their base competencies jobs

(Tick in the space provided)

C: Which Of The Levels Of PM Training Is Most Preferred In Your Organization? Level of training/ Level of employee

Operatives

Supervisory Middle level managers

Junior managers

Senior level

1. Elementary 2. Basic 3. Advanced 4. Strategic 5. Any other (specify)

D: Rate The Costs Of PM Related Training In India On A Scale Of 1-5. 1- Least expensive, 2- fairly expensive, 3- expensive, 4 – quite expensive, 5 – highly expensive Type of Cost

1

2

3

4

5

1. Trainer’s salary and time 2. Trainees’ salaries and 208


time 3. Materials for training 4. Expenses for trainers 5. Expenses for trainees 6. Cost of facilities and equipment 7. Lost productivity E: Rate The Benefits Of PM Related Training In India On A Scale Of 1-5. 1- Least beneficial, 2- fairly beneficial, 3- beneficial,, 4 – quite beneficial, 5 – highly beneficial Benefits

1

2

3

4

5

1.

Increase in production/performance 2. Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards 3. Employee Retention 4.

Less supervision necessary 5. Ability to use new skills and capabilities 6. Improved delivery performance in terms of cost, time and quality 7. Attitude changes 8.

Growth of business opportunities

F: Express Your Opinion On The Efficacy Of Training Imparted By The Following Training Entities On Scale Of 1-5. 1- Least efficacious, 2- fairly efficacious, 3- efficacious, 4- quite efficacious, 5 – most efficacious Training entity

1

2

3

4

5

1. Technical/business institute 2. Independent trainer 209


3. Certified franchisee trainer 4. Internationally certified trainers 5. In-house trainers 6. Self-training

G: Please Mention The Names Of Upto 5 Training Institutes Where You Regularly Send Employees For Training. Sr. No.

Name of institute

Name/area of Training Programme

(Tick in the space provided)

Training for

Workmen

Supervisors Middle mgt.

Duration

Sr. mgrs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

H: If PM Training Of Your Employees Was Accompanied By An International Accreditation Would It Be More Valuable And Beneficial To Your Organization? □ Yes □ No □ Maybe

INTERVIEWER’S DETAILS Name: Signature: 210


Date: Time:

ANNEXURE 7 MODEL COURSE CURRICULUM DESIGNS IN UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES OF TECHNICAL AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SCHOOLS

In this section some suggested outlines and curricula for offering PM courses at various levels like Basic, Advanced and Proficiency, for engineering, general management and working executives have been described. Various degrees of experience and prior exposure to PM of the students have been considered to arrive at the model course outlines. 1.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS IN ENGINEERING

211


Course Objective: To introduce the engineering students to the discipline of PM in industry and application of PM skills to improve performance on projects.

Student Profile: This is suggested as an Introductory (Level 1) course and the target audience is students undergoing engineering courses having no formal background in project management

Course Mix: All compulsory with a total of 10 subjects to be covered over an annual academic calendar

S. No. 1

Subject Description Role of PM Department in Engineering Companies

2

Project Planning, Network Scheduling, and Monitoring Techniques

3

Introduction to Project Management Software

4

Basics in Procurement, Tendering, Bidding, Contracting

5

Project Equipment Purchase, Stores and Inventory Management

6

Project Quality

7

Project Safety, Health and Environment

8

Project Site Management and Control

9

Basics of Project Cost Accounting

10

Integrated Project Workshop - Assignments

11

Tests and assessments

Course Duration: One academic calendar year. 2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS IN GENERAL MANAGEMENT •

Course Objective: The objective of this course is to provide all students with essential PM skills that can be applied across all sectors to plan, schedule, implement and control projects.

Student Profile: This is suggested as an Introductory (Level 1) course, and the target audience is students undergoing General Management Programmes with some or no prior work experience.

Course Mix: A mix of compulsory and electives subjects with a total of 10 courses based upon the educational background of the student i.e. non-technical and technical. 212


S. No. 1

Subject Description Key People Skills for Project Managers

2

Role of PM in Organisations

3

Project Costing & Funds Management

4

Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Controlling

5

Introduction to Project Management Software

6

Organising for Project Management

7

Project Safety Management

8

Project Quality Management

9

Basics of Tendering, Bidding, Contracting, Procurement and Claims Management

10*

Project Site Management and Control

11*

Equipment Management

12*

Role of PM Department in Engineering Companies

13

Legal and Taxation Aspects of Projects

14

Innovation and Managing Project Life Cycle

15

Project Portfolio Management

16 Tests and Assessments- Assignments *(may be offered only to students with technical background) •

Course Duration: Spread over one to two academic terms.

MODEL COURSE CURRICULUM DESIGNS PROGRAMMES FOR WORKING EXECUTIVES 1. PROGRAMME FOR PRACTISING EXECUTIVES (MIDDLE LEVEL) •

Course Objective: The objective of this course is to provide the participants with essential PM skills to plan, implement and control projects efficiently.

Participant Profile: This is suggested as a Level 2 course and the target audience is project personnel with 3 – 6 years of experience and having no formal qualification in project management.

Course Mix: An integrated mix of subjects for all participants

213


S. No.

Subject Description

1.

Project Design, Scope and Engineering

2.

Project Procurement

3.

Project Planning, Scheduling and Monitoring Techniques

4.

Project Cost Accounting and Control 5.

Basics of Project Finance

6.

Project Risk Management

7.

Contracts and Claims Management in Projects

8.

Project Safety Management

9.

Project Quality Management

10.

Project Equipment and Materials Management

11.

Project HR and People Skills

12.

Project Site, Documentation and Close Out Management

13.

Case Analyses

14.

Tests and Assessments

Course Duration: Spread over 2 weeks with 15 sessions per week.

2. PROGRAMME FOR PROJECT LEADERS (MID TO SENIOR LEVEL) •

Course Objective: The objective of this course is to provide participants with essential PM skills to independently lead projects of large and complex magnitude.

Participant Profile: This is suggested as a Level 3 course and the target audience is project personnel with 6 – 10 years of experience and having no formal qualification in project management.

Course Mix: An integrated mix of subjects for all participants. S. No. Subjects 1.

Project Organization and Human Resource Issues 214


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. •

Project Procurement and Negotiation Skills Project Operations (I) -Advanced PM Integration – WBS, Impacted schedules and CPM after Crashing. Project Operations (II)- Advanced PM Integration WBS, Impacted Monitoring for Productivity and CTC Project Risk Management Project Quality, Health, Safety, Environment ( HSE ) Management Project Finance Management Legal, Taxation and Claims Issues in Contract Management Conflict Resolution Strategic Management of Projects Business Leadership Role in Integrated Management of Multiple, Large, Complex Multi Location Projects Tests Assessments – Case Analysis

Course Duration: Spread over 2 weeks with 15 sessions per week.

3. PROGRAMME FOR SENIOR LEVEL EXECUTIVES OF PROJECT COMPANIES •

Course Objective: To enable participants to appreciate the strategic business contexts of projects and formulate plans for growth, expansion and diversification for project based companies.

Participant Profile: This is suggested as a Level 4 course and the target audience is project personnel with more than 6 – 10 years of experience and having no formal qualification in project management.

Course Mix: An integrated mix of subjects for all participants. S. No. 1. 2. 3.

Subject Description Leadership in Project Organisations Public Policy and Macro-Economic Environment Advanced Project Operations Management 215


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

International Project Management â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Issues in multicountry projects Project Risk Management Global Procurement, SCM and Technology Management for Projects Project Finance Management Conflict Resolution Project Portfolio Analysis

10.

Innovation and New Project Development

11.

Case Analysis

Course Duration: Spread over 4 weeks with extensive case analysis and discussions

ANNEXURE 8 MASTER DATABASE FILE OF PRIMARY DATA Chapter 4 Data Analysis Of Survey Of Technical And Business Institutions In India Table 2: Category Of Institutions (Fig 2) Type of Colleges Government Private

Frequency 21 60

Percentage 25.93 74.07

Table 3: Graph Showing Region Wise Distribution Of The Academic Institutions (Fig 3) Region wise Distribution of the Institutions

Frequency

Percentage 216


North South East West Central

16 26 5 21 13

19.75 32.10 6.17 25.93 16.05

Table 4: Experience Of Responding Faculty (Fig 4) Total Experience in Years upto 5 years 06 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 40 Above 40

Frequency 0 9 11 19 16 15 3 5 3

Percentage 0.00 11.11 13.58 23.46 19.75 18.52 3.70 6.17 3.70

Table 5: Experience In Curriculum Development (Fig 5) Total Experience in Years in curriculum development upto 5 years 06 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 25 26 to 30

Frequency Percentage 19 23.75 20 25.00 25 31.25 9 11.25 5 6.25 2 2.50

Table 6: Perception Of The Current Status Of PM Education In India (Fig 6) Level Poor Fair Good Very good

Frequency 19 40 21 1

Percentage 23.46 49.38 25.93 1.23

Table 7: Attempts At Introducing PM In The Curriculum (Fig 7) 217


Frequency 66 15

Yes No

Percentage 81.48 18.52

Table 8: Level At Which PM Courses Have Been Introduced (Fig 8) Level Under graduate Post graduate Advanced Level Research Level Certificate

Frequency

Percentage

49 38

50.52 39.18

3

3.09

6 1

6.19 1.03

Table 9: Type Of PM Related Course (Fig 9) Type of Course Elective Compulsory

Frequency 49 49

Percentage 50.00 50.00

Table 10: Intensity Of The Course (Fig 10) Intensity Elementary Intermediate Advanced

Frequency 25 41 15

Percentage 30.86 50.62 18.52

Table 11A: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of Institutions (Fig 11) C. Engineering Course (A) Somewhat Fairly Essential Very Absolutely

Frequency 2 0 9 30 40

Percentage 2.47 0.00 11.11 37.04 49.38

D. Management Course (B) Management Somewhat

Frequency 2

Percentage 2.53 218


Fairly Essential Very Absolute

0 5 24 48

0.00 6.33 30.38 60.76

E. Specialised Courses Ci: Architecture Course (Fig 11 Ci) Architecture Somewhat Fairly Essential Very Absolute

Frequency 0 1 12 25 41

Percentage 0.00 1.27 15.19 31.65 51.90

Cii: Planning And Design (Fig 11 Cii) Planning and design Somewhat Fairly Essential Very Absolute

Frequency 0 0 8 23 47

Percentage 0.00 0.00 10.26 29.49 60.26

Ciii: Infrastructure Development (Fig 11 Ciii) Essential Somewhat Fairly Essential Very Absolute

Frequency 0 0 8 23 47

Percentage 0.00 0.00 10.26 29.49 60.26

219


A. Table 12A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Management And Technology (Fig 12A) Revised Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important

AR 1

AR 2

AR 3

AR 4

AR 5

AR 6

AR 7

AR 8

AR AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 AR1 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

AR2 0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

2

1

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

1 31

1 17

4 23

2 20

2 18

6 24

7 20

7 38

8 31

7 34

9 29

10 27

11 25

8 23

13 43

7 35

14 35

6 25

6 30

9 22

39

48

40

42

37

46

39

31

40

41

33

36

37

34

36

36

31

45

45

42

29

33

33

36

42

23

34

21

20

15

28

26

25

33

8

21

18

22

18

26

A. Table 12B: Level Of Teaching Of Subject In Management And Technology (Fig 12B)

Certificate UG PG Advanced App Research

AL1 AL2 AL3 AL4 AL5 AL6 AL7 AL8 AL9 AL10 AL11 AL12 AL13 AL14 AL15 AL16 AL17 AL18 AL19 AL20 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 0 1 1 38 35 30 28 24 32 34 26 31 23 30 23 21 21 28 29 26 22 20 24 53 50 57 49 56 53 50 59 54 57 54 57 60 57 57 51 61 59 59 56 5 8 8 13 11 10 10 7 7 12 12 17 14 13 6 10 6 9 13 9 2

6

4

7

8

2

4

6

6

6

2

2

4

7

6

8

6

10

7

220

10


B. Table 13A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And Finance (Fig 13A) BR1 Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important

BR2

BR3

BR4

BR5

BR6

BR7

BR8

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

2

7 26 35

6 25 47

6 27 35

6 24 38

6 24 35

8 22 32

12 30 34

11 27 33

31

20

31

30

34

38

23

26

B. Table 13B: Levels Of Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And Finance (Fig 13B) BL1 Certificate UG PG Advanced App Research

BL2

BL3

BL4

BL5

BL6

BL7

BL8

2 35 53 7

2 24 64 8

0 24 64 7

1 25 63 7

2 20 69 4

1 24 66 4

1 25 63 9

0 23 63 9

2

2

5

4

5

5

2

4

C. Table 14 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Behavioural Sciences Area (Fig 14A) CR1 Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important Average

CR2

CR3

CR4

CR5

CR6

1

1

1

2

2

3

6 31 53

4 18 61

4 29 46

5 40 51

8 43 46

11 36 44

9 3.63

16 3.87

20 3.80

2 3.46

0 3.33

7 3.44

C. Table 14 B: Levels Of Subject Areas In Behavioural Sciences Area (Fig 14B) CL1 Certificate UG PG Advanced App Research Average

CL2

CL3

1 31 62 6

1 27 60 11

1 24 63 10

0 2.73

2 2.89

2 2.88

CL4 2 30 59 6 2 2.73

CL5

CL6 1 24 63 0

1 26 57 13

12 2.98

2 2.86 221


Table 15 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Information Technology (Fig 15A) DR1 Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important Average

DR2

DR3

DR4

DR5

1

1

2

1

0

1 22 39

6 27 49

8 32 50

3 20 29

4 20 28

37 4.10

16 3.70

9 3.59

47 4.18

48 4.20

D. Table 15b: Level Of Subject Areas In Information Technology (Fig 15b) DL1 Certificate UG PG Advanced App Research Average

DL2

DL3

DL4

DL5

2 38 52 5

1 33 55 9

1 33 57 6

2 39 55 4

1 38 49 9

2 2.64

2 2.78

3 2.77

0 2.61

2 2.70

222


D. Table 16A: Ratings Of Sector Specific Importance Of PM (Fig 16A) ER1 ER2 ER3 ER4 ER5 ER6 ER7 ER8 ER9 ER10 ER11 ER12 ER13 ER14 ER15 ER16 ER17 ER18 Not Important 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 2 3 4 4 4 4 2 Somewhat Important 19 22 16 13 16 18 18 16 19 19 15 17 13 16 18 15 17 13 Important 35 40 36 39 27 33 31 32 26 32 31 31 33 31 30 29 30 35 Very Important 30 15 21 26 30 16 22 16 25 21 23 12 17 18 21 18 21 18 Extremely Important 15 19 24 19 25 30 27 32 26 24 26 39 34 31 27 33 29 32 Averagwe 3.39 3.23 3.46 3.46 3.61 3.52 3.55 3.56 3.5 3.43 3.5 3.72 3.66 3.56 3.49 3.58 3.57 3.65

E. Table 16B: Levels Of Sector Specific (Fig 16b) EL1 EL2 EL3 EL4 EL5 EL6 EL7 EL8 EL9 EL10 EL11 EL12 EL13 EL14 EL15 EL16 EL17 EL18 Certificate 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 UG 18 16 13 15 11 14 12 11 12 12 14 10 12 12 13 13 10 10 PG 28 26 25 22 25 24 19 16 23 21 21 15 17 17 18 19 24 15 EL1 EL2 EL3 EL4 EL5 EL6 EL7 EL8 EL9 EL10 EL11 EL12 EL13 EL14 EL15 EL16 EL17 EL18 Advanced 26 33 31 24 28 24 24 27 27 20 15 26 20 17 19 19 22 22 App Research 27 25 30 38 35 36 43 45 38 46 49 47 50 53 49 48 42 52 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.9 Average 1 8 6 3 5 7 3 4 2 3.98 3.97 4.05 4.06 4.09 4.02 4.00 3.92 4.14 223


Table 17: Ratings Of Instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Infrastructure (Fig 17) IR1 Not Available Somewhat Available Available Easy Available Very Easily Available Average

IR2

IR3

IR4

IR5

IR6

IR7

IR8

3

2

0

1

1

3

2

2

11 20 28

15 18 37

7 21 34

9 26 37

6 27 39

12 17 27

17 26 20

11 13 30

38 3.87

28 3.74

38 4.03

27 3.80

28 3.90

42 3.96

35 3.69

44 4.03

Table 18: Earlier Attempts Of Institutions To Introduce PM Courses (Fig 18) Yes

No

52

29

Table 19: Progress Of Introduction Of PM Courses (Fig 19) Ratings Negligible Initial Considerable Advanced Established

Percentage 23.73 20.34 40.68 15.25 0.00

Table 20: Impact Of PM Courses On Employability Of Students (Fig 20) Somewhat

Fairly

Good

3

4

21

Considerably Immensely 32

21

Table 21: Company Specifically Looking For PM Competency In Students (Fig 21) Some Extent 19

Considerable

Great

38

13

No Impact 9

224


Table 22: Category Of Institutions (Fig 22) Category Autonomous University Affiliated AICTE International Affiliation Accredited

frequency 12

Percentage 11.54

25 45

24.04 43.27

1 21

0.96 20.19

Table 23: Academic Council Approval (Fig 23) Years Upto 6 Months > 6 - 12 Months > 1 - 2 Years > 2 - 3 Years > 3 Years

Percentage 13.70 30.14 19.18 12.33 24.66

Table 24: Regulatory Approval (Fig 24) Years Upto 6 Months > 6 - 12 Months > 1 - 2 Years > 2 - 3 Years > 3 Years

Percentage 12.33 38.36 23.29 13.70 12.33

Table 25: Resources Building (Fig 25) Years Upto 6 Months > 6 - 12 Months >1-2 Years >2-3 Years > 3 Years

Percentage 26.32 39.47 19.74 7.89 6.58

225


Table 26: Recruitment And Training Of Faculty (Fig 26) Years Upto 6 Months > 6 - 12 Months > 1 - 2 Years > 2 - 3 Years > 3 Years

Percentage 17.33 37.33 26.67 10.67 8.00

Table 27: Involvement In Project Management Research (Fig 27) Yes

No

28

53

Table 28: Funded Research (Fig 28) YES

NO

NA

17

60

4

Chapter 5 226


Data Analysis Of Survey Of Working Executives Employed In Project-Based Companies In India Table 29: Years Of Experience Of The Working Executives (Fig 29) Total Experience Less than 5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-25 years more than 25 years

Frequency

Percentage

28 19 12 8 4

37.84 25.68 16.22 10.81 5.41

3

4.05

Table 30: Institutes Teaching PM Related Curriculum (Fig 30) PM training being offered Yes No

Frequency 15 45

Percentage 25 75

Table 31: Executives With Prior PM Related Training (Fig 31) PM Training Yes No

Frequency

Percentage 10 78

11 89

Table 32: Value Of Projects In Rupees (Fig 32) Total size of the Project in Rs Less than 100 crores 100-200 crores 200-300 crores 300-400 crores Above 400 crores

Frequency

Percentage

14 22 5 9

23.73 37.29 8.47 15.25

9

15.25

Table 33: Tools And Techniques Used On Projects (Fig 33) Major Techniques Used

Freque

Percentage 227


During Projects Primavera CPM/ PERT Arrow Diagram Fish Bone Diagram MS Projects

ncy 2 32 10 3 2

4.08 65.31 20.41 6.12 4.08

228


Table 34: Subject wise Ratings For Management And Technology Area (Fig 34) Not Important Somewha t Important Important Very Important Extremely Important

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

A9

A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

3

10

1

1

0

2

1

6

1

1

0

1

9

4

7

2

2

1

26

5

33

34

14

15

5

17

10

29

13

14

14

21

35

26

31

25

25

19

38

22

42

43

45

34

35

44

36

35

46

46

42

37

42

50

40

43

44

48

35

73

22

13

40

50

60

38

53

29

40

40

44

41

14

19

21

29

29

32

3.8 5

4.6 0

3.6 6

3.3 7

4.0 9

4.1 9

4.4 6

4.0 0

4.2 6

3.5 2

4.1 0

4.1 1

4.1 6

3.9 6

3.4 1

3.6 3

3.5 0

3.8 3

3.8 2

3.95

Table 35: Subject Wise Ratings For Behavioural Sciences Area (Fig 35) B1 Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 17 55

0 8 32

1 19 52

3 26 42

5 27 44

8 32 47

28 4

61 4.425

28 3.95

30 3.8

24 13 3.67088 3.443038 229


6 Table 36: Subject Wise Ratings For Information Technology Area (Fig 36) C1 Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important

C2

C3

C4

C5

0

0

0

1

0

1 14 36

2 17 29

7 29 38

3 26 34

1 17 36

49

51

4.1875

4.075

25 3.53846 2

37 46 3.77215 2 4.088608

Table 37: Ratings For Importance Of PM Education In Sector Specific Areas (Fig 37) Not Important Somewhat Important Important Very Important Extremely Important

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

D7

D8

D9

D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

4

8

5

12

1

11

2

3

5

6

7

3

5

6

12

5

5

4

30

25

35

28

27

35

16

17

18

26

38

21

28

29

31

34

27

26

44

52

37

42

36

34

47

43

49

39

33

42

34

42

36

39

43

33

22

15

22

16

35

19

35

37

28

30

22

34

33

23

19

21

24

37

3.6 1

3.5 1

3.5 3

3.2 8

3.8 5

3.3 0

3.9 9

3.9 2

3.7 1

3.6 5

3.4 2

3.8 5

3.7 0

3.5 6

3.2 7

3.5 6

3.6 3.79 6 230


231


Table 38: Gaining Perspectives Related To The Strategic Context Of Projects (Fig 38) Not Helped Somewhat Helped Helped Helped Substantially Helped Immensely

A1 0 4 30

A2 0 1 20

A3 0 0 10

A4 0 1 28

A5 0 1 25

A6 0 1 25

A7 0 3 26

A8 0 2 18

52

53

54

54

56

38

45

49

14 3.59

26 3.87

35 4.1

17 3.75

17 3.74

36 3.92

25 3.71

31 3.91

Table 39: Understanding Of Project Context (Fig 39) Not Helped Somewhat Helped Helped Helped Substantially Helped Immensely

B1 0 1 6 36 58 4.3 9

B2 0 1 8 39 51

B3 0 2 19 33 46

B4 1 0 13 45 41

B5 0 3 13 47 37

B6 1 2 21 41 36

B7 0 1 20 45 34

B8 0 1 19 53 27

4.21 4.03 4.01 4.01 3.87 3.97 3.89

Table 40: Gains In The Individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Career (Fig 40) Benefits Remuneration Incentive Responsibility Promotion Decision Making Power Better Interpersonal-relation & conflict resolutions

Frequency Percentage 5 5 1 1 28 25 7 6 37 33 33

30

Table 41: Factors In Order Of Importance Affecting Growth Of PM Education (Fig 41)

Never Somewhat Important Very Imp Extremely

Importance of awareness amongst students and educators 0.00 7.04 30.99 46.48 15.49

Lack of trained instructors at undergraduate and postgraduate levels 0.00 8.70 37.68 34.78 18.84

It is more practical so practical training is required 8.57 8.57 32.86 35.71 14.29

Mastery only comes through practical experience 5.63 5.63 33.80 30.99 23.94

prior knowledge not essential in the field of PM 8.29 8.29 49.71 45.57 35.21 232


Chapter 6 Data Analysis Of Survey Of Human Resource Managers Employed In Project-Based Companies In India Table 42: Companies With Prior PM Training Record (Fig 42) Yes No

95 5

Table 43: Inception Of PM Training In Companies (Fig 43) 0-5 Yrs 63

5-10 Yrs 26

10-15 Yrs 5

>15 Yrs 5

Table 44: Category Of Employees Sent For PM Training (Fig 44) Technical & Non Technical Operational Staff Managerial 7 30 24

Only Technical

39

Table 45: Level/ Grade Of Managers Chosen For PM Training (Fig 45) Supervisory

Middle Level Junior Managers Managers 12 22

Senior Level 34

32

Table 46: Factors Considered On A Scale Of Essentiality In PM Training (Fig 46) 1 Not High Somewhat High High Very High Extremely High

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

5

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

5

5

5

15

5

0

0

5

30

25

15

15

10

10 20

20

30

45

50

40

45

50

50 40

40

25

15

20

35

35

25

35 40

40

40

1 0 0

1 1 0

1 13 2 0 0

1 15 4 0 0

0 2 5 3 0 4 5

0 1 5 5 5 3 0

0

5

5 6 5 3 0

15

0 0 1 0 12 4 0 41 5 0 47

40 40

233


Table 47: Type Of Training (Fig 47) Training Method

Percentages

On Job In House Training In Class Training with on Job Projects Comprehensive Degree/ Diploma level Training

28 41 28 3

Table 48: Predominant Outcome Of The Training (Fig 48) Predominant Outcome

Percentages

Building Knowledge Building Skills Base Building a Set of Competencies Building the Right Attitude

28 34 26 13

Table 49: Type Of Training And Level Of Executives Sent For PM Based Training (Fig 49) Operatives Supervisor y Middle Level Senior Level

Elementary 48

Basic 10

Advanced Strategic 0 0

Any Other 0

34

47

25

6

0

17

37

47

32

0

0

7

28

61

100

234


Table 50: Ratings Of Training Costs Of PM Training (Fig 50) Trainer's Salary and Time

Trainees Salary and Time

Material for Training

0

0

5

0

20 20

20 20

15 25

55

40

5

20

Least Expensive Fairly Expensive Expensive Quite Expensive Highly Expensive

Expenses Expenses For Trainees For Trainees

Cost of facilities and equipment

Lost Productivity

5

0

0

10 40

5 30

5 35

20 55

40

40

60

45

25

15

10

0

15

0

Table 51: Ratings Of Benefits Of Training (Fig 51) Increase in Production Least Beneficial Fairly Beneficial Beneficial Quite Beneficial Highly Beneficial

5 16 37 42 0

Reduction in Employee Less Ability to Improved Errors Retention supervision use new delivery necessary skills 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 11 11 0 47 32 26 32 47 42 53 58 53 37 5 11 5 5 16

Attitude Changes

Growth of Business

0 0 58 32 16

0 0 37 58 5 235


Table 52: Efficacy Ratings Of Various Types Of Trainer Options (Fig 52) Technical Business Ins. Least Efficacious Fairly Efficacious Efficacious Quite Efficacious Most Efficacious

Independent Certified Internationally Trainer Franchisee Certified trainer trainers

Inhouse Trainer

Self Training

0

0

0

0

0

5

10 40

5 35

10 15

10 25

10 50

35 40

30

50

60

50

30

20

20

10

15

15

10

0

Table 53: Most Preferred Training Options Of HR Managers (Fig 53) Type of training Inhouse training Other Technical / Management Institutes NICMAR, Pune IIT / IIM / IIPM

Frequency Percentage 7 20.00 20 4 4

57.14 11.43 11.43

Table 54: Value Of An International Accreditation Accompanying PM Training By Organisations (Fig 54) Validity of International Accreditation Percentages Yes 47 No 0 May Be 53

236


Chapter 7 Interpretations From Of Data Analysis And Findings Of Pmi Survey (Annexure For Table 5, Figure 56) F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- FA A A A A A A A A A A A A 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 4 4 2 2 4 5 5 3 3 3 5 4 4 3 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 4 3 5 5 5 2 5 4 2 4 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 2 5 4 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 3 3 5 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 4 5 3 3 3 5 4 3 5 5 3 4 3 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 1 4 4 2 5 5 5 3 5 1 5 3 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 3 5 5 4 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F-

FA 14 4 2 3 3 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 F-

FA 15 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 2 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 F-

FA 16 4 2 5 3 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 1 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 F-

F- F- F- F- F- F- FA A A A A A A 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 3 4 3 4 3 5 4 1 2 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 3 5 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 3 4 3 3 3 5 4 2 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 F- F- F- F- F- F- F-

FA 24 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 F-

FA 25 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 F-

FA 26 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 F-

F- F- F- F- FA A A A A 27 28 29 30 31 3 3 2 2 3 5 4 3 1 1 5 5 5 2 5 2 2 2 1 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 F- F- F- F- F237


A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 3 2 2 5 5 2 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 5 3 3 4 5 3 4 4 3 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 3 5 5 3 4 2 3 5 4 3 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 2 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 2 2 3 5 5 2 3 2 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 3 5 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 4 1 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 3 2 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 5 5 5 3 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F238


A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 5 5 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 2 4 4 5 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 5 3 5 4 3 4 3 2 3 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 5 3 4 4 3 4 3 2 2 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 3 4 3 2 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 5 3 2 5 5 2 5 5 3 5 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 2 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 3 4 5 3 5 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 2 2 4 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 4 3 2 3 5 3 1 3 5 3 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F239


A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 5 3 2 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 5 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 1 4 3 4 3 2 4 2 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 3 3 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 3 4 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 5 5 3 4 3 5 5 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 5 3 5 4 5 3 3 4 5 4 4 5 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 3 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 5 4 2 4 5 4 4 5 3 4 3 2 4 5 5 3 4 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 4 5 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 3 5 3 3 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4

240


Table No.6 Total Explained Of Factors (Subjects) Included In Practicing Executives F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 5 4 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 3 2 2 3 5 5 3 4 4 3 5 4 5 5 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 3 2 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 5 5 4 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 2 5 5 2 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 3 5 4 4 4 4 5 3 3 4 3 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 3 5 5 3 4 2 5 5 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 241


3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 5 3 1 2 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 4 1 4 1 4 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 1 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 2 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 5 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 4 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 5 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 5 4 4 5 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 5 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 5 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 242


4 4 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 3 2 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 4 3 5 4 2 2 4 5 3 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 5 4 2 2 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 3 4 2 2 3 4 5 3 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 2 2 4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 3 4 4 2 4 5 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 4 5 3 5 4 3 2 3 4 3 5 3 4 2 5 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 5 2 2 5 5 4 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 5 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 243


3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 5

3 3 4 3 4 5 4 4 4

4 3 5 3 4 3 3 4 5

4 3 4 3 5 4 4 5 5

4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 4 3 5 5 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4

4 3 3 3 5 5 4 3 4

4 3 4 4 3 2 4 3 4

4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 5

4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5

3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4

4 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 4

3 3 3 4 4 2 4 3 4

4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4

4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4

4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 4

3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 5

3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5

3 3 4 5 4 3 4 5 4

3 3 4 5 4 4 5 5 4

4 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 4

3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4

3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4

3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4

3 4 4 3 5 5 4 5 5

3 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4

3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4

3 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 5

3 4 3 4 5 4 5 5 5

244


General Factor Ratings (Factor Analysis) (ANNEXURE FOR TABLE 7, FIGURE 58) F01 4 4 5 3 5 3 3 3 5 4 4 3 3 2 4 5 3 3 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 5 2 5 4 3 4 4 3 5 3

F02 5 3 5 3 5 4 3 2 5 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 3 4 4 4 3 2 5 3 5 5 4 4 2 3 4 3 5

F03 3 1 1 1 2 5 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 5 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 5 2 4 5 4 4 5 1 5 4 3 1 4 3 3

F04 3 5 1 1 3 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 2 4 5 3 3 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 3 4 2 4 4 3 5 4 3 1

F05 4 5 1 1 4 3 5 3 4 4 4 5 4 1 4 4 4 3 3 5 2 5 3 1 3 4 4 4 1 5 5 1 5 5 1 4 3 1 4 3 2 245


3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 3 5 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

3 4 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 5 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 5 3 3 4 2 3 5 5 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4

3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 4 3 4 5 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 1 3 4 4 3 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 5 1 5 3 4 3 5 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 3 3 4 5 3 3 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 5 4 3 2 3 3 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 4 3 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4

Rating Of Different Disciplines (Multiple Regression Analysis) For Model No. 1 Questionnaire PMIOR PMENG PMMGM PMARCH PMPND PMINFRA Sl. No. 1 2 5 5 4 4 4 246


2 2 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 5 5 3 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 6 1 5 5 5 5 5 7 3 5 5 5 5 5 8 3 5 5 5 5 5 9 2 5 5 4 5 5 10 2 4 4 4 4 4 11 2 4 5 5 5 5 12 3 5 5 5 5 5 13 2 5 5 5 5 5 14 3 4 5 5 5 4 15 2 5 5 5 5 5 16 2 5 5 5 5 5 17 2 4 4 4 4 4 18 1 5 5 5 5 5 19 2 4 4 4 4 4 20 3 4 4 4 4 4 21 1 5 5 5 5 5 22 1 5 1 5 5 5 23 3 3 3 4 4 5 24 2 4 4 4 4 4 25 2 3 4 4 5 5 26 2 4 4 4 4 4 27 2 3 4 4 5 5 28 2 4 4 4 5 5 29 3 4 4 3 3 3 30 1 1 4 4 4 4 31 1 1 4 3 4 4 32 1 4 4 4 4 4 33 2 4 4 4 4 4 34 2 3 3 3 3 3 35 2 4 4 4 4 4 36 1 5 5 5 5 5 37 2 5 5 5 5 5 38 2 4 4 4 4 4 39 1 5 4 4 4 4 40 1 5 5 5 5 5 Questionnaire PMIOR PMENG PMMGM PMARCH PMPND PMINFRA Sl. No. 41 2 4 1 4 4 4 43 2 5 5 5 5 5 44 1 4 4 4 4 4 45 1 5 5 5 5 5 46 2 5 5 5 5 5 247


47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

2 3 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 2 2 4 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 2

5 5 5 5 5 3 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 3 4 5 3 5 5 5 4 5 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 4 5 5 3 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 2 5 4 3 4 3 3 5 3 5 5 3 4 5 3

5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 5 5 3 4 3 4 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 3 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 5

Ratings Of Infrastructure & Other Related Facilities (Master File For Multiple Regression Analysis) For Model No.2 Questionna PMIO ire Sl. No. R 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 5 1

LSE R 3 3 3 5 5

C M 3 3 3 5 5

C R 4 5 5 5 5

LA B 3 4 2 5 5

COML AB 5 5 4 5 5

QFA C 3 5 3 5 5

RFA CI 3 5 2 4 5

MVISI ON 3 5 4 5 5

EIP M 3 3 2 3 2

EEM P 3 4 5 3 5 248


6 1 7 3 8 3 9 2 10 2 11 2 12 3 13 2 14 3 15 2 16 2 17 2 18 1 19 2 20 3 21 1 22 1 23 3 24 2 25 2 26 2 27 2 28 2 29 3 30 1 31 1 32 1 33 2 34 2 35 2 36 1 37 2 38 2 39 1 Questionna PMIO ire Sl. No. R 40 1 41 2 42 1 43 2 44 1 45 1 46 2 47 2 48 3 49 1

4 5 5 5 3 4 4 5 2 5 5 4 5 5 4 3 3 4 4 5 4 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 LSE R 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1

4 5 5 5 2 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 5 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 2 2 C M 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1

3 5 5 5 3 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 C R 3 3 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 2

3 5 5 4 2 4 4 5 2 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 3 2 2 4 4 2 3 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 LA B 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 2

4 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 2 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 4 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 COML AB 2 4 3 2 1 4 3 1 2 3

4 5 5 4 2 4 4 5 2 5 5 5 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 5 3 5 3 4 5 5 4 3 3 4 2 4 1 1 QFA C 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 2

3 5 5 3 1 4 4 5 2 5 5 4 2 4 5 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 5 5 3 4 3 4 2 2 2 2 RFA CI 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1

4 5 5 5 3 5 4 5 3 5 5 5 2 4 5 4 3 3 4 3 5 5 2 4 5 5 5 3 3 5 2 1 2 2 MVISI ON 1 3 1 3 2 4 2 1 2 1

4 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 3 EIP M 1 2 1 2 2 4 1 2 3 1

4 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 2 4 5 1 1 4 3 5 4 3 3 3 5 EEM P 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 249


50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

2 1 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 2 2 4 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 2

1 2 2 1 2 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 4 2 3 5 4 4 4 4 5

2 1 2 1 2 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 5 4 4 4 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 4 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 4

4 3 2 2 2 5 4 3 4 2 3 2 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 5 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 2 3 4 4 3 4 3 2 3 5 5 4 3 5 2 3 5 5 3 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 3

2 3 3 2 3 5 4 2 4 3 3 3 5 5 2 3 5 5 3 5 5 3 4 5 1 4 5 4 4 4 4 5

2 1 2 1 3 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 5 4 5 4 5 5 1 5 5 4 5 5 1 4 5 3 4 4 4 4

2 1 2 2 2 5 2 3 3 2 3 2 4 4 4 3 5 5 1 5 5 2 5 5 2 3 5 3 3 3 4 4

3 1 2 2 2 5 4 2 2 2 2 1 5 4 4 4 5 4 2 5 5 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5

1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 4 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1

3 5 4 3 2 3 1 4 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 2 5 4 4 4 4 4

250


List of Average Ratings - Institutions A.

Management and Technology

Subject

Ratings Numerical Average AR1 – 3.79 AR2 – 3.98

Levels Numerical Average AL1 – 2.49 AL2 – 2.59

AR3 – 3.81 AR4 – 3.87 AR5 – 3.93 AR6 – 3.60 AR7 – 3.74 AR8 – 3.26 AR9 – 3.43 AR10 – 3.30 AR11 – 3.40

AL3 – 2.67 AL4 – 2.72 AL5 – 2.73 AL6 – 2.56 AL7 – 2.59 AL8 – 2.65 AL9 – 2.59 AL10 – 2.76 AL11 – 2.61

Management. 12. Project Procurement & Materials

AR12 – 3.40

AL12 – 2.73

Management 13. Contract Management 14. Process

AR13 – 3.31 AR14 – 3.48

AL13 – 2.76 AL14 – 2.79

Design./Engineering/Testing/Commissioning 15. Facilities Engineering and Management 16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management 17. Transportation Management 18. Technology and Engineering

AR15 – 3.12 AR16 – 3.37 AR17 – 3.12 AR18 – 3.46

AL15 – 2.62 AL16 – 2.67 AL17 – 2.71 AL18 – 2.83

Management 19. Project Formulation and Appraisal 20. Project Engineering

AR19 – 3.46 AR20 – 3.46

AL19 – 2.84 AL20 – 2.78

1. Operations management for Projects. 2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques 3. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis 4. Operations Research for Projects 5. Project Quality Management 6. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects 7. Cost Estimation and budgeting 8.Accounting and Control Systems 9. Quantity Surveying and Estimation 10. Projects Marketing 11. Project Site and Equipment

B. Strategy, Economics And Finance Subject 1. Macro-Economic Policy

Ratings Numerical Average BR1 – 3.52

Levels Numerical Average BL1 – 2.51 251


2. Project Strategy 3. Social Cost Benefit Analysis 4. Financial Management 5. Project Financing 6. Risk and Insurance Management 7. Legal, Commercial and Taxation

BR2 – 3.45 BR3 – 3.55 BR4 – 3.58 BR5 – 3.62 BR6 – 3.60 BR7 – 3.30

BL2 – 2.65 BL3 – 2.77 BL4 – 2.70 BL5 – 2.70 BL6 – 2.67 BL7 – 2.70

Aspects of Projects 8. Project Joint Ventures, Strategic

BR8 – 3.27

BL8 – 2.67

Alliances, Special Purpose Vehicles C. Behavioural Sciences Area D. Subject Ratings Numerical Average 1. Project Organization and Structure CR1 – 3.39 2. Managerial Skills for Projects CR2 – 3.64

Levels Numerical Average CL1 – 2.58 CL2 – 2.69

(Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation, other soft skills) 3. Human Resources Management in

CR3 – 3.58

CL3 – 2.72

Projects 4. Industrial/Labour Relations 5. Conflict Management 6. Diversity Management

CR4 – 3.22 CR5 – 3.08 CR6 – 3.09

CL4 – 2.55 CL5 – 2.72 CL6 – 2.68

E. Information Technology Subject 1. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS /

Ratings Numerical Average DR1 – 3.83

Levels Numerical Average DL1 – 2.47

GPS for Project Management 2. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) 3. e-Business Applications 4. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad,

DR2 – 3.47 DR3 – 3.25 DR4 - 3.91

DL2 – 2.60 DL3 – 2.61 DL4 – 2.44

DR5 – 3.95

DL5 – 2.53

Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan) 5. Excel / SPSS / DBMS

252


F. Sector Specific Subject 1. Information Communication Technology (ICT) 2. Telecom 3. Research and Development 4. Space Exploration 5. Technology 6. Defense 7. Roadways 8. Railways 9. Civil Aviation 10. Ports 11. Shipbuilding 12. Urban Infrastructure 13. Mega Property Developments 14. Petrochemicals 15. Chemical Engineering 16. Oil and Gas Exploration 17. Services 18. International Project Management

Ratings Numerical Average ER1 – 3.03 ER2 – 2.80 ER3 – 3.07 ER4 – 2.97 ER5 – 3.08 ER6 – 3.03 ER7 – 3.04 ER8 – 3.00 ER9 – 2.95 ER10 – 2.88 ER11 – 2.94 ER12 – 3.17 ER13 – 3.15 ER14 – 3.05 ER15 – 2.98 ER16 – 3.06 ER17 – 3.03 ER18 – 3.19 PART IV

Levels Numerical Average EL1 – 3.17 EL2 – 3.27 EL3 – 3.39 EL4 – 3.40 EL5 – 3.49 EL6 – 3.36 EL7 – 3.56 EL8 – 3.65 EL9 – 3.52 EL10 – 3.53 EL11 – 3.49 EL12 – 3.67 EL13 – 3.59 EL14 – 3.62 EL15 – 3.56 EL16 – 3.55 EL17 – 3.50 EL18 – 3.72

A. Institute Infrastructure Subject 1. Availability of library and e-resources 2. Course Material 3. Classrooms 4. Laboratories 5. Computer Labs 6. Qualified faculty 7. Availability of research facilities 8. Management vision

Ratings Numerical Average AR1 – 3.37 AR2 – 3.31 AR3 – 3.78 AR4 – 3.49 AR5 – 3.55 AR6 – 3.43 AR7 – 3.21 AR8 – 3.51

253


Chapter V List of Average Ratings - Executives A. Management and Technology Subject 1. Operations management for Projects. 2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques 3. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis 4. Operations Research for Projects 5. Project Quality Management 6. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects 7. Cost Estimation and budgeting 8.Accounting and Control Systems 9. Quantity Surveying and Estimation 10. Projects Marketing 11. Project Site and Equipment

Ratings Numerical Average AR1 – 3.84 AR2 – 4.60 AR3 – 3.66 AR4 – 3.37 AR5 – 4.08 AR6 – 4.19 AR7 – 4.46 AR8 – 4.00 AR9 – 4.26 AR10 – 3.51 AR11 – 4.10

Management. 12. Project Procurement & Materials

AR12 – 4.11

Management 13. Contract Management 14. Process

AR13 – 4.16 AR14 – 3.96

Design./Engineering/Testing/Commissioning 15. Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 – 3.40 254


16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management 17. Transportation Management 18. Technology and Engineering

AR16 – 3.63 AR17 – 3.50 AR18 – 3.82

Management 19. Project Formulation and Appraisal 20. Project Engineering

AR19 – 3.82 AR20 – 3.90

B. Behavioural Sciences Area Subject 1. Project Organization and Structure 2. Managerial Skills for Projects

Ratings Numerical Average B1 – 4.00 B2 – 4.42

(Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation, other soft skills) 3. Human Resources Management in

B3 – 3.95

Projects 4. Industrial/Labour Relations 5. Conflict Management 6. Diversity Management

B4 – 3.80 B5 – 3.67 B6 – 3.44

C. Information Technology Subject 1. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS /

Ratings Numerical Average C1 – 4.18

GPS for Project Management 2. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) 3. e-Business Applications 4. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad,

C2 – 4.07 C3 – 3.53 C4 – 3.77

Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan) 5. Excel / SPSS / DBMS

C5 – 4.08

255


D. Sector Specific Subject 1. Information Communication

Ratings Numerical Average D1 – 3.60

Technology (ICT) 2. Telecom 3. Research and Development 4. Space Exploration 5. Technology 6. Defence 7. Roadways 8. Railways 9. Civil Aviation 10. Ports 11. Shipbuilding 12. Urban Infrastructure 13. Mega Property Developments 14. Petrochemicals 15. Chemical Engineering 16. Oil and Gas Exploration 17. Services 18. International Project Management

D2 – 3.50 D3 – 3.52 D4 – 3.28 D5 – 3.85 D6 – 3.29 D7 – 3.98 D8 – 3.91 D9 – 3.71 D10 – 3.64 D11 – 3.41 D12 – 3.84 D13 – 3.70 D14 – 3.56 D15 – 3.26 D16 – 3.55 D17 – 3.65 D18 – 3.78

256


PART III A. Strategic Project Overview Subject 1. To get an integrated view of the

Ratings Numerical Average A1 – 3.59

project 2. Role clarity 3. Work Breakdown Structure and

A2 – 3.87 A3 – 4.10

Responsibility mapping 4. Understanding the exact placement of

A4 – 3.75

a project in the overall corporate strategy 5. Importance of Earned Value of a

A5 – 3.74

project to the company 6. Understanding project profitability 7. Importance of Human relations and

A6 – 3.92 A7 – 3.71

Conflict management in project success 8. Management vision

A8 – 3.91

B. Project Skills Overview Subject 1.Importance of Project

Ratings Numerical Average B1 – 4.39

Planning/Scheduling/Execution 2. Importance of Monitoring & Control 3. Importance of Contract Management 4. Project Risk Management 5. Project Costing 6. Importance of

B2 – 4.20 B3 – 4.02 B4 – 4.01 B5 – 4.01 B6 – 3.86

Health/Safety/Environment 7. Quality Management 8. Communication and Soft Skills PART IV

B7 – 3.97 B8 – 3.89

Current Position of Project Management System (Factors in Order of Importance Affecting Growth of PM Education) Subject

Ratings Numerical 257


Average 1. Lack of awareness amongst students Q1 – 3.70 and educators. 2. Lack of trained instructors at the Q2 – 3.69 undergraduate and postgraduate level. 3. Being a practical field it cannot be Q3 – 3.43 ‘taught’ in the classroom. 4. Mastery comes only from practical Q4 – 3.62 experience. 5. Prior knowledge not essential in Q5 – 3.29 working in this field.

Chapter VI List of Average Ratings – Human Resources Management PART II A. Factors Considered on a Scale of Essentiality in PM Training 258


Subject 1. Stipulation In The Contract 2. Improving Effectiveness Of Project Operations 3. Understanding Global Projects 4. Perceived Gains From Such Training 5. Human Resource Development For Better Performance 6. Employee Retention 7. Career Development 8. Prerequisite For Project Based Organizations Such As Yours 9. Improves Ability To Bid For Complex Projects 10. Improves Ability To Execute Complete Projects 11. Improves Ability To Monitor And Control Projects 12. Improves Ability To Plan Projects 13. Improves Ability To Manage Contracts In Projects 14. Improves Ability To Deliver Projects In Right Time, Right Costs And Right Quality

Ratings Numerical Average M1 – 3.60 M2 – 3.85 M3 – 3.95 M4 – 4.10 M5 – 3.85 M6 – 4.20 M7 – 4.20 M8 – 4.00 M9 – 4.00 M10 – 4.20 M11 – 4.20 M12 – 4.30 M13 – 4.20 M14 – 4.40

D. Ratings of Training Costs of PM Training Subject 1. 2. 3. 4.

Trainer’s salary and time Trainees’ salaries and time Materials for training Expenses for trainers

Ratings Numerical Average N1 – 3.45 N2 – 3.60 N3 – 3.45 N4 – 3.50 259


5. Expenses for trainees 6. Cost of facilities and equipment 7. Lost productivity

N5 – 3.45 N6 – 3.70 N7 – 3.05

D. Ratings of Benefits of Training Subject 1. Increase in production/performance 2. Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards 3. Employee Retention 4. Less supervision necessary 5. Ability to use new skills and capabilities 6. Improved delivery performance in terms of cost, time and quality 7. Attitude changes 8. Growth of business opportunities

Ratings Numerical Average K1 – 3.15 K2 – 3.47 K3 – 3.68 K4 – 3.57 K5 – 3.52 K6 – 3.68 K7 – 3.60 K8 – 3.68

E. Efficacy Ratings of Various Types of Trainer Options Subject 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Technical/business institute Independent trainer Certified franchisee trainer Internationally certified trainers In-house trainers Self-training

Ratings Numerical Average U1 – 3.60 U2 – 3.65 U3 – 3.80 U4 – 3.70 U5 – 3.40 U6 – 2.75

260

Drivers of Project Management (PM) Education in India - A Research Study  

This study is an initial attempt, to investigate the factors that are responsible in driving the growth of Project Management Education in I...

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