Page 1

Portland Aquatic Community Center Stefanie Hanna-Riggs

University of Oregon Portland Program  School of Architecture and Allied Arts 2011-2012 Urban Waterfront Thesis Professor Gerry Gast


Portland Aquatic Community Center Stefanie Hanna-Riggs

602.309.3319 Stefanie.HannaRiggs@gmail.com

Key Facts Function: Aquatic Community Center Location: 1700 SE Water Ave, Portland, OR 97214. This project, located north of OMSI, explores the scenario of the I-5 freeway being removed as a long-term plan. The site can be developed now and expanded upon with the removal of the freeway.

Condensed Thesis Statement: The Portland Aquatic Community Center (PACC) is a largescale aquatic community and recreation center for people across Portland that has a unique user base because it provides a unique amenity: access to the Willamette. This project connects people to the waterfront creating a tactile experience for both residents and tourists by drawing people from downtown and creating a loop of activity with Tom McCall Waterfront Park.


Table of Contents

University of Oregon Portland Program  School of Architecture and Allied Arts 2011-2012 Urban Waterfront Thesis Professor Gerry Gast

Key Facts Thesis Statement Client Portland, Oregon Site Urban Design Building Concept Building Program Floor Plans Materials and Enclosure Climate Response and Sustainable Strategies

2 4 5 6 8 11 14 15 18 20 21

Appendix A: Programming Document from Fall 2011 Appendix B: East Bank Master Plan

31 61


Thesis Statement Project Objectives The Portland Aquatic Community Center (PACC) is a large-scale aquatic community and recreation center for the city of Portland This project provides similar amenities as most community centers but to a larger group of people, focusing on the city as a whole rather than a single neighborhood. The Center provides a unique amenity to downtown Portland, providing services that Portland is currently lacking. This project will be a catalyst for the east side and will attract more development, especially given the nature of the project being a large public function. The Center will help the East Portland Waterfront transition from its industrial past to its diversified future centered on people and activity, drawing people from across Portland to connect with the river and community.

Statement of Project The Portland Aquatic Community Center integrates water activities and community functions in a large, citywide scale community center. It combines aspects of healthy living (exercise and relaxation) through interaction with nature, water and community. These manifest themselves in physical water-related activities and relaxing spa amenities. This project integrates with the existing outdoor space along the waterfront and creates a counterpart to Tom McCall Waterfront Park across the river. This project will has a mixture of water recreation and land activities, tying together the bank and the river.

4

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Client This project will be developed as a public amenity for the City of Portland Parks and Recreation Department. Classes, equipment rental, and space rental generates revenue.

Project Objectives: • Connect people to the water • Create a loop of movement with downtown: interact with Tom McCall Waterfront Park • Provide a unique amenity to Portland • Be a catalyst as a large public function • Create a public project for tourists and residents alike

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

PACC attracts people from across Portland to connect with the river and the community.

5


Portland, Oregon The city of Portland, Oregon, located at the confluence of the Willamette and Colombia Rivers, was settled for its advantageous shipping position. When the city was laid out in 1845, it was never planned to include land on both sides of the Willamette, but rather just the west bank.

The City of East Portland In 1868, mainline railroad tracks were constructed on the east bank, an area which was mainly comprised of farmers at the time. Immediately following the railroad, the east bank became the incorporated city of East Portland in 1870. The population of 1500 people was connected to the west bank by two ferries that continuously crossed the river. In 1887, Portland first bridge, the Morrison Bridge, was opened, allowing trolleys to connect neighborhoods on both sides of the river. In 1891, East Portland and Portland merged into one city with about 25% of the population living on the east side.

For the complete urban design, refer to Appendix B “East Bank Master Plan.�

6

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


One city with two distinct characters Even following the merger, the two sides of the river maintained their distinct characters, a fact that persists today. Overall, the city of Portland has over 90 different neighborhoods, with a large housing stock and many industrial jobs being found on the east side. Along the East Bank of the Willamette Marshes, docks, sandbars, bluffs and wharves have come and gone with time. Land has been created by filling or excavating. Many buildings, factories, and embankments have been constructed, used, and then demolished to make way for the next layer of development.

The 1950s and the Car In the 1950s, many American cities began to turn away from their ports and focus on vehicular transportation. Portland was not immune to this movement, and in the 1960’s, abandoned docks and wharves were replaced by the I-5 freeway along the east bank. At the time, the land was considered “left over” with little monetary value. The freeway radically shifted the east bank’s land form, providing minimal waterfront access and depriving the city of half of its waterfront property.

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

7


Site Site Selection: East Portland and the I-5 The project, located north of OMSI, explores the scenario of the I-5 freeway being removed as a long-term plan. The site can be developed now and expanded upon with the removal of the freeway. There have been incremental steps made in the past three decades to make the east bank a more usable place. Between OMSI, the East Bank Esplanade, and now the new transit and pedestrian bridge, the character of the east waterfront is becoming public and active. This character will be strengthened in the new waterfront plan, the next step of which will be a the Portland Aquatic Community Center north of OMSI. The site was selected for its pivotal point as the only riveraccessible land with the current freeway situation, allowing the project to be built as a first step in the process of getting the freeway removed. The center will interact with the existing East Bank Esplanade, creating a loop with the downtown area via the new pedestrian bridge south of the site.

8

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Group MacKenzie Alder Street Kayak & Canoe

Portland Community College Downtown View Corridor

Site

Proposed Site Concept:

Existing OMSI Warehouse (Removed)

South Waterfront View Corridor

This project mends the disjointed urban fabric by providing an anchor point along the waterfront, connecting people to the water. PACC creates a tactile experience by drawing people from downtown and creating a loop of activity with Tom McCall Waterfront Park. This civic space is a place for people to come together to engage with the water for recreational, social, and educational uses, serving as a center for the community.

Power Station

Existing Esplanade

Railroad Tracks

SE Water Avenue Service Entry

OMSI

Building Concept: The concept of the convergence of land and water carries through to the building. The curtain walls allow people to visually connect to the river and land, while the openings in the roof allow ample natural light. The pools are arranged in a linear fashion, allowing a visual connection between the spaces.

Parking

Streetcar Line

Existing Parking/Empty Lot

New Proposed Parking Structure

Lightrail Line

Lightrail Station

New Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

9


Hawthorne Bridgehead

Hawthorne Bridgehead

OMSI

OMSI

OMSI

This building is part of a loop of movement along the waterfront. Each important site, including OMSI, the Rose Garden, and the marina is an anchor point that is creating a tension moving people from one node to the next.

This project holds down this point along the paths, stitching together the land, the Esplanade, and the water into a cohesive element.

10

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


SE Madison Street

Urban Design The urban design plan focuses on civic spaces along the waterfront. This plan maintains, improves, and expands the esplanade to create ample room for foot and bike traffic along the waterfront.

Vegetated, Non-Accessible Rehabilitated Shoreline

Seating Structures

SE Clay Street

DN

Boat Launch

DN

UP

DN UP

Storage

Therapy Pools

Physical Therapy/Training DN

Change Room

A

Baths Olympic Sized Lap Pool

Misc. Sports Fields

Change Room DN

DN

UP

DN

Security

Barge Pool

DN DN

Reception

UP

Display Area DN

The freeway causes a scar on the site, and will be remembered by the new park and habitat restoration area, even when it is removed in the future.

Living Room

Cafe

Play Structure

Children’s Area

Kid’s Pool

SE Water Avenue

This plan is centered on people, movement towards the river, and public spaces.

SE Market Street

Hot Tub

DN

DN UP

Leisure Pool

Loading/Services Basketball Court

Seating

Fish Pond

Outdoor Swim

Basketball Court

DN

Service Entry

DN

Water Taxi Launch

SE Mill Street

Seating Structures

Seating

Vegetated, Non-Accessible Rehabilitated Shoreline

School Bus Parking/Loading

Open Grass Field

(Shared with OMSI)

SE Stephens Street OMSI/PACC Shared Social Space

OMSI

SE Water Avenue Service Entry

Parking

New Proposed Parking Structure

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

11


Typical Waterfront Situation in Portland The typical waterfront treatment in downtown Portland is a hard, impermeable edge between water and land. This cuts off access to the river.

Proposed: Uniting Land and Water Portland Aquatic Community Center breaks down this hard edge and allows access to the river.

Water

12

Public Access

Civic Building

Park

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Hard Water’s Edge

Public Access

Water

Water

Public Access

Park

Park

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

Street

Public Access

Street

Public Access

Public Access

Building

Building

13


Building Concept The building is sited where land meets water on an artificially filled site that was once part of the river. The building meets the water and arcs over the esplanade, integrating with the public activity of the city. The building and the site create points of access to the Willamette. A large-scale rainwater collection and filtration pool cuts between the building and the park. The seam between land and water is blurred, creating a continuous experience.

14

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Building Program The programmatic elements include water sports rental and storage, a public pool integrated with the river, water taxis and ferries, fishing, physical water activities, and spa amenities. The other programs include sports facilities, workout rooms, community multi-purpose rooms for classes and meetings, a kitchen, and support spaces.

Project Uses/Users Some uses include different teams using the facility, adult and student classes, student groups or schools, after-school or summer programs, and water tours of Portland. This project will give everyone a chance to experience these activities, whether it is through rental, teams, schools, or organizations.

Community Center = Education + Social + Recreation Education Space:

Uses: Children, Youth, Adult, Senior, and Family classes. Examples: computers, sewing, language, home improvement, crafts. These classes would be community determined by the type of classes people request and want to teach. A teenager could get a job teaching basic computer skills to a senior class, a retired adult could teach sewing to children, a fluent Spanish speaker could teach a Spanish class. The classroom spaces would also be used for recreational team meetings, or teaching people about the sport before going on the water. Classes also happen in the pool.

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

15


EDUCATIONAL

SOCIAL

SUPPORT

RECREATIONAL Indoor

Outdoor

Lap Pool

Recreational Pool

Dock

Center Administration

Locker Rooms

Computer Center

Living Room

Small Meeting Rooms

Large Events Room

Fitness Center

Basketball Court

Water Taxis

Midsize Meeting Rooms

Teen Center

Sauna

Lifeguard Area

Children’s Play Area

Large Meeting Rooms

Cafe

Hot Tub

Children’s Area

Viewing Level

Breakroom

Therapy Pools

Offices

Storage

Restroom, Storage, Mech/Electrical Equipment

Youth Space

Storage

Private Restroom

Public Restroom

Therapy/Fitness Center

Lockers

Spas

Event Space

Lockers

Lobby/Display

Living Room

Children’s Area

Indoor Basketball & Seating

Outdoor Basketball & Seating

Storage & Mechanical Systems

EDUCATIONAL SOCIAL RECREATIONAL SUPPORT Long Section Diagram 16

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


View South through Lap Pool Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

17


Floor Plans

Alder Street Kayak and Canoe Group Mackenzie Building

Vegetated, Non-Accessible Rehabilitated Shoreline

Seating Structures DN

Boat Launch

DN

UP

UP

DN UP

Storage

Therapy Pools

Portland Community College

C B

Physical Therapy/Training DN

Air Handler

Change Room

A

Baths Olympic Sized Lap Pool

Storage & Mech

DN

DN

UP

DN

Security

Barge Pool

DN DN

Reception

UP

Display Area DN

Living Room

Cafe

Children’s Area

Kid’s Pool

C B

Air Handler Air Handler

Play Structure

SE Water Avenue

Misc. Sports Fields

Change Room

Hot Tub

DN

DN UP

UP

Leisure Pool

Loading/Services Basketball Court

Seating

Fish Pond

Outdoor Swim

Basketball Court

DN

Service Entry

DN

Basement Plan

Water Taxi Launch Seating

Seating Structures

Vegetated, Non-Accessible Rehabilitated Shoreline

School Bus Parking/Loading

Open Grass Field

18

(Shared with OMSI)

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12 OMSI/PACC Shared Social Space


DN

DN UP

Break Room Office Office

DN Storage

Administration Offices

A

Conference Room

Open to Below

Class Room DN

Look Out Point

UP

Open to Below

DN

Open to Below

Event Room

Open to Below

DN UP

Open to Below

Second Floor Plan

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

Open to Below

Third Floor Plan

19


Materials and Enclosure The light building enclosure allows a connection to the natural site in every direction. To the east and west, the curtain walls with thin mullions provide unobstructed views to the river and park. The perforated roof allows abundant natural light as well as a visual connection to the sky. The roof is copper plated with 3 foot by 8 foot openings that allow natural light to penetrate the building throughout the day. The openings are protected by sunshades, the shape of each being determined by the angle of the passing sun. The exterior walls are a curtain wall system with thin mullions. The 3’ x 8’ grid established by the roof panels is continued down through the curtain walls, creating visual continuity between the two systems. Environmental Control Systems Since the roof is sculptural and exposed in all directions, all of the mechanical systems are located in the basement. The air intake is on the east side of the building. In the large pool spaces, the air is brought up through the floor. Radiant heating in the pool deck is used to maximize the efficiency in the tall spaces. Automated opening panels at low and high points on the exterior facades allow for natural ventilation.

Rainwater Collection and Natural Filtration

Section: ECS & Tectonic Diagram


Climate Response and Sustainable Strategies The perforated roof and light curtain walls allow for ample natural light, which is supplemented by artificial lighting on the trusses. All rainwater off the building, site, and surrounding areas is collected to be retained and filtered in the natural pool. The deep overhangs of the roof provide shading for the glass elevations, as well as environmental protection for people on the esplanade. Badeshiff, Berlin Germany

Program Precedent: Sutro Baths in San Francisco. Large Scale aquatic center on the waterfront

Natural Lighting maximized by angle of Sunshades

34’ Ground Floor Level 30’ 100 Year Flood Line 23’10 Year Flood Line 18’ Average High Water Level

Piles Light Permeating Esplanade Vegetated Sea Wall

3’ Average Low Water Level


Copper Panels Steel Steel Decking Steel I-Beam Support with Batt Insulation Acoustical/Light Reflecting Panel Steel Truss Lights

Tectonic Detail

West Elevation 22

Radient Heating Air Duct

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

23 Looking west from 2nd floor over leisure pools


Midterm Model Photos


View North from Willamette


Influential Theories and Precedents The area that was most strongly influenced by precedents is the roof. Various types of perforated skins and large spans were studied. Many museums have perforated roofs due to the need for non-direct natural light. The Nasher Sculpture Center and the addition to the High Museum, both by Renzo Piano, influenced the design of the roof in this project. The Kansai International Airport Terminal in Osaka Japan by Renzo Piano provided guidelines for large spans and metal skins.

Kansai International Airport Terminal in Osaka, Japan, Renzo Piano.

Nasher Sculpture Center, Renzo Piano.

26

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


View South from 3rd Floor

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

27


28

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


The Building Spatial Organization The building sits on a site equivalent in length to two Portland city blocks. The visual continuation of the three streets that run into the project became a driving spatial organizer for the project. As these 60 foot wide axes (red) change from streets to walkways, they become points of access to the water, defining the building into two sections. In the north/south direction, the central interior corridor (yellow) provides access to the pools on the west and the support/secondary spaces on the east. These interior axes are distinguished by unobstructed skylights above. Structure The main structural elements of PACC are large steel trusses that span the width of the space. Steel is used due to its efficiency in spanning the large distances over the pools. The 25’ bays created by the distribution of the bold blue trusses provide a rhythm to the long, linear spaces. Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

29


30

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Appendix A: Programming Document from Fall 2011 Note: some programming elements have been modified since this original programming document

Crescent Island: Eastbank Riverfront Park Master Plan, 1994 Crescent Park: East Bank 2040 Master Plan, 1998 Total Size of Building Building Program Diagram Site Program Diagram Adjacencies Precedents Chelsea Piers Crissy Field Copenhagen Harbour Bath Wembley National Stadium Lake Oswego Community Center (proposed) Portland Community Centers Southwest Community Center Mittleman Jewish Community Center Site Visits and Interviews

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

32 33 34 38 40 41 42 43 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58

31


Crescent Island: Eastbank Riverfront Park Master Plan, 1994 Prepared by Hargreaves Associates for the City of Portland

This plan looks at East Bank revitalization that maintains the I-5 freeway. On the site, this plan utilizes the dramatic arc of the Marquam Bridge to frame the park, which becomes the center piece of the design. Drawing on the curved overhead highway structure as well as the historical railroad piers, this project cuts a water canal through the site in a wide arc creating an island which references the incised bank of the past. The shape of the island is grated to create an amphitheater bowl. The canal will be an active water feature with “rapids� to drown out freeway noise. This river feature would also be a hydraulic exhibit that would work in conjunction with OMSI. Adjacent to Crescent Island is a paved plaza that steps down to the river, providing people access to the water. There are a series of water columns that extend the rhythm of the freeway columns, and would serve as a reminder of an important era if the freeway were to be removed in the future.

32

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Crescent Park: East Bank 2040 Master Plan, 1998

Prepared by Philip Goff & Joseph Karman for the University of Oregon

This plan is a large-scale urban plan that explores the removal of the I-5 freeway from the East Bank of downtown Portland. On the site just north of the current Marquam Bridge, a 600-foot fragment of the former freeway is retained as a sculptural element and a form generator. The area becomes a grassy amphitheater that creates a dialogue with “the bowl” on the west side of the river. The space between the columns is infilled with buildings, and there are two large circulation towers that allow visitors to go up to the decks of the former freeway. The lower level is enclosed to create a gallery space for OMSI and the upper level becomes a public park. This becomes a major tourist attraction and viewing point for the city. The fragment of the freeway will have a powerful presence as a piece of Portland history. It will be a man-made icon that is unique to Portland and represents Portland’s stance on transportation.

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

33


Total Size of Building

Note: some programming elements have been modified since this original programming document

Space

Function/Activities & Users

Design Requirements

Social Amenities (Community Activities) “Living Room”: Social center of the project

Uses include: lobby, gathering space, waiting area, exhibition space, presentation space, a place to sit and relax, watch people, socialize

Large open space that is the center of the project.

Large-Scale Event Space

Uses: large events, meetings, parties, lectures, dinners and banquets, dances, teen events, conferences, larger classes and programs, art openings and events, etc. This space can be rented out and will provide revenue for the Center.

Tall Ceiling Height; ~30’

Youth Activity Room

This space will be used for educational programs, homework spaces, socialization, after-school programs, club meetings, indoor games (air hockey, ping-pong, pool, cards, boardgames), and special events.

Space should be able to be passively monitored

Caterer-Grade Community Kitchen & Eating Space (part of Community Center)

In the eating space, different groups can come in and cook on different nights (Monday could be Italian, Tuesday German, etc). The space will also be used by caterers when room are rented out for events, Can also be used for cooking classes.

Kitchen is caterer-grade and is used for events and meetings in other spaces

Café/Coffee Bar (run by the Community Center but can be access by the outside community)

uses: a social gathering place for people to meet up before or after a class or activity. This stand provides coffee, sandwiches, and other quick snacks.

3 main areas: Behind the counter area, que area, seating area.

Children’s Area

Uses: short term childcare, children’s parties, parent-child classes, child classes, children’s arts and crafts, reading and story time activities

Security

Restaurant/Bar (separate but adjacent to Community Center)

Uses: A privately-run social gathering place for people to meet up before or after a class or activity. This will also attract people from around the city and serve as a publicly accessible function.

Areas: Kitchen, bar, seating area, hostess stand,

Computer Center

This area contains computers for both classes and individual use. Some uses include: job search center, technology classes (computer basics, filmography, music editing, website design, any computer program), and homework space,

Security

Small Meeting Rooms (2 @ 400 sqft each)

used for small meetings under 10 people. This could be any type of meeting, small classes, homework space, staff meetings, board and card games, etc.

This space is two spaces that can be combined into one

Large Classroom/Multipurpose Room

Used for meetings, events, classes, etc. This space will accommodate a wide range of activities.

Multipurpose flooring, durable wall material, amble storage

Educational Amenities

34

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Adjacencies, daylighting requirements

Environmental and ECS needs, furniture & equipment (F&E)

Notes

Square Footage

Must be the central space with many adjacencies. Bright, day lit space. ADJ: reception, entry

Comfortable Seating, information station, stand for exhibits

2,000

ADJ: separate access

F&E: Tables/chairs (storage for both)

4,000

ADJ: not too isolated, somewhat secure. separate from children’s area. Daylighting necessary.

F&E: Seating, Computers, tables/chairs, storage, Game tables (ping-pong, pool, foosball, etc)

1,000

ADJ: must be near the event spaces and meeting rooms.

F&E: Kitchen Equipment: sink, refrigerator, freezer, counters, storage (shared and secured)

1,000

ADJ: accessible from outside, near “Living Room” where people can also enjoy snacks/drinks. Daylighting necessary.

F&E: behind the counter area (cash register, refrigerator), tables and chairs

300

ADJ: secure but near parents. Daylighting necessary.

F&E: children’s toys, shelves and storage for toys

900

ADJ: accessible from outside. Daylighting necessary.

F&E: Kitchen equipment, tables and chairs, storage for dishes and food.

2,000

ADJ: accessible various hours (applies to all in section) ADJ: accessible various hours

ECS: good ventilation and cooling

600

ADJ: accessible various hours. Daylighting necessary.

ECS: ability for user to control

800

ADJ: accessible various hours. Daylighting necessary.

ECS: ability for user to control

1000

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

35


Space

Function/Activities & Users

Design Requirements

Recreational Amenities (Indoor)Activities) Social Amenities (Community Sauna “Living Room”: Social center of the project

Social space tolobby, relax gathering after a class or exercise Uses include: space, waiting area, exhibition space, presentation space, a place to sit and relax, watch people, socialize

Hot Tub Large-Scale Event Space

Social space to relax after a class or exercise Uses: large events, meetings, parties, lectures, dinners and banquets, dances, teen events, conferences, larger classes and programs, art openings and This pooletc. is used for my can physically strenuous lap revenue swimming, events, This space be rented out andactivities: will provide for the competition meets, team practice, kayak training classes, scuba classes, boat Center. safety classes, water polo, party and special event rentals. This space will be used for educational programs, homework spaces, socialization, after-school programs, club meetings, indoor games (air hockey, ping-pong, pool, cards, boardgames), and special events. Used as a training facility for the sports and recreation offered on site. This space be space, used during thegroups off season keepinpeople in shape while not In the can eating different can to come and cook on different nights able to docould the outdoor water sports. Uses: Weight training, (Monday be Italian, Tuesday German, etc). The spaceconditioning will also be used classes, corewhen training, rehabilitation, instructional programs (sports by caterers roominjury are rented out for events, Can also be used for training), family and senior fitness classes/training cooking classes.

Lap Pool (10-lane) Youth Activity Room Fitness/Cardio Training Facility Caterer-Grade Community Kitchen & Eating Space (part of Community Center)

Café/Coffee Bar (run by the Community Administration/Support Space

Center but can be access by the outside Community community) Center Admin. Offices Parks and Recreation Dept. Offices Children’s Area Front Counter and Reception Restaurant/Bar (separate but adjacent to Community Center) Locker Room

Large open space that is the center of the project. Tall Ceiling Height; ~30’ (6,000 square foot pool + 5,000 surrounding space). Tall Ceiling Height; ~30’. Deck forbe seating up to Spacespace should able toofbe 300 spectators. passively monitored space for both cardio machines and weights. must be large Kitchen is caterer-grade and is enough groups team in used forfor events andformeetings training. other spaces

uses: a social gathering place for people to meet up before or after a class or activity. This stand provides coffee, sandwiches, and other quick snacks. At least 15 offices for staff

3 main areas: Behind the counter area, que area, seating Number and sizes TBD area.

Provide a central, downtown location for some Park and Recreation Dept offices Uses: short term childcare, children’s parties, parent-child classes, child

Number and sizes TBD

classes, children’s arts and crafts, reading and story time activities Seating and workspace for at least 3 staff

Uses: A privately-run social gathering place for people to meet up before or after a class or activity. This will also attract people from around the city and serve as a publicly accessible function. Lockers, showers, sinks, restrooms

Security places to display new materials and brochures, area that Areas: Kitchen, need bar, seating can handle large groups area, hostess stand,

Educational Amenities Restrooms Computer Center Storage

36

Mens & women, outside of Locker Rooms This area contains computers for both classes and individual use. Some uses include: job building search center, technology classes (computer basics, filmography, Throughout music editing, website design, any computer program), and homework space,

Security Number and sizes TBD

Small Meeting Rooms (2 @ 400 sqft each)

used for small meetings under 10 people. This could be any type of meeting, small classes, homework space, staff meetings, board and card games,Space etc. Net Interior

This space is two spaces that can be combined into one

Large Classroom/Multipurpose Room

Used for meetings, events, classes, etc. This space will accommodate wide + 15% aService range of activities. Gross Indoor Space

Multipurpose flooring, durable wall material, amble storage

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Adjacencies, daylighting requirements

Environmental and ECS needs, furniture & equipment (F&E)

Notes

ADJ: locker rooms (applies to all in section)

Square Footage

Must locker be the rooms central space with many ADJ: adjacencies. Bright, day lit space. ADJ: reception, entry ADJ: locker rooms ADJ: separate access

Comfortable Seating, information station, stand for exhibits

May be part of locker room or a public element. Also a social element.

2,000 300

F&E: Tables/chairs (storage for both)

May be part of locker room or a public element. Also a social element.

300 4,000

ADJ: locker rooms

F&E: bleachers, benches and space for swimmers. Good ventilation F&E: Seating, Computers, Proper lap pool flooring tables/chairs, storage, Game treatment tables (ping-pong, water area. pool, foosball, etc)

There is currently only one, aging pool that the 11,000 city uses that is suitable for competitions and races. A pool with adequate space for 1,000 observes is needed by the city, especially in such a central location.

ADJ: not too isolated, somewhat secure. separate from children’s area. Daylighting necessary. ADJ: locker rooms ADJ: must be near the event spaces and meeting rooms.

F&E: weights, cardio equipment, mats, storage for F&E: Kitchen Equipment: sink, refrigerator, freezer, all. counters, storage (shared and secured)

4,000 1,000

ADJ: accessible from outside, near “Living Room” where people can Daylighting necessary. Daylighting also enjoy snacks/drinks. necessary. Daylighting necessary.

F&E: behind the counter area (cash register, refrigerator), tables and chairs

300

ADJ: secure but near parents. Daylighting necessary. Daylighting necessary. ADJ: lobby/”Living Room” ADJ: accessible from outside.

F&E: children’s toys, shelves and storage for toys

900

F&E: desks, chairs, display racks

300

F&E: Kitchen equipment, tables and chairs, storage for dishes and food.

2,000

Daylighting necessary.

1,500

ADJ: centrally accessible to pools, entry, Fitness center

ADJ: accessible various hours (applies to all in section)

ADJ: centrally accessible ADJ: accessible various hours Should have some near the pool area, gym, children’s area, and kitchen, possibly more ADJ: accessible various hours. Daylighting necessary.

May incorporate hot tubs/saunas

ECS: ability for user to control

2,500 1,200 600

ECS: good ventilation and cooling

ADJ: accessible various hours. ECS: ability for user to control general circulation, storage, mechanical, toilets Daylighting necessary.

1,500

Should have a lot of storage spread throughout the facility. This is something that all site visits have said their Community Center lacks.

2,000 800 38,200 1000 5,730 43,930

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

37


Building Program Diagram

Social

Educational

Admin/Support Spaces 1,500 sf

1,500 sf

Computer Center

2,000 sf

600 sf

Living Room

Meeting Room

400 sf each

Community Center Admin  Offcies

Parks and Recreation  Department Offices

Front Counter and Reception

300 sf 2,500 sf

4,000 sf

1,000 sf

Locker Room

Class Room Large Scale Event Space 1,200 sf

Restrooms

2,000 sf 1,000 sf

Youth Room

1,000 sf

Children’s Area

Kitchen Cafe

38

1,000 sf

Storage

300 sf

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Recreational

6,000 sf

30,000 sf

4,000 sf

Fitness/Cardio

Lap Pool

5,000 sf  TBA sf

Leisure Pool

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

Hot Tub

TBA sf

Sauna

39


Site Program Diagram

Social

Educational

Recreational

Admin/Support Spaces

Water Recreation

11,000 sf

2,000 sf

Children’s Play Area

4,000 sf

Basketball Court

Storage

40

Waterfront Walkway: Public Access

Park Area

Pool

Life Guard Station

Dock

Storage

Water Taxi Launch

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Adjacencies

4,000 sf

Meeting Room 1,000 sf

Kitchen Large Scale Event Space

1,000 sf

Class Room 600 sf

Computer Center

1,000 sf

1,000 sf 11,000 sf 1,200 sf

Children’s Area

4,000 sf

Youth Room

Restrooms

Fitness/Cardio

2,500 sf 6,000 sf

Locker Room

Cafe TBA sf 2,000 sf

Hot Tub

Lap Pool

Living Room

TBA sf

Sauna

11,000 sf

Front Counter and Reception

2,000 sf

Children’s Play Area

4,000 sf

Basketball Court

Flexible Adjacencies 2,000 sf

Restaurant/Bar

1,500 sf

Community Center Admin  Offices

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

1,500 sf

Parks and Recreation  Department Offices

Storage

Waterfront Walkway: Public Access

Park Area

Pool

Life Guard Station

Dock

Storage

Water Taxi Launch

41


Precedents Programmatic

Architectural

Waterfront

Chelsea Piers NYC

Partial

X

Crissy Field, San Francisco

Partial

X

Copenhagen Harbor Bath, Copenhagen

Partial

X

Wembley National Stadium

Partial

X

Lake Oswego Community Center, Portland

X

X

Portland Community Centers, Portland

X

Southwest Community Center, Portland

X

Middleman Jewish Community Center, Portland

X

Matt Dishman Community Center

42

East Portland Community Center & Pool

X

X

Wembley National Stadium

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Chelsea Piers Architect: Warren and Wetmore Description: “The Chelsea Piers Sports & Entertainment Complex is a 28-acre waterfront sports village located between 17th and 23rd Streets along Manhattan’s Hudson River. This $120 million, privately-financed project opened in 1995, transforming four historic, but long-neglected, piers into a major center for public recreation and waterfront access.” Chelsea Piers includes the following entertainment and sports venues: Golf Club, Sports Center Health Club, Sky Rink, Field House, 300 New York, PIER SIXTY, THE LIGHTHOUSE, Maritime Center, and Studios. Relevance: Chelsea Piers is also a large-scale recreation center, but the functions are more landbased than PACC will be. This is a good resource to get programming sizes for, especially for support spaces and interior sporting facilities. Website: http://www.chelseapiers.com/about.htm

Mission Statement: “Chelsea Piers is committed to being the best amateur sports and entertainment complex in the country, with state-of-the-art facilities, cutting-edge programming, first-rate instruction and a courteous, professional staff. We are committed to making all guests feel welcome at Chelsea Piers and to providing an environment which is always CLEAN, SAFE, FRIENDLY and FUN. Chelsea Piers aims to improve the quality of life in New York by providing a place for all--adults, children, New Yorkers, visitors--to relax, play, learn and compete.” Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

43


Crissy Field Architect: Hargreaves Associates Description: The site which Crissy Field now occupies began as a tidal marsh and then evolved to a staging area for ships, a military airfield, and is now a recreational park with a recovered tidal marsh. Relevance: This precedent is appropriate based on the initial and revitalized site purposes. This project took an industrial space and shifted it for recreational uses. This site is similar to the east side of Portland that has been dominated by traffic infrastructure and industrial uses, but could be converted to include recreational pedestrian uses. Website: http://www.hargreaves.com/projects/PublicParks/CrissyField/

1925

44

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

45


Copenhagen Harbour Bath Architect: PLOT (JDS architects and Bjarke Ingels Group) Description: “Copenhagen’s harbour undertakes a transformation from an industrial and traffic junction towards being the city’s cultural and social center. The Harbour Bath design has emerged out of the desire of extending the surrounding park onto the water and the practical needs for accessibility, safety, and programmatic demand. The Harbour Bath realizes the transition from land to water as a terraced landscape.” ( http://www.big.dk) Relevance: This project has a strong recreational water element that integrates creatively with the river. Portland Aquatic Community Center will also have an outdoor recreational aquatic space such as this one. Website: http://www.big.dk/

46

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

47


Wembley National Stadium London, U.K; 1996-2007 Architect: World Stadium Team/Norman Foster & HOK S+V+E Description: The old Wembley Stadium, build in 1924, was one of the most important venues in Britain for sports, Olympic Games, concerts, and other events. An important feature of the new Wembley Stadium is the partially retractable roof which is supported by a 133-meter tall arch that creates an icon to replace the previous stadium’s landmark twin towers. Relevance: This case study creates a new community landmark where there had previously been another. PACC will create a new landmark on the site where the freeway is currently providing a landmark of sorts. Website: www.wembleystadium.com/

48

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

49


Lake Oswego Community Center (proposed)

First Floor Plan

ty li ne

Architect: Boora Architects

Lake Oswego Community Center

per

Room Legend building entry control desk center administration youth/ teen activity room gymnasium loading, service + garbage yard 7. heater mechanical + chemical room 8. pool storage 9. seating deck for 250 people 10.10 lane lap pool 11. stormwater pond 12. sun terrace 13. recreation pool 14. family changing room 15. womens locker room 16. mens locker room

p ro

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

26

Description: Lake Oswego Community Center is a proposed local community center in Portland. The project includes community activities, aquatics, indoor recreation and outdoor recreation. 30

39

27 25

1

31

Relevance: This project has many of the same programmatic elements including pools, recreation spaces, and community rooms, but the Portland Aquatic Community Center (PACC) would have more aquatic elements that relate to the river. A major difference that would have to be addressed is that the Lake Oswego Community Center is a project for the local community whereas the PACC is going to be a draw for the entire region. Total area of this project is double the project area of PACC at 114,000, so many of the support spaces in this programming document have been halved in size. This project is not yet built, but there are good programmatic comparisons to be made.

4

22 22

31

31

3

43

32

28

24

42

23

2

29 42

17

14

18

14

19 21

20

21

5 16

15

14 14

33

24

34

35

40

1

6

13

23

41 41 41 41

12

8

8 8 8

37

9

10

36

7

iel w

se

Lake Oswego Community Center

dan

kru

ay

8

wa

y

42. elevator 43. technology center

11

27 25

1

3

43

32

4

22 22

31

31

31

28

24

42

23

2

29 42

17

14

18

14

19 21

20

21

14

5 16

15

14

33 34

35

40

1

6

13 24

23

41 41 41 41

12

8

8 8 8

37

9

10

36

7

iel w

se

dan

kru

ay

8

wa

y

ne ty li 15

11

11

12

3

4

4

1

5 9

5

5

2

6

7

16

14

13. multipurpose activity room 14. 17,500 sf space reserved for library options 15. 65,000 sf library expansion 16. adult multipurpose room 17. mechanical room

8

5

elevator storage womens restroom mens restroom open to below storage/ work room group exercise room walking track with stretching area

10. yoga/ pilates room 11. outdoor terrace/ program expansion 12. parks and recreation

1

19. locker vestibule 20. lifeguard room 21. special events room 22. small meeting room 23. mens restroom 24. womens restroom 25. child watch activity room 26. outdoor play area 27. library/ kitchen loading service 28. catering kitchen 29. community hall storage 30. community hall terrace 31. community hall 32. 43,000 sf library expansion 33. 17,500 sf reserved for library options 34. community family room hearth 35. cafe/ juice bar 36. 15,000 sf skate park 37. walking/ jogging path 38. not used 39. 65,000 sf library expansion 40. therapy pool 42. elevator 43. technology center

3 2

10

14 13

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

5 17 3

4 17

5

ay

30

39

Room Legend

iel w

26

Second Floor Plan

dan

pro

building entry control desk center administration youth/ teen activity room gymnasium loading, service + garbage yard 7. heater mechanical + chemical room 8. pool storage 9. seating deck for 250 people 10.10 lane lap pool 11. stormwater pond 12. sun terrace 13. recreation pool 14. family changing room 15. womens locker room 16. mens locker room

per

per

ty li

Room Legend

pro

ne

First Floor Plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

19. locker vestibule 20. lifeguard room 21. special events room 22. small meeting room 23. mens restroom 24. womens restroom 25. child watch activity room 26. outdoor play area 27. library/ kitchen loading service 28. catering kitchen 29. community hall storage 30. community hall terrace 31. community hall 32. 43,000 sf library expansion 33. 17,500 sf reserved for library options 34. community family room hearth 35. cafe/ juice bar 36. 15,000 sf skate park 37. walking/ jogging path 38. not used 39. 65,000 sf library expansion 40. therapy pool

kru

se

wa

y

N 03.07.07

boora architects

per

ty li

ne

Second Floor Plan

pro

Room Legend

15

11

3 10

14

50

13

12

3

4

2

5 6

2

1 16

4

1 9

5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

7

5

elevator storage womens restroom mens restroom open to below storage/ work room group exercise room walking track with stretching area

10. yoga/ pilates room 11. outdoor terrace/ program expansion 12. parks and recreation 13. multipurpose

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


26 interior community family room perspective

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

51


Portland Community Centers Refer to “Site Visits and Interview” section for a table of Portland’s Community Centers. Description: Portland Parks & Recreation “operates 13 community centers, 11 SUN community schools, 13 swim pools, indoor and outdoor tennis courts, the Community Music Center and Multnomah Arts Center, and many other facilities” with more than 5,000 activities for every age. Relevance: PACC’s client is Portland Parks & Recreation Department, which runs all of these community centers. While PACC will be another one of these community centers, it will target a much broader group of people from around the Portland metro area due to its unique location on the river. Website: http://www.portlandonline.com/parks/

Mt Scott Community Center

52

Montavilla Community Center

Peninsula Park Community Center

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Matt Dishman Community Center

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

Map of City of Portland Community Centers

53


Southwest Community Center Site Visit & Interview

Architect: Boora Architects Description: The Southwest Community Center is one of the 13 Community Centers run by the City of Portland Parks and Recreation Department. SWCC is the most recently constructed of Portland’s community centers, and the first that is entirely new construction in over 50 years. For this project’s amenities, refer to “Site Visits and Interview’s” section on page 42. Relevance: This project has very similar programmatic elements as PACC. This is also a good precedent in terms of scale since the size of the interior spaces (40,000 sf) is slightly smaller than that of PACC. Website: http://www.portlandonline.com/parks/

Hot Tub

Childcare/ Event (Dividable)

Fitness Studio

Gym/Weight Room

Offices Preschool Reception Display Office

Hall

Leisure Pool

Lockers/Storage/ Staff Room

Gym

Kitchen Event Room  (Dividable) Event  Room  (Dividable)

Lap Pool

Adjacency/Plan Diagram based on personal site visit

54

Leisure Pool water feature

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Exterior View

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

55


Mittleman Jewish Community Center Site Visit & Interview

Architect: Building has been modified in many stages since 1971. Description: The Mittleman Jewish Community Center is a community center that is adjacent to and associated with the Portland Jewish Academy (PJA, a K-8 school) next door. Relevance: MJCC has many of the same facilities as a public community center. Website: http://www.portlandjewishacademy.org

Notes from Site Visit & Interview:

• Warm water therapy pool: There is a separate entrance with handicap parking right outside. There are changing stalls next to the pool for convenience of physically handicapped people. • Administration Offices: There are 8 small ones. There are not enough. • People knew each other’s names.

Additional Facilities in the Basement • • • • • • • • • •

56

3 racquet ball courts 2 group fitness rooms 1 Gym/Weight room 2 massage studios 1 pilates studio 2 locker rooms with jacuzzi, sauna, sitting area, and toiletry area Staff Lounge Administration offices (8) Childcare facility Large Laundry Room Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Pool

Gym

History Wall Cafe Soccer Dome Living Room Reception

Security/ Entry

Info Wall

Ballroom

Adjacency/Plan Diagram of ground floor based on personal site visit

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

57


Site Visits and Interviews Portland Community Centers: Arranged by proximity to site. Community Center

Address

Phone Number

Basketball

Community Center

Fitness Center X

Matt Dishman Community Center & Pool

77 NE Knott St  

503-823-3673

Indoor

X

Hillside Community Center

653 NW Culpepper Terr  

503-823-3181

Indoor

X

Sellwood Community Center

1436 SE Spokane St  

503-823-3195

Indoor

X

The following are at least 5 miles away from the site

58

Woodstock Community Center

5905 SE 43rd Ave  

503-823-3633

Mt Scott Community Center & Pool

5530 SE 72nd Ave  

503-823-3183

Indoor

X

X

Fulton Park Community Center

68 SW Miles St  

503-823-3180

Indoor

X

X

Southwest Community Center & Pool

6820 SW 45th Ave  

503-823-2840

Indoor

X

X

Multnomah Arts Center

7688 SW Capitol Hwy

503-823-2787

X

X

Montavilla Community Center & Pool

8219 NE Glisan St  

503-823-4101

Indoor

X

Peninsula Park Community Center & Pool

700 N Rosa Parks Way  

503-823-3620

Indoor

X

East Portland Community Center & Pool

740 SE 106th Ave  

503-823-3450

Indoor

X

X

University Park Community Center

9009 N Foss Ave  

503-823-3631

Indoor

X

X

St. Johns Community Center

8427 N Central St  

503-823-3192

Indoor

X

X

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Gym

Meeting/ Party Room

X

X

Kitchen

Pools

Site Visit

Indoor

Planned

X X

X

Extras Stage – indoor, statue or public art, weight room. Rock Climbing Wall

X

Picnic tables, playground, and wedding site – reservable. The following are at least 5 miles away from the site

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X (non-caterer

Indoor

Planned

Roller skating, stage – indoor, weight room. Indoor Stage

Indoor (2)

X

Rock climbing wall, weight room, and wireless Internet access.

grade)

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Picnic tables, playground, wedding site – reservable, and wireless Internet access. X

X

Outdoor

Planned

Outdoor

Planned

Indoor

Rock Climbing Wall, weight room Computer lab, rock climbing wall, stage – indoor, statue or public art, weight room, and wireless Internet access.

X

Rock climbing wall, and stage – indoor.

Interviews/Visits • Talked to Blaine from the Southwest Community Center during a site visit • Talked to Jennifer Harrington from the Mittleman Jewish Community Center during a site visit • Someone from Multnomah Athletic Club (http://www.themac.com/). • Portland State Rec Center. Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

59


60

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Appendix B: East Bank Master Plan


The east bank of Portland, 1912, Source: City of Portland Archives


Table of Contents

Introduction History of the East Bank Ecological Factors River Use and Transportation Portland CEID History The CEID Willamette Valley Floods: 1996 & 1894 Flood Plain Topographic Map & Current Figure Ground Current Zoning Current Freeway Transportation Options Marquam Bridge Distribution Tunnel Proposal Diversion: Ross Island Super Bridge Land Use: Public Access

65 66 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

May 1975, source: http://vintageportland.wordpress.com/


This document was prepared by Stefanie Hanna-Riggs, Scott Kosmecki, and David Taylor for Prof. Gerry Gast’s Urban Waterfront Thesis.

64

Image: Eastbank Riverfront Park, 1997

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Introduction The purpose of this investigation is to create a viable working alternative to the land use issues in the area located between I-84 and Powell Blvd. and from the Willamette River to 12th street. This area is known as the Central Eastside Industrial District (CEID) and has essentially been marked by the city of Portland as an industrial sanctuary, whereby little development can take place that does not specifically require the land to be used for manufacturing uses. Each lot is allowed a maximum of 3,000sf of office space, and all other uses must be manufacturing or storage in nature. This requirement has stagnated development in the district while the rest of the city has experienced some of the largest development growth in recent decades. GOALS The goals of this analysis is to describe a framework for development that is respective of the existing building stock, the expansion of the manufacturing nature of the district, and also allows for the needed densification of the area to standards that the city is looking for in it’s 2040 plan. This will include a new investigation into the repair of the Eastbank of the Willamette River and civic and public spaces designed that take advantage of this. The overall goal is to encourage manufacturing alongside living in this unique and exciting part of the city. HOW TO GET THERE FROM HERE... To achieve these goals, this study has investigated physical changes in the infrastructure of the district in two main categories; transportation & land use. TRANSPORTATION This plan addresses the relocation of I-5 between the Marquam/I-405 interchange to the south and the I-84 interchange to the north. LAND USE This document concludes with three different land use options that will later be converged into one land use plan. Some of the goals for the different land use plans include designing for the growth of light manufacturing, increasing residential housing for middle-income earners, and creating civic and public spaces for all of Portland to enjoy that focus on the Willamette. Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

65


History of the East Bank The city of Portland, Oregon, located at the confluence of the Willamette and Colombia Rivers, was settled for its advantageous shipping position. When the city was laid out in 1845, it was never planned to include land on both sides of the Willamette, but rather just the west bank.

The City of East Portland In 1868, mainline railroad tracks were constructed on the east bank, an area which was mainly comprised of farmers at the time. Immediately following the railroad, the east bank became the incorporated city of East Portland in 1870. The population of 1500 people was connected to the west bank by two ferries that continuously crossed the river. In 1887, Portland first bridge, the Morrison Bridge, was opened, allowing trolleys to connect neighborhoods on both sides of the river. In 1891, East Portland and Portland merged into one city with about 25% of the population living on the east side.

One city with two distinct characters

Figure Ground showing the scale of industrial vs. residential

Even following the merger, the two sides of the river maintained their distinct characters, a fact that persists today. Today the east side of Portland has many distinct neighborhoods including the Central Industrial District, the historic Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd./Grand Ave. District, Buckman, Lloyd District, and dozens of additional neighborhoods. Overall, the city of Portland has over 90 different neighborhoods, with a large housing stock and many industrial jobs being found on the east side. The east bank of the Willamette is layered and adhoc: marshes, docks, sandbars, bluffs and wharves have come and gone with time. Land has been created by filling or excavating. Many buildings, factories, and embankments have been constructed, used, and then demolished to make way for the next layer of development.

66

Image: Eastbank Riverfront Park, 1997 Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


The 1950s and the Car In the 1950s, many American cities began to turn away from their ports and focus on vehicular transportation. Portland was not immune to this movement, and in the 1960’s, abandoned docks and wharves were replaced by the I-5 freeway along the east bank. At the time, the land was considered “left over” with little monetary value. The freeway radically shifted the east bank’s land form, providing minimal waterfront access and depriving the city of half of its waterfront property.

Harbor Drive In 1970, the west bank’s expressway, Harbor Drive, was removed and a large water front park was constructed in its place. Tom McCall Waterfront Park is now one of the largest public spaces in Portland and is used year-round as a place for all of Portland to come together. This precedent shows that with the correct timing, people, and plan, waterfront freeway removal is possible, especially in a city like Portland.

Postcard showing Harbor Drive

Historical Context Map

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

Image: Eastbank Riverfront Park, 1997

67


Ecological Factors There are ecological factors that can explain why Portland developed as it did. The west side of the river is much higher, thus dryer and less prone to flooding, making it the natural choice for initial settlement. The east bank is lower and prone to flooding, which forced settlement to occur farther back from the river. This created the “left over� or low value land mentioned in the previous section. A settlement pattern emerged with development occurring inland from the marsh, and transportation connecting the settlement to the docks and piers. This created a strong architectural edge that can be seen currently along the historic MLK Jr/Grand area. With time, this dividing marsh began to be filled in with earth and debris, and the in-fill was eventually finished for the construction of the I-5.

Image: Eastbank Riverfront Park, 1997 68

Image: Gary A. Korhonen Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Hydrological Issues River levels in the Willamette vary seasonally based on the Willamette Valley rainfall and the Colombia River. The highest river height occurs in the winter and spring between December and June, which coincides with the highest level of river use during the spring. The water level was studied extensively before the East Bank Esplanade was constructed in order to provide year round continuous access. There are several agencies that have authority in this area when considering proposed fill, either as piers, docks, or solid materials. These agencies include the Oregon Division of State Lands, the National Marine Fisheries Service, various branches of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Oregon Marine Board, amongst others.

River Use and Transportation The Willamette is a deep water channel that presents a unique opportunity to have large, ocean-going vessels dock downtown as far south as the Morrison Bridge. Shallower vessels and barges are able to continue upstream to the south. The highest level of river use can be found between the Morrison and Ross Island Bridges where there are many power vehicles as well as recreational rowing uses. A river taxi system has been proposed multiple times in order to provide greater public access to the water. This would also create direct connections between the different destinations along the river. This allows the Willamette to become a major transportation mode to the public. Fishing occurs along the east bank, especially in the areas around the Steel Bridge, and between the Hawthorne and Marquam Bridges. Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

69


Portland CEID History The Central Eastside Industrial District has a history of being designated specifically for manufacturing and currently is considered an “industrial Sanctuary� by the city. This means that the only businesses that are allowed legally in the district are manufacturers or are supportive of the manufacturing process (storage primarily). In addition, a maximum of 3,000sf per lot is allowed for office space, and these strict regulations have kept most development projects out of the district in the recent past. In 1964 the Interstate-five corridor was built through Portland and where most of the freeway is submerged throughout the city, the stretch that lies next to the Willamette River was put on grade. This amounted to cutting the eastside off from any river access and still remains as a barrier to this day.

SE Yamhill & Water, 1931

SE Yamhill & Water, 2011

Image: http://vintgeportland.wordpress.com/

70

Image: Scott Kosmecki

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


The CEID

N

Central Reach of the Willamette River, 2010 Source: Google Maps composite

The Central Eastside Industrial District (CEID) is a section of Portland that runs between Powell Blvd. and I-84 to the north, and from 12th Ave. to the Willamette River to the west. This project is investigating what the Central Eastside Industrial District (CEID) will look like once Interstate-five has been eliminated from the east bank of the Willamette River and how the existing and historic manufacturing sanctuary could be maintained for new light manufacturing enterprises. After the current I-5 removal, a blueprint is going to be needed that helps maintain the area’s historic connection as a manufacturing center in the city. Without a plan, elevated land prices in the CEID would certainly push out remaining manufacturing jobs to less expensive suburban sites, depriving the city of much needed middle-class jobs in the central area, and end a rich history of manufacturing in the district.

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

71


Willamette Valley Floods: 1996 & 1894 The flood of 1996 was part of a larger series of floods that occurred in the Pacific Northwest between late-January to mid-February, 1996. The flood extended far past the Willamette Valley all the way to the Oregon Coast to the west and the Cascade Mountains to the east. Washington, Idaho, and California were also affected by the flooding. The Willamette River crested at 28.6 feet, which is 10.6 feet above the flood stage. The river came within inches of overflowing the seawall on the west bank of downtown Portland. There was a major effort by civilians and the Oregon National Guard to use sandbags to control the flooding into downtown.

72

3rd & Alder, Flood of 1894 Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Flood Plain This map represents the existing topography of the area with an overlay representing the 100 and 500 year flood marks.

100 Year Flood Plain 500 Year Flood Plain

50 50

N

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

73


Topographic Map & Current Figure Ground

Topographic Map

Although most of the eastbank of the Willamette has been filled and altered from it’s natural state, the topographic lines show that it resembles more of a natural sloping condition than does the vertical seawall on the westbank. The introduction of two inlets on the eastbank will return some parts of the bank to the river, and give Portlanders an expanded area for experiencing the Willamette.

50 50

N 74

N Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Current Zoning This map shows the current zoning and design overlays in the east bank as well as along the Willamette and across the river. Most of the area this study is concerned with is currently zoned as Industrial of some sort. New zoning and land use will be addressed with the urban plans.

N Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

Image: Eastbank Riverfront Park, 1997 75


Current Freeway From the Burnside Bridge to the Hawthorne Bridge, the freeway is on grade. This creates a physical barrier for people to access the water. Most of the rest of the freeway is elevated to different degrees, creating usable spaces in some instances. These spaces have minimized sun access, created concrete “ceilings,� and increased noise in the area. There are two areas located at either end of the freeway where the structure is so high above the ground level that the space is not as impacted by the above issues. These areas are circled in red below. Freeway Diagram showing height above the ground

N Image: Eastbank Riverfront Park, 1997 76

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Transportation Options This plan explores three different transportation schemes to remove the I-5 Freeway from East Portland. The schemes explore a range of budget options. All schemes assume the re-routing of the I-5 from its current location on the east bank to the current I-405. This would involve improvements to the current I-405, as well as increased diversion to the I-205 for traffic that does not need city access. The I-205 diversion would involve improved signage to encourage use.

N Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

I-205

Current I-5

Current I-405 New I-5

N 77


Marquam Bridge Distribution This scheme addresses the lowest level of infrastructure changes, maintaining the Marquam Bridge as an exit from the new I-5 and re-routing the reduced traffic load onto Mill and Market. Another variation of this scheme involves maintaining the position of the Marquam Bridge, but replacing it with a small, lower bridge that is at a more appropriate, local scale. Common Diversion Scheme Information

Burnside

This scheme replaces the I-5 Corridor with pairs of one-way arterials at MLK & Grand, and 9th & 12th. These North-South pairs are connected to East-West running I-84 and Division St. Each pair has 4-6 lanes that can accommodate 40’ containers and have limited traffic lights at only major intersections.

Morr

ison

Lloyd Blvd. is utilized along with added ramp access to I-84. New bridges across I-84 at these intersections link the now separated Lloyd district to the CEID. There are two pairs of on and off ramps to I-84 and thereby I-5 north. There are connections to I-5 at the lowered Marquam Bridge accessed now by Division St.

Hawt

horne

This allows the area west of MLK to have a more pedestrian friendly feel to it, while allowing greater access to transportation than the district currently has.

am

rqu

Ma

This scheme reclaims 40 acres of land from the highway removal and its various ramp structures and maximizes the existing grid of surface streets. This grid is also altered by the removal of Sandy Blvd. west of it’s intersection with Burnside St, reclaiming another 6 acres of land and fixing one of the city’s more difficult intersections.

Milwaukie

Ross Island

N 78

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


Tunnel Proposal Tunnel Proposal The tunnel scheme is the most intensive and extensive scheme proposed. Its goal is to create one clean unobstructed path under the city for all crossStarting with the removal of the Marquam Bridge, Interstate, crossIsland super-bridge. After crossing the Willimatte from West to East, the new stretch of interstate 5 would turn North and start to descend until it was below grade into a tunnel. The tunnel entrance and exit on the south side of downtown Portland would begin before SE Division St., and underneath the city between SE Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. and SE Grand Ave. On the North side of the city, the tunnel would reconnect with the existing I-5 and I-84 infrastructure North of NE Davis St. East Bank’s water edge for development, but it would also remove the highway entirely as an obstacle for any East Portland future East Portland redevelopment project. A common concern about the tunnel proposal is the availability of truck access into and out of East Portland. This concern would also apply to people that work or live in the area. The idea for the proposal would be that all commercial and pedestrian would enter and exit East Portland from the North and South extremities of the central districts near the tunnel’s entrance points. No entrance and exit point would be available inside the tunnel to East Portland to alleviate congestion nodes. The idea is that the tunnel would be an express route under city that could by pass East Portland all together. The main consequence of the tunnel proposal is that it would consume the most resources. Time to completion, money, and construction area would be the most expansive. Despite the consequences the tunnel proposal is still the most comprehensive scheme to solve Portland’s transportation issues. N Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

79


Diversion: Ross Island Super Bridge

DIVERSION - Ross Island Super Bridge This scheme replaces the section of the I-5 Corridor that blocks the eastside of the city from the Willamette River with improvements to two pairs of one-way arterials at MLK & Grand, and 9th & 12th streets. Thereby reclaiming over 50 acres of land and maximizing the existing grid of surface streets. Also included is a new “Super Bridge” in place of where the Ross Island bridge is currently that becomes a new, simplified accessway to I-5 into SE Portland.

N

The North-South pairs are connected to east-west running I-84 and Powell blvd. Each pair has 4-6 lanes that can accommodate 40’ containers and have limited traffic lights at only major intersections. One new pair of ramps specifically designed for commercial traffic is also introduced that connects the freeway system to a new truck route throughout the district. Lloyd Blvd. is utilized along with a double pair of ramps to I-84. New bridges across the I-84 trench at 9th & 12th streets, as well as a new road that runs on the south side of I-84, connects these new access ways to the MLK/Grand couplet and better links the Lloyd District to the CEID. Along with the removal of Sandy blvd. west of 12th street, a far simplified city grid is created that allows greater access to transportation than the district currently has. All with less property takes from individuals than the square feet discovered for new building projects. MAJOR Historic buildings are untouched for renovation, over 50 INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS acres of new land is made available for development and recreation, and the Industrial Sanctuary is greatly expanded.

80

Stefanie Hanna-Riggs | Monograph | 06.14.12


This plan focuses on civic spaces along the waterfront, especially along the southern part of the project near OMSI.

3RD

2ND

1ST

WATER

ZERO

Land Use: Public Access Hawt

horne

In this plan, the yellow refers to civic spaces that also include public functions that bring people to the area. These could be libraries, theaters, community centers, sports centers, shops, public plazas, and anything else that is open to the general public. The emphasis on public space along the water front integrates with the public right of way where the East Bank Esplanade is currently located. This plan will maintain, improve, and expand the esplanade to create ample room for foot and bike traffic along the waterfront. There are many similarities with the previous plan, but this plan is centered more on people, movement towards the river, and public spaces. This plan has smaller blocks to create frequent access to the water for cars as well as bicyclists and pedestrians. The threshold where the water meets the land is still being explored, and some of the civic spaces may become parks or pull back from the water to create larger spaces on the waterfront.

M

u arq

am OMSI

LIGHT MANUFACTURING MIXED-USE HOUSING RETAIL FRONTAGE CIVIC SPACES COMMERCIAL PARKS/ RECREATION SCHOOLS PARKING GARAGES HISTORICAL BUILDINGS

Urban Waterfronts Thesis 2011-2012

OMSI Expansion P

M

e uki a ilw

Street Car Line

OMSI Expansion

P OMSI Expansion

Light Rail

81


Stefanie Hanna-Riggs 602.309.3319 Stefanie.HannaRiggs@gmail.com


University of Oregon Master's Thesis Monograph  

The monograph was created from the work done during 2011-2012 in the University of Oregon Master's program. The Portland Aquatic Community C...