Creating scientific minds, everywhere.

Decreasing Numbers

The Arts

Positives

74% of middle school girls express an interest in engineering, science, and math, but only 0.3% choose computer science as a major when they get to college. (girlswhocode.com)

According to the University of Florida, students who engage in music education often perform better on math tasks. (eschoolnews.com)

People in STEM careers see statistically higher wages than those who are not. They are prepared for the future and ready to manage new technology.

Why I Created STEAM Ahead STEAM Education. We hear all about it lately, on the news, in books, and a plethora of other sources. But what makes STEAM education so important? It prepares our youth for the future, and creates intelligent minds that have the potential to do anything. Often times, kids lose interest in STEAM over time, especially girls with regards to STEM education. It is our duty to inspire and promote todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s young minds to be the best that they can be. So STEAM Ahead was born as a result. Holding classes at the local library every Saturday, I was able to spark an interest in the children of my community. Some even showed up to the program wearing lab coats to express their enthusiasm. In all, this was an extremely rewarding experience that should absolutely be continued by the next generation of STEAMers!

Be the change you wish to see in the world. Inspire others to participate in STEAM education. Become an educator yourself.

Experiment Set 1: Can You Make a Liquid Float?/Lava Lamps  Surface Tension  Density Check these experiments out to learn how density plays a part in our world!

Name: _________________

Objective: We will be adding liquids of different densities into a bottle and making a layered solution.

Materials          

Food coloring ¼ cup of corn syrup ¼ cup of rubbing alcohol ¼ cup of water ¼ cup of vegetable oil Plastic bottle Spoon Paper clips (plastic and metal) Staple Pen cap

Procedure 1. Using the markings on the bottle, VERY carefully pour ¼ cup of water into the plastic bottle. The corn syrup is colored GREEN. 2. SLOWLY pour ¼ cup of oil into the bottle. The water is colored BLUE. Wait about 30 seconds. 3. SLOWLY pour ¼ cup of corn syrup into the bottle. The oil is colored YELLOW. Wait about 30 seconds. 4. In the space below, draw a diagram of what you see. In your diagram, LABEL the liquids that you added! 5. Gently drop the staple into the bottle. Which layer does it float/sink to? 6. Gently drop the metal paper clip into the bottle. Which layer does it float/sink to?

Name: _________________ 7. Gently drop the plastic paper clip into the bottle. Which layer does it float/sink to? 8. Gently drop the pen cap into the bottle. Which layer does it float/sink to? 9. Place the bottle on the side of the table.

Draw what you saw here:

Materials    

Vegetable oil Water Food coloring Clear bottle

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4.

Fill the bottle about ¾ full with vegetable oil. Add water to the bottle until it is almost full. Add 5 drops of food coloring. Put the lid on TIGHT and turn the bottle upside down. The water and oil will move around until the colored water is on the bottom.

Name: _________________ 5. Shake the bottle. What happens?

Draw what you saw here:

Questions to think about: 1. What happened when you added the corn syrup? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2. Why do you think it happened? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 3. Will an object that is more dense float or sink? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 4. Will an object that is less dense float or sink? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 5. What happened when you turned the lava lamp upside down? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Name: _________________

The Science of What Happened 1. Can you make a liquid float? a. The water, oil, and corn syrup all have different densities. Objects that are more dense will SINK, and objects that are less dense will FLOAT. When you added the corn syrup, it did not mix with the other liquids, but SUNK to the bottom. This means that the corn syrup is MORE DENSE than the other liquids. The oil stayed on top, so we can conclude that it is LESS DENSE than the other liquids.

2. Lava Lamps a. To figure out what somethingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s density is, you can compare it to other things. In this case, we compared the densities of the oil and water. We know that oil is LESS DENSE than water. Therefore, the oil floats ON TOP of the water.

Experiment Set 2: Walking Water/Paper Airplanes  Surface Tension  Capillary Action  Aerodynamics Take flight into the world of planes, while learning about the properties of water.

Walking Water

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Paper Airplanes: A Test of Aerodynamics

Flip the paper over and fold the corners into the middle. Flip it back around and unfold the corners to make a diamond shape.

Experiment Set 3: Ooblek/Fluffy Slime  Non-Newtonian Fluids  Elasticity  Polymers Get messy with these fun experiments, and learn the science behind slime!

Name: ______________________

OOBLEK You’ve all heard of solids, and you’ve all heard of liquids. But what happens when something is both a solid and a liquid? Materials:  1 part water  1.5-2 parts cornstarch  Food coloring (optional)  Bowl  Spoon Procedure: 1. Add the water to a bowl or plastic container. 2. VERY SLOWLY, and using the spoon, mix in the cornstarch a little bit at a time. 3. Slowly add food coloring to the mixture, if desired. 4. Pick up the ooblek. What happens when you let it fall through your fingers? 5. Next, try punching it. Is it hard or soft? 6. When you are finished, put the ooblek in a plastic container and fasten the lid tightly. The Science Behind It Ooblek is called a NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID. That means it’s both a solid and a liquid. Non-Newtonian fluids are named that way because they don’t

Name: ______________________

behave like normal solids or liquids. When you hold it in your hand, it falls through your fingers. However, if you try to smash it or punch it, it will act like a solid and even crack. The ooblek is also an example of a polymer, which just means that it is made up of large chains of molecules called monomers. You can try playing with it as much as you want to see how these properties function!

Fluffy Slime Slime. It’s the latest obsession. It’s every child’s dream, and every parent’s nightmare. But what makes fluffy slime so much fun? And how does it all work? Let’s find out! Materials:  1 part Elmer’s Washable Glue (PVC Glue)  1-1.5 parts foaming shaving cream  Baking soda (optional)  Food coloring (optional)  Saline solution (contact lens solution works fine)  Bowl/plastic container  Spoon  Rubber gloves (optional) Procedure: 1. Add 1 part of Elmer’s Washable Glue to a plastic container or bowl.

Name: ______________________

2. Add a few drops of food coloring, if desired. 3. Add 1-1.5 parts of foaming shaving cream to the container/bowl. 4. Mix thoroughly using a spoon. 5. Add the contact solution about one tablespoon at a time. 6. Continue adding the contact solution until the slime starts holding together and becoming less sticky. 7. Using your hands (with gloves on ), knead the slime until it arrives at the right consistency. 8. If the slime is still sticky, add more contact solution, and a pinch or two of baking soda. 9. If the slime is too watery, add more shaving cream. 10. When you are finished, put the slime in a plastic container and fasten the lid on tightly. The Science Behind It When you mix the glue and shaving cream, nothing happens. That’s because there’s nothing in either of these that bind to each other. The glue is made up of chains called polymers. The contact lens solution contains a chemical called boric acid. This substance, when mixed with water, helps to connect those chains, and give the slime the consistency you all love to play with. In short, slime is super fun, but when you learn exactly why it is the way it is, you learn something as well!

Name: ______________________

Experiment Set 3: Ooblek/Fluffy Slime  Non-Newtonian Fluids  Elasticity  Polymers Get messy with these fun experiments, and learn the science behind slime!

Memory and mind games MIND GAMES #1: Perspective

Move your eyes along the image or shake it

Shake the image.

Move the image up and down.

Read the words, then the colors.

#2: ACTION

Move your eyes along the image.

Do you see two shades of grey? Put your finger in the middle of the figure.

Stare at the image for 30 seconds, then look at the blank space below.

MEMORY GAMES #1:Items in a box

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

MEMORY GAMES #2: Going on a picnic

Experiment Set 4: Mind/Memory Games  Optical Illusions  Memory Tricks  Ambiguous Illusions Test your brainpower with these experiments that make you think outside the box!

Name: _________________

The Spying Scientist: Invisible Ink Method 1: Heat that Lemon! Materials:        

Half of a lemon Paper (preferably white printer paper) Water Mixing Bowl A piece of cotton or a cotton swab/paintbrush Spoon Pipette Lightbulb for heat source (you can use a lamp with an incandescent lightbulb)

Procedure: 1. Place your mixing bowl on a flat surface. 2. Squeeze the lemon into a bowl, until all the juice is collected inside. Be careful not to spill! 3. Add a few drops of water to the bowl using a pipette. 4. Use the spoon to mix the water and lemon juice together. 5. Dip the cotton swab or paintbrush into the mixture. 6. Write your message on the paper using your new invisible ink! You must make sure that it dries before you attempt to reveal the message.

Name: _________________ 7. Hold the paper over a light bulb. Soon enough, you will see the message come to light! 8. If you are using a source like an open stove, make sure you have parental supervision. Draw your procedure here:

Method 2: Baking Soda Materials:        

1 part baking soda 1 part water White paper (preferably printer paper) Purple grape juice A piece of cotton or a cotton swab/paintbrush Spoon Mixing bowl Pipette

Procedure:

Name: _________________ 1. Mix the baking soda and water together in a mixing bowl. Make sure that they are in equal parts! 2. Using the cotton swab or paintbrush, write a message on the white paper. Your baking soda and water mixture is what weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re calling the ink in this case! 3. Let the mixture dry. 4. Paint over the message with the purple grape juice and watch your secret message appear! Draw your procedure here:

Questions to think about: 1. What happened when you held your paper up to the heat source? _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Did you expect to see something different than what was predicted? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Name: _________________ 3. Why do you think the invisible ink messages were revealed, in both cases? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

The Science of What Happened Invisible Ink â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Lemon Version ď&#x201A;ˇ When you held your paper up to the heat source, you probably noticed that your secret message was revealed. o Everything is made up of carbon. Specifically in lemon juice and other fruit juices, there are carbon compounds. o These carbon compounds typically have no color when they are not heated, and in their natural state. o When you added heat, these carbon compounds broke apart, resulting in carbon being released. o The air contains oxygen. So, when the carbon was released, it reacted with the oxygen in the air, causing a process called oxidation. The lemon juice then turned a brown color.

Name: _________________ Invisible Ink – Baking Soda Version  When you painted over the mixture with grape juice, you probably noticed that your secret message was revealed. o Baking soda is a basic substance. Basic substances (bases) are bitter, are poor conductors of electricity, and can feel slippery. o The grape juice is an acidic substance. Acids taste sour, are good conductors of electricity, and are typically liquids. o When you combine the grape juice and baking soda, the grape juice is an indicator. This means that it can tell whether a substance is an acid or base. So, because the baking soda is a base, the grape juice changes color to show that. o And as a result, you’re able to see your secret message!

Thank you for reading this STEAM Ahead Publication! Be inspired. Be the change. Make it happen.

A publication detailing the STEAM Ahead program and subsequent experiments that were conducted!

A publication detailing the STEAM Ahead program and subsequent experiments that were conducted!