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The future of the islands is Green

Applications presented (Α) Efficiency enhancement of solar thermal Flue gasses heat recovery Air conditioning heat recovery Air cooling with fresh air Geothermal heat pumps

Applications presented (Β) Heating – cooling storage Solar cooling Tri – Quadra production Cooling & dehumidification with desiccant wheels (adsorption) Grid connected PVs Hybrid systems– energy storage Thermal power from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Water economizers

Efficiency enhancement of solar thermal Can be achieved by using close loop control of water flow (pump speed), to maintain optimal temperature of heating medium (water). Close loop control can maintain constant water temperature if needed (solar cooling applications). Efficiency can be increased by combining conventional and selective solar collectors.

Control panel inverter with PID control

Programmable controller of thermal solar plant with pump speed control option. It can also control auxiliary burner and return circuit water pumps for optimal performance and comfort. East – west solar fields are supported.

Flue gasses heat recovery Using simple heat exchangers for temperatures higher than condensing temperature. Using condensing heat exchangers to maximize energy recovery of flue gases (for LPG or natural gas burners)

Flue gasses heat recovery condensing boiler

2 Îœcal/h heat recovery unit (maximum power output) connected to a 1,5 Mcal/h steam generator.

Air conditioning heat recovery Using metal fin cross flow heat air to air heat exchangers. Using rotary heat exchangers (rotary wheel) Using desiccant wheels (adsorption rotary wheel with silica gel)

Roof mounted heating – cooling – ventilation & heat recovery unit

Air cooling with fresh air Achieved by supplying large quantities of fresh, with a rate greater that 15 times the volume of the building, per hour. A desiccant wheel (adsorption rotary wheel) can be used to reduce temperature of a pre-humidified (cooled) air stream.

Fan – section & ducts

High flow air stream removes heat loads

Inverter control of motor speed – air flow control

Geothermal heat pumps

Heat pump external heat exchanger is realized with underground horizontal pipe networks at a 1.5 m depth (or more), or with the aim of an open or close loop borehole pair of pipes. In both cases, soil maintain constant heat exchange outside temperature, around 15 oC.

Geothermal heat pumps – pipe network

Expansion vessels

Pipe network collectors

Heating – cooling storage Based on storage of heating or cooling medium (e.g. water), by using insulated tanks. Normalize peak demand, and requires smaller power installed, also improves COP of heat pumps.

House with air to water heat-pump installation for heating & cooling

Heat pump with heat recovery

1500 litre thermaly insulated water tank for heating – cooling storage

Solar cooling

Based on absorption or adsorption chillers that consume thermal instead of mechanical energy. They can be combined with auxiliary thermal energy source (diesel, LPG, natural gas, biomass, waste heat, recovered heat, CHP heat).

Absorption chiller schematic diagram

House with solar cooling & heating installation

Roof – solar thermal collector field

Absorption chiller & cooling tower

Thermal storage tank Stores heated water generated by the solar thermal field at 83 oC

Auxiliary diesel heater

An office building with solar cooling & Quadra production installations

Solar collector field

Hot and cold water insulated tanks

Power & automation control panels

Absorption chiller & cooling tower

Auxiliary natural gas heater & inox chimney

1Ρ installation of SANYO Quadra production in Europe, office building, Athens

Tri-production units in Rodos Palladium hotel

Pictures from the visit of the Vice president SANYO Japan & CEO of SANYO Europe for the tri-production inauguration in Rhodos, first installation in Greece.

Rhodes Palladium Hotel, Rhodos

30 – 40 RT absorption chiller

Load distribution unit

Solar thermal field (left) Heat medium collection unit 90 ÎżC (right)

Heat medium pumps (left) Hotel roof with horizontally fitted high temperature collectors (right)

Cooling & dehumidification with desiccant wheels (adsorption) Their design is based on a rotating wheel covered by a sorption medium like silica gel. This material initially removes and stores in its mass air humidity (water), and then is regenerated with the aim of a secondary hot air stream, that dries silica gel.

Operation diagram

Typical installation (hotel)

Various types of adsorption (or desiccant) wheels

Grid connected PVs

A 5 KWp PV grid connected installation on a house complex roof

A 3 x 1500 Watt grid connected inverter with data logging (2006)

A 20 KWp grid connected PV on a houshold roof, Kremasti, Rhodos

A 20 KWp grid connected PV on a warehouse roof, horizontally fitted, Kremasti, Rhodos

PV 4 KWp, hotel building, Ixia, Rhodos

PV 8 KWp, hotel building, Rhodos

PV 20 KWp, Town Hall, Kremasti, Rhodos

PV 20 KWp, supermarket Pappou, Ixia, Rhodos

PV 20 ΚWp, waste water treatment plant, Kremasti, Rhodos

PV 20 ΚWp thin film, Maribel hotel, Kremasti, Rhodos

PV, Sun Beach Hotel, Ialyssos, Rhodos

Thin film PV installation, Rhodos Palladium hotel

PV 15 KWp K Butique hotel, Ixia, Rhodos

Pilot – educational 0.5 KWp PV, Enviromental Educational Center, Theologos, Rhodos

Equipment - installation, Enviromental Educational Center, Theologos, Rhodos

Grid connected inverters 3 x 7 KW

Grid connected PV on a car park (Photovoltaic, Athens) Consists of: ► ► ►

81 PV panels, 3 inverters (3kW each) 1 Data Logger for power, energy generation, panel and ambient temperature, and solar irradiation

Hybrid systems– energy storage

► ► ► ► ►

Multi source energy generation systems Water desalination powered by hybrid systems Energy storage Energy storage in hybrid cars (plug in cars) RES – electrolysis and energy storage in hydrogen

Eco house, stand alone PV assisted by LPG gen-set, Rhodos

System elements

Hellenic Navy Strogyli island electrification PV installed power: 2,64 ΚWp (Photovoltaic)

A reverse osmosis water desalination plant supplied by PV & Wind turbine hybrid stand alone system (Photovoltaic)

Hydraulic energy storage (two lake system)

Compressed air electricity storage application

Compressed air storage chamber

290 MW compressed air energy storage plant

Energy storage in Na – Sulfur (NAS) batteries

Wind power pilot installation with energy storage

Wind power installation with energy storage

Wind power installation with energy storage (BOS)

PV park of 5 MWp with energy storage

VRB batteries

2 tank electrolyte system, a characteristic of VRB battery

King Island case

System upgrade: addition of an energy storage unit

VRB Energy storage unit images

Wind park with energy storage in VRB (vanadium redox batteries)

Energy storage in Hokkaido

Kythnos hybrid system case

Phases of system evolution

Kythnos hybrid system in 1983

System upgrade in 2001

Comparison of power stations’ installed – vehicle installed power in Europe

Plug-in vehicles & grid integration

Plug-in hybrid car

Commercial vehicle with plug-in option

Hydrogen energy storage

Energy storage with electrolytic hydrogen generation

Hydrogen application images, showing clearly the future

A nice energy storage illustration

Scientific interest for energy storage is escalating

IRES II, World Conference Center, Bonn, 2007

Thermal power from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) MSW is a invaluable thermal energy source, as incineration or pyrolysis recovers energy stored in the organic mass in a form of chemical energy after natural processes like photosynthesis or industrial and chemical processes (e.g plastics).

Waste to heat MSW incineration plant

Flow chart

A waste to heat layout

Plant view from a small size waste to heat plant

MSW plant in Mallorca

Control panel

Inspection window of furnace

Flue gasses measuring & monitoring unit

Chemical analysis laboratory

Waste separation unit

Anaerobic digestion of organic content of waste

Anaerobic digestion unit

Fermentation – biogas storage vessel

Schematic of gasification unit

Water economizers Low Purchase and installation cost , based on very simple design.

Operation principle is based on mixing water with air. Though technology involved is quite simple, environmental and financial benefits are very significant.

They reduce actual water flow by 50% to 70% Total water consumption is reduced by 30% to 60%

They reduce the installed power and energy consumption of boiler They increase the energy contribution of existing solar thermal plants They reduce energy consumption of fossil fuels.

They reduce waste water treatment plant loads. They eliminate emptying of waste water buffer and sink. They reduce energy consumption of water pressure pumps.

They reduce water pumping from boreholes. They reduce consumption of precious clean water. They enable escalating and decent water consumption invoicing of water utilities, as cost per capita is reduced.

Thank you!

Stavros Volas BEng, MSc, Env Auditor

Island energy  

Energy saving practices proposed for the Aegean islands.

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