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Grid development plan 2010

I


Statnett Statnett is Norway’s transmission system operator and as such has the overall responsibility for managing the operation of the national electricity system. Statnett is not responsible for the generation of electricity, but for ensuring that the electricity reaches the consumers Statnett owns approximately 90 per cent of Norway’s main power grid. This is made up of the highest-voltage power lines and substations, which transmit electricity to an entire region, a number of regions or the country as a whole. Statnett will manage the main grid on the basis of sound socio-economic criteria. This means providing Norwegian consumers with a reliable supply of electricity with sufficient capacity and at the lowest possible overall cost. Statnett will facilitate a well-functioning electricity market with a stable and high quality of delivery. The company is responsible for Norway’s main power grid and has a statutory duty to ensure that it is open to all participants in the electricity market. In situations with a limited electricity supply, Statnett will also monitor the situation continuously and consider various measures that can be taken to assure the electricity supply. Statnett SF is owned by the Norwegian State and organised pursuant to the Act relating to state-owned enterprises. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy represents the State as owner.

II

Nettutviklingsplan 2010

Statnett’s revenues are regulated by means of a revenue cap set by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). The purpose of setting an upper limit for revenues is to create predictable economic operating conditions for the grid companies, whilst also restricting the possibility for high returns from the grid operations. Most of Statnett’s revenues are earned from leasing transmission facilities to the Main Grid Commercial Agreement. The Main Grid Commercial Agreement is intended to cover the costs incurred by the owners of the national grid for developing and maintaining the grid. Statnett’s mission is to: • Ensure quality of supply in the short term by coordinating electricity supply and demand; • Ensure quality of supply in the long term by developing the Norwegian national grid; • Offer access to the power transmission grid on equal terms to all by administering the Main Grid Commercial Agreement; • Ensure accessible transmission routes by means of good maintenance practices.


The next generation main grid The Main Grid is highly utilised, and further capacity increases require investments Several matters during the last year have highlighted the need for a greatly upgraded main grid. During the winter of 2009/2010, the peak power consumption in Norway was record high. The power price was also record high, with major price differences between many different pricing areas in Norway, and with a corresponding increase in the congestion costs between the pricing areas within Norway. The number of hours with impaired supply security to the major cities rose steeply. The amount of snow this winter, and the water level in the reservoirs by the end of spring, were record low. In consequence we had record high import of power in the summer of 2010, with a corresponding record low Norwegian power generation. Statnett has for many years had a strategy of implementing grid measures that do not entail significant grid investments in order to achieve a higher transmission capacity in the main grid. This potential has now been used to the full. As the figure below shows, consumption has increased considerably during the last two decades, but investments have not followed suit. More comprehensive measures and investments will be necessary to meet our society’s needs in the future.

New investments 7 000

(*)

Prioritised grid development areas Security of supply has highest priority for Statnett. The greatest challenges are the Bergen region, the Stavanger region, Central Norway and North Norway. New transmission capacity to these cities is required to ensure adequate supply. For the Bergen region, Central Norway and North Norway, Statnett has applied for new transmission connections. For the Bergen region, Statnett has been granted a licence for the Sima-Samnanger interconnector, but the Government has decided to conduct another assessment of the subsea cable option as an alternative solution during the period leading up to 1 February 2011. New transmission capacity is also being planned for Stavanger, lead by Lyse Elnett AS. The lengthy processing period for licences is one of the reasons why Statnett now considers implementing special contingency measures in the short term for these regions. Statnett will promote value creation by securing sufficient trading capacity within Norway, delivering power to new, profitable activities and facilitating increased exchanges of power with other countries. Our short term focus is not least to facilitate planned petroleum activities and to establish new overseas interconnectors to the Continent in order to exploit the value of Norwegian hydropower’s ability to be regulated. New overseas interconnectors require

in the main grid since 1963 140

Interconnectors HVDC Historical grid investments Forecast investments new capacity (domestic)

120

Consumption [TWh]

5 000

100

4 000

80

3 000

60

2 000

40

1 000

20

TWh

Mill NOK (real)

6 000

0

0 1963

1969

1975

1981

1987

1993

1999

2005

2011

2017

(*): Only new investments, excluding reinvestments and IT/tele. Forecast summer 2010

Grid development plan 2010

III


significant grid upgrades in South Norway. This will mainly be done by upgrading and thus increasing the capacity in the existing interconnectors. Statnett aims to promote climate friendly solutions. We will do this by paving the way for new renewable energy and facilitating increased electrification in the petroleum industry, and contributing to changes in the energy generation on the Continent. We want to do our part to make sure Norway reaches its goals for new renewable power generation in a cost-efficient way. This means that we must promote a balanced development, where new power generation is developed in line with the needs, regionally as well as nationally. Statnett’s role is that of overall coordinator of grid developments and new power generation. The grid development costs must be considered when the location of new power generation is determined. It is not efficient to create a major power surplus that needs to be transported over vast distances. Norway has a great potential for small-scale hydropower generation, which it is now possible to set up at relatively low costs. The biggest potentials are found in West Norway and in the county of Nordland, and Statnett will make it a high priority to facilitate development of such power generation. As for wind power, Statnett will make it a priority to establish wind power in Central Norway, a power-deficit region where new power generation would be highly beneficial, plus wind power initiatives in North Norway adapted to the region’s consumption and grid capacity. With regard to electrification of petroleum installations, our focus will first and foremost be on increasing electrification of facilities in the Hammerfest region. This will reduce our national CO2 emissions considerably. Voltage upgrades are a strategic move for increased capacity in Norway A strategic move to increase the transmission capacity is to upgrade the voltage on existing 300 kV interconnectors to 420 kV, reusing the old transmission routes. Voltage upgrades for increased transmission capacity take place through upgrading or replacement of existing lines, pylons and transformer stations, using existing transmission routes whenever possible. This has little impact on the environment. Voltage upgrades also reduce grid loss. Voltage upgrades therefore represent a good solution in terms of the environment. Statnett has extensive plans to upgrade the voltage in the 300 kV grid to 420 kV. Due to growing consumption and generation in the power system, it is important to upgrade the voltage fairly soon, before the grid load becomes so heavy that it will be impossible to disconnect the plants during the reconstruction period.

IV

Grid development plan 2010

Voltage upgrades mean that existing lines and stations are reconstructed, and this might lead to operational challenges during the reconstruction period. To reduce the number of disconnections, the work will be performed on live systems wherever possible. Focus on the environment When Statnett builds new interconnectors, it is important to find solutions which minimise the impact on the natural and local environment. We make sure of this through our choice of routes, design and camouflage painting of pylons and other equipment. Our work must leave the landscape with only minimal scars. Mitigating environmental measures are used on major sections of new line projects. In addition we make use of any opportunity to redevelop and restructure existing power lines (both in the main and the regional grids) in all new line projects. All Statnett projects use steel pylons of the type that has been used for the last 20 years. Thousands of these pylons are found around Norway. Statnett is working actively in R&D to investigate alternative designs. However, climatic stresses, (wind, ice and snow) mean that the steel pylons still prevail. Cables (ground or subsea cables) for the highest voltage levels are traditionally used where it is impossible to construct a power line, such as for a long fjord crossing or when crossing stretches of sea. Public opinion increasingly prefers a cable to an overhead line. On this matter Statnett adheres to the cabling policy adopted by the Government. The cabling policy was discussed by the Storting in the spring of 2009 in Odelsting Proposition No. 62 (2008–2009) Relating to the Act on amendments to the Energy Act: «Cabling must also be considered when new power lines are to be constructed in the regional grid and the main grid, but their use must be gradually more restrictive as the voltage level increases. Ground cables or subsea cables are most relevant for limited sections where there are considerable preservation interests or major aesthetic disadvantages for 66kV and 132kV, but may also be relevant on sections where there are particular environmental benefits for 300kV and 420kV.» Statnett’s articles of association and statutory objective require Statnett to ensure a socio-economically efficient operation and development of the main transmission power grid. Due to the high costs, many interconnectors will not be socio-economically profitable if there is to be extensive cabling. In many cases, therefore, the socio-economic alternative to an overhead line will be not to construct that line.


2010 Developing the next generation main grid

VA R A N G E R HAMMERFEST

KIRKENES

UTSJOKI

W IN D P OW E R FA R M

380-750 KV LINE

These maps show today’s main grid, plus prioritized measures for the next few years towards the next generation main grid. In the maps for 2016 and 2030, red lines indicate new measures towards these phases. Pink lines indicate what is expected to have been developed at an earlier stage for the 420kV grid, and blue lines similarly for the 300kV grid. 300-330 KV

S E R E B RYA N S K A

HYDRO POWER PLANT

A LTA

DC-LINE

132-150 KV LINE

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

KNYTTET TIL USIKKERHET

C O N V E R T E R S TAT I O N

MURMANSK

TROMSØ

THERMAL POWER PLANT

2 2 0 K V L IN E

K A I TA K OS K I

K O L S K AYA

BALSFJORD

S U B S TAT I O N N A RV I K VA J U K O S K I

OFOTEN

RITSEM

S A LT E N

H A R S P R Å N GE T

P IR T T I K O S K I P U D U Z E M S K AYA

P E T Ä J Ä S K OS K I

S VA R T I S E N

TUOMELA

LETSI

K R I V O P OR OL S K AYA RANA RØSSÄGA

AJAURE

2010

PYHÄNSELKÄ

TUNNSJØDAL

H A A PAV E S I

JÄRPSTRÖMMEN

TRONDHEIM

VA S K I L U O TO

NEA K R I S T I IN A ÅLESUND

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I M AT R A TA H K O L U O TO

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S TO C K H OL M HASLE S TAVA N G E R

SKIEN

FEDA

HALDEN

KRISTIANSAND

GÖTEBORG OSKARSHAMN

G OT L A N D

RINGHALS ÖLAND

Today’s main grid

STÄRNÖ

BARSEBÄCK

2016

2025

VA R A N G E R HAMMERFEST

VA R A N G E R

KIRKENES

UTSJOKI

W IN D P OW E R FA R M

380-750 KV LINE

HAMMERFEST

S E R E B RYA N S K A

HYDRO POWER PLANT

A LTA

DC-LINE 2 2 0 K V L IN E

MURMANSK 300-330 KV

TROMSØ

THERMAL POWER PLANT

K A I TA K OS K I

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

KNYTTET TIL USIKKERHET

C O N V E R T E R S TAT I O N

S E R E B RYA N S K A

HYDRO POWER PLANT

A LTA

DC-LINE

BALSFJORD

K O L S K AYA 132-150 KV LINE

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

KNYTTET TIL USIKKERHET

C O N V E R T E R S TAT I O N

MURMANSK

TROMSØ

THERMAL POWER PLANT

2 2 0 K V L IN E 132-150 KV LINE

KIRKENES

UTSJOKI

W IN D P OW E R FA R M

380-750 KV LINE

300-330 KV

K A I TA K OS K I

K O L S K AYA

BALSFJORD

S U B S TAT I O N N A RV I K

S U B S TAT I O N N A RV I K

VA J U K O S K I

OFOTEN

VA J U K O S K I

OFOTEN

RITSEM RITSEM S A LT E N

H A R S P R Å N GE T

S A LT E N

P IR T T I K O S K I

P IR T T I K O S K I P U D U Z E M S K AYA

P E T Ä J Ä S K OS K I

S VA R T I S E N

TUOMELA

LETSI

H A R S P R Å N GE T

P U D U Z E M S K AYA

P E T Ä J Ä S K OS K I

S VA R T I S E N

TUOMELA

LETSI

K R I V O P OR OL S K AYA RANA

K R I V O P OR OL S K AYA

RANA

RØSSÄGA RØSSÄGA AJAURE

PYHÄNSELKÄ AJAURE

2016

TUNNSJØDAL

2030

H A A PAV E S I

PYHÄNSELKÄ

TUNNSJØDAL

H A A PAV E S I

JÄRPSTRÖMMEN

TRONDHEIM

VA S K I L U O TO

JÄRPSTRÖMMEN

TRONDHEIM

VA S K I L U O TO

NEA NEA

K R I S T I IN A ÅLESUND

SUNNDALSØRA

K R I S T I IN A

I M AT R A ÅLESUND

SUNNDALSØRA

I M AT R A

TA H K O L U O TO TA H K O L U O TO

O L K IL U O TO O L K IL U O TO A

S

K

-

I N N

HELSINKI

AURLAND

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ÅLAND BERGEN

S

I N N E

FORSMARK

FORSMARK

ÅLAND

EIDFJORD BERGEN RJUKAN

SYLLING

L OV II S A

N

K

A

N

L OV II S A HELSINKI

F

AURLAND

I N K OO

EIDFJORD

OSLO RJUKAN

SYLLING

OSLO

S TO C K H OL M S TO C K H OL M

HASLE S TAVA N G E R

SKIEN

HASLE

HALDEN S TAVA N G E R

FEDA

KRISTIANSAND

SKIEN

FEDA

HALDEN

KRISTIANSAND

GÖTEBORG OSKARSHAMN

GÖTEBORG

G OT L A N D

OSKARSHAMN

G OT L A N D

T IL E N GL A N D

RINGHALS ÖLAND

Prioritised measures for the next few years STÄRNÖ

RINGHALS ÖLAND

The next generation main grid STÄRNÖ

BARSEBÄCK BARSEBÄCK

Grid development plan 2010

V


Grid development in North Norway The main challenges for the power system in North Norway: • Supply security for Finnmark, and supply security for Lofoten and Vesterålen • Power supply for new industry in Finnmark • New small-scale and hydropower generation (particularly in Nordland) and new wind power generation (throughout the area) During the winter there is a power deficit north of Ofoten, with little generation that may be adjusted up when needed. For long periods, the grid is operated with reduced supply security. This is an important reason why Statnett has applied for a licence for a new 420 kV line between Ofoten and Balsfjord. Statnett’s focus in the northern part of North Norway is also concerned with supplying the petroleum activities in Finnmark. Statoil has been ordered to assess measures to reduce CO2 emissions from the Snøhvit field, and the plan is to electrify the new Goliat field. The plan is also to provide the new Snøhvit II field with power supply from the grid. Accordingly, Statnett has applied for a licence for the new 420 kV line from Balsfjord to Hammer¬fest. This interconnector and the new Ofoten-Balsfjord line are needed to provide power for the planned activities in the Hammerfest region. The power grid further east in Finnmark has limited transmission capacity and has little flexibility when it comes to handling changes in consumption or generation in the area. The eastern part of Finnmark may increase its power consumption in the future, and to facilitate this, Statnett has submitted a planning proposal for a new 420 kV line Skaidi-Varangerbotn. The new 420 kV line Ofoten-Balsfjord-Hammerfest does not provide two sided supply for this area. In order to increase the supply security for Finnmark we are considering an extension of the new power line Skaidi - Varangerbotn to the 420 kV grid in Finland (Pirttikoski). Such a transnational «Arctic Circle» will give a strong grid and be robust with regard to changes in both consumption and generation of power, thus paving the way for a considerable wind power generation in the west as well as the east of Finnmark. A study of such a solution is now being conducted in cooperation with our sister TSO in Finland, Fingrid.

A considerable amount of wind power is being planned for all three counties in North Norway. Statnett believes it makes sense that the new power generation in the far north is developed in line with the planned consumption development and the associated new transmission capacity. Increased consumption in North Norway and the associated grid development may make it possible to develop up to 2000 MW new generation capacity in Troms and Finnmark over time. However, an even more extensive development of the generation capacity in the far north would be a costly solution due to the high costs of transporting the power to the consumer areas. Nordland has a great potential for small-scale energy. There are many plans for both small-scale energy/ hydropower and wind power. This will initially have consequences for the need for transformer capacity between the regional grid and the main grid. Statnett would like to facilitate new power generation in Nordland and is studying alternative grid solutions for this. Supplies to Lofoten and Vesterålen have at times been strained during the last few years. Last winter there was a grid failure in the Lofoten Ring which caused an outage for consumers. In the coming year Statnett will therefore prepare some proposals for how to solve this problem in the short and longer term. Norway has currently the option of importing up to around 50 MW from Russia. Statnett is constructing a new power line from Varangerbotn to Skogfoss. This line will make it possible to increase imports from Russia, which will benefit supply security in eastern Finnmark. Statnett is in a dialogue with Russian companies to investigate these possibilities.

Legend: Red: Adopted/under construction Green: Licence application submitted Blue: Possible measures in the next ten years Black: Possible measures in the longer term Voltage upgrades as dotted lines

VI

Grid development plan 2010


Grid development in Central Norway The main challenges for the power system in Central Norway are: • Supply security – the biggest challenge in the short term • New wind power generation in the region, plus increased power flow from the north through new renewable energy generation north of Central Norway • Increased power consumption in the petroleum activities

generation in Sogn og Fjordane and in Sunnmøre. Until Ørskog-¬Fardal is in place, Statnett has put a stop to further development of new power generation in Sogn og Fjordane and in Sunnmøre. There are many plans for new wind power generation in Central Norway, particularly in Fosen and south of the Trond¬heim Fjord. Statnett wants to make it possible for these plans to be realised by undertaking the necessary grid upgrading. NVE (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate) has granted a licence for a new 420 kV line Namsos-Roan-Storheia, as well as for several wind farms in Fosen that together would have a generation capacity of just over 800 MW. These licences have been appealed, and the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy is processing them at present. In order to facilitate the planned wind power south of the Trondheim Fjord, Statnett has applied for a licence for a 420 kV interconnector from Fosen via Snillfjord to the main grid south of the Trondheim Fjord (Orkdal/Trollheim). The development of these lines depends on the establishment of wind power in Fosen and the Snillfjord area, and this again depends on financial framework conditions that will make this development profitable for the players. Some smallscale energy generation is also planned in Central ¬Norway. Statnett aims to facilitate this by establishing the necessary transformer capacity in the main grid.

Central Norway remains a focus area for Statnett due to its worrying supply situation. In recent years the area has seen a strong increase in consumption without any increase in power generation, and a considerable power deficit has arisen. There is not sufficient transmission capacity into the area to handle this problem in all situations. The challenges relate primarily to a dry year with a low water level in the reservoirs. Together with some grid upgrading measures already in place in and into Central Norway, the planned 420 kV line between Central Norway and Sogn (Ørskog- Fardal) will give a satisfactory supply situation in this region. These moves will also allow for further increases in consumption in this region, for example in connection with the petroleum industry, and the new line will allow for new renewable energy

NAMSOS

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OGNDAL S

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VERDAL S

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FIBORTANGEN

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STRINDA KLÆBU

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ORKDAL

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FRÆNA NYHAMNA!

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BRANDHOL VIKLANDET

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ØRSKOG

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VÅGÅMO

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Legend: Green: Licence application submitted Tegnforklaring Blue: Possible measures in the next ten years Grønn: Meldt/konsesjonssøkt Black: Possible measures in 10 theårlonger term Blå: Aktuelle tiltak nærmeste Sort: Aktuelle tiltakas pådotted lengre lines sikt Voltage upgrades Spenningsoppgradering er stiplet

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FARDAL

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Grid development plan 2010

VII


Grid development in West Norway The main challenges for the power system in West Norway: • Supply security in Hordaland • New renewable energy generation, both smallscale energy/hydropower and wind power, creates challenges for the transmission capacity into the main grid as well as out of the area • The development of the aluminium industry

subsea cable. In the period until this interconnector is in place, Statnett will implement other short-term measures in order to improve the security of supply. To ensure security of supply inside this area to Bergen and Kollsnes, new lines are being planned between Kollsnes and Mongstad and Mongstad and Modalen. BKK has applied for a licence for these lines. These lines are very important to ensure a robust supply internally in the Bergen region. West Norway has the greatest potential for smallscale energy, and Statnett wants to facilitate the realisation of as much as possible of this potential. The 420 kV line Ørskog-Fardal and its continuation to Aurland, combined with Sima-Samnanger and the upgrading of the Samnanger-Mauranger-BlåfalliSauda section, strengthen the main grid sufficiently so that it will be able to handle great volumes of new renewable energy generation. Statnett is also, in collaboration with the British TSO National Grid, looking at a possible interconnector between Norway and Great Britain. Kvilldal is a possible tie-in point, but Statnett will also consider other options. To allow for new cables between South Norway and the Continent, there is a need to carry out a voltage

Bergen and the rest of Hordaland north of the Hardanger Fjord suffers from an increasing power deficit. Should the lines into the Bergen area fail, it may cause major consumer disconnections and blackouts. In a worst case scenario, there might be a blackout through the entire area between the Bokna Fjord and the Sogne Fjord, as one had in 2004. For this reason NVE granted Statnett a licence in 2008 to build a new 420 kV interconnector between Sima and Samnanger. This decision was confirmed by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy in July 2010. On 10 August 2010 the Government decided to conduct another review of the subsea cable option to be completed by 1 February 2011. Until the subsea cable alternative has been re-assessed, the construction work continues by carrying out the physical interventions that will be needed for both the overhead line and the

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MONGSTAD

FARDAL

upgrade of the grid south of Sauda.

ÅRDAL

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KOLLSNES ARNA

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RJUKAN

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KVILLDAL SAURDAL LIASTØLEN FØRRE

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TONSTAD

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SKÅREHEIA!ARENDAL

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Tegnforklaring Legend: Rød: Besluttet/under bygging Grønn: Meldt/konsesjonssøkt Red: Adopted/under construction Blå: Aktuelle tiltak nærmeste 10 år Green: Licence Sort: Aktuelle tiltak application på lengre siktsubmitted

Blue: Possible measures in the next

FEDA

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PORSGRUNN

KRISTIANSAND

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LISTA

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Spenningsoppgradering er stiplet ten years

Black: Possible measures in the longer term Voltage upgrades as dotted lines

VIII

Grid development plan 2010


Grid development in South and Southwest Norway The main challenges for the power system in South and Southwest Norway are: • Supply security for North Jæren / the Stavanger region • New overseas interconnectors to the Continent • New renewable generation and an associated increased power surplus in the region The current transmission capacity into the North Jæren region and the Stavanger region is limited. The area is supplied by two weak 300 kV interconnectors, while the capacity is also being limited by voltage issues. During some periods the grid is operated without an instantaneous back-up, and the cost of outages might be high if serious faults were to arise in the grid. A new 420 kV line Lyse-Støleheia will give a better supply security for North Jæren. This interconnector will also increase capacity from north to south between Lyse and Feda, and will thus make it easier to carry out the necessary voltage upgrades. Socio-economic analyses show that more overseas interconnectors from Norway to the Continent would be profitable. Given the proximity to Europe, new overseas interconnectors will be brought to land in South or Southwest Norway. This represents a challenge for the Norwegian grid in the area, and

further upgrading will be necessary. The new overseas interconnectors will also lead to greater changes in the flow pattern throughout the day and hence a greater need for grid upgrades in a north-south direction in South Norway. Our main strategy is to upgrade Kristiansand-Arendal-Bamble-Rød (the eastern corridor) from 300 to 420 kV before Skagerrak 4 is realised, and then in the same way upgrade the voltage in Kristiansand-Feda-Tonstad-Lyse-Sauda (the western cor¬ridor) before any further overseas interconnectors are tied in.

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ARENDAL

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Legend: Tegnforklaring Grønn: Licence Meldt/konsesjonssøkt Green: application submitted Blå: Aktuelle tiltak nærmeste Blue: Possible measures in 10 theårnext ten years Spenningsoppgradering er stiplet

Voltage upgrades as dotted lines

LISTA

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Grid development plan 2010

IX


Grid development in East Norway East Norway has a considerable power deficit. The main challenges for the power system in East Norway are: • Supply security for the Oslo Fjord area • Sufficient trading capacity to and from Sweden • Reinvestments needs that must be coordinated with plans for voltage upgrades The three cables that cross the Oslo Fjord are important for the supply to the Oslo Fjord area and for the transmission capacity to and from Sweden. Statnett has decided to invest in three sets of new 420 kV subsea cables in the outer Oslo Fjord (Rød-Hasle) to replace the existing set of cables. We are also planning to upgrade the other cables across the Oslo Fjord. Several of the transformer stations towards the Oslo area had a very high load during the cold winter of 2009/2010. A review has shown that some stations might be vulnerable in relation to supply security. We therefore plan to increase the capacity in several transformer stations. During the next 10-20 years we will face major challenges concerning reinvestment needs and the

expected increase in population and consumption in the Oslo Fjord area. We are also expecting increased transit of power through the area, due to the new cables and new renewable power generation elsewhere in Norway. The transmission capacity towards the Oslo Fjord area will mainly be increased through voltage upgrades of the existing grid from the south, west and north. We are also planning the SydVest Link, a new interconnector to Sweden (DC interconnector). All the 300 kV lines inside and into the area are in principle candidates for upgrading to 420 kV. To begin with it is most relevant to upgrade the lines in Oslo and in the Flesaker interface west of Oslo. The line grid towards Oslo and Akershus needs strengthening. Statnett has begun work on a longterm «Master plan for Oslo and Akershus» in close cooperation with the regional transmission operator Hafslund, while we also want an open process in relation to other stakeholders, local governments and county councils. Our goal is to establish a picture of the grid in 2050 and prepare a grid development plan with proposals for specific measures that must be implemented during the first decade.

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SYDVESTLINKEN

Tegnforklaring Legend: Rød: Besluttet/under bygging Red: Adopted/under construction Grønn: Meldt/konsesjonssøkt Green: Licencetiltak application submitted Blå: Aktuelle nærmeste 10 år Blue: in the next Sort: Possible Aktuellemeasures tiltak på lengre sikt ten years Black: Possible measures in the longer term

Spenningsoppgradering er stiplet.

Voltage upgrades as dotted lines EVJE S ! SKÅREHEIA

!

ARENDAL

!

FEDA

!

KRISTIANSAND

!


Interconnectors to the Continent Norwegian and European energy policy seems to indicate that overseas cables are both necessary and profitable. Trade between the Norwegian and Nordic hydropower system and power systems with much thermic power generation (gas, coal, nuclear power, etc.) is profitable. Overseas cables become even more profitable on account of increased development of renewable power generation, whether it takes place in Norway or abroad, due to the increased volatility in power prices. Statnett is therefore working actively to establish new interconnectors to relevant markets surrounding Norway. New planned cables out of South Norway: • Denmark: Statnett has decided to build a fourth cable to Denmark (Ska¬gerrak 4). The project is planned with a capacity of up to 700 MW. This means that the total Elspot capacity between Norway and Jutland will increase to about 1600 MW. • Germany: Statnett has applied for a licence for a DC interconnector (NORD.LINK) between Norway and Germany. The planned capacity of the new interconnector is 1400 MW. The planned tie-in is

to the municipality of Sirdal. Statnett is cooperating with the Norwegian companies Lyse and Agder Energi plus the Swiss company EGL on developing a corresponding project under the company name NorGer. Statnett is a 50 percent owner in this project. NORD.LINK and NorGer will be further developed as independent projects. • The Netherlands: The NorNed interconnector was put into operation in May 2008 and is owned half and half by Statnett and our Dutch sister TSO TenneT. An 700 MW expansion of the capacity (NorNed 2) will be applied for in 2010, based on our experiences from the development and operation of NorNed. The tie-in point is planned to be in Feda. • Great Britain: In cooperation with the British TSO National Grid, Stat¬nett is looking at a possible cable between Norway and Britain. The project is assessing a capacity of up to 1600 MW. The likely tie-in point in Norway is Kvilldal, but we will also consider other alternatives.

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XI


Swedish-Norwegian grid development The power grids in Sweden and Norway are closely integrated. Stat¬nett cooperates with Svenska Kraftnät in Sweden on shedding light on shared problems, for instance the problems that result from a higher proportion of renewable energy in the NorwegianSwedish power system. Trends both on the Continent and in the Nordic countries create strong incentives for more cables to the Continent as well as upgrades of the domestic Swedish-Norwegian grid, particularly in a north-south direction. A joint Swedish-Norwegian analysis has assessed measures related to grid development north-south, market development, supply security and

operational cooperation. Based on the results of these analyses, a joint stage-wise plan has been outlined for relevant upgrades of the Swedish-Norwegian power system, see figure below. In parallel with this analysis work, Statnett and Svenska Kraftnät have signed a cooperation agreement on the SydVest Link project, which is a DC interconnector between Norway and South Sweden with a capacity of up to 1200 MW. The companies have begun preparing the licence application. The so-called Norway branch will be tied in to Tveiten in Vestfold.

Prioritized reinforcements package First step (Scenario Recession) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Nea-Järpströmmen (In operation) 2009 Fenno-Skan II (Decided) 2012 SouthWest Link, South(Decided) 2013 Sima - Samnanger (Decided) 2013 Ørskog - Fardal (License applied) 2014 Southern Norway, 300420 kV 2014/17 reinforcements Skagerrak IV (License approved) 2014 Ofoten –– Balsfjord –– Hammerfest 2015 NordBalt ((Decided)) 2016

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Prioritized reinforcements Second step (Scenario Renewable+) Reinforcements out of Ofoten (ch.7.3.4) Svartisen - Nedre Røssåga Serial compensation, cross-section 1 Namsos –– Trollheim/Orkdal Klæbu –– Aura, 300 420 kV Shunt compensation, cross-section 2 Øvre Vinstra - Fåberg, simplexduplex SouthWest Link, Western part Possible further reinforcements Third step (Scenario 202020)

18. a Nedre Røss.-Grundfors, 220420 kV b.Nedre Røssåga––Klæbu, 300420 kV 19. Further reinforcements cross-section 2 20. Further reinforcements Mid S th Mid-Southern N Norway 21. Aura-Fåberg, 300 420 kV 22. Further reinforcement Cross-section 4 Possible interconnectors to continental markets

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Grid development plan 2010

8. 10. 9.

11. 18a 18a. 13.

5 7.21. .

3.1.

14. 20. 15.

16.

4

12.

18b

2.. 1. 19.

6

17 6..

5.. 7

3 22 4. 9

2 2.


Implementation The scope of investments During the next ten years, Statnett expects to invest around NOK 40 billion in the main grid. For the first five years, investments will be in the range of NOK 17-20 billion. The size of the investments is uncertain, not least due to the time it takes to have a licence application processed, the national ambitions for investment in renewables and how fast the new overseas cables might be built. The uncertainty increases for measures in the later years of the decade. Relevant measures include construction and reconstruction of somewhere around 3500 km cables in the next decade. Installation of the overseas cables will come in addition. The measures will also entail new construction or reconstruction of nearly 60 stations, and some of the existing stations will have to be rebuilt while they remain in operation. The overall scope of this work is considerably more extensive than the total constructions during the last decades.

are international, and scarcity in these markets will to a great extent depend on whether the plans of other European grid companies are being realised. Statnett is working to encourage more contractors to compete for our assignments. It is important for Statnett to make sure we are able to implement our plans, and competence and capital are important if we are to deliver a satisfactory main grid, which is a crucial infrastructure for our society. Cooperation is important to secure project realisation Statnett depends on good cooperation with local communities, suppliers, customers and power producers if we are to implement our ambitious plan. Statnett has therefore signed a number of cooperation agreements with regional grid companies.

Implementation challenges Statnett is facing a period of extensive grid development in order to connect new power generation to the grid, and to transmit the power to the relevant consumers in Norway and abroad. The work is extensive and it needs to be done fast. It will therefore be a challenge for us to implement this portfolio. The plan volume has increased in recent years, while it also takes longer and longer to receive consent to develop the infrastructure. This is a challenge for Statnett as well as for other affected players. Our opportunities to build the needed transmission capacity to ensure supply, increase value creation and contribute to better climate solutions may be hampered because it takes such a long time to establish new power lines (8–10 years for new 420 kV lines). To safeguard the supply security, it is important that this lead time be reduced. Any scarcity of suppliers and installation contractor, as well as long delivery times for key components, will affect the progress of the projects. These markets

Grid development plan 2010

XIII


Prioritised projects Measure North Norway:

About the measure

Timing1

Varangerbotn–Skogfoss 132 kV

New interconnector that strengthens supply security to Eastern Finnmark

Under construction and Commissioning 2013

Ofoten–Balsfjord 420 kV

150 km new interconnector that strengthens supply security in the region

Licence application in May 2010 and Commissioning 2014

Balsfjord–Hammerfest 420 kV

360 km new interconnector that strengthens supply security and facilitate industry development and an increase in renewable power generation in the region

Licence application 2009 and Commissioning 2016

Skaidi–Varangerbotn 420 kV

215 km new interconnector that strengthens supply security and facilitate a great increase in consumption and new generation

Planning proposal submitted June 2010 and Commissioning 2020

Arctic Circle 420 kV

Circle interconnector that links the Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish main grids and secures dual supply to the Northern areas

Central Norway Ørskog–Fardal 420 kV

285 km new interconnector with five new stations that will strengthen the supply security and facilitate great volumes of renewable energy in Sogn and Sunnmøre

Commissioning 2015. Appeal consideration in the MPE

Namsos–Roan–Storheia 420 kV

120 km new interconnector that will be linked to great volumes of wind power which have been reported to the NVE. Realisation depends on agreements for new production in the area.

Licence granted 2010 and Commissioning in 2013. Appeal consideration in the MPE

Spenningsoppgradering Namsos-Klæbu 420 kV

Facilitates for new renewable energy production in and north Licence application of Central Norway 2010. Completed 2013

Spenningsoppgradering Klæbu-Aura 420 kV

Supply security in Møre, and will facilitate new renewable energy production in and north of Central Norway

Completed 2016-17

Storheia–Snillfjord–Orkdal/ Trollheim 420 kV

130 km new interconnector with an 8 km subsea cable which will facilitate great amounts of wind power in Snillfjord

Licence application May 2010. Commissioning 2017

Sima – Samnanger 420 kV

92 km new interconnector which will increase supply security to the Bergen region

Licence received. Commissioning 2012 – 2013 (if overhead transmission line). MPE performs an another review of the subsea cable option until 1 February 2011.

Modalen – Mongstad – Kollsnes 420 kV

Projects led by BKK Nett to improve supply security to the Bergen region

Voltage upgrade FardalAurland 420 kV

Increased capacity across the Sogne Fjord. This will be a continuation of Ørskog-Fardal and facilitate more renewable production

Voltage upgrade to 420 kV in the region

Strengthens supply security and will also facilitate more production and more overseas interconnectors

Overseas cable to Great Britain

A new overseas cable from West Norway to Britain is being planned

Vest-Norge:

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Grid development plan 2010


Measure South Norway/Southwest Norway

About the measure

Timing1

Voltage upgrade – Eastern corridor 420 kV

The existing interconnector Kristiansand-Arendal-Bamble is upgraded to increase the grid capacity between South Norway and East Norway. New build Bamble-Rød.

Completed 2014

Voltage upgrade – Western corridor 420 kV

The existing interconnectors Kristiansand-Feda-TonstadLyse-Saurdal-Sauda is upgraded to increase supply security and to handle new production and increased interconnector capacity.

Completed 2016 / 2017

Lyse – Støleheia 420 kV

New transmission line which Lyse Elnett is planning to strengthen supply security for North Jæren/Stavanger

Commissioning 2016

Outer Oslo Fjord

New cable interconnector to replace the existing subsea cable.

Commissioning 2012

Increased transformer capacity in the Oslo area

Transformer stations will be upgraded to increase supply security and to address future growth in East Norway

Completed from 2012 to 2015

The SydVest (DC) Link

New DC interconnector from East Norway to Sweden that will increase the cross-border trading capacity

Commissioning 2016/17

Master plan for the Oslo area

A joint strategy is being prepared together with the regional transmission company Hafslund to address future developments in the Oslo region

East Norway

New DC interconnectors out of the Nordic system: Denmark

Will increase the current capacity by 700 MW to 1600 MW

Licence granted June 2010. Commissioning 2014

Germany

NORD.LINK: Statnett has applied for a licence for a DC interconnector (NORD.LINK) between Norway and Germany. The new interconnector is planned to have 1400 MW capacity and to be tied in to the municipality of Sirdal. NorGer: Statnett is cooperating with Lyse and Agder Energi as well as the Swiss company EGL to develop this project.

Licence applied for.

The Netherlands

Considers a 700 MW expansion of the current capacity. The planned tie-in point is Feda.

Licence application in the course of 2010.

Great Britain

Together with the British National Grid we are considering a cable between Norway and Britain with a capacity of up to 1600 MW. The tie-in point will probably be Kvilldal, but other tie-in points may also be considered.

1 Start-up dates are an indication only and depend on assumptions

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Statnett SF Husebybakken 28B, P.O.Box 5192 Majorstuen, N-0302 Oslo Telefon: +47 23 90 30 00, Telefax: +47 22 52 70 01 www.statnett.no, firmapost@statnett.no


Grid development plan 2010