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Constructing Journal <Week 4>

Working Drawing

Case study building name: ERC Building 1 TITLE BLOCK List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page. - Project name - Client - Information of reconstruction - Contacts of architects and planners - Drawing title - Drawing number - Orientation - Scale - Date Why might this information be important? - It shows the general information and context of the building.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;4020â&#x20AC;&#x2122; - millimeters

What system is used for identifying the grid lines? East - west: numbers North - south: letters

2 DRAWING CONTENT - PLANS What type of information is shown in this floor plan? - Opennings, walls and context - Existing features - Levels - References - Scale - Dimensions Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan. What units are used for the dimensions?

Why is some information found in General Notes? - The information is needed to be applied to all the drawings. What is the purpose of the legend? - Describing different symbles showed on the drawings.

Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. - To specify the certain part of the drawing.

- Windows: with letter ‘W’ Window’s number Building/Floor reference

Illustrate how the locations of sections are identified on the plan. What do these symbols mean? Direction of the section

Drawing number

The information of the symbol can be found on the General Legend. The number of doors and windows is changing orderly with the place altering in order. Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan. - ‘ERC BUILDING LEVEL THREE’

Page number Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? Direction of the drawing Drawing number Page number How are windows and doors identified? Provide an example of each. Is there a rationnale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings? - Doors: with letter ‘D’ Door’s number Building/Floor reference

Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? - The areas have been changed from the original plan. Clouded

3 DRAWING CONTENT - ELEVATIONS What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan? The information shown: - The dimensions - Title of elevation - Materials - Small features such as plasma screen Differences: - Show the vertical dimension - More detail about dimensions, features, structure and materials - Only show a part of the plan

- The elevation shows the features of level three and four, and the level is shown by the stairs.

Is there a grid? If so, how/where is it shown? - The grid is shown above the drawings.

Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide and example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation. - They show more detail and specific number, such as the dimension of steel plate, as well as showing the vertical dimension. Is there a legend? What does it identify and how is it used? - It describes the detailed information of specific code that showed on the drawing. We should find the same type of code from the drawings and compare it with the legend. Vertical dimension of door

What types of levels are shown on the elevations? Illustrate how levels are shown in telation to the elevation.

What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. - information of materials, finishing structures and structures with scale.

Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations.

Window Door

4 DRAWING CONTENT - SECTIONS What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation? Types of information: - Clouds - Specific area with dash line - Grid - Texture of constructing materials - Dimensions - Vertical structures Differences: - Shows details of basement - Shows the texture of materials - More detailed and specific construction Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the elevation? - The elevation shows dimensions of small details, but the section shows dimensions of larger structures and basic structures.

Illustrate where this elevation is located in relation to the plan.



What types of information on the sections are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. Types of information: - Dimensions of small structures - Materials - Basic explaination - Finishes and existing structures

Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections. - The materials are pointed by the words and texture. Concrete

Find where this section is located on the plans. Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation (beyond). -Building elements that are cut through

Heavy lines - Beyond elements The section is on the area of A3 on the plan

Light lines



What sorts of things are detailed? - The drawings on the dotted boxes, which are usually complex structures. Are the details compressed using break lines? Why? - To omit the unimportant parts on the section, and magnify the important and specific parts to show more details.

Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale. - The materials are shown by different texture.


Loose insulation

Find the locations of these details on the plans, elevations and sections. - Floor Penetration / Ceiling details


E-learning Notes e102 - Composite Actions Monolothic


-single materials -or materials combined

Concrete columns Composite -Compostie: two or more materials combined in the way that the individual materials are easily distinguishable.

Types of composites: -Fibrous -Laminar -Particulate -Hybrid

e103 - Materials: Concrete Concrete = cement + aggregates + water + admixtures (Plastic state Hardened state)

support area

Reinforcement When the concrete beam is being made, steel bars are placed near the bottom surface of the form. Concrete - good at compression protect steel from water and corrosion Steel - good at tensile strength

Vignettes - V3: The Pantheon Roma - Great Temples Pantheon: dedicated to all God

Roman concrete VS Contemporary concrete The dome (concrete)

-large aggragate (pack together)

-liquid top material with small stone

Main types of concrete: -Opus incertum -Opus reticulatum - Opus testaceum

The Portico

The drum (Brick-face concrete)

Concrete with volcanic pumice aggregate

Top of the dome - Oculus with brick compression ring

The dome -based on a arcuated method of technology Changed aggregate (reduce deadweight)

Concrete with brick aggregate

Concrete with tufa & brick aggregate

Footing - concrete with travertin & tufa aggregate (tough material, maximum strength)

Constructing Journal <Week 5>

Working Drawing DESCRIPTION / CLASSIFICATION / DIAGRAM OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS a) Foundation & Footings - This building does not have separate foundation system, the foundation is the level 1 and 2 that below the surface of the ground.

Primary structure

Secondary structure Foundation c) Secondary Structure (horizontal and vertical) - Fabricated steel window mullion - Cantilevered steel beams between the frame

b) Primary Structure (horizontal and vertical) - Concrete joist slab (Floor system) - Steel columns (Support roof) - Steel frame structure (Roof structure)

(Ching, 2008)

Reference Ching, F. (2008). Building construction illustrated. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Constructing Journal <Week 6>

Studio Activity The activity in the studio was making the structural model in scale, which including primary structure and secondary structure. We decided to do the cantilivered roof structure on the third floor of ERC. The diagram below is the plan of roof view, which shows the basic structure of roof system.

Primary structure

Secondary structure


30 0


We made the basic floor and walls by cardboard first and did in scale of 1:50. Then we made the beams and column of the cantilever by using timber. We connected the structure by glue and tape.

There will be five beam and column structures in the same size along this floor.

When the force is applied to the structure, the flat beam will be supported by the column, and the tilted beam will get tension by the wall.

Timber Workshop On timber workshop, we were divided into three groups to make our own beam by using the timber bars and wooden board. The purpose was to make the beam that could bear the largest force.

Originally, our plan was to make the horizontal beam that showed below, which was like a sandwich that the timber in the middle of the structure and wooden bars were connected at both ends.

Each group had different number of timber bars and wooden boards. In our group, we were suppose to use two timber bars and two wooden boards to make our beam.

Site view

Top view

To fixing the two timber, we nailed two nails in each end of the bar on two sides. Then we fastened the two wooden boards on the timber bars by nail. We only nail on one side of the board for 8 nails.

We cut the timber and wooden boards somehow to make the main leghth become 1m, and then we kmew that we should not do that.

The imageins show the final look of our beam, which like the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Hâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; on thwartwise direnction.

Nails were nailed on the wooden board side by side.

As the wooden boards were wider than the timber bars, which looked like ‘H’, the force would be concentrated on the boards. However, I don’t know why the plan was changed - the direction of the beam was suddenly changed from horizontal way to vertival way. This was not good for the bearing, because the wooden boards were wider than the timber bars. Also, as we cut the length of the beam, it was not enough for being the bridge.


Then the force applying process started. Whild the force was increaseding, the force-applying object was tilted. The reason was because the nails only be nailed on one side of the board, therefore the ability of bearing forces was uneven in different parts of the beam.

At last, the beam was broken. From the image, it could be seen that the boards were bent on the place of loading.

From the place that the beam was broken, we can find that it related to the nail. The fissure goes through the nail, which means the nail was the centre of cracking. Therefore, the nail may weaken the ability of loading.

It can be seen from the top right image that the bend just only happen in one board. Then from the two bottom pictures, it can be recognized that the board with nail on it was the bending one, and the other board was almost flat. From the result of the it, we could say the nail on the wooden board cause the bending. The reason maybe because the nails fastened the board on the timber, thus the nail will disperse one part of the applying force and disturbed the force distribution.

Constructing Journal Week 4-6