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M3_ FABRICATION Yi Zhu, Holly Tepper and Juexin Kong


M1 IDEATION SKIN AND BONE SYSTEM: KITE The kite was measured and plans, elevations and observational sketches were drawn. The kite was measured and these measurements were transferred into Rhino to form a rendered digital model of a skin and bone system. Since the kite was more or less a 2D shape, I separated the two skin and bone elements and created a 3D skeletal structure using skewers similar to those used to keep the kite in a rigid shape.

1:5


PANEL AND FOLD PANELLING SYSTEM Coffee filters are constructed by gluing them along the punctured areas, joining different panels together. To make use of this method, there is a need to dissect the properties in which a coffee filter has. Ultimately the design of the coffee filter is one which is extremely simple. Two identical panels are fixed together at three points to retain it’s shape and at the same time have the flexibility to create a funnel - a small end compared to a large opening.


PERSONAL SPACE HOLLY TEPPER

JUEXIN KONG

YI ZHU Sommer describes personal space as an area of comfort which changes depending on the circumstances that surrounds the individual.

Everyone has their limit with personal space whether it is feeling uncomfortable when the immediate space around you is filled or becoming unusually aware of your body in space in crowded places.

He also describes how personal space is different for different individuals. In general extroverts tend to be more comfortable being closer to another individual as compared to introverts.

I can relate to Sommer’s ‘physcal invasion of person space’ because I am really conscious of people touching my neck and whenever someone does , a shiver runs down my spine. I can also relate to Sommer’s ‘visual invasion’ where if i see someone going to touch it, I experience the same feeling even if forewarned. Therefore using the skin and bone system I will design a structure associated with the protection of this area. The image above is my understanding about boundaries among relationships space, personal space and social space. Each boundary has not definit distance, and this distance is different for each person as their situation and personality are all different. Therefore, we need to find a suitable space to keep the balance between two different people.

This design elaborates on the shielding of an individual - much like that of a turtle’s shell. The shield covers the most ‘vulnerable’ parts of the individual, the front and the back, and is designed via large, flat panels - much like that of a turtle’s shell. This design illustrates the fear of social contact and the design attempts to aid the individual in distancing him or her away from unwanted contact. Making use of the folding and connection mechanism of the coffee filter, the shell will be linked together as a whole piece. The design could also be flexible and perhaps even flimsy - similar to the filter, to illustrate an organic impression - second skin being part of the user.


INDIVIDUAL DESIGNS AND SIMILARITIES: BACK AND NECK HOLLY TEPPER

JUEXIN KONG

YI ZHU

The idea of this design is to concentrated on the application of skin and bone that matched in with my interpretation of Sommer’s idea of the physical invasion of personal space. The design is concentrated area the neck and back area to protect the wearer from people approaching from behind.

This design shows the expanded personal space that keep away from other people, as well as the strong personality. The design was from skin and bone system.

This designinspired by turtle shell, which try to pretect the most vulnerable parts of individuals - front and back. This design shows the unwilling of social contacts, which belongs to panal and fold system.


BRIEF DEVELOPMENT Based on the groups definition of personal space and the assignment brief, some constraints and considerations were drawn up to aid the direction of the groups design development. The design should explore the notions of personal space encluding forms that protect or defend the wearer as well as more active forms that deter other people or frighten them away. The design wil protect the wearers neck, shoulders and back as these were all considered vulnerable areas by the group. The design will also use the ystems of skin and bone as well as panel and fold. either combined or in isolation. The design should have an element of movement and be comfortable and practical to wear.

SUMMARY: - Explore notion of personal space. - Create a design the protects the wearers neck and back. - Encorperate Skin and Bone as well as Panel and Fold systems. - Design something that has an element of movement.


PRECEDENTS We believe finding a precedence which reflects upon personal space and the direction of our design should come from nature. Nature often exhibits perfection in the use of organic materials to exhibit defense or predation and we find this to be extremely relevant in reflecting both personal space and our designs. There are mainly three systems which we considered to reflect space and our material systems (panelling and skin and bones).

THE TORTOISE

THE FRILL-NECKED LIZARD

THE PORCUPINE

PRECEDENCE, PERSONAL SPACE AND DESIGN

We have the tortoise in which its strong exterior shell and its symbolism to protection or even cowardice not only exhibits the need for space but also a clear panelling system. The tortoise carries its shell with it at all times and retreats into the shell when it feels threatened. Crucially, the shell is also positioned at its centre where only its extremities and head are exposed to external factors.

We also considered the frill-necked lizard and the porcupine as references for our skin and bone system. Both animals exhibits the same characteristics when threatened – which is to expand their fins or spikes to scare predators away.

With regards to the personal space article by Sommer where the author described the increasing level of discomfort as another individual approaches closer, our designs has a system of protection where the mass and strength of the protection is encircled around the most vulnerable parts, the body and neck etc, and subsides as the space extends outwards, the extremities – the lower the concentration of spikes. These ideologies are implemented on both designs in different manners but ultimately the key ideas we wish to conceptualise are that individuals have different levels of comfort at different distances and that in reflection of these ‘comfort distances’, there is a relevant amount of protection implemented onto these comfort levels. We believe that this materialises the abstract idea of personal space and that the organic nature of our design will feel more embodied as part of the model.


DIGITALIZED MESH MODEL This is the digitized mesh model of Starry’s body by using the 123D Catch Autocad program. The model was made by taking approximately 40 photos from hip height and above head height around the model. The first model that we made was more thorough but Starry was sitting on a high backed chair (see below) which wasn’t ideal when trying to overlay the Rhino design which would run down the wearers back, protecting the areas which they couldn’t keep watch over.


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

As a group, we consolodated our main ideas of personal space and came up with some developed design ideas that explored the skin and bone system as well as the panel and fold system. These ideas were based on designs covering the neck where the incorperation of the neckhole was a key challenge and we soon found that even though the centre was probably best as a circular shape, the overall shape didn’t have to be (see left).


FIRST GROUP DESIGN We found out the similarities of our design by comparing three ideas from skin and bone sysem as well as panel and fold system, and the ideas are trying to increase the personal space, decrease the social contact and protect the vulnerable parts of body. Therefore we made the second skin by combining all three designs, and took the most interesting parts and typical parts as designing elements. From the model we made, it could be recognizd that the panel system is in back and front, which is analogous to turtle shell and executing the protection. Also, there are several thorns in different sizes surrounding the neck and shoulder parts, which express the willing that keep away from others.


SCALED DESIGN ON A MODEL

The models beside show the design on a scale that relates to the real body. So it can be seen that the thorns on one side create a threatening effect that could prevent people from approaching the wearer. Then the front panels are less threatening , making the collar more practical to move around in . The design forfills the brief as it covers the areas of the body perceived to be vulnerable, i.e the wearer’s back and neck.


ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL MODELS

COMPONENT This exercise in the tutorial encouraged us to think about how the different elements of the systems could join together. We explored different ways to connect the sticks (the bones of a skin and bone system) like tape, plasticine and blue tack. This exercise lead us to think about how the shapes encorperated in our design would tesselate and how different ways of making the same shape (see right) could result in a stronger or weaker structure. We also explored the idea that one shape could be make out of other shapes, for example, a curve made out of triangles.


ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL MODELS VOLUME The group’s first idea was put to test via plasticine in the workshop. The mannequin provided a more physical visualisation on how the design would fit on a person. This gave us a better idea whether the size of the spikes, while meant to be threatening and deterring, wasn’t unrealistic or dangerous to the wearer


ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL MODELS MOVEMENT To exhibit the organic nature of our design, paper was our material of choice for the workshop. In order to create the desired fluidity of the design, tabs were created on triangles of different sizes to facilitate bending and movement. We explored the idea that the bigger the tabs were, the greater the movement between each panel. Also, the smaller the panels the more movement (like exhibited in the sketch below). Greater movement could be beneficial as it doesn’t completely restrict the wearer, creating a more practical design.


THE SECOND DESIGN APPROACH This model has a stronger representation of the grill-necked lizard and the skin and bone system. The Most protected part, the neck, is heavily fortified by thick panels but as the design stretches outwards, the defensive system subsides as the comfort level increases for the individual. This design has a more direct approach on personal space distances where people that are approaching can get closer to the wearer through the gaps in the panels if the wearer allows them. For example, the wearer could simply permit them from coming closer by turning slightly so the person approaching is faced with the blade instead of a gap.

Perspective

Side

Side 2 Top


THE SECOND DESIGN APPROACH As with the first design, the design is applied on the digital model for clearer representation. The concept of this design is closer to the precedents that were explored after the first design. The propeller-like panels coming out from the centre are meant to mimick the expanding sections of the frill-necked lizard’s neck. They also represent the expansion of the different layers of personal space seen in Sommer’s reading and our groups original definition of personal space that expand out in a circular fashion like a personal ‘bubble’. Further development of this idea has lead to the design of a retractable mechanism that will act like a fan or the lizards frill to open when the wearer feels threatened. , similar to the idea of a puffer fish.


WEEK FOUR LECTURE: In the lecture of week 4, the notion of effect has been introduced. The ‘effect’ is the consequence of an action, which shows the difference comparing with the initial object (Loh, 2013). It presented three kinds of effects, which were Differentiation Effect, Interference Effect and Multiple Effect, and a lot of projects were shown, such as To and Fro Table by Paul Loh and Nex for the interference one, which shows the effect about different position has different view. Besides, ‘personal space’ had been explored more, and it indicated that personal space has not specific shapes or dimension, and it can always appear whenever or wherever you go, or it can disappear in some situation. This gave some inspiration to me, that our project does not have to be static or keep the initial effect, and it could always change to be better. Therefore, with this lecture in mind, our group has created a ‘two stage’ which can transform when a situation changes for example if the wearer feels threatened, they can activate the fan-like cape, making them look bigger to scare off an approaching person as well as protecting the wearers back while providing a barrier around the neck and preventing harm.


COMBINED DESIGN PROPOSAL The final design proposal is a combination of the two previous design with the front panels originating from the first design and the retractable fan-like cape coming from the second design. This retractable fan can be employed if the wearer feels threatened and gives the design a sense of movement. The mechanics of this process is currently being explored and a range of materials experimented with. Other retractable objects like umbrellas will be explored so that the group is more thoroughly educated in the system methods of tension and compression. This collected design best displays the use of panel and fold systems in the wind design and skin and bone in the possible methods of construction in the front panelling. It also expresses the groups notion of personal space seen in the comparitive sketches below.


FIRST BACK PANEL PROTOTYPE

A functional prototype of the panel and fold cape element was made in conjunction with the ‘bone’ from the skin and bone system. The materials used were paddle pop sticks and paper which were justified by their characteristics, paper to fold then expand and the sticks to act as a solid skeletal membrane for the paper to be attached to. String was also used to attach the paddle pop sticks and the paper and to act in tension when pulled, causing the paper to span out. Because the paper was folded, this is expanding action could occur with minimal difficulties. The prototype was successful in that it could fold and expand although the method of how to control this action needs to be tweaked and improved. Also thicker paper or cardboard would create a stronger and stiffer structure seen more in the rhino sketches. The next step in the design process would be to make a prototype of the skin and bone system and explore how these two elements of the final proposed design could connect and work together.


REVISION OF UMBRELLA MECHANISM

The group pulled apart an umbrella to analyse the hinge mechanism. A simplified design was made from bulsar wood and split pins where the mechanism would retract and expand when the two firsthest section to the right were pulled away from each other. These end segments would then be attached to a ring that spands the back of the neck and controlled with a lever that can be pushed and pulled. The length of the hinge segments then dictates the distance between the folds in the panels.. The layering of the segments (left) also effected the smoothness of the panel and fold movements.


UMBRELLA MODEL SKIN AND BONE SYSTEM

The bone system is seen in the expanding hinge system inspired by the frilled-neck lizard and the skin system is seen in the panels stretching between them. Examples of the panel and fold system are also seen in the expanding back sections and the raised panels on the front of the design. The bones of the umbrella were removed and connected together onto a stretched key ring. Decreasing the vertical space between the two separate rings is done by pulling on a stiff rod connected to the top ring. This causes the large bone segemens to expand and stretch out, so when the wearer is feeling threatened, they simply pull a leaver and the mechanism will expand in a defensive action, letting observers know that the wearer is uncomfortable in their current situation. This will create a delicate and beautiful effect when the bones are covered will verigated folded panels.


FURTHER DESIGN DEVELOPMENT The panel and fold system of the design above was adjusted to be smaller and more angular to look like jagged frills and to make the design more interesting. More detail was added to the engineering of the mechanism and the measurements of the segment sections was experimented with to get the desired effect and The front panels were also modified to a shape that could be tesselated as the top design couldn’t be unrolled, printed and contructed. Although it was agreed that the front panels of the second design were too ordered and semetrical so further development will need to be done on this design. Also the profile wouldn’t fit the curves of the wearer, so further development was made on the front panels.


FINAL DESIGN

The final design incorperates the tesselating panels of the second design with a more interesting profile. Pointy front panels were also added to make the transition between the front and back of the design smoother. These pointy sections will also flip up when the back sections are expanded, creating a defensive circular collar of expanding panels.


PANEL EXPERIMENTATION Different textures were experimented with for the large expandable panels attached to the neck mechanism. These folds had to be aesthetically pleasing as well as allowing the panels to fold along the lines corresponding to the bone hinges. The first attempt had too many small folds and the grid lines didn’t allow the full panel to contract. In another prototype, simpler repeating horizontal lines were used, but the more complex the folding patterns, the more complex the bone structure had to become to cater for those folds. So we went back to our original idea which was a lot simpler and in a sense more eleagent where the panels were crimped vertically . From here a way to make full foldable panels must be designed.

Richard Sweeney, Pleated Art


PANEL PROTOTYPES A plain panel was made to clarify the joining techniques of the panels onto the bones. In this prototype, balsa wood was used for the bones which were connected with split pins. In the final design, it was decided that perspex will be used for the bones which will be connected with small nuts and bolts. These materials will create stronger more durable bones and joints to allow smoother movements in the transition of the back piece as well as holding the weight of the 6 large panels. To the right are the prototypes for the front panel pieces and the net shape that was experimented with.


BACK PANEL FINAL The final back piece was made in four separate segments, each with four folds to accommodate the bone hinges holding them together. This also allowed the back piece of fold up against the wearers back until they feel threatened when it can be released. One problem that needed to be solved was how the panels would fold horizontally across the vertical pleats and this was overcome by cutting diamonds in the folds and folding the sections between these cutouts to accommodate bending. In the end, the final design was too heavy to be supported by the two perspex rings that were cut so extra supports were cut from balsa wood that hold the panels in the folded position and when they were released, the panels would fold down. This is still a major issue as the desired transition was to be quick and simple, not performed by removing multiple supports.


RESPONSE TO SCHEURER AND STEHLING’s ‘LOST IN PARAMETER SPACE’

For the reading of ‘Lost in Parameter Space’, the most important difference between ‘abstraction’ and ‘reduction’ is that the abstraction is trying to decrease the amount of information, such as reducing control points of surface, however reduction is trying to rewrite the information optimally without changing the content, and it includes low-lever reduction as well as high-level reduction. In model 1, we were doing project separately in different systems. But now we are trying to combine multiple systems into one project, which like the ‘abstraction’. After we combined our ideas and transferred into a new idea, we tried to make this idea better by adding or reducing elements on it, which shows the idea of ‘reduction’. In the projects of Heatherwick, he shows different effects according to the environment and context. What he has done was carefully considered. First of all, he will consider the neighborhood and environment, and make the observation. He will also test a lot after the model making. From the project of the bus in London, he showed the idea of freedom with open platform, which people can see the landscape from the platform before it arrived. This idea not only indicated the notion what he wanted to express, but also made the bus more aesthetic. The processes was very clear, which from fabric to format to structure and to aesthetic finally.


RESPONSE TO KOLAREVIC

ARCHITECTURE IN THE DIGITAL AGE: DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING (2003) Q: Briefly outline the various digital fabrication processes. Explain how you use digital fabrication in your design? Not a question of whether it is build able but what is needed to build it. Digital fabrication processes include digital to physical models as well as ‘reverse engineering’ Reverse engineering involves scanning an object either with laser beams emitted by a scanner, calculating distances to the measured object. Laser points also used on construction to determine locations for component installations. Digital to Physical: building what you can imagine not just what you can draw -subtractive fabrication: removal of specified volume of material 3 axis -additive: adding material in a layer by layer fashion eg: 3d printer: ceramic powder glued to form objects -formative fabrication production strategies: contouring/ (lofting=ship building) – creating a sequence of cross planar structures development of materiality: lighter and stronger than ever. Creating fluidity out of computerized segments uniqueneess is now as easy and as economic as repetition the evolution of materiality in the direction of ‘intelligent’ neural construction systems SLS: selective laser sintering, the laser beam melts layers of metal powder to create solid objects 2d fabrication with cnc machines. Laser cutters use high intensity focused infrared light Digital fabrication was used in the Virtual design process to virtually represent the sketched ideas of the group as well as unrolling the segments of the design in a way that it can be printed and physically represented.

RESPONSE TO IWAMOTO DIGITAL FABRICATION

Q: Describe one aspect of the recent shift in the use of digital technology from design to fabrication? Computer modelling and digital fabrication has reenergized design thinking and expanded the boundaries of architectural form and construction. Design is no longer restricted by logistics and technology but freed by it where it is no longer a question of whether it is build ble but what is needed to build it. This new freedom with design has revolutionized the practicality of design fabrication where unique designs can be as cheap and easy to make as replicas. This is shown in the relative ease of designing a second skin on a laptop, printing out an unrolled net and building it from scratch with very little man power and a lot of imagination.


M3 fabrication2