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ECW542

Wastewater Engineering Lecturer:

Tower 1/ Aras

, Room

Ext. Sewage Generation DA/RH


Learning Outcome At the end of Week 1 students should be able to - identify wastewater characteristics


SEWAGE


Sewage Generation


Sewage Characteristics

• Sewage is characterized in terms of its physical, chemical and biological composition. The main physical, chemical and biological constituents of domestic sewage may be summarised as follows: • Physical Properties : Colour, Odour, Solids, Temperature • Chemical Constituents : • Organic - Carbohydrates, Fats, Oil, Grease, Proteins, and Surfactants • Inorganic - pH, Chlorides, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur • Gases - Hydrogen Sulphide, Methane, Oxygen • Biological Constituents : Animals, Plants, Bacteria, and Viruses


EFFLUENT STANDARD


Effluent Standards

• Effluent from all public sewage treatment plants is sampled at regular intervals and tested in modern laboratories to ensure that it meets the required standards. Tests are carried out as part of a monitoring programme in keeping with IWK's operational license conditions and to ensure the efficient operation of treatment processes. • This provides for a cleaner and safer environment that improves the living conditions of Malaysians. The two most important parameters measured are Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Suspended Solids (SS).


Effluent Standards

• BOD is a measure of the amount of oxygen that sewage consumes over a given time. High BOD is significant because it means that sewage will rapidly consume all the naturally-dissolved oxygen in streams, rivers and lakes, thus killing off all aquatic life, and rendering the water septic and foul-smelling. SS is a measure of the undissolved material in sewage. High SS leads to sludge deposits in the waterways, thus causing significant environmental deterioration • Effluent that is discharged upstream of a water supply intake should meet Standard A, while effluent that is discharged downstream has to meet Standard B. These standards are set by the Environmental Quality Act 1974.


Effluent Standards 1979 Standards Parameter

Unit

A

B

Temperature

C

40

40

pH Value

-

6.0-9.0

5.5-9.0

BOD5 at 20C

mg/l

20

50

COD

mg/l

50

100

Suspended Solids

mg/l

50

100

Mercury

mg/l

0.005

0.05

Cadmium

mg/l

0.01

0.02

Chromium, Hexavalent

mg/l

0.05

0.05

Arsenic

mg/l

0.05

0.10

Cyanide

mg/l

0.05

0.10

Lead

mg/l

0.10

0.5

Chromium, Trivalent

mg/l

0.20

1.0

Copper

mg/l

0.20

1.0

Manganese

mg/l

0.20

1.0

Nickel

mg/l

0.20

1.0

Tin

mg/l

0.20

1.0

Zinc

mg/l

1.0

1.0

Boron

mg/l

1.0

4.0

Iron (Fe0

mg/l

1.0

5.0

Phenol

mg/l

0.001

1.0

Free Chlorine

mg/l

1.0

2.0

Sulphide

mg/l

0.50

0.5

Oil and Grease

mg/l

Not Detectable

10.0


EFFLUENT STANDARDS 2009

ďƒ˜ New STP Parameter

Unit

Standad A

(1)

(2)

B (3)

(4)

40

40

6.0-9.0

5.5-9.0

(a) Suhu

oC

(b) Nilai pH

–

(c) BOD5 pada 20oC

mg/L

20

50

(d) COD

mg/L

120

200

(e) Pepejal Terampai

mg/L

50

100

(f) Minyak dan Gris

mg/L

5

10

(g) Nitrogen Ammonia (badan air yang terkepung)

mg/L

5

5

(h) Nitrogen Ammonia (sungai)

mg/L

10

20

(i) Nitrogen Nitrat (sungai)

mg/L

20

50

(j) Nitrogen Nitrat (badan air yang terkepung)

mg/L

10

10

(k) Fosforus (badan air yang terkepung)

mg/L

5

10


EFFLUENT STANDARDS 2009

ďƒ˜ STP approved after Jan 1999

Standar d Parameter

Unit

A

B

(a) BOD5 pada 20oC

mg/L

20

50

(b) COD

mg/L

120

200

(c) Pepejal Terampai

mg/L

50

100

(d) Minyak dan Gris

mg/L

20

20

(e) Nitrogen Ammonia

mg/L

50

50


EFFLUENT STANDARDS 2009

ďƒ˜ STP approved before Jan 1999 Jenis sistem pengolahan kumbahan

Tangki

Tangki

Lagun

Kolam

Sistem

Septik

Imhoff

Pengudaraan

Oksidasi

Mekanikal

Komunal Parameter

Unit

A

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(a) BOD5 pada 20oC

mg/L

200

200

175

175

100

100

120

120

60

60

(b) COD

mg/L

-

-

-

-

300

300

360

360

180

240

(c) Pepejal Terampai

mg/L

180

180

150

150

120

120

150

150

100

120

(d) Minyak dan Gris

mg/L

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

20

(e) Nitrogen Ammonia

mg/L

-

-

80

80

70

70

60

60

(1)

100

100


THANK YOU

ECW542-wk01-L03a  

ECW542 Sewage Generation Lecturer: DA/RH At the end of Week 1 students should be able to - identify wastewater characteristics Learning Outc...

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