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Journal of Rural Tourism Research Vol.3 No.1 p.p. 33-52

ሏড়ٖၵ᧯᧭ፖளሏრွհઔߒ A Study on Tourist’s Leisure Experience and Tourism Image ຫભख़

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५ᅗᄭ

Mei-Fen Chen ᄔ

ϠϠ

Jui-Yuan Chiu ा

ҁࣴ‫ز‬Ьा௖૸ၯ࠼ԿѠܿᑜճ჏݅ၰໂ‫୔ޗ׸‬຾ՉਓၯϐҶ໕ᡏᡍᆶਓၯཀຝǴࣴ‫ޑز‬ Ҟ‫ޑ‬ӵΠ:1.ᕕှճ჏݅ၰ‫୔ޗ‬Ҷ໕ᡏᡍࢲ୏ϐᜪࠠǹ2.௖૸ၯ࠼ङඳӢનǴჹਓၯཀຝǵҶ໕ ᡏᡍϐৡ౦ǹ3.௖૸ၯ࠼ϐਓၯཀຝᆶҶ໕ᡏᡍϐ࣬ᜢ‫܄‬Ƕ ҁࣴ‫ز‬аୢ‫ڔ‬ፓࢗ‫ݤ‬຾Չၗ਑ᇆ໣Ǵࣴ‫่݀ز‬ᡉҢঁΓङඳᡂ໨όӕǴၯ࠼ჹਓၯཀຝԖ ᡉ๱ৡ౦ǴঁΓङඳᡂ໨όӕǴၯ࠼‫ޑ‬Ҷ໕ᡏᡍԖᡉ๱ৡ౦ǴਓၯཀຝᆶҶ໕ᡏᡍԖᡉ๱҅࣬ ᜢǴҁࣴ‫ز‬ϐࣴ‫ز‬ଷ೛߃‫؁‬ᕇள᛾ჴǶ٩Ᏽࣴ‫่݀ز‬ගрҁࣴ‫ࡌز‬᝼ǴӧՉᎍБय़ё٩ᡏᡍࠠ ᄊ‫ࡽک‬Ԗ‫ޑ‬ᡏᡍࢲ୏ǴၮҔϖε฼ౣኳಔǴࡌᄬֹ᏾‫ޑ‬ᡏᡍᏤӛ฼ౣǴӧᡏᡍࢲ୏ೕჄБय़Ǵ ёၮҔᡏᡍࢲ୏೛ीϐϖ‫؁‬ᡯǴаග‫ٮ‬ᅈ‫ى‬ၯ࠼ሡ‫ޑ؃‬ᡏᡍࢲ୏Ǵӧ‫୔ޗ‬᏾ᡏᕉნБय़Ǵᔈ‫ׯ‬ ๓Ҭ೯೛ࡼǵග‫׳ٮ‬ӭኬϐՐஎᒧ᏷Ǵ٠ࡌ᝼‫୔ޗ‬ԋҥ‫୔ޗ‬Ꮴំှᇥ୍ܺი໗ǴЬ୏ග‫ٮ‬ၯ࠼ ਓၯᡏᡍࢲ୏ၗૻǶ ᜢᗖӷǺҶ໕ᡏᡍǵໂ‫୔ޗ׸‬ǵਓၯཀຝ

Abstract The main purpose of this case study is to qualify the tourist’s leisure experience `and. tourism image The objects of study are the visitors to Li-Jai Lin Dao rural community, Taitung Country. There are three main purposes: 1.Understanding the type of leisure experience of Li-Jai Lin Dao. 2.To qualify the differences of the tourist’s images and leisure experiences according to differences of personal characteristics. 3.To study the relationship between the tourist’s images and their experiences. This case study is carried out using questionnaires to understand the types of resource features and experience activities of Li-Jai Lin Dao and to study the leisure experience of the tourists. The result found that differences of personal characteristics result in differences in tourism image. It is quite obvious the differences in personal characteristics cause the differences of leisure experience. According to the results of this case study, we would like to offer some suggestions. First, improving marketing by using the “Strategic Experiential Modules” to set up a model from this model we can develop the experience orientation of the tourist. We can also use the “five steps” to plan activities to better satisfy tourist demand. The environment of the whole community could be improved regarding traffic control devices and also variety of accommodations for the tourist. We suggest the organization of a service foam to provide guiding and interpretation services. Also, more information regarding available activities should be offered to the tourist. Keywords: Leisure Experience, Rural Community, Tourism Image

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ѠܿεᏢ຾অᄤ௢ቶ೽ୋ௲௤ Associate Professor, Division of Education and Continuing Education, National Taitung University. ϠϠ ѠܿεᏢҶ໕٣཰ᆅ౛ࣴ‫܌ز‬ᅺγ Master, Department of Leisure Management, National Taitung University.

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ഏփٖၵขᄐᓉ੡ଅᑪΔ๺‫ڍ‬ၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴ࠉࠡ‫چ‬෻ᛩቼࢬࠠໂऱᐖខ़ၴࡉኑᙩొᖦऱ ࣷ໮࿇ൺٖࠡၵขᄐऱᑨԺΖJenny and Eugenia(2004)ΕEdgell and Harbaugh(1993)ᎁ੡៶ ‫ط‬௽௘ऱ֮֏ᕖԺΕᖵ‫׾‬ΕᇷᄭΕ‫س‬ኪᗑ௽ࢤΕ௽௘কᙠ᧯᧭ࡉ‫چ‬෻௽ࢤ‫֧ܮױ‬ሏড়Δਚ ‫ڕ‬۶ຘመ墬֨๻ૠհψ᧯᧭ω Δലၢ‫ٖޘ‬ၵขᄐ᠏ী੡‫ؑࠠޓ‬໱ᤁञԺऱψ᧯᧭ขᄐω(Pine & Gilmore, 1999)Δᨃ᥽ড়౨٥‫ٵ‬೶ፖᏝଖ໌ທΔൕյ೯խᛧ൓༭‫ݶ‬ऱ‫ڃ‬ᖋΔ੡ٖၵข঴ࡉ ࣚ೭ᏺ‫ףॵڍޓף‬ᏝଖፖᤁञԺΔၞۖ໌ທ᥽ড়࢘ᇨ৫Δ‫ٖ֒༼֗א‬ၵขᄐᤁञᚌႨΔ‫إ‬ ਢ‫ؾ‬ছ๺‫ڍ‬࿇୶ٖၵขᄐऱၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴ႊ൶ಘհૹ૞ᓰᠲΖ ‫א‬ᨠ٠‫م‬ᗼऱ‫چࣟ؀‬೴Δ‫ؾ‬ছբ‫ڶ‬ቝਢव‫ء‬Εᣂ՞Ε‫ۃ‬Ղ࿛ᑇଡၢ᠜࿇୶‫ֱچڶࠠנ‬ ௽‫ۥ‬ऱٖၵขᄐհ؆Δս‫ڶ‬๺‫ڍ‬ष೴Ո‫ڕ־ڕإ‬๝ऱሎ‫ߪ۞ش‬௽‫ۥ‬ၲ໌ᄅऱٖၵขᄐΔ‫ء‬ ઔߒ‫ࣟ؀א‬ᗼ࠲তၢ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴੡ઔߒᒤ໮Δࠡ‫ؾ‬ছࢬ࿇୶ऱٖၵขᄐࡸ᥆နॕၸ੄Δ ᇠष೴‫᠆ڶࠠߪء‬༄ऱ‫س‬ኪᇷᄭᔞ‫ٽ‬࿇୶‫᧭᧯א‬੡ᖄ‫ٻ‬ऱٖၵขᄐΔ௽ܑਢ‫ڇ‬ψ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼ‫ܓ‬ ቯࣥሐ࿇୶࠰ᄎω֗ᑷ֨ԳՓ‫ܘ‬Ժං೯ՀΔष೴ขᄐዬ᝟‫׊ݮګ‬ዬᛧᅝ‫اࡺچ‬հᎁ‫ٵ‬Δດ ዬലႚอขᄐ᠏ীཛ‫ࣚאٻ‬೭Ε᧯᧭੡ᖄ‫ٻ‬հٖၵขᄐᝬၞΖ ੩‫ڼ‬Δ‫ء‬ઔߒቫᇢຘመ๶ᓫֱ‫ڤ‬ᛵᇞ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼ࠲তၢ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ࢬᤖܶऱᇷᄭ௽‫ۥ‬Δ ࠀ‫׊‬ຘመം࠴ᓳ਷ᛵᇞሏড়ࠐ‫ࢬڼ‬ᛧ൓ऱٖၵ᧯᧭ᣊীࡉኙ‫چڼ‬ऱளሏრွΔ‫ٵ‬ழՈ൶ಘ լ‫ٵ‬ሏড়ऱԳՑ᧢ႈ‫ڇ‬ளሏრွΕٖၵ᧯᧭Ղऱ஁ฆΔ່৵Δലᄎຘመ᧯᧭࿜ฃᑓิ༼‫נ‬ ሏড়່ᔞհٖၵ᧯᧭Δ༼ࠎၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴‫ࠐآ‬๵ቤٖၵ᧯᧭੒೯հ೶‫ە‬Δ‫א‬ཚ੡ष೴໌ທ່Օ հய墿Ζ

ٖၵ᧯᧭փොፖ᧯᧭࿜ฃᑓิ ٖၵ‫ڶ‬壆‫ٻ૿ڍ‬Δլ‫׽‬ਢٖၵขᄐ౨የߩԳଚऱٖၵᏁ‫ޣ‬Δኙ࣍ψ᧯᧭ω‫ࠐߪء‬ᎅΔ ٍਢԫጟٖၵΔ‫᧭᧯ڼڂ‬ਢ᥆ٖ࣍ၵᖂᒤᡱऱᄗ࢚Ζૉൕୃᖂऱߡ৫ࠐ઎Δ᧯᧭ᄗ࢚‫ܶץ‬ ऱլႛਢ଺ࡨऱᆖᖵΔࠡխᝫ‫ڇژ‬ထፖ‫ࡎس‬ऱփ‫ڇ‬ᜤᢀΖGhani and Deshpande (1994)Ε Holbrook and Hirschman (1982)ᎁ੡ψ᧯᧭ωਢଡԳ‫׊ࢤ᧯׌‬റࣹ‫ދ‬ԵऱࠃٙΔຏൄ൅‫ૹڶ‬ ૞ऱൣტრᆠΔࠡࠠ᧯რᆠ‫ ڕ‬Pine and Gilmore (1999)ࢬࡳᆠΔ‫ܛ‬੡Գଚ‫ش‬ԫጟଡԳ֏ऱֱ ‫ط۞( ڤ‬ᙇᖗ) ࠐ৫መԫ੄ழၴ (ၵᄈ)Δࠀൕխ᧯ᄎᖞଡመ࿓ (ࠃٙ) խ‫נ‬෼ऱԫߓ٨‫ױ‬ ಖᖋऱࠃٙΔ‫ڇ‬ຍଡመ࿓խᄎ‫נ‬෼ Privette (1983) ࢬᨠኘࠩऱଡԳ۞ᤚࢤࡉழၴტऱໜ ؈Δۖ‫ٵ׊‬ழᄎࠠ‫٘ޕڶ‬ᐖፖᗝ࣑ശ (2004) ࢬ༼‫נ‬ऱψᘣᖵࢤω Ε ψൣტࢤω Ε ψᗑ௽ࢤωΕ ψᎈ࿇ࢤω Ε ψଡԳࢤω Ε ψᒰᚈࢤω Ε ψ਍ᥛࢤω Ε ψ೶ፖࢤω Ε ψ໌ᄅࢤω Ε ψ೏ॵ‫ף‬Ꮭଖࢤω࿛ ‫ڍ‬ႈ᧯᧭௽រΖ‫ڼڂ‬Δ᧯᧭ᄎ‫ڇ‬ሏড়௣၄ࢨ೶ፖሏᖈ੒೯መ࿓ᇙΔൕᛩቼխᛧ൓ಛஒፖࠨ ᖿΔᆖ۞‫ݺ‬ᎁव๠෻৵Δኙଡܑࠃႈࢨᖞ᧯ข‫ܒس‬ឰࡉ‫ܧ‬෼‫ٺ‬ጟ‫س‬෻ፖ‫׌‬ᨠ֨෻णኪ (Otto & Ritchie, 1996Ιຫֽᄭ, 1988)Δլ‫ٵ‬ऱ᧯᧭੒೯լႛᄎ਍ᥛᐙ᥼௣၄ृެ࿜ࡉ‫۩ࠐآ‬੡ 34 40


ऱࠡ‫ה‬੒೯ (Mathwick, Malhotra & Rigdon, 2001ΙVézina, 1999)ΔՈᄎࠌሏড়ࢨ௣၄ृൕ խᛧ൓‫ٺ‬ጟլ‫ٵ‬ऱ᧯᧭ (്ஏ࢘Εࣥஶ‫ڠ‬Δ2002)Ζ ᧯᧭ऱᣊী‫ڶ‬๺‫ڍ‬լ‫ٵ‬ऱ೴։ֱ‫ڤ‬Δ‫٘ޕ‬ᐖΕᗝ࣑ശ (2004)Ε੄٢᧵ (2006)࿛Գ༼ ‫נ‬Ԯጟࠉլ‫ࡳٵ‬ᆠቤ։ऱ᧯᧭ᣊীΖรԫጟਢࠉᖕԳଚऱრᣋ։੡‫׌‬೯᧯᧭ፖ๯೯᧯᧭ࠟ ጟΙรԲጟਢࠉᖕ᧯᧭ऱ‫ݧڻ‬։੡଺᧯᧭ፖ٦᧯᧭ΙรԿጟঞਢਊ᧯᧭ᐋ‫ڻ‬೏‫܅‬։੡‫׈‬ঋ ᧯᧭ፖᐉભ᧯᧭Ιร؄ጟൕԳଚਢ‫ܡ‬ᘣ۞ᆖᖵऱֱ‫ڤ‬։੡ऴ൷᧯᧭ፖၴ൷᧯᧭Ιรնጟࠉ ᧯᧭փ୲ऱழ‫ݧ‬ᐋ‫ڻ‬ቤ։੡᧯᧭መ‫װ‬Ε᧯᧭෼‫ڇ‬Ε᧯᧭‫ࠐآ‬ԿጟΙรքጟ‫᧭᧯א‬ীኪቤ։ ‫ګ‬৞ຨࢤ᧯᧭ፖၲ࣋ࢤ᧯᧭ΙรԮጟ‫א‬೶ፖࡉᘜԵऱ࿓৫೚೴ሶΔ։ܑ੡ୡᑗ᧯᧭Εඒߛ ᧯᧭Εሜ‫( ׈‬ሂๅ෼ኔ) ᧯᧭Εભᖂ᧯᧭؄ጟΖ່৵ԫጟঞਢ Schmitt (1999) ༼ࠩ۩ᔭ੒ ೯ խ ൄ ᄎ ࠌ ‫ ش‬ऱ ࿜ ฃ ࢤ ᧯ ᧭ ᑓ ิ (SEMs: Strategic Experiential Modules) Δ ‫ ط ܛ‬ტ ࡴ (Sense)Εൣტ(Feel)Ε৸‫( ە‬Think)Ε۩೯ (Act)Εᣂᜤ (Relate) նႈ૞ٙዌ‫ګ‬Δ‫׌‬૞ਢല ႚอൎᓳข঴‫פ‬౨ፖ‫ܓ‬墦ऱ۩ᔭᨠ࢚Δ᠏֏੡ૹီ௣၄ृऱ֨෻Ꮑ‫ޣ‬Δ٥‫໌ٵ‬ທ‫ڶנ‬Ꮭଖ ऱ঴ྨᇷขΔ‫ࠎ༼א‬᥆࣍ଡԳऱભ‫ړ‬ᆖ᧭Δ੡᥽ড়໌ທլ‫ٵ‬հ᧯᧭ֱ‫ڤ‬ΔᅝխऱցైԾ‫ױ‬ ‫א‬٦։੡ࠟᣊΔรԫᣊਢਐ௣၄ृ‫֨ࠡڇ‬෻ࡉ‫س‬෻Ղᗑ۞ऱ᧯᧭Δ‫ܛ‬ଡԳ᧯᧭Δ‫ץ‬ਔტࡴ (Sense)Εൣტ (Feel)Ε৸‫( ە‬Think) ᧯᧭ΙรԲᣊঞਢ‫ؘ‬ႊ‫ڶ‬ઌᣂᆢ᧯ऱյ೯թᄎข‫س‬ऱ ᧯᧭ (٥ࠆ᧯᧭)Δ‫ץ‬ਔ۩೯ (Act)Εᣂᜤ(Relate) ᧯᧭Δ੄٢᧵ (2006)ΕSchmitt (1999)ಾ ኙ᧯᧭࿜ฃᑓิऱն૞ైփ୲‫܂‬ԫᎅࣔ‫ڕ‬ՀΚ (ԫ) ტࡴ (Sense) ᧯᧭Κ‫א‬௣၄ृऱնጟტࡴ੡္‫ޣ‬Δ‫ࠨא‬ᖿ (Stimuli)-መ࿓(Processes)֘ᚨ (Consequences) ᑓ‫໌ڤ‬ທီΕᦫΕႸΕ࠺Εᤛᤚ࿛वᤚࠨᖿΔၞ֧ۖ࿇௣၄ृ ᝜၇೯ᖲΖຫભख़ (2004) ࡉᤕࡲႂ (2000) ᎁ੡ຘመီᤚΕᦫᤚΕᤛᤚΕ࠺ᤚ֗Ⴘ ᤚ࿛ტࡴ۩ᔭΔ‫໌ױ‬ທԫጟᄅធᗑ௽ऱტൣࢨवᤚ᧯᧭Ζ (Բ) ൣტ (Feel) ᧯᧭Κ៶‫ط‬ᛜທਬጟ௣၄ൣቼΔᤛ೯௣၄ृփ‫ڇ‬ൣტࡉൣፃΔ‫ۖڂ‬ຑ൅ ኙข঴֗঴ྨข‫ړس‬ტΖRobinette, Miniard and Engel (2001)ΕBarlow and Maul (2000) ᎁ੡ٖၵขᄐᚨ࣍᥽ড়᧯᧭խ෌‫ף‬ൣፃᏝଖ(Emotional Value)Δຘመൣტᜤ࿨ࠐᏺၞ ௣၄ृ࢘ᇨ৫Δ‫א‬ං೯ขᄐ‫ة‬ᥛ‫ګ‬९ΔMcKain (2002) Ոᎁ੡੡ข঴‫ࠩބ‬ਚࠃΕ৬‫م‬ ൣቼΔ᎛ֺ૾Ꮭ۩ᔭ࿜ฃ‫ޓ‬੡‫ڶ‬யΖ (Կ) ৸‫( ە‬Think) ᧯᧭ΚSheth et al.(1991)ᎁ੡௣၄ृኙข঴ࢨࣚ೭‫ڇ‬वᢝࢤᏝଖՂऱᎁ वᄎຘመಳ‫ޣ‬ᄅࠃढΕᄅᆖ᧭ፖᄅवᢝऱ௣၄֨ኪࠐየߩ‫࡛֨ړ‬Εᄅ࡛ტፖ‫ޣ‬वᐥΔ ‫ٵ‬ᑌ‫چ‬ΔWilliams and Soutar (2000) ਐ‫طנ‬ሏড়ᎁ੡ψवᢝᏝଖωਢᖞଡளሏ᧯᧭መ ࿓խ່‫׌‬૞ऱຝٝΔ‫ٖڼڂ‬ၵขᄐᄐृᚨԱᇞሏড়ऱवᢝ࿨ዌΔሎ‫֧ࠡױش‬റࣹऱ ᇷᄭΔၞۖࠌ௣၄ृข‫س‬ኙข঴ࢨࣚ೭Ղऱ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬Ζ (؄) ۩೯ (Act) ᧯᧭Κ‫׌‬૞ਢਐ္壆ߪ᧯ऱኔᎾ۩೯ᆖ᧭Δቝਢ‫᧢ޏ‬௣၄ृऱߪ᧯੒೯Δ ࠡխߪ᧯ኔᔆ᧯᧭ٛᘸᔞ‫ٽ‬ऱข঴ΕࠨᖿΕ௛ࣷࢨॺ፿֮۩੡ࠐᐙ᥼ࠡኪ৫Ι९ཚ ऱ‫س‬੒ীኪࢨ۩੡ᑓ‫ױ᧢ޏڤ‬ऴ൷္‫۩ޣ‬೯Εࠌ‫ߢזش‬ԳΔࢨਢ‫ط‬षᄎ๵ᒤൎ֏Δ ‫׼‬؆ቝਢ೶ፖृፖ‫ה‬Գհၴऱյ೯᠏ངΔ‫᥽חࠎ༼אױ‬ড়໛ფऱࣚ೭‫ڤݮ‬ሒ‫ګ‬Δᖞ ᧯‫ؾ‬ᑑਢᆖ‫۩᧯ߪط‬೯᧯᧭ࠐᐙ᥼۩੡ࡉ‫س‬੒ীኪΔࠀᏺ‫ף‬ፖ‫ה‬ԳࢨՕ۞ྥհյ೯Ζ 35 41


33-52 2009

(ն) ᣂᜤ (Relate) ᧯᧭Κᣂᜤ۩ᔭঞਢ၌‫נ‬ଡԳԳ௑ΕტൣΕᎁवፖ۩೯Δᨃ௣၄ृፖ ለᐖऱषᄎࡉ֮֏ᛩቼข‫ࠠس‬ᐙ᥼Ժऱյ೯ፖ᧯᧭ΔএലଡԳऱ۞‫ݺ‬ᎁवຘመषᄎ ֮֏ፖ঴ྨข‫س‬ຑ࿨Δኙ঴ྨข‫س‬ᎁ‫ٵ‬ፖូ᥆ტΔBlackwell, Miniard and Engel (2001) ਐ‫נ‬௣၄ृऱᏁ‫ޣ‬ᎁवΕᇷಛჼ༈֗๠෻Ε᝜၇ছေ۷ΕኔᎾ᝜၇Ε௣၄ࠌ‫ش‬Ε‫א‬ ֗᝜৵ေ۷࿛௣၄ृެ࿜ऱመ࿓Δᄎ࠹֮ࠩ֏ΕጟගΕषᄎၸᐋΕ୮அΕ೶‫ە‬ᆢ᧯ ࡉრߠᏆ๱ऱᐙ᥼Ζ

ளሏრွ൶ಘ ഏ؆ઔߒኙᨠ٠ளሏऱრွ‫ڶ‬๺‫ڍ‬լ‫ٵ‬ऱᇞᤩፖᎅऄΔ‫ ڕ‬Destination Image (Walmsley and Young, 1998ΙEchtner and Ritchie, 1993)ΕTourism Image (Pike, 2002ΙReilly, 1990ΙGartner, 1989)ΕTourism Destination Image (Chon, 1990) ࿛Δۖഏփઌᣂઔߒխٍ‫ڍڶ‬ጟᎅऄΔቝ ᨠ٠რွ (ᏥਹᑽΕ႓ີ୶Δ2001ΙঀᙘႂΔ1999Ι‫ࠕܦ‬ख़Δ1997)Εளሏრွ (ඩഏൄΔ 2002ΙࣥࡲᔃΔ1996) ࿛Δ‫ء‬ઔߒঞ‫א‬ሏড়ߡ৫ࠐ൶ಘளሏრွ (Tourism Image)Ζ ளሏრွٍ๯ጠ੡ᨠ٠რွΔ່‫ طڰ‬Reynolds(1965)༼‫נ‬Δ‫ה‬ᎁ੡ψԳᣊ֨෻৬ዌऱ ࿇୶Δԯਢൕᛩቼᖞ᧯ᇷಛխΔᙇᖗԫࠄ‫ٱ‬ွ੡ࠡഗ៕ω Δ ψᖞ᧯ᇷಛωრᘯუቝխऱრွ ֗ᆖ᧭რွΔ‫ڼڂ‬Δள۩ছუቝխऱრွ༉ਢਐሏড়ኙᇠ‫چ‬೴‫ڶ‬ԫጟუቝऱ‫ݮ‬ွΔຍጟᗨ ᄕ‫ݮ‬ွࠐ۞࣍ᔹᦰ໾᧯֖֗ԳտฯΔۖ‫׊‬ሏড়ᄎലᆖ᧭ࠩΕߠᢝࠩፖ᧯᧭መऱრွຘመಖ ᖋऱฤᇆ෡‫ڇٱ‬ᆰ௧ᇙ (֧۞ঀᙘႂΔ1999)Ζ۟࣍Δளሏრွ‫אױ‬ൕլ‫אףٻ૿ٵ‬ᎅࣔΔ ᝔ිख़ (1994) མආ‫ش‬Կଡᇭᤩֱ‫ڤ‬ΔรԫΔளሏ‫ߪء‬൅ࠐऱრွਢਐԳଚኙψளሏωᄗ ࢚ऱუऄࡉᨠტΙรԲΔளሏ۩ᄐࢬ൅ࠐऱრွਢਐ֭ᐶளሏ੒೯ऱࢬ‫۩ڶ‬ᄐΰள۩षΕ ள塢Εٌຏ࿛α൅࿯ሏড়ऱ઎ऄΙ່৵ঞਢளሏ‫ؾ‬ऱ‫ࢬچ‬൅ࠐऱრွΔ‫ܛ‬੡Գଚኙளሏ‫چ‬ ऱᨠტΔቝਢ Echtner and Ritchie (1991) ኙளሏრွऱ઎ऄ‫ٵڕ‬ຫිख़ (1994) ࢬ༼ऱร ԿጟᨠរΔ‫ܛ‬੡ሏড়ኙଅན೴ऱवᤚ֗ᖞ᧯‫ٱ‬ွΔࠟृઃࠠ‫פڶ‬౨ (ኔᔆऱ) ֗֨෻௽ᐛΔ Gunn (1972) ᎁ੡ளሏრွऱข‫س‬ਢᆖመ଺ࡨრွ (‫ॺאܛ‬ளሏΕॺ೸ᄐᇷಛ੡‫׌‬Δᆖ‫ה‬ Գ᠏૪ࢨؓ૿໾᧯࿛໴ᖄΕ৙ႚࢬᛧ൓ऱ່ॣრွ) ֗ᎈ࿇რွ (‫ޓא‬೸ᄐࢤᇷಛࢨࠡ، ऴ൷ઌᣂᇷಛࢬᐙ᥼ۖข‫س‬ऱრွ) ࠟଡၸ੄ࢬ‫ګݮ‬Ζ ഗ‫ء‬ՂΔሏড়ૉ‫ڇ‬ளሏխᛧ൓ߜ‫ړ‬ऱ᧯᧭ტ࠹Δലᄎข‫س‬ԫጟೣ‫ࢤړ‬რွፖေᏝࢤრ ွΔլ‫܀‬ཚඨՀԫ‫ڻ‬ऱளሏ᧯᧭Δ‫ٵ‬ழՈᄎኙᅃ֗ᛀࡳ‫࢓א‬ऱளሏრွ(Goodall, 1988)(֧ ૪۞ඩഏൄΔ2002)ΖྥۖΔᐙ᥼ளሏრွऱ‫ైڂ‬ቝਢࠩளሏ‫چ‬ऱ‫ڻ‬ᑇ (‫ڕ‬Κ‫װآ‬መΕଈ‫ڻ‬ ೶๶Εૹሏ)Εሏড়ೖఎழၴ९࿍Ε‫ٵ‬۴Գᑇࡉ‫ؾ‬ऱ‫چ‬ऱ৬๻ጥ෻ (ࣥࡲᔃ, 1996ΙFakeye & Crompton, 1991)Ζ‫ڼ‬؆Δ‫ࠕܦ‬ख़ (1997)ᝫ।‫ق‬ሏড়‫᤿ڣ‬ፖ෼ࡺ‫چ‬ऱլ‫ڇٵ‬ᖞ᧯ࡉຝٝ໢ႈ ளሏრွՂ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔۖ‫׊‬ሏড়የრ৫ፖளሏრွՕຝ։‫ܧ‬෼᧩ထ‫إ‬ઌᣂΔՈ‫ٵڕ‬ඦ໏ ႂΕࣥૉᐝΕ५ᄅႁΕૃ֮ቯ (2002) མ।‫ق‬ளሏრွᄎᐙ᥼ளሏየრ৫Δٍၴ൷ᐙ᥼ሏ ড়ऱૹሏრᣋΖመ‫װ‬ऱઔߒխኙ࣍ளሏრွऱࠠ᧯։ᣊቝਢࣥࡲᔃ (1996) ലࠡ೴ሶ‫ګ‬ψள ሏ‫֧ܮ‬Ժω Ε ψளሏ੒೯ω Ε ψளሏࣚ೭ω Ε ψளሏव‫ټ‬৫ω֗ψளሏጥ෻ω࿛նଡዌ૿Δۖඩ 36 42


ഏൄ (2002) ࠉࠡઔߒऱளሏ‫چ‬๻ૠࠡრွցైΔቝਢٌຏࣚ೭Ε۰മΕள塢Գ୉ΕནរΕ ‫چ‬ᑑԵՑΕན഑֏‫چ‬೴࿛Ζ

‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴ٖၵขᄐᇷᄭᄗ૪ ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ஆᆵ࣍‫۫૳ؑࣟ؀‬তֱ՞ᣞΔહଘխ؇՞౧Δ૿‫࠲ࣟ؀ٻ‬তᄻ‫ޱ‬ᗨؓ଺ ፖᐖខऱ֜ؓ੉Δ‫چ‬Ⴈࡺ೏ᜯՀΔ‫ױ‬᎛ถ֜ؓ੉Ε‫ؑࣟ؀‬ནΕॡᙰ՞Ε‫ف‬ᙰ՞Εຟᥞ՞Ε ભልष೴֗խ؇՞౧ᐋ୽ٌᦤ՞ᨶದٗհནીΔٍ‫ױ‬᎛ถጸ୾ΕᥞᚡΔࠠ‫ړߜڶ‬ऱནᨠᛩ ቼᇷᄭΖ‫ڼ‬؆Δ຃ઠ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼ࠲তၢՕ֣ք԰՞ऱ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ٤೴অఎ᠆༄ऱ‫س‬ኪᛩቼΔ௅ᖕ ᓳ਷᧩‫ܓق‬ቯࣥሐष೴ൕ௧ࢸ೏৫ 50 ֆ֡ࠩ 1500 ֆ֡Δೈልᕼ‫چ‬؆Δष೴؆໮ࣥઌ۞ྥ ‫ݙ‬ᖞΔ‫ױ‬ᎅਢԫ๠೯ཬढऱ֚ഘΔլႛਢࣥ೭‫ݝ‬ֆ‫ܫ‬Լ๠‫؀‬᨜ມ‫س‬೯ढૹ૞ཨஒ‫چ‬հԫΔ ᝫਢ 15 ጟ‫א‬Ղऱᘛ‫៽־‬Ε14 ጟ‫א‬ՂᖫဢΕ50 塒ጟ຺ᣊऱཨஒ‫چ‬Δ‫ٵ‬ழᝫᤖܶ๺‫ཬس଺ڍ‬ ढᖫጟΕᥞक़ࡉᘑᣊΔࣥሐࠟலᝫࠉᖕ‫چ‬Ⴈ೏৫ጟཬᤩ૫Εම՗Ε‫ޕ‬՗Ε௒क़Ε᥎क़Ε‫ޖ‬ ᖫ࿛ཬढΔ᧩ྥਢԫ๠೯ཬढ‫س‬ኪᇷᄭ᠆༄ऱ೴഑Ζ‫֏֮ڇ‬ᇷᄭֱ૿Δ‫ܓ࣍ۯ‬ቯࣥष೴ᒤ ᡱփऱ௠‫ڶޘڜ‬ᄅ‫ف‬ᕴழ‫࠲ז‬ত֮֏֗ࣟຝᢃెຯ֮֏ऱ৬ᗰᙊܿΔۖ‫ܓڇ׊‬ቯࣥሐऎຜ ઃ‫࠲ߠױ‬তගऱ֮֏௽‫ۥ‬Δ‫ڕ‬Ե՞ছผਈ՞ᨋհ‫ف‬ᙰ‫ښ‬ᥨ壀Ёࢆ‫( ߓܓ‬palisi)ΕՕ֣ք԰ ຝᆵ壀ᇩ൑ᢄΕ‫۔‬྾ष‫׾‬ছ֮֏ᙊܿΕ՛‫ۏ‬Ⴜ೴Ε࠲তග៊ԳٖஒՠᐇΕሒࢮଆᥬΔᝫ‫ڶ‬ ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ࠲তගࢬᜰᙄհผࠢ੒೯ࡉ‫׬ܓ‬ኄຝᆵࠉᄣழࡱᆏᜰᙄႚอผᏚ࿛Ζ‫ؾ‬ছࡺ‫אا‬ ࠲তග੡‫׌‬Δપ‫᜔۾‬ԳՑऱ 57%Δࠡ‫ה‬ঞਢዧԳΔ‫ؾ‬ছਢ‫ڍא‬ගᆢࡉᘫᆢࡺऱणउዌ‫ګ‬ष ೴௽‫ۥ‬Ζ ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴‫ڇ‬२‫૿ࠐڣ‬ᜯልᄐ၉࣐۞‫ڣॹࡉ֏ط‬ԳՑ؆ฝ࿛ል‫ޘ‬࿇୶ܺቼՀΔႊ༳ ༽ष೴‫ٺ‬ጟ௽௘ᇷᄭ‫א‬Ժ‫سૹޣ‬Δ࣍ਢ‫ڇ‬ष೴ᑷ֨ԳՓ֗‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ࿇୶࠰ᄎऱ֧ᖄՀΔ‫א‬ ᄅਚၢष೴ᛜທૠ྽੡ഗ៕Δআၞष೴‫ֱچشܓ‬ᇷข൅೯ष೴ႚอขᄐ᠏ী੡‫᧭᧯א‬੡‫׌‬ ၗհٖၵขᄐΔࠀၲ࿇‫؀ࣟګ‬᨜‫س‬ኪளሏٖၵ᧯᧭հૹ૞ᖕរΔ‫ؾ‬ছष೴ٖၵขᄐ࿇୶ለ ࠠ௽‫ۥ‬ऱᖕរ‫سؓ֜ڶ‬ኪል໱ΕՕ֣ք԰ᢐ‫ཬش‬ढႼΕॳं࠸࠸‫៽ظ‬Ⴜ೴Εሒໞര࠼೽Ⴜ ೴࿛ΰቹ 1α Δࠡ‫چ‬෻‫ۯ‬ᆜፖ࿇୶‫׌‬ၗ։૪‫ڕ‬ՀΚ (ԫ) ֜ؓ‫س‬ኪል໱Κ၏ᠦ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐપ 5 ֆߺΖል໱‫א‬অߛ۞ྥ‫س‬ኪ੡࿇୶‫׌‬ᠲΔࠡխ‫א‬ᘛ ‫៽־‬੡অߛऱ‫׌‬ၗհԫΔ‫ؾ‬ছል໱‫ࡳڶ‬ཚᘛ‫س៽־‬ኪ᧯᧭ᖄᥦᇞᎅࡉᨠኘ᧯᧭੒೯Δ ‫ڼ‬؆Δࡸ‫ڶ‬๵ቤᖫগᐋᨠኘΕම࿝ DIY ࿛ٖၵ᧯᧭੒೯Ζ (Բ) Օ֣ք԰ᢐ‫ཬش‬ढႼΚ၏ᠦ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐપ 5.1 ֆߺΔ‫ چ۾‬3 ֆຸ՞ࣥႼ೴Δࠡխ 1 ֆຸ ጟཬ‫س‬ᖲᓋ࣠ࡉ‫ݼ‬ᛮ塄‫س‬ᢐ౻ 100 ‫ڍ‬ጟΔႼ೴‫چ‬෻‫ۯ‬ᆜࡺ೏ᜯՀΔਢࣲᓾ‫࡙ؑࣟ؀‬ན ່ࠋ‫چ‬រհԫΖႼ೴່ࠠ‫ז‬।ࢤऱ᧯᧭੒೯ਢ‫س‬ᖲભଇΔ‫ཬא‬ढႼ೴۞ա்ጟհ‫ڶ‬ᖲ ᓋ࣠੡‫׌‬Δᨃሏড়۞۩෪ྦΔۖ‫׊‬౨ᨃԵႼ‫ش‬塊ሏড়‫܍‬၄᧯᧭ልขආኴᑗᔊΔ‫ٵ‬ழ༼ ࠎ՛ֵৢ‫ا‬മ᧯᧭Ζ (Կ) ॳं࠸࠸‫៽ظ‬Ⴜ೴Κ၏ᠦ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐપ 4.3 ֆߺ๠ΖᇠႼ೴ऱ‫׌‬૞௽‫ۥ‬༉ਢࠠ᝼‫៽ݮ‬ᨠ ኘ೴Δ‫ࠎ༼אױ‬ᖂ‫س‬ၞ۩ீ؆ඒᖂ᧯᧭Δࠀ‫ڇإ׊‬ૠ྽‫شܓ‬ᅝ‫ࢬچ‬ขऱ‫ڶ‬ᖲଇ‫ޗ‬Δ‫א‬ 37 43


33-52 2009

༼ࠎሏড়ආኴ֗ભଇ࿛᧯᧭੒೯Ζ (؄) ሒໞര࠼೽Ⴜ೴Κ၏ᠦ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐપ 4.5 ֆߺ๠Δ‫چ‬෻‫ۯ‬ᆜ‫ױ‬᎛ถ؄௑՞Εक़᜕ࣟߣΕ ֜ؓ੉ጸ୾֗‫ؑࣟ؀‬೴࿛ֲ࡙լ‫ٵ‬ནીΖႼ೴଺‫אء‬ጟཬᤩ૫੡‫׌‬Δ‫ڇ‬ႚอልᄐዬ᝟ ଲሿհࡱΔດ‫ޡ‬ലᤩ૫Ⴜ᠏ጟ࠼೽ΔႼ೴๻‫ڶ‬அႼ࠼೽ஆΔ‫׌‬૞༼ࠎ۞ข࠼೽֗࠲ত ගႚอભଇΖ

კ 1 ࣴ‫୔ز‬ୱკ ၗ਑ٰྍǺճ჏݅ၰၗૻᆛ(http://www.treehome.org.tw/e-treehome.htm)

ઔߒ๻ૠ ছ૪এբԱᇞ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ٖၵขᄐᇷᄭΕٖၵขᄐ࿇୶෼उፖ᧯᧭੒೯Δ൷ထ௅ᖕ ઌᣂ֮᣸൶ಘࡉ෡৫๶ᓫۖ๻ૠ‫ء‬ઔߒᓳ਷ം࠴।Δ៶‫א‬ᛵᇞ۟‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ሏড়հٖၵ ᧯᧭ᣊܑፖளሏრွΔ๶ᓫփ୲ԯࠉᖕઔߒ‫ؾ‬ऱ֗ৱ࿠ംᠲΔࠀ‫׊‬೶‫֮ە‬᣸խष೴ٖၵข ᄐհ࿇୶ፖ᧯᧭հઌᣂᤜᠲΔᒳࡳ‫ת‬࿨ዌ‫ڤ‬๶ᓫՕጼॣᒚΔᆖᖂृറ୮ଥ‫אإ‬ᒔ‫م‬๶ᓫՕ ጼΔ‫׼‬؆੡Աᝩ‫܍‬ઔߒृऱೣ஁ࡉᏺ‫ף‬ઔߒऱॾ৫ፖய৫Δല๶ᓫᇷற៤ᐊ‫ګ‬ດ‫ڗ‬ᒚΔ٦ ᓮഏփറ୮ᖂृᐉီଥ‫ءإ‬ઔߒՕጼΔ‫א‬ᏺ‫ءף‬ઔߒհய৫Ζ‫ڇ‬ኔਜ෡৫๶ᓫऱኙွঞᙇ ࠷‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼ࠲তၢ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ࿇୶࠰ᄎΕ֜ؓ‫س‬ኪል໱ΕՕ֣ք԰ཬढႼΕॳं࠸࠸‫៽ظ‬Ⴜ೴Ε ‫ܓ‬ቯ࿇୶࠰ᄎ۞ྥխ֨࿛ᆖᛜृΖ٦ലᆖመᨠኘࡉ๶ᓫ৵ࢬ፦ႃऱᇷற‫אף‬ᖞ෻Εូ౏Δ ࿨࣠‫܂‬੡৬ዌ‫ء‬ઔߒം࠴ऱഗ៕ΔᆖቃᇢΕଥ‫إ‬࿛࿓‫ݧ‬Δ່৵‫ڤإګݮ‬ം࠴Δփ୲‫׌‬૞։ ‫ګ‬Կຝ։ΖรԫΔሏড়ଡԳહན᧢ႈፖளሏ௽ࢤΔࠡխψሏড়ᖞ᧯የრ৫ωፖψሏড়٦ሏ რᣋωࠟᠲආ‫܌ޕش‬௽ּ؄֡ၦ।ྒྷၦΙรԲຝ։ਢளሏრွംႈΔᇠຝ։ᆖ‫ګ׌‬ٝ‫ైڂ‬ ։࣫ऄဇ࠷‫נ‬ψ঴ᔆრွω Ε ψࣚ೭რွω Ε ψ๻ਜრွωԿଡ՗ዌ૿Δ‫ٺ‬ᠲႈආ‫܌ޕش‬௽ּ 38 44


؄֡ၦ।ྒྷၦΙรԿຝ։ঞਢሏড়ٖၵ᧯᧭ംႈΔᇠຝ։೶‫ ە‬Schmitt (1999) ࢬ༼‫נ‬ऱ᧯ ᧭࿜ฃᑓิ๻ૠ‫נ‬ტࡴΕൣტΕ৸‫ە‬Ε۩೯Εᣂᜤ࿛նጟ᧯᧭ऱംႈΔٍආ‫܌ޕش‬௽ּ؄ ֡ၦ।ྒྷၦΔ௅ᖕം࠴๻ૠፖઔߒ‫ؾ‬ऱΔ‫ء‬ઔߒ༼‫נ‬հઔߒਮዌ‫ڕ‬ቹ 2Ζ

ளሏრွ ଡԳહན᧢ ഗ‫ء‬ԳՑ᧢ ႈ

ٖၵ᧯᧭ კ 2 ࣴ‫ࢎز‬ᄬკ

‫ء‬ઔߒ༼‫נ‬Կଡ೗๻‫ڕ‬ՀΚ ೗๻ԫΚଡԳહན᧢ႈፖளሏ௽ࢤլ‫ٵ‬Δኙளሏრွ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΖ ೗๻ԲΚଡԳહན᧢ႈፖளሏ௽ࢤլ‫ٵ‬Δሏড়ऱٖၵ᧯᧭‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΖ ೗๻ԿΚளሏრွፖٖၵ᧯᧭‫᧩ڶ‬ထઌᣂࢤΖ ۟࣍ം࠴ԫીࢤආ‫ ش‬Cronbach's Į ଖՕ࣍ 0.70 ੡ᑑᄷΔᆖ‫ط‬ቃᇢ࿨࣠όٖၵ᧯᧭ၦ।ύ ੡ 0.863Ε όளሏრွၦ।ύ੡ 0.878Δ‫ق᧩ܛ‬ᇠം࠴‫ױ‬ආ‫ش‬Ζ‫ڤإ‬࿇࣋ം࠴ऱᒤ໮‫א‬၏ᠦ ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐપ 5 ֆߺؐ‫׳‬ऱ֜ؓ‫س‬ኪል໱ΕՕ֣ք԰ᢐ‫ཬش‬ढႼΕॳं࠸࠸‫៽ظ‬Ⴜ೴Εሒໞ ര࠼೽Ⴜ೴հࠩ๶ሏড়੡‫׌‬Δ࿇࣋ழၴ੡ 2008 ‫ ڣ‬2 ִ~3 ִ‫ࡌޢ‬೗ֲࡉॺ೗ֲࠟᣊழၴΔ ᜔٥࿇‫נ‬ം࠴ 300 ٝΔ‫ڬ‬ೈྤயം࠴ 8 ٝΔࢬ൓ࠩऱ‫ڶ‬யᑌ‫ء‬ᑇ੡ 292 ٝΔ‫ڶ‬ய෷੡ 97.3%Ζ ം࠴ᇷற፦ႃ‫ګݙ‬৵Δᆖᒳᒘΰcodingαࠀ‫א‬ଡԳሽᆰ᝶Ե৵ၞ۩ᇷறऱ࿆ᙕΔሎ‫ش‬ อૠ୚ᇘຌ᧯ΰspss12.0αࠐ๠෻֗։࣫ᇷறΔࠉ‫᧢ٺ‬ႈऱྒྷၦ֡৫ࠌ‫ش‬ऱอૠֱऄ‫ڕ‬ՀΚ ΰԫαॾ৫։࣫( Reliability Analysis )Κ‫ء‬ઔߒ‫ א‬Cronbach's Į এᑇ೚੡‫ܒ‬ឰऱࠉᖕࠐ ᛀྒྷᘝၦം࠴ᠲ‫ؾ‬ၴհԫીࢤΕ᡹ࡳࢤΔࠡխၦ।ආ‫ڍش‬ႈംᠲ‫אף‬ᘝၦΔ٥‫ڶ‬ ٖၵ᧯᧭ΕளሏრွΖ ΰԲα༴૪ࢤอૠ։࣫( Descriptive Statistics Analysis )Κຘመ༴૪ࢤอૠ։࣫Δ‫א‬១໢ ऱ‫ڻ‬ᑇ։಻Εؓ݁ᑇፖ‫ۍ‬։ֺ࿛։࣫࿨࣠Δ‫ޡॣא‬ᛵᇞሏড়ऱԳՑอૠ᧢ᑇΕள ሏ௽ࢤፖየრ৫Εሏড়٦ሏრᣋ࿛ᑌ‫ء‬։‫܉‬ऱൣउΖ ΰԿαᗑ‫م‬ᑌ‫ ء‬t ᛀࡳΰIndependent-Samples Testα Κᛀࡳሏড়ࢤܑኙሏড়ٖၵ᧯᧭հ ஁ฆࢤΖ ΰ؄α໢‫ڂ‬՗᧢ฆᑇ։࣫ΰOne-way ANOVAαΚԱᇞլ‫ٵ‬ሏড়ԳՑ᧢ႈΕளሏ௽ࢤኙ ሏড়ளሏრွٖ֗ၵ᧯᧭հ஁ฆࢤΖᅝ໢‫ڂ‬՗᧢ฆᑇ։࣫࿨࣠Δሒࠩ᧩ထऱֽᄷ ழΰ‫ ܛ‬P ଖЉ0.05αΔ٦ၞԫ‫ޡ‬ሎ‫ࠃش‬৵ֺለऄᛀࡳΔ‫א‬ᛀࡳ‫ٺ‬ᆢิհၴऱ஁ฆ 39 45


33-52 2009

ൣ‫ݮ‬Ζ ΰնαઌᣂ։࣫ΰCorrelations Analysisα Κ੡Աᇞளሏრွፖٖၵ᧯᧭ऱઌᣂࢤΖ ΰքα‫ڍ‬ցಱូΰMultiple Regressionα ΚԱᇞளሏრွፖٖၵ᧯᧭ऱᣂএ֗ᐙ᥼ֱ‫ٻ‬ፖ ࿓৫Δࠀࠉ‫ڼ‬ኙٖၵ᧯᧭೚ቃྒྷΖ

࿨࣠։࣫ (ԫ) ሏড়ഗ‫ء‬ᇷறፖளሏ௽ࢤ ‫ء‬ઔߒ᜔٥࿇‫ נ‬300 ٝം࠴Δ‫ڬ‬ೈ 8 ٝྤயം࠴Δࢬ൓ࠩऱ‫ڶ‬யᑌ‫ء‬ᑇ੡ 292 ٝΔ‫ڶ‬ ய෷੡ 97.3%Δሏড়ഗ‫ء‬ԳՑ᧢ႈፖளሏ௽ࢤ։࣫‫ڕ‬। 1 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζ ഗ‫ء‬ᇷற ࢤܑ ߊ Ֆ ‫᤿ڣ‬ 20ᄣ‫א‬Հ 21-30ᄣ 31-40ᄣ 41-50ᄣ 51-60ᄣ 61ᄣ‫א‬Ղ ദৗ բദ ‫آ‬ദ ࠡ‫ה‬ ඒߛ࿓৫ ഏ՛‫א‬Հ ഏխ ೏խ៭ റઝ Օᖂ ઔߒࢬ ៭ᄐ ۞ᛜࠃᄐ ࠹ႄृ റ៭ᖂ‫س‬ ಯٖ୮ጥ ࠡ‫ה‬ ࡺ۰‫چ‬೴ ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼؑ ࠡ‫ה‬ᗼؑ

ଡᑇ 132 160 9 70 88 86 32 7

180 111 1

6 8 51 89 111 27

42 175 43 31 1

220 72

߄ 1 ୷ҁၗ਑ᆶਓၯ੝‫܄‬ ‫ۍ‬։ֺ(%) ளሏ௽ࢤ ளሏᇷಛࠐᄭ 45.2 ளሏནរ৙ႚ঴ 54.8 ሽီᐖᐾ ጻᎾጻሁ 3.1 ᘣ֖տฯ 24 ໴ີᠧ፾ளሏ஼ᤄ 30.1 ࠡ‫ீ(ה‬؆ඒᖂ) 29.5 ளሏ‫ڻ‬ᑇ 11 รԫ‫ڻ‬ 2.4 รԲ‫ڻ‬ รԿ‫ڻ‬ 61.6 ร؄‫ڻ‬ 38 รն‫אڻ‬Ղ 0.3 ቃૠೖఎழၴ ‫֚ת‬ 2.1 ԫ֚ 2.7 Բ֚ԫ࡙ 17.5 Կ֚Բ࡙ 30.5 ‫ޢ‬Գؓ݁क़၄ 38 ޲क़၄ 9.2 1~500ց 501~1000ց 14.4 1001~1500ց 59.9 1500ց‫א‬Ղ 14.7 ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ 10.6 ᗑ۞ 0.3 ୮Գ ᘣ൯֖ࣛ 75.3 ‫ٵ‬ᖂΕஃ९ 24.7 ‫ࠃٵ‬ ளሏቸ᧯ ࠡ‫ה‬ ٌຏՠࠠ ᖲ߫ ۞‫߫޳ش‬ ᆬᔏ߫ ఺߫ (՛֣ՓΕૠ࿓߫)

40 46

ଡᑇ

‫ۍ‬։ֺ(%)

21 7 22 158 60 24

7.2 2.4 7.5 54.1 20.5 8.2

166 62 22 11 31

56.8 21.2 7.5 3.8 10.6

144 94 52 2

49.3 32.2 17.8 0.7

81 54 92 54 11

27.7 18.5 31.5 18.5 3.8

10 117 55 68 24 11 7

3.4 40.1 18.8 23.3 8.2 3.8 2.4

31 232 1 28

10.6 90.1 0.3 9.6


ࢤֱܑ૿ΔՖࢤ‫ ۾‬54.8% (160 Գ)Ι‫ א᤿ڣ‬31~40 ᄣ‫( ڍ່۾‬30.1%)Δፖ 41~50 ᄣऱ 29.5%ઌ‫ף‬٥‫۾‬٤᧯પք‫ګ‬Ι࠹๶ृ‫ ڶ‬61.6%բദΙඒߛ࿓৫‫א‬Օᖂฅᄐृ(38%) ່‫ڍ‬Δ ࠡ‫ڻ‬੡റઝฅᄐृ (30.5%)Δࠟृઌ‫ף‬પ‫᜔۾‬ᑌ‫ء‬પԮ‫ࠏֺګ‬Ι៭ᄐ‫࠹א‬ႄृ (ࢨ࠹ᜲृ) ່‫( ڍ‬59.9%)Ι࠹๶ሏড়‫ࡺא‬۰‫ࣟ؀ڇ‬ᗼؑ 75.3%੡່‫ڍ‬Ζ۟࣍ளሏ௽ࢤ٥‫ڶ‬ԶႈΔଈ٣ ‫ڇ‬ᛧ࠷ளሏᇷಛࠐᄭֱ૿Δ‫ א‬54.1%‫ط‬ᘣ֖տฯ੡່‫ڍ‬Ιளሏ‫ڻ‬ᑇ։࣫ՂΔ‫ ڶ‬56.8 %ऱሏ ড়ਢรԫ‫ܓࠩࠐڻ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ளሏΙՕીՂ‫א‬ೖఎ‫ृ֚ת‬੡່‫( ڍ‬49.3%)Ι‫ ڶ‬77.7%ऱሏ ড় (‫ޢ‬Գ) ؓ݁क़၄‫ ڇ‬1000 ց‫א‬ՀΙ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ֱ૿Δ‫א‬ፖ୮Գ‫ٵ‬ሏृ່‫( ڍ‬40.1%)Δࠡ‫ڻ‬ ੡ፖ‫ٵ‬ᖂΕஃ९‫ٵ‬ሏ (23.3%)Ιٌຏՠࠠࠌ‫૿ֱش‬Δ೏ሒ 90.1%ऱ࠹๶ृ‫߫޳ش۞א‬ছࠐ ‫چڼ‬੡່‫ڍ‬Ζ ႈ‫ؾ‬ ᖞ᧯ የრ৫ ႈ‫ؾ‬ ٦ሏრᣋ

߄ 2 ၯ࠼᏾ᡏᅈཀࡋᆶӆၯཀᜫϩ‫݋‬ የ რ լየრ ॺൄլየრ 216 33 28 2 (74.0%) (11.3%) (9.6%) (0.7%) ॺൄᣋრ ᣋრ լᣋრ ॺൄլᣋრ 82 178 14 2 (28.1%) (61.0%) (4.8%) (0.7%)

ॺൄየრ

ؓ݁ଖ

ᑑᄷ஁

2.87

0.789

ؓ݁ଖ

ᑑᄷ஁

3.05

0.922

ளሏ௽ࢤխٍ‫ܶץ‬ᖞ᧯የრ৫ፖ٦ሏრᣋऱᓳ਷Δࠡ։࣫࿨࣠‫ڕ‬। 2 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζ‫ڇ‬ᖞ᧯ የრ৫ֱ૿Δ‫א‬የრ (74.0%) ፖॺൄየრ (11.3%) ੡່‫ڍ‬ፖ‫ڍڻ‬Δؓ݁ଖ੡ 2.87 ։Δ᧩ ߠ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴࿇୶ཏሙᛧ൓ሏড়ᎁ‫ٵ‬Ιૹሏრᣋֱ૿Δᣋრृ೏ሒ 61%Δॺൄᣋრृ੡ 28.1%Δؓ݁ଖ੡ 3.05 ։Δ२԰‫࠹ګ‬๶ृຟᣋრ٦ࠐ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴೚ٖၵ᧯᧭Ζ (Բ) ளሏრွტ࠹ ႈ‫ؾ‬

߄ 3 ਓၯཀຝ୷ҁϩ‫݋‬ ؓ݁ଖ ᑑᄷ஁

ข঴რွ ۰മ๻ਜᙇᖗᖲᄎ‫ڍ‬ ࠩ‫ء‬ष೴ٌຏঁ‫ܓ‬ ሏᖈ‫ڜ‬٤๻ਜߜ‫ړ‬ ᅝ‫چ‬塊堬‫֧ܮ‬Գ ष೴ளሏᇷಛ᠆༄‫࠷࣐׊‬൓ ᧯᧭੒೯‫گ‬၄‫ٽ‬෻ ঴ᔆრွ ࣥሐᓾན‫ח‬Գ༭ங ᖞ᧯௛ࣷ‫ח‬Գ֨ൣ࣋ᠾ ष೴ᛩቼ೓෣堚ᑥ. ֆ٥๻ਜ‫ݙ‬࿳ ᅝ‫֖اࡺچ‬࿳Εᘣ֊Εᑗ࣍‫ܗ‬Գ ࣚ೭რွ ᖄᥦᇞᎅ‫س‬೯‫ڶ‬ᔊ ᧯᧭੒೯๵ቤ‫໌ڶ‬რ ᅝ‫چ‬ል௽ข‫ڶ‬௽‫ۥ‬ ‫ڶ‬ଡࢤ֏հધ࢚঴ΔᨃԳఎ࢚

რွ૿‫᜔݁ؓٻ‬ଖ

2.20 2.35 2.55 2.55 2.62 2.44

0.96 0.85 0.92 1.18 0.93 1.22

2.45

3.46 3.34 2.87 2.57 3.08

0.59 0.75 0.76 0.92 0.81

3.06

3.02 2.93 2.65 2.42

0.84 0.95 1.08 1.09

2.76

ࠐ๶ளড়ऱளሏრွ։࣫࿨࣠‫ڕ‬। 3 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζ‫ڇ‬ข঴რွዌ૿խΔ‫א‬ψष೴ளሏᇷಛ ᠆༄‫࠷࣐׊‬൓ωؓ݁ଖ 2.62 ։່೏ΔઌለհՀΔ۰മᙇᖗ (2.20 ։) ࿛ֱ૿ؓ݁։ᑇለ‫܅‬Ζ ঴ᔆრွዌ૿ঞ‫א‬ψࣥሐᓾན‫ח‬Գ༭ஙωؓ݁ଖ 3.46 ։੡່೏Δࠡ‫ڻ‬੡ψᖞ᧯௛ࣷ‫ח‬Գ ֨ൣ࣋ᠾω(3.34 ։)Ε ψᅝ‫֖اࡺچ‬࿳Εᘣ֊Εᑗ࣍‫ܗ‬Գω(3.08 ։) ࿛ᠲႈΔ᧩ྥሒࠩॺ 41 47


33-52 2009

ൄ‫ٵ‬რፖ‫ٵ‬რհၴΔլመψֆ٥๻ਜ‫ݙ‬࿳ω(2.57 ։) ঞ੡ᇠዌ૿ؓ݁ଖ່‫܅‬ऱႈ‫ؾ‬Ζࣚ೭ რွዌ૿խΔ‫א‬ψᖄᥦᇞᎅ‫س‬೯‫ڶ‬ᔊωؓ݁ଖ 3.02 ։੡່೏Δઌኙψ‫ڶ‬ଡࢤ֏հધ࢚঴Δ ᨃԳఎ࢚ωؓ݁ଖ (2.42 ։)ೣ‫܅‬Ζ‫ڶࢬא‬ႈ‫ؾ‬ऱ։࣫࿨ֺ࣠ለΔሏড়‫ܓڇ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ளሏ რွխΔ‫א‬ψࣥሐᓾན‫ח‬Գ༭ஙω Ε ψᖞ᧯௛ࣷ‫ח‬Գ֨ൣ࣋ᠾω Ε ψᅝ‫֖اࡺچ‬࿳Εᘣ֊Εᑗ ࣍‫ܗ‬Գω Ε ψᖄᥦᇞᎅ‫س‬೯‫ڶ‬ᔊωؓ݁ଖઃሒࠩ 3 ։‫א‬ՂΔრᘯထሏড়ኙ࣍ຍ༓ႈ‫ڶ‬ထॺൄ ‫ٵ‬რፖ‫ٵ‬რ࿓৫հၴऱტ࠹Δ‫׼‬؆ψ۰മ๻ਜᙇᖗᖲᄎ‫ڍ‬ω Ε ψࠩ‫ء‬ष೴ٌຏঁ‫ܓ‬ω Ε ψ‫ڶ‬ଡ ࢤ֏հધ࢚঴ΔᨃԳఎ࢚ω࿛ႈ‫ؾ‬ઌኙ‫܅‬։Ζૉ‫א‬ளሏრွԿଡዌ૿ֺለۖߢΔψ঴ᔆრ ွω(3.06 ։) ੡ሏড়ტ࠹࿓৫່೏ऱዌ૿Δࠡ‫ڻ‬੡ψࣚ೭რွω(2.76 ։) ዌ૿Δ່৵‫א‬ ψข঴რွω(2.45 ։) ዌ૿੡ტ࠹࿓৫່‫ृ܅‬Ζ ႈ‫ؾ‬

߄ 4 ၯ࠼Γα಍ीᡂ໨ჹਓၯཀຝৡ౦‫܄‬ϩ‫݋‬ ข঴რွ ঴ᔆრွ

ࣚ೭რွ

ࢤܑ

ߊ Ֆ tଖ ࡺ۰‫چ‬ ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼؑ ࠡ‫ה‬ᗼؑ tଖ ‫᤿ڣ‬ 20ᄣ‫א‬Հa 21-30ᄣb 31-40ᄣc 41-50ᄣd 51-60ᄣe 61ᄣ‫א‬Ղf Fଖ ࠃ৵ᛀࡳ ദৗ բദ ‫آ‬ദ ࠡ‫ה‬ Fଖ ඒߛ࿓৫ ഏ՛‫א‬Հa ഏխb ೏խ៭c റઝd Օᖂe ઔߒࢬf Fଖ ࠃ৵ᛀࡳ ៭ᄐ ۞ᛜࠃᄐ ࠹ႄृ റ៭ᖂ‫س‬ ಯٖ୮ጥ ࠡ‫ה‬ Fଖ *PЉ0.05 **PЉ0.01 ***PЉ0.001

14.30 15.06 -1.56

14.93 15.64 -2.25*

10.88 11.16 -0.78

14.77 14.56 -0.37

15.24 15.57 -0.89

11.02 11.07 -0.11

16.89 14.50 15.17 14.72 13.56 13.57 1.32

15.67 15.84 15.81 14.83 14.00 15.71 ** 3.36 b, cЇd, e

14.61 14.90 13.00 0.25

15.11 15.66 16.00 1.43

18.67 15.00 13.29 14.53 15.10 15.44 * 2.69

17.50 14.38 13.96 15.62 15.67 15.30 *** 4.33 d, eЇc

14.83 14.37 15.67 15.26 12.00 1.10

14.17 15.26 16.42 15.68 17.00 ** 4.07

42 48

12.44 11.56 11.60 10.78 9.19 8.43 *** 5.14 b, cЇe

10.66 11.65 11.00 3.63*

15.00 8.76 9.49 10.83 11.66 11.85 *** 7.56 aЇb, c, dΙ e, fЇc

11.57 10.61 12.23 10.90 15.00 * 3.30


ሏড়ഗ‫᧢ء‬ႈኙளሏრွ஁ฆࢤΔ‫ڕ‬। 4 ։࣫࿨࣠ࢬ‫ق‬Ζଈ٣Δࢬ‫ڶ‬ሏড়ഗ‫᧢ء‬ႈ‫ڇ‬ ψข঴რွωՂઃྤ᧩ထ஁ฆΙ‫ڇ‬ψ঴ᔆრွωዌ૿խΔ‫א‬ψࢤܑω Ε ψ‫᤿ڣ‬ω Ε ψඒߛ࿓৫ωΕ ψ៭ᄐω࿛᧢ႈ‫஁ࢬڶ‬ฆΔψ঴ᔆრွωՂՈ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔࠡխՖࢤ঴ᔆრွऱტ࠹᧩ထ ೏࣍ߊࢤ (t ଖ=-2.25)Δ‫᤿ڣ‬ᐋ੡ 21-30 ᄣፖ 31~40 ᄣऱሏড়ֺ 41~50 ᄣፖ 51~60 ᄣऱሏ ড়‫ڶ‬ለ᧩ထऱ঴ᔆრွტ࠹ (F ଖ=3.36)Δ‫׼‬؆ᖂᖵ੡റઝፖՕᖂऱሏড়ֺ೏խ៭ᖂᖵऱ ሏড়ࠠໂለ᧩ထऱ঴ᔆრუტ࠹ (F ଖ=4.33)Ι۟࣍ψࣚ೭რွωዌ૿խΔᅝψ‫᤿ڣ‬ω Ε ψඒ ߛ࿓৫ω᧢ႈփิܑ‫ࢬڶ‬լ‫ٵ‬ழΔ ψࣚ೭რွωऱტ࠹ٍ‫஁ڶ‬ฆΔ௽ܑਢ 21-30 ᄣፖ 31~40 ᄣ‫᤿ڣ‬ᐋऱሏড়ᄎֺ 51~60 ᄣऱሏড়‫᧩ڶ‬ထऱψࣚ೭რွωტ࠹ (F ଖ=5.14)Δඒߛ࿓৫ ঞਢ‫א‬ഏ՛ฅᄐृֺഏխΕ೏խ៭֗റઝฅᄐृ‫ڶ‬ለ೏ऱψࣚ೭რွω(F ଖ=7.56)Ζ១ߢ հΔ۟‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ளሏऱሏড়ψ‫᤿ڣ‬ω Ε ψദৗणउω Ε ψඒߛ࿓৫ω֗ψ៭ᄐω࿛ႈ‫ڇؾ‬ ளሏრွՂ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΖ ளሏ௽ࢤኙளሏრွ஁ฆࢤ։࣫ᇡา‫ڕ‬। 5 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζ‫ڇ‬ψข঴რွωխΔ ψೖఎழၴωΕ ψ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ω Ε ψ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ωࡉψٌຏՠࠠω؄ଡ᧢ႈխऱิܑլ‫ٵ‬Δࠡψข঴რ‫ٻ‬ωტ࠹ ࿓৫‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔຍ؄ଡ᧢ႈᆖࠃ৵ᛀࡳऱ࿨࣠࿇෼Δఎழၴ੡ԫ֚֗Բ֚ԫ࡙ऱሏড়ֺ ೖఎ‫᧩ڶृ֚ת‬ထለ೏ऱტ࠹ (F ଖ=6.84)Δ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ؓ݁‫ ڇ‬501~1000 ցፖ 1001~1500 ց ઌለ࣍޲क़၄ृ‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ऱψข঴რွωტ࠹ (F ଖ=10.44)Δ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ऱຝ։ೈԱᗑ۞ ࡉ‫ࠃٵڶ‬ຩ۴ऱሏড়հ؆Δࠡ塒؄ᣊऱ‫ٵ‬۴ᣊীऱტ࠹࿓৫ઃ᧩ထ೏࣍ψࠡ‫ה‬ωᣊীऱ‫ٵ‬ ۴Δۖ‫ڶ׊‬୮ԳΕளሏቸ᧯ຩ۴ऱሏড়ტ࠹࿓৫ٍ᧩ထ೏࣍ᗑ۞ऱளሏृ (F ଖ=5.80)Ζ ႈ‫ؾ‬ ᇷಛࠐᄭ ནរ৙ႚ঴ ሽီᐖᐾ ጻᎾጻሁ ᘣ֖տฯ ໴ີᠧ፾ ࠡ‫ה‬ Fଖ ளሏ‫ڻ‬ᑇ รԫ‫ڻ‬ รԲ‫ڻ‬ รԿ‫ڻ‬ ร؄‫ڻ‬ รն‫אڻ‬Ղ Fଖ ೖఎழၴ ‫֚ת‬a ԫ֚b Բ֚ԫ࡙c Կ֚Բ࡙d Fଖ ࠃ৵ᛀࡳ

߄ 5 ਓၯ੝‫܄‬ჹਓၯཀຝৡ౦‫܄‬ϩ‫݋‬ ข঴რွ ঴ᔆრွ

ࣚ೭რွ

14.48 16.14 14.64 14.85 15.07 12.79 1.31

14.71 15.86 15.41 15.17 15.75 15.54 0.69

11.33 10.86 10.82 10.84 11.75 10.50 0.98

14.44 15.55 15.32 16.36 13.52 1.98

15.33 15.68 15.73 15.45 14.26 1.60

11.11 11.50 10.86 11.36 9.68 1.96

13.69 15.37 16.40 13.50 *** 6.84 b, cЇa

15.08 15.43 15.90 12.50 1.95

10.53 11.67 11.31 10.50 * 2.84 bЇa

43 49


33-52 2009 ߄ 5 ਓၯ੝‫܄‬ჹਓၯཀຝৡ౦‫܄‬ϩ‫݋‬Ȑុȑ ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ ޲क़၄a 1~500ցb 501~1000ցc 1001~1500ցd 1500ց‫א‬Ղe Fଖ ࠃ৵ᛀࡳ ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ ᗑ۞a ୮Գb ᘣ൯֖ࣛc ‫ٵ‬ᖂΕஃ९d ‫ࠃٵ‬e ளሏቸ᧯f ࠡ‫ה‬g Fଖ ࠃ৵ᛀࡳ

12.53 14.43 15.96 16.20 14.55 *** 10.44 c, dЇa

14.54 15.68 15.62 15.89 14.00 ** 3.54

13.50 15.34 15.07 16.03 15.04 17.64 10.00 *** 8.63 b, d, eЇgΙ fЇa, g

10.40 14.86 15.33 14.97 14.04 17.64 8.58 *** 5.80 c, fЇa, gΙ b, dЇg

ٌຏՠࠠ ᖲ߫ ۞‫߫޳ش‬ ᆬᔏ߫ ఺߫ Fଖ *PЉ0.05 **PЉ0.01 ***PЉ0.001

14.29 15.27 19.00 16.75 ** 4.90

12.10 14.86 7.00 16.68 *** 7.78

10.01 11.09 11.67 11.85 8.91 *** 5.85 c, dЇa

8.20 10.91 11.02 12.09 9.83 13.55 7.29 *** 7.12 c, fЇa, g

10.23 10.92 7.00 13.04 *** 5.59

۟࣍ψ঴ᔆრွωዌ૿ᇙΔႛ‫׌ڶ‬૞‫ٵ‬۴᧢ႈᆖመࠃ৵ᛀࡳ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔᅝխೈԱᗑ ۞ࡉ‫ڶ‬ᘣ൯֖ࣛຩ‫ٵ‬ऱሏড়հ؆Δࠡ塒ࠡ塒؄ᣊऱ‫ٵ‬۴ᣊীऱψ঴ᔆრွωტ࠹ઃ᧩ထ೏ ࣍ψࠡ‫ה‬ωᣊীऱ‫ٵ‬۴Δۖ‫׊‬ፖளሏቸ᧯‫ٵ‬ሏृψ঴ᔆრွωტ࠹ٍ᧩ထ೏࣍ᗑ۞ऱளሏ ृ (F ଖ=8.63)Ι່৵Δ‫ڇ‬ψࣚ೭რွωዌ૿խΔ‫ڶ׽‬ೖఎழၴΕ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄Ε‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴Կ ଡ᧢ႈᆖመࠃ৵ᛀࡳ‫ܑิࢬڶ‬ऱ஁ฆΔೖఎԫ֚ृऱψࣚ೭რွωტ࠹᧩ထ೏࣍ೖఎ‫֚ת‬ ृ (F ଖ=2.84)Δ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄‫ ڇ‬501~1000 ցፖ 1001~1500 ցऱሏড়ֺ޲क़၄ृ‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ऱ ψࣚ೭რွωტ࠹ (F ଖ=5.85)Δ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴խ‫ڶא‬ψ‫ٵ‬ᖂΕஃ९ωຩ‫ࡉٵ‬೶ፖளሏቸ᧯ृ ტ࠹᧩ထ೏࣍ᗑ۞ࡉࠡ‫ٵה‬۴۴ᙟऱሏড় (F ଖ=7.12)Ζ (Կ) ٖၵ᧯᧭ᣊী ࠐ๶ளড়ऱٖၵ᧯᧭ᓳ਷։࣫‫ڕ‬। 6 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζ‫ڇ‬ტࡴ᧯᧭խΔ‫א‬ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ‫ױ‬ᨠᓾ‫؀‬ ࡙ࣟؑནωऱؓ݁ଖ 3.44 ։੡່೏Δࠉ‫ݧ‬੡ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ۞ྥଅནᚌભω ΰ3.43 ։α Ε ψ‫ܓ‬ቯ ࣥሐ‫سڶ‬ኪ᧯᧭ (ࠏ‫ڕ‬: ᓾᘛΕᓾဢΕᓾ຺Εᨠኘ೯ढ࿛) ‫ڍ‬ጟ੒೯ω(3.38 ։)ΔԿႈઃሒ ࠩॺൄ‫ٵ‬რፖ‫ٵ‬რհၴΖ‫ڇ‬ൣტ᧯᧭խΔ‫א‬ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ᧯᧭੒೯ (‫ڕ‬ᖫগᐋᨠኘ᧯᧭) ࠠ ‫໌ڶ‬რωऱؓ݁ଖ 3.12 ։੡່೏Δઌለ‫א‬ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ‫ױ‬঴ቫࠠᅝ‫چ‬௽‫ۥ‬ऱભଇωؓ݁ଖ ່‫( ܅‬2.96 ։)Ζ

44 50


ႈ‫ؾ‬

߄ 6 ၯ࠼Ҷ໕ᡏᡍ୷ҁϩ‫݋‬ ؓ݁ଖ ᑑᄷ஁

ტࡴ᧯᧭ ۞ྥଅནᚌભ ‫ڍڶ‬ጟ‫س‬ኪ᧯᧭੒೯ ‫ױ‬ᨠᓾ‫࡙ؑࣟ؀‬ན ൣტ᧯᧭ ‫ױ‬঴ᚓᅝ‫چ‬௽‫ۥ‬ભଇ ᧯᧭੒೯ࠠ‫໌ڶ‬რ ۩࿓᠆༄壄൑ ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ ᖂ฾‫س‬ኪঅߛᨠ࢚ ֧࿇ኙٖၵልᄐᘋᔊ ֧࿇ኙ‫س‬ኪளሏᄅ৸‫ە‬ ۩೯᧯᧭ ‫ڶ‬ආኴ᧯᧭੒೯ DIY੒೯‫س‬೯‫ڶ‬ᔊ ֧࿇‫ݺ‬ኙ‫س‬ኪ‫࡛֨ړ‬ ᣂᜤ᧯᧭ ‫଺᧭᧯ױ‬۰‫֏֮ا‬ ᔞ‫ٽ‬࿇୶ࠠඒߛࢤհ᧯᧭੒೯ ᨃ‫ݺ‬ኙၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴‫ڶ‬լ‫ٵ‬ᎁᢝ

᧯᧭૿‫᜔݁ؓٻ‬ଖ

3.43 3.38 3.44

0.62 0.59 0.69

3.42

2.96 3.12 3.10

0.84 0.90 0.86

3.06

3.27 3.20 3.30

0.88 0.82 0.68

3.26

2.77 3.07 3.23

1.00 0.91 0.85

3.09

2.79 3.44 3.21

0.79 0.70 0.88

3.15

۟࣍৸‫᧭᧯ە‬խΔ‫א‬ψຘመຍ‫ڻ‬ளሏΔ֧࿇‫ݺ‬ኙ‫س‬ኪளሏᄅऱ৸‫ڕ( ە‬ԳፖՕ۞ྥऱ ᣂএਢৰയ֊ऱ࿛)ωؓ݁ଖ 3.30 ։੡່೏Δࠉ‫ݧ‬੡ψຘመຍ‫ڻ‬ளሏΔ‫ݺ‬ᖂ฾๺‫سڍ‬ኪঅ ߛᨠ࢚ω(3.27 ։)Ε ψຘመຍ‫ڻ‬ளሏΔ֧࿇‫ݺ‬ኙٖၵልᄐऱᘋᔊω(3.20 ։)ΔԿႈ೏࣍ 3 ։Δ ।‫ق‬ሒࠩॺൄ‫ٵ‬რፖ‫ٵ‬რհၴΖ۩೯᧯᧭ঞ‫א‬ψຘመຍ‫ڻ‬ளሏΔ֧࿇‫ݺ‬ኙ‫س‬ኪ‫ڕ( ࡛֨ړ‬ ᘛ‫៽־‬Ε‫س៽ظ‬ኪ࿛)ωؓ݁ଖ 3.23 ։੡່೏Ζ່৵ऱᣂᜤ᧯᧭‫א‬ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐᔞ‫ٽ‬࿇୶ࠠ ඒߛࢤऱ᧯᧭੒೯ωؓ݁ଖ 3.44 ։੡່೏Δࠡ‫ڻ‬੡ψຘመຍ‫ڻ‬ளሏΔᨃ‫ݺ‬ኙၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴‫ڶ‬ լ‫ٵ‬ऱᎁᢝωΔؓ݁ଖ੡ 3.21 ։Ζ ‫ڶࢬא‬ᠲႈઌለದࠐΔ‫א‬ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ‫ױ‬ᨠᓾ‫࡙ؑࣟ؀‬ནωࡉψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐᔞ‫ٽ‬࿇୶ࠠඒ ߛࢤऱ᧯᧭੒೯ωࠟृ੡ᖞ᧯ؓ݁ଖ (3.44 ։) ່೏։Δ່‫܅‬ঞ੡ψ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ‫ڶ‬ආኴ᧯᧭ ੒೯ωΔؓ݁ଖ੡ 2.77 ։Ζૉਢ‫א‬ᖞ᧯૿‫ֺٻ‬ለΔψტࡴ᧯᧭ωዌ૿ᖞ᧯ؓ݁ଖ 3.42 ։੡ ່೏Δࠉ‫ڻ‬੡ψ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ω(3.26 ։)Ε ψᣂᜤ᧯᧭ω(3.15 ։)Ε ψ۩೯᧯᧭ω(3.09 ։)Δۖ‫א‬ ψൣტ᧯᧭ω૿‫݁ؓٻ‬ଖ (3.06 ։) ੡່‫܅‬Ζ

45 51


33-52 2009 ߄ 7 Γα಍ीᡂ໨ᆶၯ࠼Ҷ໕ᡏᡍৡ౦‫܄‬ϩ‫݋‬ ტࡴ᧯᧭ ൣტ᧯᧭ ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ ۩೯᧯᧭

ႈ‫ؾ‬ ࢤܑ ߊ Ֆ tଖ

*PЉ0.05

9.05 9.28 -1.02

9.67 9.87 -0.92

9.02 9.38 -1.15

9.29 9.56 -1.37

10.24 10.26 -0.12

9.18 9.18 0.01

9.79 9.75 0.17

9.19 9.31 -0.37

9.40 9.57 ** -0.63

10.67 10.33 10.39 10.22 9.62 10.29 1.75

10.56 9.14 9.41 9.09 8.41 9.43 * 2.35 1>5

9.56 9.89 10.16 9.51 9.13 10.57 * 2.40

10.22 9.24 9.61 9.08 8.06 9.57 ** 3.34 3>5

10.22 9.63 9.57 9.47 8.25 10.00 *** 4.14 2, 3, 4>5

10.22 10.30 10.00 0.13

9.06 9.38 8.00 1.14

9.67 10.00 8.00 1.64

9.08 9.43 9.00 0.99

9.33 9.63 8.00 1.45

11.00 10.13 9.80 10.49 10.13 10.59 2.58*

11.5 7.50 8.71 9.16 9.28 9.70 *** 4.33 1Ї2, 3

10.67 8.50 9.04 9.71 10.10 10.30 *** 4.20 5Ї3

11.67 7.25 8.67 9.06 9.45 9.85 *** 5.13 1Ї2, 3

10.67 7.88 9.02 9.45 9.58 9.81 ** 3.11

9.90 9.63 10.35 9.61 12.00 1.89

9.10 9.09 9.93 9.06 11.00 1.75

9.98 10.47 ** -3.12

ࡺ۰‫چ‬ ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼؑ ࠡ‫ה‬ᗼؑ tଖ ‫᤿ڣ‬ 20ᄣ‫א‬Հ1 21-30ᄣ2 31-40ᄣ3 41-50ᄣ4 51-60ᄣ5 61ᄣ‫א‬Ղ6 Fଖ ࠃ৵ֺለ ദৗ բദ ‫آ‬ദ ࠡ‫ה‬ Fଖ ඒߛ࿓৫ ഏ՛‫א‬Հ1 ഏխ2 ೏խ៭3 റઝ4 Օᖂ5 ઔߒࢬ6 Fଖ ࠃ৵ֺለ ៭ᄐ ۞ᛜࠃᄐ ࠹ႄृ റ៭ᖂ‫س‬ ಯٖ୮ጥ ࠡ‫ה‬ Fଖ

ᣂᜤ᧯᧭

10.02 10.29 10.44 9.97 12.00 1.28

9.07 9.03 10.05 8.90 10.00 2.77

9.83 9.26 9.91 9.29 9.00 1.98

**PЉ0.01 ***PЉ0.001

ሏড়ഗ‫᧢ء‬ႈኙሏড়᧯᧭஁ฆࢤ։࣫Δ‫ڕ‬। 7 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζ‫ڇ‬ψტࡴ᧯᧭ωխΔՖࢤऱტ ࠹࿓৫᧩ထ೏࣍ߊࢤ (t ଖ= -3.12)Ι ψᣂᜤ᧯᧭ωዌ૿ᇙΔࠐ۞ࠡ‫ה‬ᗼؑऱሏড়ֺ‫ࣟ؀‬ᗼؑ ऱሏড়‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ऱტ࠹࿓৫ (t ଖ= -0.63)ΙྥۖΔ‫ࡉ᤿ڣ‬ඒߛ࿓৫ૉ‫ࢬڶ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δ‫ڇ‬ψൣ ტ᧯᧭ω Ε ψ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ω Ε ψ۩೯᧯᧭ωፖψᣂᜤ᧯᧭ωխ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔ‫܀‬ਢᆖࠃ৵ᛀࡳհ৵ ࿇෼Δ‫ ڇ᤿ڣ‬20 ᄣ‫א‬Հऱሏড়ઌለ 51-60 ᄣሏড়‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ऱψൣტ᧯᧭ωტ࠹ (F ଖ= 2.35)Δ31~40 ᄣֺ 51~60 ᄣ‫ڶ‬ለ᧩ထऱψ۩೯᧯᧭ωტ࠹(F ଖ= 3.34)Δ‫׼‬؆Δ20 ᄣ‫א‬ՀΕ 31~40 ᄣࡉ 41~50 ᄣऱሏড়ઃֺ 51~60 ᄣ‫ڶ‬ለ᧩ထऱψᣂᜤ᧯᧭ωტ࠹(F ଖ= 4.14)Δ۟࣍ ඒߛ࿓৫੡ഏ՛‫א‬Հऱሏড়ઌለഏխ֗೏խ៭ሏড়‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ऱψൣტ᧯᧭ω(F ଖ= 4.33) 46 52


ፖψ۩೯᧯᧭ωტ࠹ (F ଖ= 5.13)Δۖ‫׊‬Օᖂᖂᖵऱሏড়ֺ೏խ៭ᖂᖵऱሏড়‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ ऱψ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ωტ࠹(F ଖ= 4.20)Ζ ႈ‫ؾ‬ ᇷಛࠐᄭ ནរ৙ႚ঴1 ሽီᐖᐾ2 ጻᎾጻሁ3 ᘣ֖տฯ4 ໴ີᠧ፾5 ࠡ‫ה‬6 Fଖ ࠃ৵ֺለ ளሏ‫ڻ‬ᑇ รԫ‫ڻ‬1 รԲ‫ڻ‬2 รԿ‫ڻ‬3 ร؄‫ڻ‬4 รն‫אڻ‬Ղ5 Fଖ ೖఎழၴ ‫֚ת‬1 ԫ֚2 Բ֚ԫ࡙3 Կ֚Բ࡙4 Fଖ ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ ޲क़၄1 1~500ց2 501~1000ց3 1001~1500ց4 1500ց‫א‬Ղ5 Fଖ ࠃ৵ֺለ ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ ᗑ۞1 ୮Գ2 ᘣ൯֖ࣛ3 ‫ٵ‬ᖂΕஃ९4 ‫ࠃٵ‬5 ளሏቸ᧯6 ࠡ‫ה‬7 Fଖ

߄ 8 ਓၯ੝‫܄‬ᆶၯ࠼Ҷ໕ᡏᡍৡ౦‫܄‬ϩ‫݋‬ ტࡴ᧯᧭ ൣტ᧯᧭ ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ ۩೯᧯᧭ 9.71 9.57 10.91 10.32 10.08 10.21 2.33* 3Ї1, 2, 5

9.33 8.57 8.86 9.11 9.57 8.96 0.88

9.76 9.86 9.73 9.68 10.02 9.92 0.34

9.14 8.57 9.18 9.16 9.65 8.75 0.94

9.38 9.86 8.86 9.42 9.87 8.92 1.83

10.13 10.31 10.32 10.55 10.58 0.92

8.98 9.37 9.73 9.82 9.23 1.37

9.70 10.11 9.64 8.91 9.97 1.38

9.16 9.39 9.64 9.09 8.90 0.55

9.44 9.58 9.68 9.91 8.81 1.51

10.17 10.38 10.23 10.00 0.50

9.06 9.24 9.40 8.50 0.54

9.61 9.85 10.13 9.50 1.16

9.05 9.36 9.44 8.50 0.76

9.47 9.46 9.35 8.50 0.27

10.22 10.28 10.20 10.48 9.55 1.17

8.74 9.11 9.39 9.65 8.64 * 2.44 3, 4Ї1

9.47 9.67 9.92 10.24 9.18 2.01

8.70 9.15 9.35 10.06 8.09 *** 4.64 4Ї1

9.09 9.37 9.68 9.61 9.45 1.52

8.00 9.86 9.71 10.25 9.13 11.27 6.86 *** 8.40 2, 3Ї7Ι 4, 6Ї1, 7

7.50 9.36 9.11 9.62 8.63 10.09 6.86 4.15***

7.80 9.50 9.24 9.79 9.29 10.91 7.00 *** 6.69 2Ї7Ι 4, 6Ї1, 7

9.00 9.79 11.00 10.50 3.67*

8.52 9.22 4.00 10.11 *** 5.30

8.61 9.43 9.00 10.43 *** 5.89

9.40 10.43 10.11 10.46 9.88 10.18 8.86 ** 2.94

ࠃ৵ֺለ ٌຏՠࠠ ᖲ߫ ۞‫߫޳ش‬ ᆬᔏ߫ ఺߫ Fଖ *

ᣂᜤ᧯᧭

9.61 10.34 6.00 10.29 *** 6.13

7.20 9.33 9.15 9.59 8.50 10.55 5.86 *** 8.540 3Ї7Ι 2, 4, 6Ї1, 7

8.55 9.14 8.00 10.21 ** 4.14

PЉ0.05 **PЉ0.01 ***PЉ0.001

47 53


33-52 2009

ᣂ࣍ሏড়ளሏ௽ࢤլ‫ٵ‬Δሏড়ऱٖၵ᧯᧭஁ฆࢤ։࣫Δ‫ڕ‬। 8 ࢬ‫ق‬Ζளሏᇷಛࠐᄭ᧢ ႈᆖመࠃ৵ᛀࡳ࿇෼ΔຘመψጻᎾጻሁω࠷൓ளሏᇷಛऱሏড়ઌለൕψளሏནរ৙ႚ঴ωΕ ψሽီᐖᐾω֗ψ໴ີᠧ፾ω࠷൓ᇷಛऱሏড়‫ڶ‬ለ೏᧩ထऱψტࡴ᧯᧭ωტ࠹Ι‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ ऱլ‫ڇٵ‬ψൣტ᧯᧭ωፖψ۩೯᧯᧭ωՂ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔࠡխक़၄‫ ڇ‬501~1500 ցऱሏড়ֺ ޲क़၄ृ‫᧩ڶ‬ထለ೏ऱψൣტ᧯᧭ωტ࠹Δक़၄੡ 1001~1500 ցऱሏড়ઌለ޲क़၄ृ‫ڶ‬ለ ೏ऱψ۩೯᧯᧭ωტ࠹Ι‫׌‬૞ளሏ‫ٵ‬۴լ‫ڇٵ‬նଡ᧯᧭૿‫ٻ‬Ղ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ஁ฆΔ‫܀‬ᆖመࠃ৵ᛀ ࡳ࿇෼ΔೈԱ‫ࠃٵڶ‬ຩ۴հ؆Δࠡ塒؄ጟᣊীऱளሏ‫ٵ‬۴ઃֺψࠡ‫ה‬ωᣊীऱளሏ‫ٵ‬۴‫ڶ‬ ᧩ထለ೏ऱψൣტ᧯᧭ωტ࠹Δ‫׼‬؆Δ‫ڶ‬୮ԳΕ‫ٵ‬ᖂஃ९ࢨளሏቸ᧯۴ᙟऱሏড়ઌለ࣍ψࠡ ‫ה‬ωᣊীऱ‫ٵ‬۴ઃ‫ڶ‬ለ೏᧩ထऱψ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ω֗ψᣂᜤ᧯᧭ωტ࠹Ζ (Կ) ளሏრွࡉٖၵ᧯᧭հઌᣂࢤፖಱូ։࣫ ளሏრွࡉٖၵ᧯᧭ऱઌᣂࢤᆖ‫ؼط‬ዿཤᗨ஁ઌᣂᛀྒྷऱ࿨࣠࿇෼Δૉ‫ٺא‬ଡளሏრ ွۖߢΔข঴რွ (0.587)Ε঴ᔆრွ (0.600αࠟृઃፖൣტ᧯᧭ऱઌᣂࢤ່೏Δۖࣚ೭ რွፖൣტ᧯᧭Εᣂᜤ᧯᧭ऱઌᣂࢤ່೏Δࠟृઃሒࠩ 0.699Ζ༉ᖞ᧯ۖߢΔளሏრွऱ ψข঴რွω Ε ψ঴ᔆრွω Ε ψࣚ೭რွωԿଡዌ૿ࡉٖၵ᧯᧭ऱψტࡴ᧯᧭ω Ε ψൣტ᧯᧭ω Ε ψ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ω Ε ψ۩೯᧯᧭ω Ε ψᣂᜤ᧯᧭ωնଡዌ૿Δࠟࠟิܑऱ᧢ႈհၴઃ‫᧩ڶ‬ထ‫إ‬ઌᣂ (। 9)Δ।‫ق‬౨ၞԫ‫ޡ‬ආ‫ش‬ಱូ։࣫൶ಘளሏრွኙٖၵ᧯᧭հᐙ᥼࿓৫Ζ ߄ 9 ਓၯཀຝ‫ک‬Ҷ໕ᡏᡍϐ࣬ᜢϩ‫݋‬ ٖၵ᧯᧭

ტࡴ᧯᧭

ൣტ᧯᧭

৸‫᧭᧯ە‬

۩೯᧯᧭

ᣂᜤ᧯᧭

ข঴რွ

0.275***

0.587***

0.574***

0.528***

0.507***

঴ᔆრွ

0.403***

0.600***

0.533***

0.512***

0.455***

ࣚ೭რွ

0.311***

0.699***

0.574***

0.683***

0.699***

ளሏრွ

*

PЉ0.05 **PЉ0.01 ***PЉ0.001

൷ထΔ‫ڇ‬ளሏრွፖٖၵ᧯᧭‫ٻ૿ٺ‬ऱಱូ։࣫ (। 10)ᅝխΔ঴ᔆრွ֗ࣚ೭ რွࠟႈኙტࡴ᧯᧭ऱቃྒྷԺሒࠩ᧩ထֽᄷΔᇞᤩၦ։ܑ੡ 16.0%Ε17.0%Ιࣚ೭რွΕ ঴ᔆრွ֗ข঴რွኙൣტ᧯᧭ࠠ‫ڶ‬ቃྒྷԺΔᇞᤩၦࠉ‫ݧ‬੡ 48.7%Ε55.9%Ε56.5%Δቃྒྷ Ժຟሒࠩ᧩ထֽᄷΙข঴რွΕ঴ᔆრွ֗ࣚ೭რွኙ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ऱᇞᤩၦ։ܑ੡ 32.8%Ε 39.4%Ε43.0%ΔԿႈऱࣚ೭რွቃྒྷԺ݁ሒࠩ᧩ထֽᄷΙኙ۩೯᧯᧭ࠠ‫ڶ‬ቃྒྷԺऱ᧢ႈਢ ࣚ೭რွࡉ঴ᔆრွΔࠟႈ݁ሒࠩ᧩ထֽᄷΔᇞᤩၦ։ܑ੡ 46.5%Ε49.5%Ι۟࣍ኙᣂᜤ ᧯᧭ቃྒྷԺ‫ڶ‬ሒࠩ᧩ထֽᄷऱ᧢ႈ੡ࣚ೭რွࡉ঴ᔆრွࠟႈΔᇞᤩၦࠉ‫ݧ‬ਢ 48.7%Ε 49.6%Ζ່৵Δ༉ଡܑளሏრွኙᖞ᧯ٖၵ᧯᧭ऱಱូ։࣫ቃྒྷխ࿇෼Δࣚ೭რွኙᖞ᧯ ऱٖၵ᧯᧭ᇞᤩၦ੡ 53.8%Δȕ ଖ੡ 0.506Ι঴ᔆრွऱຝ։ኙᖞ᧯ٖၵ᧯᧭ऱᇞᤩၦ੡ 60.5%Δȕ ଖ੡ 0.275Ιข঴რွኙᖞ᧯ٖஒ᧯᧭ऱᇞᤩၦ੡ 61.2%Δȕ ଖ੡ 0.126Δ࿨࣠᧩ ‫ق‬ሏড়ऱࣚ೭რွΕ঴ᔆრွΕข঴რွԿृଡܑઃኙᖞ᧯ٖၵ᧯᧭ტ࠹࿓৫‫᧩ڶ‬ထऱᐙ ᥼ԺΖ 48 54


ᑓ‫ڤ‬ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

۞᧢ႈ ঴ᔆრွ ࣚ೭რွ ࣚ೭რွ ঴ᔆრွ ข঴რွ ข঴რွ ঴ᔆრွ ࣚ೭რွ ࣚ೭რွ ঴ᔆრွ ࣚ೭რွ ঴ᔆრွ ࣚ೭რွ ঴ᔆრွ ข঴რွ

ࠉ᧢ႈ ტࡴ᧯᧭ ტࡴ᧯᧭ ൣტ᧯᧭ ൣტ᧯᧭ ൣტ᧯᧭ ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ ৸‫᧭᧯ە‬ ۩೯᧯᧭ ۩೯᧯᧭ ᣂᜤ᧯᧭ ᣂᜤ᧯᧭ ٖၵ᧯᧭ ٖၵ᧯᧭ ٖၵ᧯᧭

R 0.403 0.420 0.699 0.750 0.755 0.574 0.631 0.661 0.683 0.706 0.699 0.706 0.734 0.780 0.785

߄ 10 ଑ᘜϩ‫݋‬ Adj R2 R2 0.163 0.160 0.176 0.170 0.488 0.487 0.562 0.559 0.569 0.565 0.330 0.328 0.398 0.394 0.436 0.430 0.467 0.465 0.498 0.495 0.489 0.487 0.499 0.496 0.539 0.538 0.608 0.605 0.616 0.612

Fଖ 56.39 30.89 276.70 185.48 126.95 142.86 95.46 74.31 253.78 143.47 277.60 143.94 339.24 50.72 6.01

bଖ 0.204 0.061 0.434 0.226 0.055 0.247 0.207 0.159 0.457 0.159 0.387 0.074 1.207 0.743 0.220

ȕଖ 0.403 0.136 0.699 0.320 0.120 0.574 0.311 0.271 0.683 0.209 0.699 0.118 0.506 0.275 0.126

tଖ 7.51 *** 2.16 * 16.6 *** 6.98 *** 2.21 * 12.00 *** 5.70 *** 4.44 *** 15.93 *** 4.26 *** 16.66 *** 2.40 * 10.02 *** 6.06 *** 2.45 *

PЉ0.05 **PЉ0.01 ***PЉ0.001

*

࿨ᓵፖ৬ᤜ (ԫ)࿨ᓵ ௅ᖕছ૪ऱᇷற։࣫࿨࣠Δ‫ء‬ઔߒ༼‫אנ‬Հ࿨ᓵΚ ԫΕ௅ᖕ֮᣸ᇷற֗ᄐृ๶ᓫ࿨࣠Δ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ࠠ‫ڶ‬ઌᅝ᠆༄հٖၵᇷᄭΔ‫ץ‬ਔΰԫα ೯ཬढ‫س‬ኪᇷᄭΰԲαནᨠᛩቼᇷᄭΰԿαᙊ֮ܿ֏ᇷᄭΰ؄αຝᆵԳ֮ᇷᄭΰնαል‫ޘ‬ ᇷᄭΰքα塄‫س‬ભଇᇷᄭ࿛Ζᇨ‫ءڕ‬ઔߒছ૪Δ᠆༄‫ڍ‬ᑌऱٖၵᇷᄭΔ‫إ‬ਢ‫܂‬੡வ֒ψٖ ၵขᄐωऱഗ៕Δ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴բࠠໂ‫ڼ‬යٙΔૉ౨‫ړړ‬๵ቤࠀଫ᥽‫س‬ኪঅߛΔ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐ ष೴ല‫ګױ‬੡ࣟ‫؀‬᨜‫س‬ኪளሏٖၵ᧯᧭հૹ૞ᖕរΖ ԲΕष೴ٖၵขᄐհ᧯᧭੒೯Δ‫ط‬๶ᓫփ୲֗ሏড়ം࠴ូ౏൓वΔ‫ؾ‬ছ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ ᧯᧭੒೯‫ڶ‬ΰԫαආኴ᧯᧭ΰԲαᓾဢΕᓾᘛΕ‫៽ظ‬࿛‫س‬ኪ᧯᧭ΰԿαᖫগᐋᨠኘ᧯᧭ΰ؄α ම՗࿝Εම՗ᔩ DIY ᧯᧭ΰնαભଇ᧯᧭ΰքα଺۰‫᧭᧯֏֮ا‬ΰԮα‫ا‬മ᧯᧭࿛‫ڍ‬ጟ ᧯᧭੒೯Ζૉ౨ᖞ‫ٽ‬ຍࠄբ‫ڶ‬հ᧯᧭੒೯Δࠀ೶‫ە‬ሏড়հᏁ‫ޣ‬ၲ࿇ࠠ‫໌ڶ‬რհ᧯᧭੒೯ࢨ ‫ޏ‬ၞ᧯᧭੒೯փොΔࠀ੡੒೯๻ࡳ‫׌‬ᠲΕᘜԵધ࢚঴Δઌॾ‫ؘ‬౨ᨃሏড়հٖၵ᧯᧭ఎՀᣄ ‫א‬ᗣᄰհ‫ٱ‬ွΖ ԿΕᆖኔᢞ։࣫൓वΔ۟‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ሏनհሏড়હན‫ైڂ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δ‫ڇ‬ԳՑ᧢ႈֱ૿Δ ‫ڂ‬ψ‫᤿ڣ‬ωΕψඒߛ࿓৫ω Ε ψ៭ᄐω Ε֗ψࡺ۰‫چ‬ω࿛ႈ‫ؾ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δሏড়հٖၵ᧯᧭ტ࠹࿓৫ ‫ܧ‬෼᧩ထ஁ฆΖ‫ڇ‬ளሏ௽ࢤֱ૿Δ‫ڇ‬ψᇷಛࠐᄭω Ε ψ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ω Ε ψ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ω֗ψٌຏՠ ࠠω࿛ႈ‫ؾ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δሏড়հٖၵ᧯᧭ტ࠹࿓৫ٍ‫ܧ‬෼᧩ထ஁ฆΖ᧩‫ق‬ሏড়ٖၵ᧯᧭հტ࠹࿓ ৫ΔೈԱԳՑ᧢ႈլ‫஁ڶۖٵ‬ฆ؆Δሏড়հளሏ௽ࢤΔٍᄎᐙ᥼ሏড়հٖၵ᧯᧭ტ࠹࿓৫Ζ ؄Ε۟‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴ளሏհሏড়હན‫ైڂ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δ‫ڇ‬ԳՑ᧢ႈֱ૿Δ‫ڂ‬ψ‫᤿ڣ‬ω Ε ψദৗ 49 55


33-52 2009

णउω Ε ψඒߛ࿓৫ω֗ψ៭ᄐω࿛ႈ‫ؾ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δሏড়ኙளሏრွ‫ܧ‬෼᧩ထ஁ฆΖ‫ڇ‬ளሏ௽ࢤ ֱ૿Δ‫ڇ‬ψೖఎழၴω Ε ψ‫ޢ‬Գक़၄ω Ε ψ‫׌‬૞‫ٵ‬۴ω֗ψٌຏՠࠠω࿛ႈ‫ؾ‬լ‫ٵ‬Δሏড়ኙள ሏრွٍ‫ܧ‬෼᧩ထ஁ฆΖ᧩‫ق‬ሏড়ኙளሏհრွΔೈԱԳՑ᧢ႈլ‫஁ڶۖٵ‬ฆ؆Δሏড়հ ளሏ௽ࢤΔٍᄎᐙ᥼ሏড়ኙளሏრွհტ࠹࿓৫Ζ նΕᆖኔᢞ։࣫൓वΔሏড়հளሏრွፖٖၵ᧯᧭‫ܧ‬෼‫إ‬ઌᣂΔٍ‫ܛ‬ሏড়ኙளሏრွ ။‫૿إ‬Δሏড়ऱٖၵტ࠹࿓৫။೏Ζ‫ڼڂ‬ष೴ᚨൎ֏ሏড়ኙष೴հψข঴რွω Ε ψ঴ᔆრ ွω֗ψࣚ೭რွωհ‫ݮ૿إ‬ွΔ‫֒༼א‬ሏড়ऱٖၵ᧯᧭ტ࠹࿓৫Δၞۖআࠌࠡտฯᘣ֖ ࢨ٦৫ૹሏ‫ܓ‬ቯࣥሐष೴հრᣋΖ (Բ)৬ᤜ ຘመ‫ء‬ઔߒՂ૪ऱᖞ᧯ᓳ਷࿨࣠Δ༼‫ܓנ‬ቯࣥሐၢ‫ޘ‬ष೴‫۩ڇࠐآ‬ᔭፖ᧯᧭੒೯๵ቤ Ղऱࠠ᧯৬ᤜΔ‫ٵ‬ழٍ‫ࠎ༼ױ‬࿯ઌ‫ۿ‬ऱၢ‫ٖޘ‬ၵขᄐ࿇୶ष೴೶‫ە‬Ζଈ٣Δ‫۩ڇ‬ᔭ‫ױ‬ሎ‫ش‬ նՕ࿜ฃᑓิ৬ዌ‫ݙנ‬ᖞऱ᧯᧭ᖄ‫ٻ‬࿜ฃΔ‫א‬ሒࠩၲࢷ௣၄ؑ໱ፖ༼֒‫ة‬ᥛᤁञԺհ‫ؾ‬ ᑑΔ‫ץ‬ਔΚ 1.៶‫ط‬ቹ֮Ε‫ۥ‬൑ΕଃயΕ௛࠺Εᔆ‫ޗ‬࿛‫ڍ‬ᑌ֏ऱ᧯᧭໾տΔ୶෼‫נ‬ԫીࢤऱ‫׌‬ᠲଅ ௑Δ‫א‬ၞ۩ტࡴ᧯᧭Δ‫֧ܮ‬ሏড়ऱ‫ؾ‬٠Ζ 2.‫ױ‬ሎ‫ش‬ਚࠃΕᤁ᝛ΕᙇࢸΕ࿨‫֏֮ٽ‬ᆏᐜ੒೯࿛ֱ‫ڤ‬Δ‫א‬ၞ۩ൣტ᧯᧭Δ֧࿇ሏড় ऱൣტΔᏺၞሏড়ऱ೶ፖტ֗࢘ᇨ৫Ζ 3.‫ױ‬ჸ಻‫س‬ኪᇞᎅΔ࿯ղሏড়౨ജ֘ਠ‫س‬ኪ෻࢚ࡉขᄐ௽‫ۥ‬ऱᇷಛΔ‫א‬ၞ۩৸‫᧭᧯ە‬Δ আၞሏড়ൕᄅऱᨠរࠐტ࠹᧯᧭ऱᏝଖΖ 4.‫֧ױ‬ᖄࢨቔᚐሏড়‫᧢ޏ‬९ཚऱளሏ฾ࢤΔ᧯᧭լ‫ٵ‬ऱ੒೯Ε‫س‬੒ীኪࢨԳᎾյ೯ֱ ‫ڤ‬Δ‫א‬ၞ۩۩೯᧯᧭Δᐙ᥼ሏড়ኙ᧯᧭ऱ֘ᚨΖ 5.‫ױ‬ಾኙ௽ࡳቸ᧯Δ༼‫נ‬ፖ֮ࠡ֏Ꮭଖઌฤऱ္‫ޣ‬Δࠀআၞቸ᧯‫ګ‬୉ၴऱٌੌᄮຏΔ ‫א‬ၞ۩ᣂᜤ᧯᧭Δ‫࠷א‬൓ሏড়ኙ᧯᧭ऱ೏৫ᎁ‫ٵ‬Ζ ‫׼‬؆Δ‫᧭᧯ڇ‬੒೯๵ቤֱ૿‫ױ‬ሎ‫᧭᧯ش‬੒೯๻ૠն‫ޡ‬ᨏΔ๻ૠ‫נ‬౨የߩሏড়Ꮑ‫ޣ‬ऱ᧯ ᧭੒೯Δ‫ץ‬ਔ‫א‬ՀնႈΚ 1.‫ף‬ൎ‫׌‬ᠲፖᇷᄭࡉ‫ؾ‬ᑑؑ໱ऱᜤ࿨ࢤΔ‫֒༼א‬ሏড়೶ፖ৫Ζ 2.ૹီᒵ౉ऱᔮຫ‫א‬Ⴟທ‫ݙ‬ᖞऱ‫ٱ‬ွΔࠌ‫׌‬ᠲ‫ګ‬੡ࠠ᧯ऱ᧯᧭Ζ 3.ຘመრߠ‫ڃ‬墅࿛ֱ‫ڤ‬Δൕሏড়ऱߡ৫৸‫ە‬Δ‫װא‬ೈ૤૿ᒵ౉Ζ 4.‫א‬௽‫ۥ‬ᇷᄭ੡ై‫ޗ‬Δ༼ࠎሏড়೯֫໌‫܂‬ધ࢚঴Δᏺ෌᧯᧭ऱᏝଖΖ 5.ലᇷᄭ᠏֏੡‫᠆ޓ‬༄ऱტࡴ੒೯Δࠌሏড়ีᗨ‫ڍޓ‬ऱტᤚࡉಖᖋΖ ࠡ‫ה‬ऱຝ։༉ਢᝫ૞‫ޏ‬࿳ष೴ᖞ᧯ᛩቼΔ௽ܑ‫ף‬ൎψࠩष೴ٌຏհঁ‫ࢤܓ‬ω֗ψ۰മ ๻ਜᙇᖗω Δࠠ᧯৬ᤜቝਢᏺ‫ף‬ᝩ߫ሐΕ֘٠ᢴ‫א‬ፂሏড়հ‫ڜ‬٤Ε༼ࠎ‫ڍ‬ᑌ֏۰മᙇᖗΖ

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֧‫֮ش‬᣸ ‫٘ޕ‬ᐖΕᗝ࣑ശΰ2004α Ζഗ ഗ៕ٖၵᖂΖ‫ࠇק‬Κषᄎઝᖂ֮᣸‫נ‬ठषΖ ࣥࡲᔃΰ1996)Ζֲ ֲִᑧଅན೴ளሏრွ֗ီᤚནᨠցైհઔߒΖ‫؀‬խΚࣟ௧Օᖂནᨠᖂ ઔߒࢬጚՓᓵ֮Ζ ੄٢᧵ΰ2006α Ζٖ ٖၵልᄐЁ᧯᧭ऱᨠរΖ‫ק؀‬Κ೛ဎ஼‫ૻڶݝ‬ֆ‫׹‬Ζ ளሏრွΕளሏየრ৫ፖૹሏრᣋհᣂএઔ ඦ໏ႂΕࣥૉᐝΕ५ᄅႁΕૃ֮ቯΰ2002α Ζள ߒΔ2002 ᨠ٠ٖၵዄ塊ளขᄐ‫ة‬ᥛᆖᛜᖂ๬ઔಘᄎ҈Ζ೏ႂؑΖ ඩഏൄΰ2002α Ζሏ ሏড়ኙଅནሏᖈ೴ᎁवრွհઔߒЁ‫א‬ၺࣔ՞ഏ୮ֆႼ੡ࠏΖ‫ק؀‬Κ‫؀‬ ᨜ஃᒤՕᖂ‫چ‬෻ᖂߓ໑Փᓵ֮Ζ ຫֽᄭΰ1988α Ζሏড়ሏᖈᏁ‫ޣ‬ፖሏᖈ᧯᧭հઔಘΖ֪ ֪؆ሏᖈઔߒΔ1ΰ3α Δ25-51Ζ ຫભख़ΰ2004α Ζߨ ߨ๶ၢ‫ޘ‬Κ֪؆ልᄐ᧯᧭ඒᖂፖ԰‫ڣ‬ԫ຃ᓰ࿓๻ૠΔልᄐᇷᄭᘜԵ԰‫ڣ‬ ԫ຃ᓰ࿓ऱૹ૞ࢤΖ‫ؑק؀‬ΚልࡡᄎΖ ᨠ٠֨෻ᖂΖ‫ק؀‬Κնত‫נ‬ठषΖ ᝔ිख़ΰ1994α Ζᨠ ᤕࡲႂΰ2000α ΖტࢤࣉᙰΔၞԵՕ᧯᧭ழ‫ז‬Ζ๻ ๻ૠᠧ፾Δ93Δ5-8Ζ Barlow, J. & Maul, D. (2000). Emotional Value: Creating Strong Bonds With Your Customers. San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler. Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W. & Engel, J. F. (2001). Consumer behavior. Harcourt College Publishers, Florida: Orlando. Echtner, C.M. & Ritchie, J.R.B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. The journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12. Edgell & Harbaugh (1993). Tourism assessment and project development. D.C.: The George Washington University Washington. Fakeye, P. C. & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image difference between prospective, first-time and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of travel research, 30(2), 10-16. Ghani, J. A. & Deshpande S. P. (1994). Task characteristics and the experience of optimal flow in human-computer interaction. The journal of psychology, 128(4), 381-391. Gunn, C. A. (1972). Vacationscape: designing tourist regions. Austin: A University of Texas. Holbrook,M.B. & Hirschman E. C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: consumer fantasies, feelings and fun. Journal of consumer research, 9(2), 132-140. 51 57


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Jenny, B. & Eugenia, W. (2004). Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas-vibrant hope or impossible dream?. Tourism management, 25, 71-79. Mathwick, C., Malhotra, N. & Rigdon, E. (2001). Experiential value: conceptualization, measurement and application in the catalog and internet shopping environment. Journal of retailing, 77(1), 39-56. McKain, S. (2002). All business is show business. Tenn: Rutledge Hill Press. Nashville. Otto, J. E. & Ritchie J. R. B. (1996). The service experience in tourism. Tourism management 17(3), 165-174. Pine, B. J. and Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy: work is theatre and every business a stage. Boston: HBS Press. Privette, G. (1983). Peak experience, peak performance, and flow: a comparative analysis of positive human experiences. Journal of personality and social psychology, 45(6), 1361-1368. Robinette, S., Brand, C. & Lenz V. (2001). Emotion marketing: the hallmark way of winning customers for life. New York: McGraw-Hill. Schmitt, B. H. (1999). Experiential marketing: how to get customers to sense, feel, think, act and relate to your company and brands. New York : The Free Press. Vézina, R. (1999). Pour comprendre et analyser l’expérience du consommateur. Gestion, 24(2), 59-65. Williams, P. & Soutar, G. N. (2000). Dimensions of customer value and the tourism experience: an exploratory study. Queensland: ANZMAC, pp. 1415-1421.

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遊客休閒體驗與旅遊意象之研究  
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