Page 1

stavros kousoulas architecture portfolio


contents


cv

04

architecture + urbanism

06

inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

06

anarcostructivism

30

in search of a new habitat model for the center of Athens

40

the object of desire

50

architecture

56

national movie archive

56

research

56

fear and loaning in Athens

62

the athenian palimpsest

64

social and spatial formation of public space in Athens center

66

02


stavros kousoulas

stakousou@yahoo.gr 0639378646

education

2012 M. Sc. in Architecture

TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture, Delft, The Netherlands Thesis Title: The Athenian Palimpsest (Grade 9/10) Final Project: Inhabiting Otherness; A Versatile Urban Model for Riberas del Bravo (Grade 9/10, honorable mention, proposed by TU Delft for the Archiprix contest) Degree Grade: TU Delft provides no overall degree grade

2009 M. Sc. in Architecture

National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Faculty of Architecture, Athens, Greece. Thesis Title: City/Spectacle In Three Acts And An Athenian Story (Grade 10/10) Final Project: In Search Of A New Habitat Model For Athens (Grade 9,4/10) Degree Grade: 8,28 out of 10

2008 Erasmus studies Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid (ETSAM)

2003 Graduate Certificate

(Apolytirion) of Unified Lyceum, Agrinion, Greece. Certificate Grade: 19,8 out of 20.

language skills

English

Certificate of Proficiency in English, University of Cambridge. TOEFL Internet-Based Test, Score: 111 out of 120.

German

Zentrale Mittelstufenprufung, Goethe – Institut.

Spanish

Diploma de Espanol como Lengua Extranjera, Nivel Intermedio, Instituto de Cervantes.

Dutch

Currently attending classes leading to the first certificate

Arabic

Basic knowledge.

Greek Mother tongue.

computer skills

cv

Excellent skills of all basic operations Excellent skills in the use of CAD programs Certificate of specialized seminars in Autodesk Autocad, 3d Studio Excellent skills in the use of graphic design programs Certificate of specialized seminars in Adobe Photoshop


career record

November 2009 - June 2010

Employee at Karatzas Architectural Office, Athens, Greece. Responsible for both design and supervision of various projects, mostly private residences and hotel facilities

March 2010 - June 2010

Part of a research team supervised by P. Tournikiotis, participating in the design of three public squares in the district of Ag. Panteleimonas in Athens. The whole project was under the supervision of the Greek Minister of Environment, Energy and Climatic Change

September 2012 – Up to now

Assistant of dr. ir. H. Sohn and dr. ir. G. Bruyns on the TU Delft DSD Urban Asymmetries Studio under the title Fear and Loaning in Athens

publications

2009 S. Kousoulas_V.Vasiliades, In search of a new habitat model for Athens, NTUA, Athens, Greece 2010 SuperkampungWorkshop, Berlage Institute,TU Delft andTarumanagara University, November 11th - 18th 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia S. Kousoulas_V.Vasiliades, Investigating the social and spatial formation of Ag. Panteleimonas, NTUA_YPEKA, Athens Greece S. Kousoulas_V. Vasiliades, publication of the NTUA Masters Final Project on the daily newspaper Eletherotypia 2011 Lecturing with title The Sleep of Reason; Notes on Monster Production at the 2nd International Congress of Frontier Cities, November 9th11th 2011, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico 2012 Designer of Bantar Gebang Kampung proposal at MVRDV_T?F, The Vertical Village, Nai Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Member of the AAA project of the TU Delft DSD participation in Venice Biennale of Architecture

online

http://www.enet.gr/?i=issue.el.home&date=23/02/2010&id=134985 http://www.inews.gr/29/agios-panteleimonas-dikaioma-stin-outopia. htm http://kala-nea.gr/?p=1368 http://newsmme.blogspot.com/2010/02/blog-post_7020.html

04


Archiprix 2012 TU Delft Nominant

Honourable Mention TU Delft

architecture + urbanism


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo Urban Asymmetries Ciudad Juarez Master graduation project DSD_TU Delft tutors: H. Sohn, G. Bruyns, H. Plomp evaluation: 9 out of 10 2011-2012

Program In Ciudad Juarez, one can witness the emergence of a phenomenon, applied of course in the whole of Mexico, but located there in its extreme intensity, one which positions housing design, production and use at its limits.To be precise, social housing as developed in a city which has been the lab of various economical experiments for the past decades, has reached its maximum of devaluation. Under that scope, thousands of housings remain abandoned all over the city. As expected, the issues rising in housing affect radically the capability of developing any form of social identity and cohesion amongst its residents. .We intent to analyze, document, examine and design a new model of housing as an alternative proposal to the existing one. Site The study case, the field of applying our investigation and design will be Riberas del Bravo, a housing complex on the outskirts of Ciudad Juarez. Process A new model, which will take into consideration the physical presence of the present situation, of the present housing model, and will intent to take advantage of any possible qualities found in it. We intent in developing a notion of social, communal identity, strengthening the inner bounds of the community and enhancing their collective memory. Solution

As determined through the collective strategy, the location chosen is to be densified, making the need for preparation, deployment and management of spatial interventions crucial. In order to cope with such a complex task, we will follow a methodology which involves multiple scales, from urban to city block to architectural, redefining the existing situation while developing a set of prototypical elements, fundamental parts of our individual design proposal.

06


URBAN MORPHOLOGY

inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

1940

HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

1910

1930s

1821

1860 Increased trade with US

1870 Civil Code for Federal District

1878 FNM established 1888 El Paso Del Norte renamed Ciudad Juarez

MORPHOLOGY/ TYPOLOGY

Land in Tejas sold for US$0.25 per hectare

1909

1917

1920Õs

1925-46

FNM opens 2nd border crossing

Encomienda Abolished

Zona de Tolerencia

DGPC for government workers

1928

1930 Gambling dismantled

El Paso airport opens

1933-56 1940Õs Shift from tenants to owners begin Self help housing

BNHUOPSA (National Banks for Urban Mortgages and Public Works) propose state rental housing

1930Õs Viciendes pattern/ Latifundistas

1940Õs Neolatisfundismo- Low-income housing in Ejido Land 1940Õs Rent freeze

1934 Ejido system introduced

1930Õs limited version of Zona Libre

1925-73

DPM for military 1920-1960 1909

CULTURE/ SOCIETY

1894 Mexican Duel, film by T.A. Edison

1821

MIGRATION

ca1400-1700 Migration of Indian tribes from the North (USA) to the Texas/ Chihuahua region

Influx of Americans settle in Tejas

Meeting of U.S. President Taft and Mexican President Diaz in Ciudad Juarez photographed by Alva Brothers

1917

1914 The life of General Villa film by D.W. Griffith

1915

The Martyrs of Alamo, film by D.W Griffith

Mexican Constitution establishes right to education, social rights

1896-1974 David Alfaro Siqueiros, painter

Mexican Muralism

1902-2002 Manuel Alvarez Bravo, photographer

1935

Bordertown, film by A. Mayo

1886-1957

Diego Rivera, painter

1936

Reefer Madness - American anti-marijuana film

1835

1910

1914-1918

1920

American-Mexican ratio in Texas: 4:1

890,000 Mexicans take refuge in US

US labour shortages, border control relaxed

Alcohol smuggled across border

1942

1929-1939

Mexican farmers and labour imported to US

Mexicans deported from US

?

Restrictions on American immigration in Tejas

ca1520-1545 Spanish arrive in Mexico; conflict with indigenous groups

1810-1821

1835-1836

1845

Mexican War of Independence

Texas Revolution

US military Army of observation

1836

1812

Mexican siege at Alamo and Goliad

Battle of New Orleans

1857-1861

1867

War of Reform

Maximilian executed

1859

1846-1848

1900

1910-1920

Caste Wars

Mexican Revolution

Confiscation of church properties

Mexican-American War

1911

US. Border Security Program

1850-1861

US military border Security

1914

1916-1917

1919

Marines held at Tampico

10000 American troops enter Mexico in retaliation

Battle of Juarez

1924

1926-1929

1934-1945

US Border Patrol

Cristero War

RooseveltÕs Good Neighbour policy

1862-1866

CONFLICT/ CRIME/ LAW ENFORCEMENT

French Intervention

1850-1906

Apache Wars

Mexico/ Spain United States Disputed territory

1802

1819

1835

1848

1853

1855-1861

1570 Founding of silver mines in Chihuahua region

1883

La Reforma del Norte

Landlaw 1880Õs-1890Õs

1857-1876

1917

Agrarian Decree

Article 123 : Uncultivated Land Act labor unions, the right to and Ejida Law strike, protection for women 1921 and children, 8 hour shifts Start of free distribution of and a living wage land to campesinos

1885-1905

1864

ECONOMIC POLICIES

1915

Golden age

Attraction of foreign capital to mining industry

Zona libre

Imperial Mexican Railway Company starts construction on Veracruz-Mexico City line

1926 Poppy cultivation id prohibited

1920

1930Õs-1970s

1934

first Law of Labor

Reciprocal Trade Agreement

1939

1935

Nationalization of Railways

Marijuana cultivation and commercialisation prohibited in Mexico

1941

Reorganisation of national Confederaci—n de PEMEX established finance bank (Nafinsa) Trabajadores de MŽxico 1940-1945 founded by PRI Industrialization wave

Agrarian Act

1931

1938

1936

1934

Mexican Miracle

1929

1921

Peasant leagues

Employers adopt "protection contracts" with ghost unions comprising 80% of all labor unions

1937

Marijuana Tax Act

1938- 1970

Labour Unions form alliance with PRI 1930Õs-1980Õs

Import Substitution Industrialization 1659 First Mission in El Paso del Norte (Ciudad Juarez)

1848

1802

1819

1833

Louisiana Purchase

Adam-Onis Treaty

Anti-Federalist Revolt 1836

1821

Mexico gains independence Upper Treaty of Cordoba 1821

Americans settle in Tejas

MX-INTL POLITICS

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaties of Velasco recognizes Texas Independence; disagree over border

California Land Act

1829

1823-1864

GLOBAL EVENTS

American Independence

1792

French monarchy abolished in place of French Republic

1775

American Revolution begins

1942-1964

Bracero Program 1924

1929

1930

US Immigration Act

US immigration quotas

US Federal Bureau of Narcotics

1924-1928

Oppression on Church

1929 - 2000

1880-1884

PRI in power

Manuel Gonz‡lez Benito Juarez 1838

1848

Invention of photography

Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels

1842

1804 Napoleon crowned as French Emperor 1812 US declares war against British Empire

US Prohibition

Restoration of republic

1857-1872

1810 Bolivar in South America

US Constitution

1920-1933

Mexican Constitution

Second Mexican Empire

Californian gold rush

Santa Anna

Science of Logic by Hegel

1787

1776

1917

Harrison Narcotics Tax Act -1st US law

1867

1833-1855

1812

Critique of the Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant

1914

Treaty of Ciudad Juarez 1864-1867

1848-1855

1836

Slavery abolished Seven Laws in Texas

United Mexican States 1781

Constitution forbids re-election and

slavery 1853 Gasden Purchase

1821-1823

First Mexican Empire

1857

1851

1911

1848

1871

1861-1865

French Commune rules Paris

American Britain gains French Revolution Hong Kong establishes second French Civil War

1823

1829

Industrial Revolution

First major US railroad system

1883 US Chinese Exclusion Act

Republic

Monroe Doctrine

1780

various

1872-1876 1876-1911 1907 Cubism

1901 What is to be Done by Lenin

1898 US wins Spanish- American War; annexes Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico

1905 Russian Revolution leads to creation of Duma

Alvaro Obreg—n 1921

Theory of General Relativity by Albert Einstein

Surrealist Movement 1919

Treaty of Versailles

World War I

1928-1930

1930-1932

Plutarco El’as Calles

Emilio Portes Gil

Pascual Ortiz Rubio Abelardo L. Rodr’guezL‡zaro C‡rdenas/agrarian cause

1932-1934

1940-1946

1934-1940

1931 The Incompleteness Theorems by Goedel 1933 Enabling Act passed in Germany giving Hitler dictatorial powers 1936 Spanish Civil War

Manuel çvila Camacho

1939-1945

World War II

October Revolution in Russia

1905 First airplane flight

1908

Model-T Ford

1875

1830

1924-1928

1922 USSR established 1922 MussoliniÕs Black Shirts occupy Rome

1917

1893 First car built by Henry Ford

US trans-continental railroad

1920-1924

1915

1914-1918

1886 Haymarket Massacre in Chicago

1869

1914-1920

Venustiano Carranza

Sebasti‡n Porfirio D’az / Porfiriato 1885 Lerdo de Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Tejada On the Origin of Nietzsche 1888 Species by Charles 1867 The Finiteness Theorem by Das Kapital by Karl Marx Darwin Hilbert 1859

1929

1933

Wall Street Crash

New Deal

Second Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution spreads

HISTORIC AL TIMELINE URBAN ASYMMETRIES_ CIUDAD JUAREZ STUDIO

timeline of historical and urban processes in Mexico and Cd. Juarez

taxonomy of a strategic approach for Riberas del Bravo

architecture + urbanism

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

1890

1880Ê

1870

1860

1850

1840

1830

1820

1810

1800

1790

1780

1770

2011_2012 Lisa Floor Stavros Kousoulas Shikha Keshan Dennis Lassche Sara Navrady Revathi Pillai Parisa Setayesh Srividhya Srinivasan Dalia Zakaite


URBAN MORPHOLOGY

wc wc

1970

2000

2011

wc wc

1973 Frontera I and II Land area: 138 m Housing area: 98 m

~2004 Riberas del Bravo

HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

land area: 90 m housing area: 31 m

wc

wc 1978 Casas Grandes

Land area: 0 m Housing area: 68 m

wc

1985 Aeropuerto land area 120 m housing area 61 m 1998 Horizonte del Sur land area 122 m housing area 53 m

U S

G

D

P

$

~2006 Camino Real land area 90 sqm housing area 21 sqm

1980 Casas Grandes

land area 120 m housing area 63 m

2000s

1970s

INFONAVIT & INDECO POVIMI BANOBRAS :knocks viviendas 1970

1966

2009

9 pvt builders preferred 2001

2005

Housing loans made more flexible

FOVI taken over by SHF

70% housing INFONAVIT

1990Õs

FOVI ; SEDUE established

PEMEX,CFE employee housing

Land Regulation Act 1970Õs Pleasure strip

1965

3.8 Million Mexicans deported from US

US Immigration Triples, 80% are Mexican

1983 El Norte film by Gregory Nava

1980 Cabrito Westerns

Mid 1970s Drug traffickers corridos appear on the popular music market

1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico

1953

1996 Todos Los Viernes son Santos film by Hector Villanueva

1990 Fronterizo Cinema

1973

Operation Intercept

US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

1980 Hostility towards maquiladora women reported

1984 Camerena Case

1986 US Department of Defence involved in anti-drug campaign

1990 Mistreatment of migrants increase

Mexican cocaine distribution emerges (independent of Columbia)

Colombian Cartels hire Mexican gangs to traffic drugs

1993 Juan Jesus Posadas Ocampo, Cardinal of Guadalajara mistakenly killed

Border militarization US 1990

2000

1998 Crisis center opened

Zapatistas march to Mexico City

National Human Rights Start of feminicide statistics Commission (CNDH) forms

2008

Guzman escapes

2004

1994Armed indigenous rebellion

2001

High flow of arms to US

CNDH no longer part of government

2004 - now

1994 Zapatista Army of National Liberation

2003

1986

Mexican Peso devalued Letter of Intent signed with IMF

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1987 Bilateral framework agreement for trade and investment

1982

Heavy international borrowing

Increase in maquiladoras and unemployment, metal industry moves north; women enter workforce

1977-1981

Oil Boom

1983

La Paz Agreement 1982 Mexican labourers lose 1984 purchasing power Mexican formal sector labour union

USAID

1990 Telmex privatized

1994 1994

1953-1954

1956

CIA was founded in the US and DFS - Mexican Presidential police

US Boggs Act

US Operation Wetback

US Narcotics Control Act

1982 US policy towards drugs more aggressive

1970

US Operation Wetback

Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act

Chamizal Border Settlement

2001

CONAFOVI 2000

1985

Nov 1991

1994

change of Constitution: Article 27 Ejidas privatized

December mistake

Maquiladora numbers decrease

1992 Border Liason Mechanisms established

Mexico earthquake 1984 US Trade and Tariff Act

2002 The Union, Peasant, Social, Indigenous, and Popular Front (FSCISP) forms

2004 Memorandum of Understanding

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

2006 CFC to regulate conglomerates

2004

NAFTA Visa for Professionals

1996 US Illegal Immigration Reform & Responsibility Act



2010

2001

2004

Modification of Article 4 of the Constitution

Intessigence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

2001

Todo Somos Juarez

50%

2005

US Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act

US House Bill 4437 proposes US-Mexico border fence

2002

US Immigration Reform and Control Act

Beyond Merida

Dec 2002

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

2006 Zapatistas launch The Other Campaign

US Freedom of Information Act

1995 US Operation Safeguard

1986



2010-2015

2003 Operation Cintinela

Recinto Fiscalizado EstratŽgico

1994 US Operation Gatekeeper

1985 Agreement on bilateral subsidies and countervailing duties

Merida Initiative

MX-INTL POLITICS

1951

21 unions form the Foro group; protest against government

Increase in maquiladoras

1988 Aeromexico strike Government closes airline and fires 12000 employees

density drops from 30 to 20% 1965 1963

1947

1996

PROSEC Decree

2007-2010

$

National Bank BANAMEX

2004-2007

New federation National Union of Workers (UNT)

y

1982

Devaluation of Peso (58%)

1997

FECHAC

2002

ar

1976

1996

NAFTA

ilit

1976

Border Industrialization Program

1994

US Department of Homeland Security

M

1965

1990 De-privatization of banks

fe

1982

Discovery of Canterell oil field

ECONOMIC POLICIES

PRONAF

1976

Federal Labor Act

S

1961

1970

2009 Operation Xcellerator

6500 soldiers sent to Michoacan

U

developments

End of Land Distribution

Sharp increase in human rights violations by army

2006

Arrests but no real convictions in feminicide 1964

Noel Salgueiro Nevarez, leader of Sinoala Cartel in Chihuahua arrested

2009

Increased danger to Mexicans reporting on violence

1995

Insurgencia Obrera leads to the formation of independent unions

2011

2009 Operation Quintana Roo

2005

CBP = DHS

Crime rate in Mexico City triples

More than 42,000 people have been killed in Mexico's drug feuds since Calderon took office in 2006.

Operation Sinaloa

Law adjustments to reduce violence against women, impunity continues

1995

1960

2011

Brother of Juarez Cartel leader killed by Sinaloa Cartel

Members of Mexican law enforcement arrested as part of Operation Clean Up

Flow of drugs shifts to Mexico

US Omnibus Crime Bill

16 teenagers killed in Ciudad Juarez

2008

2004

2001

1994

2010

2007-2010

Family members of feminicide Operation Baja California victims visit officials 2008 Operation Chihuahua

Minute Man border watch in Arizona

2001

1994

1946-1952

Bush approves an additional 370 miles of fence

2004

NHRC, social movement emerges

1993

1976 5000 members of US Military involved in anti-drug campaign

2006

2004

Violence against women increases

Death of Carillo Fuentes, leader of Juarez Cartel

Operation Condor

Increased immigration to El Paso from Ciudad Juarez

Illegal immigrants estimated at 12 million

Focus on migration and human rights

1993

1975-1985

Military used as Eradication Force to destroy illegal plants

2004

2001

1990 1980s

1980s

Attention shifted to ColombiaÕs cocaine industry

Biometric data collected at US borders

CONFLICT/ CRIME/ LAW ENFORCEMENT

1948

1976 Haningans Acquittal

1975

US focus on detention of illegal immigrants and human trafficking

1996

Increased migration towards border

MIGRATION

1969

Tlatelolco Massacre

2003

Increase in border patrol in Arizona 1994

2008

Extension of border fence approved 2006

US-Mexico points of entry harmonized

Steel fence erected between San Diego and Tijuana 1995

Immigration Reform and Control Act

2005

2002

1994

1986

1964 - 1982 1968

June 10 Movement

Art related to feminicides in Ciudad Juarez emerges

Asfalto film by A. Trujillo 1990 Immigrant quota increases from 0.5 to 0.7 million

ÔDirty WarÕ

Drug policy shifts from the Health Department to Attorney GeneralÕs Office

2011

2006

Social movement emerges, media attention is rising 2002

1980 1982 Hispanic appears on US Migration to US Census increases

US Supreme Court gives right to education to illegal residents

1947

2001 - now

1979 Rise of Graffiti

1982

Infrastructure

SHF transfers powers to SOFOLES

1997

nts

Collapse of Mexican film industry

1984

1970Õs

2004

Housing sector reforms- liberalization of housing bank loans

INFONAVIT major SADEC, FECHAL civil society housing

igra

1960

Espaldas Mojadas film by A. Galindo

1991

1990Õs

m

1955

Right Cross film by J. Sturges

FOVI auctions via developers

Rental Legislation Reforms

l im

1950

Pecadora film by Jose Dia Morales

1989

Housing Decree 1985

CULTURE/ SOCIETY

1947

1985

Senate & House of deputies introduce 10 bills

gated communities begin

INDECO & CORETT regularize self help housing

Chamizal National Memorial

1983

1980Õs

1902-1988

Luis Barragan, Architect

INFONAVIT bankrupt

ga

ISSSTE & IMSS rental stopped Housing Finance Program with US aid-FOVI , FOGA

National Housing Program rental housing 1980Õs

ille

1963

1978-82

$

1960-70Õ s

Government sells parcel land pockets for rent/ownership

1970 Articulos Ganchos Program 1970

e

Land exchange between US & Mexico

ns

1963

Pronaf Regulatory Plan for Ciudad Juarez

De

1961

Freeway constructed between El Paso & Ciudad Juarez

US

1958

$

FONHAPO (Trust Fund for Popular Housing), INVI (National Institute for Housing)



gs

1954

US forces join Vietnam War

1973

Military coup in Chile by Pinochet

1978

Chinese economy adopts capitalism

1991

Dissolution of USSR

40%

2003 1999 NATO bombing campaign against Serbia

Iraq invaded by US and allied forces

rt

1995 Bosnian Independence

1991

US Operation Desert in Kuwait 2000

$$$$$$$$$$

2001

China entersPrivatization of US Military WTO 1979

Energy crisis

1981

Oil glut

1999

1987

30%

2008

EU adopts Euro

Stock Exchange crisis



Global economic crisis

2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

2006 Hurricane Katrina

2010 2011 Haiti earthquake Tohoku earthquake

M

ex

M

ico

ex

G

D

ica

P

n

Ex

po

rt

Oil crisis

Felipe Calderon

Vicente Fox

World Wide Web 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall

1975 Americans evacuated from Vietnam

1973

2006-2012

2000-2006

Ernesto Zedillo

1989

1984 US president Ronald Reagan re-elected

W ar

1994-2000

Carlos Salinas de Gortari

1984 Apple 128K Desktop computer

po

Miguel de la Madrid

Margaret Thatcher elected PM of UK

GLOBAL EVENTS

Global student riots

1988-1994

1982-1988

1979

im

1965

Construction of Berlin Wall

1968

Vietnam War

1975 US backed Plan Condor in South America 1976 Military coup in Argentina

n

1961

JosŽ L—pez Portillo y Pacheco

Luis Echeverr’a çlvarez 1969 Moon Landing

Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman

1954-1975

1976-1982

1970-1976

Gustavo D’az Ordaz 1962

Communists assume power in China 1950-1953 Korean War

ica

1964-1970

Adolfo L—pez Mateos

1957 Treaty of Rome establishes the EEC

1949

ex

1958-1964

Adolfo Ruiz Cortines

Miguel Alem‡n ValdŽs

M

1952-1958

1946-1952

on

D

ru

1950Õs

MORPHOLOGY/ TYPOLOGY

1947

BONABRAS (National 2/3 of houses Bank for Public Works non ownership and Services) 1949 ISSSTE & Direccion de Pensiones Civile build 1951 rental housing PanAmerican highway

20%

Sept 11, 2001

Terrorist attacks on WTC and Pentagon

to

m

rs

ilit

ar

y

US

nts

igra

C

on

tr

ac

US

% $

as indicated

causal

1 billion

interrelated

1 million

speculated

l Im

m

10%

2020 Tra

de

Bal

an

ce

2010

2000

1990Ê

1980

1970ÊÊ

1960

1950

Le

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Lab

M

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ican

D

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08


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

LEGEND PROJECT:CLINIC AND MEDICAL EDUCATION LF PROJECT:TRANSPORT HUB RP PROJECT:SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING PS PROJECT:MATERIAL BANK DZ PROJECT:WORKSHOP AND MARKET SS PROJECT:AGUA-URBAN CONNECTORS SN PROJECT:URBAN AGRICULTURE SHK PROJECT:NEW HOUSING MODEL SK PROJECT:DESIGN-BUILD STUDIO DL

collective map of projects in Riberas del Bravo

architecture + urbanism


adaptation of collective strategy

project site

aerial view

10


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

Public Use On the center of the block, forming an attractor for both insiders and outsider, with both indoor and outdoor spaces _appr. 230m2 (6 residencies) _Plot area of 540m2 _Small clinic, community center, vocational center, material/prefab workshop, cinema, theater, kindergarden, playgarden

Communal Spaces Scattered inside the block, places of communal encounter, expanding daily inhabitance _101 residencies inhabited at the moment _1000m2 of communal spaces in total _min. 50m2 per unit _1 communal space per 6 residencies

Workshops On the edges of the block, forming a perforated peripherical limit, an attractor to both insiders and outsiders _600m2 in total _max. 150m2 per unit _appr. 80 empl.

architecture + urbanism


Commercial Scattered inside the block, attractors of internal movement, vivid street level with day and night activities _500m2 in total _50m2 per unit _bakery, grocery, hair-salon, repair, tavern, bar _appr. 20 empl.

Urban Agriculture Scattered inside the block, providing basic nutritive needs and potentials of in-community good exchange _appr. 1835m2 _backyard farm 60m with 3 farmers _cross-road farm 155m2 with 6 farmers _in-road farm 475m2 with 12 farmers 2

Housing Expansions Expansion of the existing residencies, taking place horizontally, in all directions, conne _101 inhabited residencies _current residents 374 _projected to reach 493 _need for 32 new housing units

12


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

planting

expansions

abandonment

_turn a drawback into an advantage _exploit the current fallacy pattern as the main tool of future evolution _abandoned houses and neglected spaces considered as the catalyst of transformation _used for residencies, commercial uses, workshops and public uses _selective demolition of some so as to create routes inside the block _simultaneous development of 3 nodes _public/labor/residence _each node inserts the parameters/fragments of a new housing mode

INITIAL ACTIONS

FORECLOSURE OF HOUSES LEASE THE CONTROL OF ABANDONED HOUSES

STATE FUNDS, SUBSIDIES, ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS, USAID, INVESTORS ETC.

PRIVATE LOANS, MICRO FINANCE,SAVINGS ETC

FUNDS GROWS INTO

SOCIOECONOMIC PLATFORM FOR COLLECTIVE ORGANIZATION SUPPORT OF INFONAVIT, MUNICIPALITY OF JUAREZ NATIONAL HOUSING COUNCIL

REUSE OF ABANDONED HOUSES;REDEVELOPMENT OF PLOTS

DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE

R FO NT RE

EMPLOYING LOCAL RESIDENTS

USED BY LOCAL RESIDENTS

GUIDANCE FROM EXPERT COMMITTEE: ECONOMISTS, ARCHITECTS, DESIGNERS, AGRICULTURAL ADVISORS ETC URBAN AGRICULTURE

COMMERCIAL USES

COMMUNAL WORKSHOPS

HOUSE EXPANSIONS

PUBLIC USE SPACES

COMMUNAL USE SPACES

DENSIFICATION

FORMATION OF COLLECTIVE COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATION PERCENTAGE OF PROFIT

ASSISTANCE FROM GOVERNMENT BODIES LIKE INFONAVIT, DEPT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT, MUNICIPAL BOARD OF WATER AND SANITATION ETC.

COMMUNAL OWNERSHIP PUBLIC RELATIONS

ADMINISTRATIVE BODY

FINANCE & ACCOUNTS

HOUSING BODY

VOCATIONAL TRAINING

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENTS

EXPANSION OF URBAN AGRICULTURE

EXPANSION OF WORKSHOPS

DIVERSIFICATION OF LAND USE

FORMALISATION

INTRODUCTION OF NEW HOUSING UNITS

FORMALIZATION

LEGALISATION BY THEMINISTRY OF URBAN DESIGN AND ECOLOGY, MUNICIPALITY OF JUAREZ WITH MORE CIVIC POWERS LEGALISATION OF MIXED USE

stakeholders

architecture + urbanism

STRUCTURED GOVERNANCE

DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND CIVIC AMENTIES


Public building

New residences

Workshop

+non/negotiable element +meeting point for residents +new housing units and labor as incentives for relocation

+full development of the new model +incentives for commercial activities +future opening to rental market for vertical development +rent provided by housing cooperatives

+Current residents offered the possibility of new residence +Either in the new residences +Or vertically on their property now transformed into places of labor

deployment

14


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

system

typology

structural system partitions

architecture + urbanism

unit

unit

typology

system


exploded axonometric

structural system deployment

16


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

rebar AAC slabs steel lintel roof finishing parapet metal stud plasterboard

window frame AAC slabs exterior finishing

structural analysis

architecture + urbanism


corner detail

joint section

joint elevation

vertical section

18


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

public building

playground

theater

stakeholders involved

architecture + urbanism

market

resting


20


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

workshop

working

stakeholders involved

architecture + urbanism

exhibition

resting


22


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

+max. 74m2

+all possible expansion if choosing not to expand horizontally

private communal

+if expanding horizontally towards block interior then expand on the opposite of service areas

+max. for 6 housing units +start/end at former backyard entrances

56 m2

+vertical expansion area defined on the surface of two ground floor residences of the previous model

architecture + urbanism

+staircase starting at the communal space of the ground floor


+if expanding horizontally towards street then cannot expand towards blocks interior

+if expanding horizontally towards one direction then cannot expand towards the opposite

+further differentiation in more private and communal spaces

65 m2

+movement allowed through the alley

living private services

+planting if adjacent to public or labor space +light shading construction if adjacent to already existing housing expansions

71 m2

+space created by possible ground floor expansions to be used for future uses.

100 m2

+Rental.housing expansion, or residence if ground floor acquires labor use.

24


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

housing

everyday life

negotiating

stakeholders involved

architecture + urbanism

playing

communal life


26


inhabiting otherness; a versatile urban model for Riberas del Bravo

architecture + urbanism


28


architecture + urbanism


anarconstructivism The Why Factory

TU Delft tutors: F. Madrazo, A. Molenda evaluation: 8 out of 10 2010-2011

Program The AnarCity studio explores the ultimate anarchistic situation as well as when and where it goes wrong. It is simulated as an interactive generative process on the base of abstract model city and applied on a real city that is growing in density in time. In order to investigate the relationship between density and anarchy, the studio will create a simulative game. Site A shared 10x10x1 km space in which each of the 25 participants had to deploy its project. Process Every week each participant had to position an increasing number of inhabitants on its specific project area, with the only rule being the obligation of providing self-sufficiant amount of food and energy. Issues of coexstince where handled through extensive negotiations, either face to face or through social media. Solution A step by step experience of an architectural transformation, in which the internal rules applied for the initial design, one of a periurban villa, eventually conclude into the establishment of high dense, asfyxiating inhabiting environment. An experimental view, on how principles of self-sufficiency and urban replication, include the genealogical characteristics of their distortion through the infinite multiplication of the archetype.

30


anarcostructivism

density (inh/km2) 0,001 water (l/week) 517

25000

1.75 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 2239 food (kcal/week) 15771

462mln

17.92 bln

built volume (km3) 7,29*10-7

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

1

density (inh/km2) 0,08 water (l/week) 32.054

25000

1.75 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 37.600 food (kcal/week) 220.794

462mln

17.92 bln

built volume (km3) 1,205*10-5

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

architecture + urbanism

12


32


anarcostructivism

density (inh/km2) 6,34 water (l/week) 448.756

25000

1.75 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 376.000 food (kcal/week) 2.018.688

462mln

17.92 bln

built volume (km3) 7,435*10-5

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

102

density (inh/km2) 634 water (l/week) 2.100.000

25000

1.75 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 11.088.000 food (kcal/week) 24.224.256

462mln

17.92 bln

built volume (km3) 7,435*10-5

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

architecture + urbanism

1080


34


anarcostructivism

density (inh/km2) 27.934 water (l/week)

100.000

21.000.000

1.75 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 110.880.000 food (kcal/week) 266.466.816

462mln

17.92 bln

built volume (km3) 0,002

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

12960

density (inh/km2) 167.604 water (l/week)

200.000

210.000.000

1.75 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 1,1088 food (kcal/week) 2.931.134.976

2 bln

17.92 bln

built volume (km3) 0,012

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

architecture + urbanism

38016


36


anarcostructivism

density (inh/km2) 335208 water (l/week)

350.000

2.10

2.50 bln

energy (Kwh/week) 11.088 food (kcal/week)

12 bln

29

30 bln

built volume (km3) 0,12

4

*all calculations for 1mln inhabitants / week

architecture + urbanism

1016064


38


architecture + urbanism


in search of a new habitat model for the center of Athens Master graduation project National Technical University of Athens tutors: P. Tournikiotis, S. Stavridis evaluation: 9,4 out of 10 2008-2009

Program Spatial reorganization of the Greek block apartment, considering its existing problems and future potentials, without eliminating its essence in the Greek domestic environment. Site Three existing city squares in an area of downtown Athens known as Agios Panteleimonas. Considered to be one of the areas with the highest building and residence density in Europe. Process Thorough examination, listing and classification of the existing buildings. Compilation of a complex housing program aiming to exclude the possibilities of a gentrified result.Therefore we set as our basic principle that none of the residents would be forced to leave his area. Solution By translating and recomposing the existing urban data, a new relationship between public and private is created. In the meanwhile, by creating various qualities of commune space, we intend to redefine the limits of urban dwelling.

40


in search of a new habitat model for the center of Athens Consolidation of streets, free spaces and ground floors by creating a unique movement level, with natural elements opposing to the existing system. Abatement of the existing height differences with a possibility of smooth transitions. Lower buildings considered not as obstacles, but as balancing space elements.

Reorganization of the city’s square limits. Placement of commercial activities in the perimeter of the square, maintaining the city’s image. Multiple entrances, all combined in a unique system, making the city square open for the public.

Planting the interior of the city square. Creating a unified system. Changing the micro - climate. Adjusting the scale of the build environment.

Connection of the various public space levels. Visible vertical public movements. Vertical public movements as landmarks, confronting the rest of the movements.

architecture + urbanism


Creation of an open public space in the core of the unified square. All movements meet in an urban atrium. Eminence of the building climax and, at the same time, relagation of this climax at the human limits. Meeting point of the square with the city, of the communal with the public.

Public space spread in all levels. Free movements and connections between different buildings. Changing the micro - climate. Creation of various public space qualities in all heights by unifying terraces, free inside - building spaces, as well as dead places.

Placement of the communal vertical movements, using the existing system. Main access to the various groups of apartments.

Creation of communal spaces for each group of apartments. Unification of different buildings through the reorganization of their limits. Moving away from the existing limits, helps create communal spaces in between.

42


in search of a new habitat model for the center of Athens Evaluation of the existing situation and the problems occuring from the requirements of the project (differences in building heights,various different falseworks, staircases in all possible positions). Creation of an octagonal grid, intending to introduce a strongly adaptive system and a permanent interpretative motif of the sophisticated existing system. Co-function of the house units with the embodied elements of the grid. Diffusion of the new system, blending with the current elements and general limits reorganization.

Articulation of communal and private. Creation of a new habitat as a result of the new relationship between communal and private.

architecture + urbanism


typical new unit

35m2

new unit with partial elements of the old system appearing

46m2

new unit with a partial addition of old system’s spaces

58m2

new unit with an extensive addition of old system’s spaces

36m2

new unit resulting from the assemblage of the old system’s spaces

48m2

existing apartment

44


in search of a new habitat model for the center of Athens

ground floor plan

section a-a’

architecture + urbanism


second floor plan

section b-b’

46


in search of a new habitat model for the center of Athens

fourth floor plan

south facade

architecture + urbanism


48


architecture + urbanism


the object of desire Architectural design studio

National Technical University of Athens tutors: A. Kourkoulas, A.Vozani evaluation: 9 out of 10 2007-2008

Program The reflection of Parthenon in this city’s every day life, as represented through the construction of a large scale domestic project. Free program, created by each student team. Site Four existing city squares in an area of downtown Athens known as Psiri. Located in the historical centre, a former commercial area now transformed in a hot spot of Athens night life and amusement activities. Process Critical approach of the Athenian habitat tendencies, as seen through the eye of the dominant, massively consumed new-greek culture.The historical centre as a practice field of gentrification-based solutions, the Parthenon as a communal day-dream and inhibition of the city’s image. Solution Various types of apartments, all composed in a complex, yet quite ironic, structure which maintains a certain distance from the ground. Zero level open to public, with multiple routes through archeological excavations. Vertical limits create an interior space in the very heart of the unified city squares. On the top level a virtual rural landscape comes in contrast with the city surrounding it.

50


the object of desire

ground floor plan

housing typologies

architecture + urbanism


second floor plan

80m2

120m2

40m2

52


the object of desire

section a-a’

architecture + urbanism


section b-b’

54


architecture


national movie archive Architectural design studio

National Technical University of Athens tutors: K. Moraitis, N. Marda evaluation: 9 out of 10 2006-2007

Program Large scale project of a sophisticated cultural building, part of a two-semester composition class. Apart from the necessary space to store the huge movies archive, it is also required the design of a small library, a cinema museum, an auditorium of huge capacity, as well as of two smaller ones. In the second semester, the part of the building where the auditoriums are located was analyzed in every part of its construction details. Site Located in the verge of the historical centre,next to Piraios Avenue, the National Movies Archive would be part of a complex of cultural buildings, all of them found nearby. Process The primary intention was to create a building in which the transitions between interior and exterior spaces whould be part of a newly formed relationship of build and unbuild enviroment. Transparent public spaces combined with concrete constructions containers of the main functions. Solution The result is a building which evolutes on a slow pace, ending up to a prominent point, parallel to Piraios Avenue, while the rest of it creates a square - discharger of the urban flows.

56


national movie archive

ground floor plan

first floor plan

second floor plan

architecture


section e-e’’

section z-z’

south facade

section b-b’

58


national movie archive

architecture


60


research


fear and loaning in Athens Architectural design studio

Assistant of dr. ir. H. Sohn and dr. ir. G. Bruyns on the TU Delft DSD Urban Asymmetries Studio September 2012 up to now

Since the frst decade of the 21st century, the Eurozone is facing extended fnancial and economic fuctuations that are shocking the core of their societies and threatens its consistency (i.e. the considerations of a ‘grexit’). Reality has shifted: austerity measurements, suppression of demonstrators, the rise of extremities, the abolishment of the welfare state and the degradation of urban life.The current urban form seems to be in fux. This project takes the economical crisis as a starting point since its effects have start to show in the physical space; demonstrations, inaccessibility of public space, squatting, violation against immigrants, etc. In order to understand which events and actors have led to the current situation in Athens, we approach the current problems from a historical context. We need to see how the social, political and economical context have infuenced and still infuence the urban form and the people that live in the city today. We research the events and actors that have shaped the city and its use and how the asymmetries of the current system are shown through crisis. In this way the research will uncover relations between events and their infuence on the built environment.

Studio title and text as developed by the participant students at the DSD Urban Asymmetries Studio.

We aim to map, to identify and to correlate historical events and their outcomes, in order to trace alternatives to the current situation through a thorough research of its causes. The city is considered as an evolving socio-historical phenomenon (process) which is not only the ramifcation of the action of other phenomena, but can be an actor itself. Since our specialization is urbanism and architecture, the goal of the project is to develop new perspectives in this feld.

62


research


the athenian palimpsest Architecture Thinking Thesis

TU Delft tutor: A. Radman evaluation: 9 out of 10 2011-2012

The Athenian residential block will be the case study, one were the multiple fragments of this breakpoint will be gathered upon, only to be scattered later onto the body of the urban experience. A case study capable of unfolding the characteristics of the constant revulsions in the collective conscious. An urbanity which is to be positioned away from a vivid participation in it, capable of bearing the representative aspects which every transmitter or recipient can potentially produce or receive. The aestheticization of the Athenian residential block, either as an object of desire, as a scapegoat or as fetish object of a vague urban realism, is a continuous procedure for the past 60 years; a procedure constantly evolving, and most likely, doomed to keep on doing so. In fact it is of minor importance when compared with the living conditions that the very object itself, the residential block, creates in space. With the motive of formatting a storytelling for the liquid state of the Athenian residential cell, we aim in presenting –even by convention, even in special- a narration of the transition from the modernistic superimposition, to the postmodern anathema, to the hypermodern spectacle, intending to expose their continuity rather than their differences; a scratch on the palimpsest’s surface uncovering its hidden layers. The experience, the representation and the interpretation of the urban space will by default be connected with issues of the various forms of memory – individual, collective, historical and experiential- as long as with spatiotemporal transformations and compressions. Places, not those of memory since the term place of memory is most probably redundant (each place is referred as one because memory can recognize it) but those as determined in phenomenological thought, constantly transform. They become the products of a permanently unfinished appearance, of a never ending escaping essence. Their internal unity and boundaries get smoother and smoother, the signified lose their importance, and perception requires mediation, requires information.When a world exists only if it can prove its existence, when living can’t let itself in senses and meditation, then the empire of an iconized reality is ready to conquer everything.The Athenian residential block is conceived as a certified copy, a signalized surface, a point, identified with its historical load, capable of existing as a lonely fibrillation in the desert of the urban beyond.

64


research


social and spatial formation of public space in Athens center Research Project

Part of a research team supervised by P. Tournikiotis, participating in the design of three public squares in the district of Ag. Panteleimonas in Athens. The whole project was under the supervision of the Greek Minister of Environment, Energy and Climatic Change March 2010-June 2010

The goal of this research, apart from collecting data and information on many issues related to Athens center, is the formation of an alternative mode of approach and methodology of the social implications of urban space. The methodological structure of this research focuses on the deconstruction of the dominant image of the area through the experiential contact with the neighborhood, but also in communicating with residents before designing, prefering a totally different approach to the design of public space, especially in an area where conditions of survival shifted to their limits. This research intents to find ways and practices which would not only mitigate the social and spatial segregation, but bridge distances and behaviors based on the fear of otherness.The educational environment, but also the recovery of public space through activities in it, form an expression of genuine participation of the residents. It is clear, at least to us, that any design proposal, is only a very weak link in a chain of dramatic changes and upheaval that would be necessary in order to dispel spatial and social limits. For this reason, we can not even envision the ultimate truth, nor a successful recipe to tackle the problems of the area, but only to claim an effort of identifying a form an alternative logic of dealing with urban space.

66


stavros kousoulas

2012

Stavros Kousoulas_Architecture Portfolio  

Architecture_Urbanism_Research

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