Page 1


BREWING CONCEPTS Documenting Art Movments


Š 2017 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission. The opinions expressed in this book are those of the author only and not those of York College of Pennsylvania. This book is an experimental class project for purely educational design purposes. Design by Stacy Pineda Printed by www.lulu.com


BREWING CONCEPTS Documenting Art Movments


Table of Contents Preface Study 1 - Art Deco Study 2 - Art Nouveau Study 3 - Arts and Crafts Study 4 - Bauhaus Study 5 - Conceptual Illustration Study 6 - Contemporary Art Study 7 - Cubism Study 8 - Deconstruction Study 9 - Digital art Study 10 - Expressionist Study 11 - Fauvism Study 12 - Grunge Study 13 - Magical Realism Study 14 - Minimal Art Study 15 - Pop art Study 16 - Psychedelic Poster Study 17 - Surrealism

1 3 5 9 11 13 17 19 23 25 27 32 34 36 39 42 45 48


Preface This documentation book seeks to present a brief synopsis of an art movement history and write what my opinion or thoughts are of the movement and how I felt about the drawing I’ve done for the movement in reaction to what I’ve learned. I prefer to create illustrations as an artist but I have recently taken notice to the fact that my style is similar to that of styles that are currently popular with other artists. Therefore, I’ve taken the initiative to try different sort styles by learning a variety of movements in order to encourage experimentation in future projects. Hopefully, by taking the time to produce an illustration for each movement it will help my art grow and mature to one that isn’t situated with trending styles. The overall concept of using potion bottles in each of the illustrations is meant to allude to witches and even further relate art to magic. Art and magic have been on and the same for generations of people. If we were to look at how art was used to rectify ritualistic purposes in the past with religions and cultures like the Egyptians or the Mayans we can see how the art brought together the ideas of their beliefs. Art can be used to depict the usable for people and with the use of art becomes a link to those beliefs and cultural beliefs. Art is also magical because it allows us to interpret our reality in a different way that would not be possible if not for the artist who creates them.

1


2

Art Deco


Art Deco STUDY

A

rt Deco began as a reaction to the floriated of an ornamental era before and instead focused on a mechanical aesthetic that sought to be a sleek non-traditional design. The style had symbolized the aristocratic or sophisticated new found preference of geometrical designs and stylized version of forms. This new style was very attractive to the wealthy who found the style to be luxurious and rich compared to what was available before. They had found the ornamental designs of the art nouveau era to be irritating or discomforting. Once stripped away art deco brought a refreshing contemporary standard that had not been done before. The style was considered futuristic because it was reflective of the industrial designs of machinery, where the work was symmetrical and planar. Art Deco does utilize linear lines and geometric shapes in a lot of the art of the time as well. They were dedicated to a simple aesthetic, but this does not mean that they pushed away completely historically significant designs of the past, such as cubism, the Bauhaus, etc. These other movements had an indirect influence, but also garnered influence from sources of classical nature, from the Native American to the Egyptians. Artists used the female figure as well as animals, foliage and sun rays, but all in streamlined forms. This style originated in Paris but as the style grew in popularity and influenced architecture and cultures entirely. So much so that because this style

1

had no ideological loyalties, but instead represented the future and progression in society’s technologies, that this style was adaptable to other cultural contexts. The ideas of the future were also appealing to the youth of that time. Art deco was also incredibly influential in consumer goods as it had become a part of the mass market were people identified it as the new and improved. Art Deco started during the 1900 and ended around 1945. This was during the times of the Great Depression and nearing World War II, a time of the industrial age. So, ideally, art would reflect these massive changes and Art Deco greatly exemplifies this time, in my opinion. The designs definitely reflect the industrial age, since the shading used is reminiscent of the gloss of the metal. The geometric designs are what I truly admire as well as the Egyptian influences because they are iconic in my eyes. When I see this style, I think of the roaring 20’s, jazz, and the beautiful typeface that accompanied these designs. I also think of Batman the Animated Series. Funny enough it is probably the first thing I think about when I see this specific style because the series utilized a style combination of Art Deco and noir influences. I think it is truly iconic, absolutely beautiful and breathtaking when I first saw it. I especially enjoy the building design that came from this era. In regards to the bottle that demonstrates my attempt of the art style, I find that a ruler is essential and that circles are a fun challenge to work around. Admittedly, the concept is typical of the era but, it was fun to test the style. I feel like this style is suitable for me because I do lean into symmetry more often than not. It is exciting to try something different and, as the first style of this book, it is a great introduction to what is to come.

Art Deco

3


4

Art Deco


Art Nouveau STUDY

A

rt Nouveau was a popular decorative art style between the time of the1890’s and the 1910’s, flourishing in the United States and Europe. While it was briefly covered in the previous chapter, this style had a lot of organic and ornamental shapes that the era of art deco wished to discard. It was heavily dependent on the organic lines which are line work that are inspired by the natural world but the Art Nouveau artists were also inspired by the geometric forms. So even if Art Deco was visually different, there was still the underlying similarity between the two art styles in their love of the geometric shapes. This stylistic era had a constant design element called the sinuous lines or curves that came from the studies of botanical plants. This style sought to distinguish and modernize themselves from previously popular styles of the times before, like Post-impressionism. In each culture, this style was represented in different ways and influenced by the cultures own history and nationalistic preferences. This style was also derived from elements of the Japanese Art. The black lines of the Japanese art became the rage during the 1890’s Art Nouveau. It was also believed that art should not found in canvas or museums but instead in products that the average person encounters. There was an ethos that valued the freedom that this form of art brought to the average consumer, which might be evident in the method that the artist approached the art of the time. As noted before, the artists loved the rhythmic or natural forms, you could assume that this was a representation of their belief in freedom. Although, it can be noted that these organic forms weren’t truly realistic in

2

their representation and therefore represented the modernist’s aesthetic of this time. Some practitioners of this style even noted that there was an excessive use of ornamentals design in the beginnings of this style, they’ve even dubbed it as frivolous. This style was abandoned in the early 1900’s, as with time the style was deemed old, thereafter Art Deco would gain in popularity. Although the style was unpopular for some time it had resurfaced much later in pop and psychedelic art and fashion. I definitely feel that the Art Nouveau style has definitely rerisen in popularity in the recent years, as there is a renewed interest in the organic matters such as botanical art. This style definitely defines a decade as the method in which they adorned the designs and illustrations were suitable to the time. Bold lines have also been popular presently for some time, it seems that there is always a recurring adornment of the Japanese artwork every so often, which is interesting. I personally find this style, in its start, to be entirely too busy in regards to the heavy amount of ornamentation and detail in one design. I feel that the influence of the style in architecture to be the more impressive example of what this style does and inspires. In the drawing, I attempted to replicate this style, although I went into the drawing understanding the style it was difficult to organize what I’ve learned and put it into an interesting design. The potion bottle is circular because in a lot of the work done in Art Nouveau style utilized circles. Probably one of the most notable artists recognized for the extensive circle usage would be Alphonse Mucha, as he is known as the father of Art Nouveau. At first, when I approached the bottle design I had thought approaching it as I had with the Art Deco movement would be sufficient, but I found that the creature would not be suitable for the style of that era. So, I had instead devised a creature that was encased in organic plants and shapes so that the art stays within what might be the subject matter for the era of this style. Overall, the style is incredibly elegant and beautiful, much of the design does require hard thinking and a solid conceptual design, therefore, it is somewhat a challenge, but one that is worth it.

Art Nouveau

5


6

Art Nouveau


Art Nouveau

7


8

Arts and Crafts


Arts and Crafts

STUDY

T

he start of the Arts and Crafts movement originated in England in the 1800’s and ended in 1920’s. The movement sought to reflect on how people have been consuming manufactured products and this movement started the discussion on how the industrial movement affected people, in terms of quality of life. Since the industrial era inspired mass production, items started to become uniform and there was a loss of distinction in items. It was bleak and boring to the artists of the time, who believed that people had become accustomed to these mass-produced products. The Arts and Crafts movement wanted to inspire items that were done uniquely by different artists, In the way that was done before the industrial eras takeover in production. William Morris leads this movement as he believed that items that were handmade, were much more fulfilling to people because it gave a special connection between the artists and customers alike, in a way that industrially produced items couldn’t give. The Arts and Crafts movement varied in styles but it was all similar to that of medieval and gothic artwork. Additionally, the style had utilized natural motifs since they dedicated themselves to using subjects in the truest and most authentic way possible. In time the style did evolve to the Art Nouveau in England. The movement did receive international attention, so much so, that when it reached the United States it was

3

given a new name; mission style. Although, this was mostly dedicated to furniture design. After some time, there were people who weren’t very fond of the movement since they believed that the movement was no longer reasonable because of the development of technology. They argued that it was impracticable in the simplest of ways because the craftsmanship that Morris was very fond of simply took too long for people who were accustomed to the speed of mass production. This was a time where people had the ability to receive items quicker than that of before so people felt that this movement was an unnecessary step back in time. I don’t personally find this style to be that great, it rather plain compared to the other styles. I am fond of how detailed the flower designs and patterns can be but I feel that the artists became somewhat carried away with the plant ornamental in a lot of the work that was produced. It feels overwhelming at times and if these designs were in a home it would feel like the home was stuck in the past. This style is reminiscent of old English art since it is so ornamental and in black and white. They remind me of the how old storybooks were styled, storybooks that start with once upon a time and are featured in cheesy children films with a happy ending. One thing that I don’t necessarily like was Morris’s belief that people should buy handmade objects because it will bring happiness to the people who bought them. Handmade objects are naturally more expensive and people should not be forced to buy them when they cannot afford to. The idea that handmade objects are unique because it holds the artist’s individual perspective is true, but I don’t believe that it is absolutely necessary to live a happy and fulfilled life. In fact, I believe that people who live a stable life are the ones who start to appreciate what an artist produces, such as handmade objects.

Arts and Crafts

9


II

III

IIIIIIII

III

III

II

10

IIIIII

III

I

II III

Bauhaus


Bauhaus 4 STUDY

T

he Bauhaus movement began in 1919 till the 1933s in the Weimar School of Arts founded by architect Walter Gropius. The school believed that artists should not withstand alienation of creativity and mass production of the arts. They found themselves attending the school where they hoped to learn to understand what role the arts play in the artist’s lives and how they are influential of society with the work they produce. The Bauhaus movement was important because it considered how the arts should be taught to artists and designers alike so that they work to their best potential. It was so well thought out that their way of teaching is felt in art education around the world. The Bauhaus theory suggested that students should take numerous specialized workshops so that they would understand the importance of uniting art and creativity with mass production. They taught the students the how the arts and design can help solve the problems in modern industrial society. This type of theory on art education paved the way for the artists of the future. The school would eventually relocate to Dessau when the school lost government funding. There he had his iconic Bauhaus school built which is believed to be an incredible landmark for modern art. The Bauhaus school contained very successful artists as professors and students alike. The school had a clear vision of what they thought art should look like if you considered who taught

there and what they individually produced. Therefore, a lot of the art and designs produced in this time were work that was minimalistic, geometrical, and handcrafted. During this time, they had broken the conventional with their design which valued rational and functional design instead of ornamental design. The design dedicated to this movement is meant to emulate the stylistic preference of the Bauhaus movement, I stayed close to the ideas that ‘less is more’. Since the design can be incredibly intricate, especially if I chose a creature that needed those designs in order for it to be recognizable. Therefore, I rationalized that I should complete something very simple. I concluded that eyeballs would probably play the best with the geometrical design that overwhelmed a lot of the Bauhaus designs of this time. The style was relatively easy to complete; the challenge was considering if the design itself was organic enough but also balanced in the way the shapes were placed. I do really enjoy this style since it is refreshing to see a smart and simplistic design. Although I am not a fan of the architecture produced in response to the popularity of the style. My reaction to architecture and furniture design is drastically different to the graphic design the artists produced. I for one find architecture and furniture to be almost cliché and reminiscent of an office with grey lifeless cubicles. This may be an unfair assumption because they were designed for function and simplicity, not to be bright or colorful. Nevertheless, the work done by these designers and artists are historically significant since this style was a response to the ornamentation strangle they may have felt at the time. I don’t know if I will ever design in this particular method but it is fun to challenge myself in a style that I’ve admired from afar but never produced.

Bauhaus

11


12

Bauhaus


Conceptual Illustration STUDY

C

onceptual illustrations were introduced in the mid1950’s and much like Conceptual art is the idea that a piece of art has a concept or idea that dictates what the design is. Conceptual illustrations follow the same theory but the work is normally present in mass produced art like in a magazine or book. The illustrations normally only begin to enter the degree of conceptual-ism when the artist is considering an idea that is serious and contains complex and intricate issues. Before the practice of conceptual illustrations became popular a lot of the illustrations were rooted in realism, which can bring a level of difficulty if the artist was trying to tell a message. So, the practice of placing metaphor’s or symbolism became an attractive alternative in the artwork. This new idea came about by a number of young artists who wanted the art to be similar to a poetry. There was a new type of thinking among these artists, where they valued the overall idea and this brought a new dimension to what editorial illustration could say to the reader. This new movement also brought up the tradition of designers presenting their art work to an art director so that they can review the dynamic between the art work and the article itself to check that the connection was clear to the reader. Often these illustrations were witty in relation to the material and at times the work could be a commentary on the subject. Since Conceptual illustration developed from an already established movement, the art styles for this movement would varies depending on the

5

artist’s preference of style. There is the risk that the artist’s intentions may get in the way for the design to be realized and fulfill the overall concept. The work is usually very abstract and surreal in order to creatively but hopefully give the viewer a better understanding of what the concept is meant to be. The 1980’s were illustrations most creative era, where everything was being considered and interpreted into designs for editorials. Conceptual Illustrations are graphic but intelligent and very carefully designed to work in a particular way. Having a concept with illustrations is also refreshing, considering how often you will find illustrations online of beautiful things and that is simply it. There is a place for those types of illustrations, but I’m not a massive fan of it. A younger me would have only drawn aesthetically beautiful way and be okay with it but as of recent years, I’ve tried to move past this with some success. I’m especially fond of those artists who place dynamic shadows in flat illustrations which give the piece a new depth. When I look at this type of work I can’t help but consider who the artist is and what other types of work they have done. In my illustration, I’ve also attempted to generate a concept that works well with the potion bottle theme I have in this book. The potion bottle melds with the shadow of a person. The bottle does not have a creature inside because it wouldn’t work with the concept too well, so I’ve replaced that with circulating arrows. The arrows are meant to represent the confusion that emotions can bring forth where a person will simply run through problems without resolve. These emotions are bottled up and because they are contained in such a way to avoid conflict the person remains severely stressed. I found inspiration for this concept by looking at a few articles. I found the illustration to be somewhat lacking in details but overall, I think it works well with the concept without relying on words. What I’m most concerned of misinterpretation are the arrows inside the bottles.

Conceptual Illustration

13


14

Conceptual Illustration


Conceptual Illustration

15


16

Contemporary Art


Contemporary Art

STUDY

C

ontemporary art is a difficult art movement to identify with characteristic, unlike the other styles who can have a distinctive attribute to their designs. Even so I do believe that it is important to consider the ideas behind the movement and find a close answer as to why or how the movement came about, especially because this is very current. To begin with, contemporary art is art that current and art that is being done now. The movement began in around the 1980’s and people have yet to believe that it is close to its end. Some artists simply define the movement as a time where artists have no common characteristic that everyone is drawing inspiration from but they are instead focusing on whatever suits their ideals and voice as an artist. Contemporary artists also find themselves using art to reflect on the current state of affair on issues that are important to the them and society. There are also artists that define contemporary art as art that seeks to redefine everyday moments into works of fine art in order to give them to attention. The contemporary movement wants to illustrate the special value that the ordinary has on people and how it takes effect onto our everyday lives. There isn’t a specific technique or design that allows the artist to achieve a contemporary look and that is what makes the movement especially challenging to document and write about. Although if we were to find a common characteristic of the movement we would need to look into movements such as mini-

6

malists or pop art to see where they drew inspiration from. Additionally, there seems to have been a shift in how people produced these works of art, were before paintings on canvas was what everyone knew worked and but now artists seem to be moving away from this method in favor of using new technologies like computers or cameras, in order to make new and experimental art. Contemporary art is a confusing subject since it is pretty vague. There hasn’t been any in-depth research done on the history of the movement, which is exciting and interesting at a time where from what I’ve seen, art was typically divided by decades in which one art style had been attractive to many people until people collectively grew tired of it. Although with technology it has become easier to know the history of art from the internet, art styles have be-come an independent moment that pushes for innovative ideas in a place that is full of innovation. Additionally, when people consider the contemporary art that they see in museums there is a bad representation of what is considered contemporary art. It’s funny since I’ve noticed that people would refer to this as modern art, for which it is not. I don’t feel that negative to the contemporary art that is on display but there are times where I would scoff in disbelief at some of the odder pieces. I feel that contemporary art does want to take something from every day and help the viewer understand or feel that it is more than what you simply see. I feel that the art is also connected to what every trend that may be popular with artists like the minimalism art movement. It can be unique but odd, experimenting with oddity and expression in a subtle way is very attractive to me as an artist. My drawing sought to try an entirely new and unique style than I’ve done before. I’m happy with how it come out and somewhat surprised that I managed to pull it off since it is different.

Contemporary Art

17


18

Contemporary Art


Cubism

STUDY

C

ubism sought to revolutionize the art of the 1900’s because it brought new ideas and views. The art was fragmented and abstract, understanding perspective or foreshortening was abandoned in favor of an artwork that flows together with the fragmented subject. There is debate whether it was Pablo Picasso or Georges Braque who started the cubist artwork since they had both collaborated in an effort to create such work. Pablo Picasso’s painting Les Demoiselles D’Avignon was Picasso’s first cubist work which utilized geometric shapes and an incredible distortion of perspective considering the subject. The cubist designed it in such a way were perspective was so fractured, that the viewer saw the object in the way the someone would normally see it with all of its different perspectives so that you see the object for all it was. Then you know everything about the object and nothing is hidden like in traditional paintings of the past. In its beginnings, the cubist design was considered analytical, where the form was broken down and in Picassos and Braque work favored geometric forms as well as the abstraction of perception. Additionally, in some works, there can be a monochromatic color palette which allowed the viewer to simply focus on the figure. Synthetic cubism sought to pull together different forms and did indulge placing brighter color into the pieces. This style of cubism still worked with geometric forms but is designed much like a collage since they would have plastered things such as newspapers onto the canvas. Cubism grew because of a growing movement for people to adapt to the growth

7

of technology and especially photography. Where artists had once focused on realism and perspective, cubist artists felt that with the growing popularity of photography and industrial growth there was a need for a new perspective of art. One that abandoned the past and sought to introduce the idea of abstract art which helped change the ideas of art for generations I normally associate the cubism movement as something much like a reliquary. It was cool at its time but now not so much, to me at least. I know that the style was an important part of the art history, but I don’t particularly find myself stopping and gazing at the work like I would in something that I truly admire. True it was an important movement and a lot of the art that I do like wouldn’t have happened if it weren’t for cubism and its completely experimental perception of perspective. Although I don’t appreciate the style for its aesthetics, I can definitely appreciate the idea that Picasso and Braque had while working together to create this style. Scrolling through the different works that have been done using the cubist style I do find myself liking the paintings with a colorful pallet but only by some because it isn’t nearly as attractive to me as other works are. Additionally, I also like that fact that cubism does not merely present the subject as it is. It is perfectly okay for artists to use subjects as they are, but I can’t help but feel that at some point using a subject, i.e. finding a subject, can be the most exhausting part of creating a piece of art. Do you use an object or person? Do you as an artist feel like this is the right subject? I’ve always had this anxiety about picking a subject when it came to painting but when I look at the cubist work I understand that the subject isn’t what important in this piece, but instead, the idea is key. My drawing attempts to approach the style with Picassos movement, and in the drawing, my subject was a simple bottle but that did not make the design easier to complete. At first, I was confident but as the drawing grew I felt as if I wasn’t doing the style well. I’m unsure, and I definitely found this to be a challenging drawing to complete.

Cubism

19


20

Cubism


Cubism

21


22

Deconstruction


Deconstruction

STUDY

D

econstruction was born from the ideas of a French philosopher by the name of Jacques Derrida in the 1970’s. He worked to understand that unfurling a subject so that the viewer can gather the underlying concept within a piece. This was an experimental design accomplished by students of at the Cranbrook Academy in Bloomfield, Michigan. This was served to deconstruct subjects in order to reinterpret the meaning of an object by viewing it in a different way. This style was meant to be completely different and new compared to what had been done before, a new perspective. Where there is a newfound freedom as to how the form is presented, in which there is a disregard to grids. They believed that by placing the subject into multiple layers it allowed the viewer to see and recognize the information in a way that was completely opposite of how traditionally information or art is given. By allowing the reader or viewer the task to take considerable time to understand what they are being shown, they believed that the information will stay much longer within the person compared to if they had attempted the traditional styling. The design was a reaction to the intensity information was given to society and by distorting the information it is presented in a way that hasn’t been done before. While this style has been more of an influential style in architecture, this does have the whisper of influence in art movements like minimalism or cubism.

8

Derrida was not necessarily aiming to have this philosophy or style to be in expressed in art, rather he mostly was considering the methods in which different ways reading and writing can be designed. This style was only briefly considered as an art style since it was dedicated to other forms, but I had wanted to attempt this style anyway. For one Deconstructionism is a style that I’ve seen most in the world of food since I believe that an attempt to present food in a new way they disassembled the ingredients into the customer’s plate. Now, because this is how I’ve learned of this style it seems to me to be a passing trend of the time, especially considering there is a lack of history that the style has. So, I’ve found that there are two different interpretations of this style. One artist may take in the word deconstruction understand the style by the definition of the word deconstruct. Another may look at how Derrida had defined this style and draw inspiration from there. That isn’t to say that either one is wrong since they both understand the underlying concept that the theory had, only interpreted in a different way. Is that not what art is? I designed a drawing that takes into account of the fact that this style can be interpreted in different ways and incorporated the two into the drawing. The initial design was uninspired and lacked the value of distortion and overlapping images, it was almost reminiscent of the abstract work of Dadaism. After reviewing the theory and scouring the internet for inspiration in architecture, food and fashion designs it became easier to understand. I will also note this style probably not new to me, in fact, I’ve probably practiced this style once before but was not aware that there may have been a movement that inspired it. Either way, the style may not be set in stone, in regards to this movement in art, the theory, and ideas that have grown because of the philosopher Derrida is definitely something that brings about new inspiration.

Deconstruction

23


24

Deconstruction


Digital Art

STUDY

D

igital art has grown exponentially since its beginnings in 1965. So much so that there is always a new development in this form as time progresses and so does technology. One form of digital art was the acclimation of technology into its artwork presentation in order to give the audience the ability to reflect upon the impact that it has had on our society. At its start, digital art was the collaboration of new technology such as televisions and radio, with art and experimented to understand what the relationship was between them. Although as time progressed there came about new technologies such as the computer and then the internet in 1990’s. As the internet grew there came an entirely new and different art style that was considered internet art were artists would be able to create and collaborate without location being a problem to be influenced by new art and trends. Additionally, by using this new media it allowed artists the ability to use a different form of artistic expression without using paints on canvases. This form didn’t necessarily fall under digital art even though many people dub it so, some people know it as new media art. I personally find art that learns to work with technology to be really innovating and interesting. They allow artists to experiment with a completely different element

9

that requires a set of knowledge in order to work with the material. Playing with light and shadows are always an interesting way that the artists can also approach technology. Personally, I find light and colors to be one of the more challenging aspects of design, and I’m inspired by the way they create the mood or a feeling with tech in new ways. Digital art is still relatively new, the form that uses technology to mimic brush strokes and paint on a computer. I would say that it also isn’t nearly as respected as the other art mediums. That could possibly because too many it might seem to be easy to do. People could possibly see the fact that the medium supplies the artists with many tools that help create effects that in traditional art a considerable amount of time to do. Doing art is difficult there are learning curves, hours of practice, mistakes and artist have to learn the basic in order to learn as an artist’s. Digital art uses tech and many times if you go online you will find forms or discussions of which technology is better or more useful for an artist, people can assume that these artists are simply seeking the best technology, which may seem like cheating. Digital art is amazing because it has a lot of what an artist needs to create pieces additionally, isn’t it wonderful that by utilizing tech, it is easier to send out into the world. Simply put art is art and digital art is no exception even though many don’t consider it so yet. In the drawing I’ve done for digital art I simply drew in a way that I felt worked with how I like to draw and what is commonly seen on the internet. I kept the design relatively simple so that the concept was clear, in addition I outlined the entire drawing with a dark grey and used colors that are popular. I like how the design turned out, but I feel that the composition was too simple.

Digital Art

25


26

Digital Art


Expressionism

STUDY

A

t its start, expressionist German art was a rebellion of the conventions from art groups like Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter which favored woodblock design, which gave an almost rough and emotional aspect to their work. Although as time progressed their distinctive style became utilized in social and political movements for it unique display of emotions and passion that protests brought. In order to understand what the expressionist movement meant to these artists, I would think that there would be a need to reflect what their reality was. Since the industrial era had provided people new work opportunities many migrated to the cities in hope of attaining these jobs since people found themselves finding it hard to find work in the countryside Additionally this number was constantly growing and therefore, urbanization grew. If we consider the book The Jungle by Upton Sinclair, which told the story of horrific sanitation of the meat industry in the 1900 and the horribly unfair working conditions people suffered as a result of evil corporations exploiting immigrants in America, these new anxieties would be shocking to people who were hoping a better tomorrow. Artists wanted to consider the challenges that people were facing in a result of modernization and illustrate

10

their turbulent emotions in artworks. They completely abandoned the ideas of realism and favored the emotions that could be placed with some rough and loose brushstrokes. The expressionistic design did evolve differently as a result of new interpretations. As such one interpretation by the Die Brucke art group, previously mentioned, had stayed with the expressionistic design that was loud and attention-grabbing, because of it distorted forms and rough lines. Der Blaue Reiter wanted to emphasize the symbolic and spiritual growth that the artists felt was lacking at the time by applying abstract colorful forms. When I think of expressionism I always refer back to the painting by Edvard Munch’s the Screamer, one of the most famous pieces that came from the expressionist movement. I am inspired when I look at the artwork that came from this style because if I reflect on my current style preference it would be characterized as one that is structured and neat. Observing how well they articulated emotions throughout their artwork, inspires me to try the same. I love the reasons why the expressionist’s artists created the way they did but I’m not entirely a fan of the artworks themselves. This style was hard to pin down on my drawing of the style and it took me awhile before I created one that was relatively okay. I had originally attempted expressionism as the form that the Die Brucke art group preferred but I felt that it wasn’t the best way to approach the style. So, after some consideration, I took the colorful approach. I prefer this method but it still struggled to solidify an emotion that works well with what the subject is.

Expressionism

27


29

Expressionism


Expressionism

30


31

Fauvism


Fauvism

STUDY

F

auvism was a painting style that flourished in France where French painters sought to use very bright and a variety of colors to define light and form. Where the choice of colors would reflect the mood that the artist wants to reflect. The manner in which the paintings had many saturated colors, but also managed to stay balanced. The Fauvist French painting style was brought together by Henri Matisse who was the first to found design. He was originally an artist who admired pointillism artwork but what he took away from the general concept of the style was the unique balance that a variety of colors can have to create form and light. Fauvism rejected the traditional aspect of blending that shades and forms traditionally were done. The French artists would normally use nature as the artworks focus and used very thick and brush strokes of color that were meant to suggest raw emotions that they felt towards the subject. Before fauvism was not liked much by critics but following the salon exhibition there was a change of tone regarding the style. Fauvism was now admired by the critics and they had even received commercial success following the salon showing of his work. Matisse would eventually work with other artists to exhibit work together in salons, but his work also inspired young artists by his magnificent use of bright colors that brought dimensions in a free-flowing manner. Alas, this style did not last too long, in fact only 1899 to 1908 when many artists turned away from this style in order to create cubist art.

11

I’ve seen this style practically everywhere on the internet but I never knew that there was a specific art movement dedicated to its methods. I love this style in paintings because it can be an experimental process that needs some patience in order to have a balance of colors in the design. I am inspired by how colorful these paintings can be as I have always had trouble with finding a good color coordination. I also really love the idea of not using black outlines in this work, but instead, the artist would paint the canvas with a solid color so that it can show through to give the painting an extra dimension. I also really love how graphic some of these paintings can be since these artists did not take the time to produce work that was realistic. I love looking at color in other artists work, it can be the best thing about the design at times and even if the drawing style may not be the most impressive thing, the way they used color can magnify the experience of viewing the artwork. When I look at art that uses solid colors as a way to define light and emotion in a painting is the most impressive thing. I understand why these artists stuck to a subject that isn’t relatively creative but I feel that using this style in a very well balanced but a busy piece is something I hope to try successfully. My work does lack a certain dimension that this style is rather fond of and since the artists did not imitate what they saw to the T, there is a sense of fluidity that realistic drawing, I think, lack. Once again, I was surprised by how difficult it was to pick a color that works well together and give the from dimension while also considering how the light would react to whatever color pattern I had chosen. I attempted to give the shape some block shading but that was also difficult.

Fauvism

32


33

Grunge


Grunge

STUDY

G

runge, I’m sure is a term people are relatively familiar with it as it became well known as a music style that came from Seattle Washington as a type of alternative rock. Since this music genre grew in popularity there became a distinctive style fashion that accompanied this type of music. All of this is relatively familiar to people, but is there Grunge Art? Grunge art was perhaps most recognized for graphic design which accompanied the music industry but would eventually branch out and grow in popularity. During a time when the Macintosh computers by apple were out and being used by artists, there was a lot of experimentation being done. These artists didn’t limit themselves to structure that artists of the past have done. Additionally, artists wanted to monetize on the idea of the free-flowing art that allowed such a disregard to rules, as the movement was meant to be anti-conventional. Much like the music grunge art was characterized by type that was hand drawn but done so that it was distressed and rough. Photography also mimics the theme in this music of isolation and angst-filled music to the point where images were blurry, distorted and very dark as if to inspire these kinds of feelings. Typography was also re-inspired with this new style of the decade where typography was completely against the traditional means of type. The almost dirty and rough design was one that was apparent in a lot of the works additionally the subdued color palette also made the style distinctive. There is an almost carefree attitude

12

that this work reflects, almost as if the design was on the fly and completely different and distinctive. The most notable designer of the era would be David Carson who designed an almost professional perspective of grunge. His style was all that grunge was and did additional experimentation with the desktop computer that grew the style. When I was younger I had a brief punk faze and this art definitely reminds me of those years. The only reason I had even considered this style was that of the beautiful graphic design that the grunge era inspired, it was definitely not the artwork. The moment I looked at the artwork of this style it reminded me of the terrible art that circulated the internet during its early years, which encompassed depressed fairy’s emoting onto the ground, with obscured dripping effects, alluding dark and tortured emotions. Clearly, I do not like this style, and that is also why I picked this style. I wanted to revisit a style that I absolutely do not like to see if I could reimagine it differently simply with the theory or idea behind the idea. Almost like a challenge of sorts. In the graphic design spectrum of grunge art, I find myself enjoying it more. What I did not expect was the beautiful design work completed by designers, a complete oneeighty to what I had assumed was the grunge style. In the drawing dedicated to this movement, I stuck close to the dripping effect that they were so fond of, but I kept it somewhat restraint because I feel that too much of it feels tacky. I took the liberty of using fast and quick movements so I can insinuate emotions in the entire bottle design. Additionally, I struggled to find an appropriate monster or creature for the inside of the bottle until I decided to construct one without much planning and instead of trying to channel an emotional response. Overall, I feel that the drawing worked well without reaching into the expressionist movement. I’ve realized that as an artist it is easy to stay within one style, but that doesn’t help you grow as an artist, only by doing things you don’t normally do which for me is a style that is expressive and imperfect.

Grunge

34


35

Grunge


13

Magical Realsim STUDY

M

agical realism is an integration of magical elements into their world where it becomes their reality. This type of narrative in books have been used in many cultures, but it wasn’t until the Cuban Novelist Alejo Carpentier addressed the fact that this style is most notably used in Latin American literature that magical realism was considered to be originated from there. Magical realism sought to make the magic to be understood to be the reality and this is done because who’s to say that this isn’t true, they embrace the irrational. They way that this effect is done, is by addressing the mundane aspects of every day, and uninspiring aspects of life and embarrassing the unnatural magical aspects in a matter-of-fact style. Many times, these authors have made time to be fluid, where the past present and future is present. Additionally, stories have been known to incorporate myths as inspirations for their work. The magical realism style was also used by artists, where they would similarly use the characteristics that were used in literature into artworks. This style format has a close relationship to the surrealist work, where they integrated the unique and odd aspect of a person but magical realism seeks to make every day integrating the magical as a reality to the piece, where it is natural for it to be happening.

I had never heard of magical realism until I had been introduced to the literature that it is most known for. I was initially interested because of the Latin American presence that this genre has. When we address magic in the modern world, it will always bring me to the European characterization for it. This is known worldwide and it has been interpreted into many books and films, successfully. Magic is very charming and fun or even dark and deadly in these works. Since magic is the complete opposite of reality, these artists and writers take the time to create a world to explain why this might be possible. This has been used constantly, although with magical realism there is no need to create a world that explains the odd happenings, which is different and new. For example, in the film Guillermo Del Toro’s Pans Labyrinth is the only film that I have encountered of recent years. The film has an amazing integration of the fantasy and real life evens but is still understandable to the viewer. What makes it especially magnificent was the dark undertones that magic and reality had, where the magic was very folk-like and did not promise happy endings while the reality was the reality of war in Spain. The integration of folk stories into our reality is probably my favorite, simply because I’m aware how odd some of them can be in Latin America. In comparison my piece does not necessarily draw inspiration from these stories, but instead takes inspiration of the idea of incorporated magic. I’ve designed it to look like it would be of the everyday like, walking down the street but there are people of a different nature, and it is as is. The drawing for this movement was another attempt to try a style that I haven’t done before. I wanted it to have an effect similar to when there is layered paper. I wasn’t entirely content with the drawing since I don’t feel as if it represented the movement well or as strongly as it could have been.

Magical Realism

36


37

Magical Realism


Magical Realism

38


14

Minimal Art STUDY

M

inimal art accompanied the conceptual art movement, where during this time the ideas behind the conceptualization of the work were one of the most important factors of the artist’s process considering that the minimalist movement is known for the use of very simple forms and design. Minimal art can be traced back to the Russian constructivist movement during the time were simple shapes and forms were key for the construction of the design. Artists of this movement were known to use 3D forms instead of focusing simply on a piece of art on a canvas. Minimal art can also be created to work with space itself, where the object works with the background. The movement also reached to the approaching the minimalist style by incorporating kinetic art, was the artist created pieces that were more interactive because the pieces included lighting and space manipulation to create an effect or mood with the object. The pieces could even be incomplete to the viewer, almost like an incomplete idea that the artist had. This was done purposefully, where the artist sought to give the viewer the chance to complete the image or piece based on what the viewer thought the artwork to mean. Minimalist movement has shared its fair

39

share of criticism but the artists defend the style because they believe that the simplicity of the shapes does not mean that the experience that the viewer had was simple, where it can, in fact, be a profound experience to the viewer and artist alike. In some of the work produced some can even find subtle inspiration from the expressionist movement in minimalist artworks. They argue that because the form is a 3D object and not simply a piece of work on a flat canvas, there is actual space that is being used in the room that the piece is being presented, the artwork has a presence that other works of art do not have. As most have noticed minimalism is very popular at the moment, so if you take notice you will find brands and artwork alike to be simplistic. In branding, it is very prevalent. Honestly, it has become so popular that some of the designs and artwork did for this style is somewhat ridiculous. Similarly, the philosophy surrounding the minimalistic lifestyle has become cover blown by its simplistic ideology that it has become boring and an almost self-righteous endeavor to show other people you don’t care about the materialistic thing. I for one really enjoy minimalism when it is done for installation art because the subject is clear and it allows the artist the chance to consider the composition, lighting or color in the piece instead. The way in which the subject was presented is probably the highlight of the installation. As for my version, I felt that because the minimalistic style is popular with branding, I attempted to create a logo that was suitable for the movement.

Minimal Art


Minimal Art

40


41

Minimal Art


15

Pop Art STUDY

P

op art was a reaction against the expressionist movement and was the artistic movement that followed the end of the war that had gripped Europe and America. Pop artists wished to produce art that can be universally accepted unlike the expressionist movement and although they argued that such pieces were not example of fine art, pop artists were not a fan of art work that was considered high art, these artists wanted to move away from the idea of elite’s artwork and instead utilized imagery that was familiar to everyone. The urban culture that grew within these countries are what inspired Pop art and within them held a special tone that made it hard to imitate if the artists were not intimately familiar with it. Even though this style was notably apart of the European and American interpretation of pop art, when it did spark interest the style was eventually a universal one that inspired artists worldwide. Europe is where most can agree that the style had derived from, simply because it had its beginnings with a group of artists in Europe. In this held Richard Hamilton who was a part of this group, and while exhibiting his work he had showcased a piece that brought the term pop to define the name of a movement. The art that was produced was normally low-cost, mass-produced and involved big businesses. Europe pop art was massively popular and became widely successful. So much so that the movement was taken in by the American and reimagined. Pop Art from America was different from

the Europeans because it was reinterpreted to fit the American imagination, at a time where nationalism was overwhelmingly present. Pop art utilized things that were common place for people which received criticism from art critics. American pop art was impactful and fierce while the Europeans allowed the ideas to be subjective and were much subtler in the way that the American interpretation was not. When I was younger I did not consider pop art to be an art form that would be held to such a high regard as though they did. I was not impressed by the work that these artists created, I did not understand why a comic strip was hanging in a museum with other artwork who are held by different characteristics and a different set of skills Honestly, I had probably thought to myself “ I could do that”. I think the problem is that to me the art does not look like anything new or special considering what constituted the design. It’s very cartoon-like and not something I would find myself attracted to if it wasn’t for the fact that the ideas that held the movement together weren’t so overwhelmingly new at the time and inspiring to future artists. I can appreciate the fact the movement was very anti-traditional and they wanted to turn away from previous themes that were done time after time. In my drawing, I took inspiration from saturated colors that were very popular during this art movement. I also attempted to mimic the comic art style that was used so much, but I chose to have the thickness of the line to be smaller on the inside of the illustration. I wanted to reflect one of the main ideas during this time, which was the massive amount of stuff that was made for the public and o reflect this is placed a bar code on the side of the potion bottle to highlight this fact. I personally really liked how this turned out, I decided to change the position of the bottle because when I looked at the work that was done during this era you do find that the subject matter was prevalently zoomed in.

Pop Art

42


43

Pop Art


Pop Art

44


45

Psychedelic Art


Psychedelic Art STUDY

P

sychedelic art was an art movement during the 1960’s during the counter-culture movement in San Francisco. It was also a movement that accompanied the rock music culture where drug use was all the rage, especially hallucinatory drugs. Victor Moscoso was Brooklyn raised and during this time he was the main contributor to the style that was in American psychedelic posters. The use of LSD, marijuana, and heroin was very popular during this time and because LSD changed perception much like the drug did to its user the artwork of the time reflected this culture. The psychedelic posters are normally associated with kaleidoscope designs, which were very colorful and bright but largely disorienting, which reflected how people saw during drug-induced periods. Additionally, this style is characterized by vibrant colors, unreadable text and vintage styled images. At its start, the style was only admired by only a few, until it became so popular that it started to become incorporated in mass productions and the commercial media in order to connect with the youths at the time. Moscoso would use photos that were public domain and he used a hand-drawn typeface that worked well within the spaces that he left out for his work. Moscoso had mastered modern simplicity, and when he created the poster for the blues project he wasn’t completely happy with it but he loved the vibe that poster gave him. Thereafter, Victor Moscoso created another poster that wasn’t nearly as successful as the previous and so he took some time to reflect what his ideas were for the

16

designed and applied his understanding of modern design to compile a style that was well placed within the current social atmosphere. For one, Moscoso now understood that in order to understand this style he had to completely disregard what he was taught and do the complete opposite. He used a bright irritating color that was very vibrant to the eyes, he liked to use rays or repetitive lines to draw attention to the subject, and he used typeface designs that worked well with the dominating design aspect of the poster. Additionally, because the typeface is so extravagant and difficult to read, it kept the viewer entranced to the image in order to understand what the poster is trying to communicate. What I assumed would be the psychedelic art style would be similar to what I’ve grown to consider psychedelic. In many artworks, the artwork has many colors and they are electric, bright to the viewer. As the style is associated with the hippie’s era I knew it would also carry out a drug like feel. Many of the pieces that I saw that was considered psychedelic movement are in fact heavily influenced by the idea of art reflecting a hallucinogenic experience to the people who used them. There is, in fact, an almost so much color being used that the image becomes distorted and odd looking at the viewer. I don’t think this is considered wrong but I don’t prefer this style since it is almost reminiscent of optical illusion art which I’m not a massive fan of. Additionally, I do like the fact that the designs done by Moscoso are subtler in comparison because even if it is not the rave that other designs install themselves to the bright colors are somewhat hard to look at. He didn’t need to use an entire color wheel in order to create that effect. Furthermore, I like how complex some of the designs he created are and I also really liked how versatile his typeface was considering the different ways he had approached the form of the text which helped elevate the design to a point where it becomes a part of the illustration.

Psychedelic Art

46


47

Psychedelic Art


Surrealism

STUDY

S

urrealism was coined in 1924 by the writer Andre Brenton, who authored its first manifesto declaring that the rights of man could be achieved through the liberation of the unconscious activity of the mind [3]. Surrealism sought to disorientate the viewer with the dreamlike atmosphere that these painting. This style sought to be far from what has been conventual been done and wanted the viewer to see things of the unimaginable. This style was a response to the end of World War I and much like Dadaism (an art movement that wanted to reestablish the beliefs of the art world by abandoning what was previously considered art because they believed that those ideas of verism had a hand in how World War I manifested) surrealism was a later reaction to the same war, where they distorted images much like the Dadaist although aesthetically different. In surrealism, artists did not want reality and the imagination - dreams even - to be distinctive. Unlike the Dadaist, the surrealist did not want this to be a negative experience instead, they wished to use the imaginary aspect of this style to gain a better and deeper understanding of psychological understanding of the artist thoughts and feelings by what they wrote or drew. Now the idea of psychology may seem like an almost random approach, but there is always a reason when it comes to art, it seems. Sigmund Freud was an incredibly important and divisive Australian Neurol-

17

ogist who brought together the study psychoanalyst. The surrealists were very inspired by his theories of the human psyche and as such inspired the artist with this different school of thought to produce work that pushed the ideas of the unconscious. In high school, I had the opportunity to take psychology and even though the grade that I received didn’t show it I was massively interested in the discussions and what I learned in the class as well. I was interested in understanding what the psychology perspective and ideas were in regards to how the brain works because the brain does not carry too many definitive statements that are held up with evidence. So, I can only imagine it being intensely more interesting to artists of that time, who did not have the information that we have now, and instead only had the Freudian theories, which are in my opinion are crazy. Although I can understand why the artists were so inspired by Freud’s dreams analysis theory, which still appeals to people today even if psychologists do not stand by his beliefs at this day in age. As a young artist, I had always been inclined to draw things and people that are beautiful and I feel that as I’ve grown tired of this and want to attempt art that is much more weird illustrations. I feel that surrealism is the direction I need to take, to fulfill an aesthetic that is confusing. I know this style is not simple in the slightest, it takes a careful eye and balance because I would assume that too much would create a piece that was just completely odd and amateurish. I really like the drawing that I’ve done for this style because it is so weird. I used lines created with a brush pen, my preferred method of drawing but I do feel the drawing is lacking in color. I love the oddity that the style induces and it does feel therapeutic to draw a figure that does not have to be flattering.

Surrealism

48


49

Surrealism


Surrealism

50


Bibliography Art Deco Society of New York, artdeco.org/. “Art Nouveau Movement, Artists and Major Works.” The Art Story, www. theartstory.org/movement-art-nouveau.htm. “The Arts & Crafts Movement Movement, Artists and Major Works.” The Art Story, www.theartstory.org/movement-arts-and-crafts.htm. Bauhaus Movement | Art and Technology - A new Unity | Rethinking the world. “Bauhaus Design Movement.” BAUHAUS MOVEMENT | Art and Technology - A New Unity, www.bauhaus-movement.com/en/. “Bauhaus Movement, Artists and Major Works.” The Art Story, www. theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus.htm. “Contemporary Art, an Introduction (Article).” Khan Academy, www. khanacademy.org/humanities/art-1010/beginners-guide-20-21/a/contemporary-art-an-introduction. “Cubism Movement, Artists and Major Works.” The Art Story, www. theartstory.org/movement-cubism.htm#styles_header. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Art Deco.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 23 June 2017, www.britannica. com/art/Art-Deco. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Art Nouveau.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 12 Dec. 2014, www.britannica. com/art/Art-Nouveau. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Cubism.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 28 Dec. 2016, www.britannica. com/art/Cubism. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Magic Realism.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 22 Apr. 2014, www.britannica. com/art/magic-realism. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Pop Art.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 18 Apr. 2017, www.britannica.com/ art/Pop-art.

“Expressionism Movement, Artists and Major Works.” The Art Story, www.theartstory.org/movement-expressionism.htm#concepts_and_styles_heade. “Fauvism Movement, Artists and Major Works.” The Art Story, www.theartstory.org/movement-fauvism. htm. Gontar, Author: Cybele. “Art Nouveau | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/artn/ hd_artn.htm. Heller, Steven, and Louise Fili. Stylepedia. Chronicle Books, 2007. “Jacques Derrida and Deconstruction.” Art History Unstuffed, arthistoryunstuffed.com/jacques-derrida-deconstruction/. Johnstone, Stephen. The Everyday. MIT Press, 2008. Tate. “Cubism – Art Term.” Tate, www.tate.org.uk/ art/art-terms/c/cubism. Tate. “Deconstruction – Art Term.” Tate, www.tate. org.uk/art/art-terms/d/deconstruction. Winton, Author: Alexandra Griffith. “The Bauhaus, 1919–1933 | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm.


Documentation book sp  
Documentation book sp  
Advertisement