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Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts ​good afternoon to everybody it is a joy to be back at dlg thank you so much to step ii and the incredible staff and dr. Berta of course for putting on what is one of my absolute favorite things ever every year and what we're here to talk about that picture you see is from about a decade ago or a bit more it's a representation it was a project to map the internet and what you'll see and notice above all is our no censor their connections to connections to connections and on and on and that's an important concept it represents the open internet that really did exist back then and the open internet was a result of democratized technology personal and other and especially a radically decentralized communication system that was ruled by these protocols rules of the road that essentially said it's an open principle that out at the edges of the networks at the edges people would speak they would assemble they would collaborate they would innovate they would do commerce they would do all sorts of things and the key part of it was they didn't need anybody else's permission to do it that was so fundamental and so important but in recent years something has happened that we should be a bit worried about and I hope will alarm everyone in the room many of you know this but I don't know if everyone is fully internalized it that rii centralization is occurring at a rapid rate new choke points are being created sometimes with our cooperation but sometimes not and these chokepoints have increasing power over what we can do when we're on on what we can say and what we can do and some of them are corporate things like telecommunications companies that in the absence of serious competition or net neutrality means that one your access provider can decide what bits of information get to your devices in what order at what speed or whether they ever get there at all it's platforms like Facebook and Google have increasing sway there's no precedent for what Facebook is doing its moberly ecosystems that are now controlled by really two companies with app stores and other ways that you have to go through and payment systems that can have their own decision stop you from getting paid these are choke points and their governmental ones to nation-state firewalls not just the Great Firewall but increasingly in lots of other countries orders from governments to companies to stop certain things from happening such as China's recent order to Apple to remove the new york times app from availability in china an example here in europe the ec appears to be saying that you have to pay if you want to link to someone else's content that seems like a real shot across the bow of the open Internet and then of course pervasive surveillance over absolutely everything which chill speech and chills innovation Mark Zuckerberg did not need permission to create them to build Facebook but the next generation if things go and continue on the path that they're on may need permission possibly for Mark Zuckerberg and other controllers of chokepoints and centralized services it doesn't feel like a good outcome to me and I don't think it feels like a good outcome to our panelists Mitchell Baker from Mozilla which has been one of the real defenders of the open Internet and in Garuda who is works the CTO for Berta magazines and has very strong feelings about where this is going so but I think the first thing would be to ask Mitchell to talk about something that she talked about last summer in San Francisco at a conference organised to re decentralize the Internet why don't you talk about your principal thanks I want to say a little bit about this diagram just to start with it is known as the splat diagram SPL 80 this is a very beautiful version of it but if you were to search you would find any number of them had describe this phenomenon when the when in Anna's it was first designed you know its design principle was to be redundant in the case of physical destruction a part of the network and so the goal this was a Defense Department project in the cold war era and so the original goal was as part of the network is destroyed how does the network heal itself how does the network regrow and be vital and robust without a central authority and thus you see that there's you know connections in many different directions in this diagram now that first phase was really machine-to-machine if I have a server how do i connect it to the network and then some 25 years ago the layer that we think of as human experience was added to that when it was invented we called it the world wide web and the world wide web is a layer that sits on top of the internet infrastructure and it provides the experience that that we have it's the first set of tools for human being visually sees what's happening how a normal person can interact with it and the World Wide Web has the same principles of decentralization and so today we don't talk about the web so much and laptops and desktops aren't the

only machine and so you'll hear a lot of these phrases under the term open Internet and when you combine the design principles of the server to server connect to each other and the principles of human experience you get a few things that represent at least to me you know the core of the internet the open Internet and they are things like its immediate and direct access for a human being you can connect to the network and access any content you can access it whatever phone or device you have on it the content provider or experience creator decide what it is they're providing there's no third party in the middle of it and so that provides a particular experience for you and me as individuals and it provides a particular experience for the content creator and so that immediate access where if you want to get to something you don't need to find an app download an app get permission sign up in the App Store install the app you know maintain it that there's a very direct relationship and that all of the content in the world is available to me or all of the content that the content creators want to offer to me is available without some mediated party so there's a direct and immediate access there's there's also a sort of universality to it that I can choose a range of devices their ways of accessing something and the same content is available and so you don't get that vertical integrated stack of the hardware determines everything and so that's important not just with phone but additional devices are coming and so the ability to have in and also new forms of devices that can access content is another key aspect of what we think of is the the open Internet and then the one that's particularly important I think to me and to Mozilla is that in the open Internet there is some mechanism for each one of us as an individual human being to have some impact on the experience so as a person when you connect to the network we're not bringing servers to provide content we're bringing clients to interact with it we that's the browser you know in the web world and we we care about one particular quality which we call agency and that is within where in the system represents you and so in the open Internet web browser based world the browser does that's why we build it and so the content provider will provide content now that's 100% the decision of the content provider it's a business that's the content providers right to build their business but where is the thing that represents me like the Internet is a massive scale and I am a single human being like how is it that I have any ability to affect my experience and so in the open internet and through the browser system we have that very basic things change the size change the text to more elaborate things like walking ad controversial but it is a place where someone where the user can make choices other than just leaving the system we could all not use whatever system you don't like but it's not realistic today and so the last of the qualities about the open internet that I want to mention as a principle is that there is a mechanism that starts to balance power between an individual human being and either the large companies and government systems and I'll stop there so we can get to some practical comments angle you're working in an area that is so fundamental how the internet grew and how everything we do has happened which is open source so why don't you talk a bit about the role of that place and work that you're doing I think I'd like that and economical viewpoint what you just said actually when we look at the internet as we know today it was actually a lot of open standards and it was a lot of open software or open source software and that enabled lot of entrepreneurs to have an equal playing field of it is equal chances to develop new business models and a lot of those entrepreneurs did it actually and a whole new economy around those open standards and the open Internet that all about digital publishing and publishing is he promotes its social networks and such most machines everything is actually owed to the open Internet and that was great in great achievement because it creates millions of millions of jobs had created my job and probably to create your job and when we see now today is decentralization and a closed internet coming up that could be a problem for most of those jobs actually and I think we should very much more think about how can we sustain the open web and how can we help maybe the open software maybe was working on open standards and that's actually my point where i want to invite you as decision makers in industry and also as policymakers to think a lot more about what you owe your actual jobs on and where they actually depend and looking from it as publishers from a publisher's perspective it's even more dramatic actually because our business model is actually reproduced content and reproduce brand and then we in contact with consumers and we will trust with those consumers and this is actually our business model and that happens quite well at work quite low in the urban internet that when you look at the chase population of the internet today there is a danger coming up actually because a lot of people out there actually thing that Facebook is the internet and that's not so good for that well of course this has social implications he heard that a lot today and yesterday and it all leads to Donald Trump but that also has implications on the work of the publishers because when there is something someone between us and the consumers we will lose our business model and we are reduced to simple content providers for facebook and I don't think this is a very broad future neither for the society nor for the publishers so there is an immediate danger I think and we should of course equal to iceberg and speak of other people with other platforms to and speak out that danger is bigger door fears and find solutions for that but that's only one side the other side is I think we should as an industry we do be doing much more for open source for for the open Internet and for open

standards actually and if I might add look would like to give you a small example what bother this at border we do a lot of things in the last year's where we try to bring our industry the publishing industry together not as competitors not as enemies but as allies and we try to solve problems together and one of that is which is an open source examples that fits perfectly in the into this round here is a content management system and dimensional system and something you need one you want to publish on the digital channel so everybody needed and what he did is is we decided to put all blend or one on one centralized system and we take care we took an open source system and the improved it from brand to brand so is getting better and better and better and we actually be investing millions in it but we're making the probably in the next years we will produce one of the best possible content management systems for digital publishing and I think many publishers are doing stuff like that what was special about our approach is that we say okay we invested millions that we will open source it again so everything we do we will open for the public we will open for our competitors we will open for any oddly already open it actually for all publishers in the world and everybody can use that thing and I think that's a completely different approach and I'm very happy to have Phillip data and important accounting support me in that because this is not a very typical approach for publishers actually and when we spoke first about that like nine months ago we were not really sure if any publisher of the interesting stuff like that that what came back from the publishers was just overwhelming it was as it's now more than 200 publishers which has contacted us who are interested in working with the system it's called thunder if you like to google it and we also have a lot of industry partners grouping around us and making business modules on our new system which is really great to be okay that's one of the projects going on it's very interesting and offers a lot of potential back in San Francisco last summer we saw things I think Mitchell I that we're really promising in the idea of Reedy centralizing and there's a whole group of small and fascinating companies doing things that amount to an overlay on the internet that in effect if they pull this off we'll lock it open so it can't be shut down by third artis there's a company in California called protocol labs doing something called the internet the interplanetary file system which may sound ridiculous but it's not it's something that is fundamental and a lot of these companies are working with block chain is part of it I want to ask Mitchell what you're seeing and of course what Mozilla is doing to keep things open well there's a couple things one I think for anyone who's been in the industry for a while like things are the way they are and so it's sometimes hard to see that things could be really different but for me one of the most exciting things about the blockchain one of them there's some technical things in some capacity but that technology has spawned a new generation of technologists who are interested in both technology and governance ie how does it work what happens what's its effect on people and so you see that blockchain gets a lot of attention for sometimes everything solving all problems but underneath it there's a whole range of projects out there that are trying to build networks built on a blockchain that does X or Y or Z so this particular one that Dan mentioned is a new way of addressing content so the idea it's a pretty different idea for what content might be today we find content by you go to the domain there's a URL but it starts with a domain or a brand name and this is an idea that says well what if content was addressable by itself not that you would take the brand value out of it but that could get to a particular article you wouldn't necessarily go through whatever calm and they're thinking about that is that denial of service attacks are growing the domain name system is a centralized point it's easy to shut down parts of the internet but if content were addressable itself and live in many places then you don't have the same centralization so you might have your brand and your brand value on your trust but it's attached to the piece of content and so that's actually a system that's built then it's in place we're testing it out at Mozilla on some assets on one of our web projects with a big web be our project so we're trying to do some testing and see how it works so that's one example and there are 20 or 50 examples along these lines of trying to find technology plus human interaction that will help really centralize the web so take a look and believe it or not we have run out of time we're shortening in a bit to get the schedule a little bit back together I want to thank Ingo and Mitchell this is fascinating stuff please look into these potential life you [Music] you New York Graduate School of Psychoanalysis.