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2018 - 2019 UPPER SCHOOL CURRICULUM GUIDE


2018 - 2019 ADMINISTRATION Board of Trustees Frank Edmonds, Chair Karen Moran, Vice Chair Thad Jones, Treasurer Adrian Keevil, Secretary Lu Alvarez Chas Cocke Kari Couling Shaman Douglass ‘05 Janine Dozier Michael Geismar Changdong East He ‘12 Tony Ignaczak Angie Oakey Mike Pausic Michael Woodfolk ‘84 Rich Booth, Emeritus John W. Zunka, Counsel

Administration

David S. Lourie, Head of School Diane Schmidt, Associate Head of School for Operations and Chief Financial Officer Beth Miller, Associate Head of School for Academics Warren B. Buford III, Associate Head of School for Advancement Peter Quagliaroli, Head of the Upper School (9 - 12) Shannon Montague, Head of the Learning Village (PS - 8) Phil Stinnie, Dean of Student Life K-12, Director of Diversity & Community Outreach Dewayne Robinson, Director of Athletics


TABLE OF CONTENTS Graduation Requirements................................. 4 Course Load........................................................ 5 Completion of Courses...................................... 5 Transcripts........................................................... 5 Intensives............................................................ 5 Independent Study............................................. 5 Capstone Thesis.................................................. 6 Course Offerings in this Guide......................... 6 Senior Seminars.................................................. 6 Humanities.......................................................... 9 Mathematics....................................................... 12 World Languages................................................ 16 Science................................................................ 21 Performing Arts.................................................. 23 Visual Arts........................................................... 25 Other Credit & Grade Offerings..................... 27 Non-Credit Courses.......................................... 28 Physical Activity................................................. 28 Appendix I: Standardized Testing...................... 29 Appendix II: University Courses....................... 29


GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS Humanities: English (4 years): Humanities 9: English, Humanities 10: English, English 11*, American Studies: English, and Humanities 12. Humanities: History (3 years): Humanities 9: History, Humanities 10: History and American Studies: History. Mathematics: Integrated Mathematics 1, 2, & 3 New students to the Upper School will have their academic record evaluated to determine appropriate placement in mathematics. World Language: Level 3 of a St. Anne’s-Belfield world language offering (French, Latin, or Spanish) Students entering after the freshman year must complete the equivalent of St. Anne’s-Belfield School’s Level 2 coursework. Students with an exceptional combination of language learning deficits, as evaluated by an educational psychologist and reviewed by the School’s academic and learning specialist, will not be required to complete Level 3 of a language. Instead, they will be required to complete three years of language study, and successfully complete Level 2. *Non-native speakers of English are not required to study French, Latin, or Spanish. Science: Physics, Chemistry, and Biology New students to the Upper School will have their academic record evaluated to determine the appropriateness of prior science credits earned in fulfillment of the Physics, Chemistry, Biology requirement. Performing & Visual Arts (1 year): Four-year students are required to pass one year of a St. Anne’s-Belfield visual or performing arts class. N.B. Students should be advised that some universities require an arts credit even if St. Anne’s-Belfield does not require participation in an arts course for those who enroll at the School after the ninth grade year. Senior Seminar (1 year): Seniors are required to enroll in and pass one senior seminar. Intensives (4 years): Every student must complete successfully one Intensive per each year that he or she is enrolled as a full-time student. Intensives are valued at 0.3 credit. Freshman Life Skills or Sophomore Life Skills: Four-year students are required to participate in Freshman Life Skills during their freshman year. All sophomores new to the School will participate in Sophomore Life Skills during their sophomore year. English Language Learning: ELL support is offered, as needed, for those students who have not yet achieved fluency in English. Incoming ninth and tenth graders who are non-native speakers of English may be enrolled in an additional class or required to attend extra-help sessions for customized support with reading, writing, and speaking at the discretion of the Humanities department. Community Service: Four-year students must complete sixty hours of gratuitous service before final transcripts and certification of graduation will be sent to colleges. Students who enter after the ninth grade year must complete fifteen hours of community service for each year they attend the Upper School. Physical Activity Requirement: Four-year students must participate in six seasons of physical activity, four of which must be completed by the end of their sophomore year. Students who enter school as a sophomore must complete four seasons of physical activity. Those who enter school as a junior must complete two seasons of physical activity, and those who enter as seniors must complete one season. The Senior Internship Requirement: Created to give seniors a unique learning experience and a chance to be engaged in self-invested and relevant work, seniors are required to arrange an internship that embraces the academic values of St. Anne’s-Belfield School. The School will determine the Senior Internship term. All seniors will be required to present evidence of their experiences during a Senior Internship exposition event.

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COURSE LOAD

The required course load for all students is five periods of the school day each term unless specific permission to participate in fewer is granted by the Head of the Upper School. Capstone Studies and Independent Studies do not count towards the required five periods of study. Given the uniqueness of the Upper School daily schedule, a significant number of students elect to carry six courses, and some students choose to carry seven.

COMPLETION OF COURSES

Full-year courses may be added up until the sixth class / meetings of the course and dropped without penalty until the week following the close of the first midterm grading period. Full-year courses dropped after that time, and before the first week of the second term, will be reported as “WP” (withdrew passing) or “WF” (withdrew failing). No full-year course may be dropped after the end of the first week of the second term. If a student elects to leave a course after that time, his or her final grade will be reported as “F” on the transcript. A student may change course levels within a discipline until the end of the first term. After this point, any course level change will appear on the student’s transcript with a “WP” or “WF.” Except when the results of educational testing are expected, students may not change course levels after Dec. 14. Students who have a diagnosed learning disability may, after consultation with the Head of the Upper School and after providing documentation of the learning disability from a licensed professional, be permitted to drop courses after the time frames listed above.

TRANSCRIPTS

Courses completed at academic institutions other than St. Anne’s-Belfield will be listed in a separate section on a student’s transcript. Grades in these courses will not be computed into the St. Anne’s-Belfield grade point average (GPA). In the event that a student repeats a St. Anne’s-Belfield course, the grade for the course will be changed to a “P” (passing). Only the second grade in the course is recorded as an A-F grade and calculated into the GPA.

INTENSIVES

3 weeks between Thanksgiving and Winter Breaks Intensives are graded, three-week long courses led by St. Anne’s-Belfield Upper School faculty and administrators on topics not typically emphasized in the School’s core curriculum. Instituted in 2014, the Intensives program was designed to offer students and teachers the chance to explore one topic of academic merit deeply by way of projects, experiential learning, guest lectures, and field trips. By halting the core curriculum for the 14 school days between the Thanksgiving and Winter Breaks, Intensives provide unobstructed opportunities to journey off campus, collaborate with local and international experts, and develop deep and lasting bonds among a small group of people who might not otherwise share an academic experience. Learn more online at www.stab.org/intensives.

INDEPENDENT STUDY

The Independent Study is a serious, one-term or year-long commitment on the part of the student and faculty mentor. The program exists for students in good academic standing who either exhaust the course offerings within a given department or wish to pursue a particular idea or topic in depth. Please note that an Independent Study is an opportunity to delve deeply and academically into a topic; it is not an arena in which to simply contemplate a newfound idea. While a year-long Independent Study might include more exploration of the topic in the fall in order to achieve a higher degree of scholarly study over the course of the spring term, single-term Independent Studies require a more precise and formulated approach in order to achieve the expected academic standard. An Independent Study may not take the place of a required course, but it is considered an official course on a student’s transcript and therefore receives a letter grade. Each proposal is reviewed and subject to approval by the Independent Study Committee (Head of the Upper School, Department Chair, Assistant Head of the Upper School, Director of College Counseling, and the student’s advisor). See the Independent Study Manual for more information.

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CAPSTONE THESIS

The Capstone Thesis is a serious, year-long commitment on the part of a senior and faculty mentor. The program exists for students in good academic standing who wish to pursue a particular idea or topic in significant depth. A Capstone Thesis must encompass a full year of independent, extracurricular study. Students are expected to lead the entire experience and are required to meet weekly with the mentor. Most students commit between 3-5 hours per week to their research beyond their other academic coursework. Presentations are made to the Upper School community at the annual Capstone Symposium in January. In the spring, Capstone students give another formal, oral presentation and submit a 10-15 page academic paper to the Capstone Committee. Capstone Thesis proposals must be submitted the spring before the senior year and approved by the Capstone Thesis Committee (proposals must be turned in to the Chair of the Capstone Thesis Program, currently Dr. Isabelle Reeves). See the Capstone Thesis Manual for more information.

COURSE OFFERINGS IN THIS GUIDE

All courses which St. Anne’s-Belfield School anticipates offering for the 2018 - 2019 academic year are included in this guide. However, courses that do not have sufficient enrollment will not be offered. Enrollment in elective courses is not guaranteed.

SENIOR SEMINARS

Each senior is required to enroll in and pass one senior seminar. Many seniors elect two seminars. Enrollment is based on student-choice and scheduling. The main objective of each senior seminar is for students, with the teacher(s), to co-create a highly engaging and interactive learning experience that builds on the interdisciplinary and academic habits developed in earlier grades and expands on them to incorporate a wider variety of disciplines and competencies. Together, students, faculty and experts in the field collaborate in a yearlong experience that emphasizes exploration of multiple perspectives, research, critical thinking, and the creation of a one or more works that contribute to the betterment of the field of study and the St. Anne’s-Belfield community. Naturally, the content of each seminar changes based on the composition of the seminar community as well as the events happening in the broader world. This kind of flexibility of approach is critical to creating a truly student-driven course. The acquisition of the following skills and habits will be at the heart of each seminar experience: • Learning and applying skills that are essential to the discipline(s) of the seminar • Working collaboratively • Formulating and defending one’s own views • Choosing appropriate technologies • Synthesizing information from a variety of sources 21st Century Citizenship: Local, National, and Global Prerequisite = None This Senior Seminar centers around the levels of citizenship we each maintain in relation to the environment around us. The most basic categorization of our belonging to something greater than ourselves can be broken into three parts: our local community, our national community, and our global community. Of course, there are other ways to explain our identities, but in this course, which concentrates heavily on the political and social spheres of life, we have adopted this paradigm to ask important questions about our commitment and duty to others. In order to intelligently discuss these questions, we will mix in close studies of important political texts with current events as reported by leading thinkers and journalists. A heavy emphasis will be placed on developing written and oral communication skills (through short op-ed assignments and in-class presentations), as well as collaborative research supported by Internet-based tools (e.g. building websites, posting videos, using Google Apps, etc.). Students will leave this class with a strong understanding not only of the world they inhabit, but more importantly the skills and habits necessary to be impactful citizens locally, nationally, and globally.

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BioTechnology and Ethics Prerequisite = Successful completion of Chemistry and Biology This seminar emphasizes current scientific processes and techniques in biotechnology and the related ethical issues impacting society. Building upon topics from Biology and Chemistry curriculum, students will work on collaboratively- and individuallydesigned projects. Students will use techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, and bacterial transformation. These processes, readings, and presentations by outside experts lead to seminar discussions about related societal topics such as genetically modified organisms, “designer” babies, and antibiotic resistance. The outcome of this course is to gain a greater appreciation for uses of biotechnology in society while also acknowledging the societal and ethical issues related to advances in this field. Entrepreneurship Prerequisite = None According to the Blue Ridge Area Food Bank, 1 in 10 local residents are in danger of not being able to afford their next meal or having to choose between food, housing, heat, or medication. This problem illustrates the challenge that occurs when human equality, economic and environmental concerns collide. By researching and experiencing local issues like living below the poverty line, students will be inspired to design services or products that will help change systems, benefiting the people, the economy, and the environment of our local region. Students will gain practical experience in both business and innovation by creating ventures to solve the most pressing problems of their time, catapulting them to be the ethical entrepreneurs of the future. Students will practice communication skills, learn the effectuation and “lean startup” methods of entrepreneurship, study basic economic principles and apply those principles to the final project of starting a real business. Comparative Religion: Philosophies of the East and the West Prerequisite = None Religious world views have shaped the vast numbers of humans in history, and their influence continues to greatly affect the contemporary world. This seminar course provides students an opportunity for a more in-depth exploration of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Using Huston Smith’s classic text, The Illustrated World Religions, as our core guide book, the course examines the philosophy, practices, and art of each tradition. Interdisciplinary in focus, we begin with the visual vibrancy and yoga’s of Hinduism and make our way through India to East Asia to the Middle East. Both the uniqueness and the shared aspects of the religious traditions are explored. We will also take field trips including Satchidananda Ashram Yogaville and Our Lady of Angels Catholic Monastery. The outcome of this course is deep engagement with religious philosophy across five religions and the creation of a multimedia guidebook on contemporary religious communities in central Virginia. State-building and Post-Colonial Societies Prerequisite = None This seminar examines the historical and contemporary experiences of formerly colonized countries. The political, social, and economic systems put in place under colonial rule have shaped the trajectories of these societies from independence into the present day. Given this legacy, the seminar treats the state-building process as both historical and ongoing, asking students to wrestle with the challenges these countries face: designing strong, effective governments; promoting democracy and human rights; pursuing economic development; and building cohesive national identities in what are often diverse, fragmented societies. Collaborative projects and presentations push students to critically examine these issues and to craft creative solutions, informed by case studies from Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and South Asia. The post-colonial focus of the seminar prompts students to consider how historical narratives, as well as representations in popular culture and media, shape our perspective of the world. In doing so, students read major works from the field of Post-Colonial Studies and analyze rich cultural texts, including books, film, poetry, and art. The multidisciplinary nature of the seminar – blending history, political science, literature, and cultural studies – offers students a unique opportunity to explore the political, social, and cultural dynamics of state-building in post-colonial societies. The outcome of this course is the application of political science methods and historical thinking skills to contemporary global affairs, as well as recognition of, and engagement with, non-Western perspectives on these issues.

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Environmental Studies and Research Prerequisites = C+ in Chemistry. Students must have already taken a biology course or be enrolled in one during the senior year. This course is centered on an ongoing 5-year research project that has been contracted with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF). Students in this class will continue to study the federally endangered James River spinymussel, which was discovered in a local watershed by previous students in this class. The research will include gathering and analyzing data for the following projects: • Tagging and monitoring populations of mussels. This is part of a state project coordinated by VDGIF. • Gathering data on mussel movement and distribution. This is a project designed by a previous class. • Monitoring local streams for chemical parameters and invertebrate populations. This data will be used to monitor the water quality associated with the mussel populations. • Censusing fish host species necessary for the completion of the life cycle of the mussel. • Working with VDGIF on a reintroduction of the spinymussel into a new watershed. The course will require accurate data collection achieved through strict protocol and the use of sensitive monitoring equipment. Thorough statistical analysis of the data will be employed to reach conclusions that will then determine the future direction of the research. Statistical analysis will include use of Fathom software, paired T tests, chi squares, regression, Mann-Whitney U Test, multiple regression, continued database development and population estimates Every year the results and conclusions reached by this class are published online. Through their participation in established research, design of novel scientific protocol, and use of targeted statistical analysis, students will understand the scientific process while solving a current ecological problem.

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HUMANITIES

The Humanities Department reflects a belief that the most significant way to prepare students for the demands of an increasingly global and complex world lies in interdisciplinary study. Consequently, Humanities integrates English, History and Religion into a program emphasizing inquiry in these disciplines as well as in art, architecture, and philosophy. Requirements are as follows: • Grade 9: Freshmen are required to take both Humanities 9: English and Humanities 9: History. • Grade 10: Sophomores are required to take Humanities 10. Qualified tenth graders will be eligible to earn Honors designation. • Grade 11: Juniors are required to take American Studies. Qualified juniors will be eligible to earn Honors designation. • Grade 12: Seniors will take either Humanities 12 or Honors Humanities 12. Humanities 9: English: Forging Communities and Redefining Identities Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in English 8 OR recommendation of Humanities Department. The goals of Humanities 9: English are to train students’ reading and writing skills through the study of good literature, vocabulary, and grammar. Weaving together writing workshop, a seminar-based classroom model, and the skills of close reading, we investigate the themes of identity, community, and metamorphosis. Our guiding questions and themes intentionally parallel the scope and sequence of History 9. Frequent writing assignments build towards longer analytical essays. Students read narrative and lyric poetry, nonfiction and fiction, and master an appropriate glossary of literary terms. Further, students compose in a variety of genres, including narrative, persuasive, and analytical writing. Grammar study begins with a review of phrases and clauses and progresses to common problems in usage, diction, and syntax, while vocabulary instruction aims to enhance students’ ability to discern meaning through word structure and etymology. Representative texts include: Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Charles Portis’ True Grit, William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Humanities 9: History Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in History 8 OR recommendation of Humanities Department. Through the extensive analysis of primary source materials, including texts, works of art, and architecture, Humanities 9 History seeks to explore the questions of “What holds civilizations together and what breaks them apart.” Specifically, the course will focus on some of the major social, political, and economic transitions that have shaped the world. Beginning with ancient China and early Islamic civilizations and culminating in Renaissance Humanism and the backlash against it, students will follow a narrative that unfolds in a series of transitions— from classical to medieval, Christian to Muslim, Western to Eastern, ancient to modern. By focusing on these pivotal changes, students will gain a meaningful understanding of themselves on both macro and micro levels. Finally, through careful alignment with Humanities 9: English, students will experience an approach that tears down the boundaries of disciplines and yields a more authentic study of the past and present. Humanities 10: Meaning and Modernity Prerequisite = Humanities 9: English and Humanities 9: History. N.B. This course provides credit for both Grade 10 English and World History. Humanities 10 approaches global studies through the perspectives of literature, history, religion, art, and philosophy. Beginning with an exploration of living religious traditions and moving into the 20th century, the course examines the formation of individual and cultural beliefs, as well as the consequences of conflict. The course spans various cultures and time periods within the 20th and 21st centuries, including World War I & II, Holocaust & genocide, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and modern China. Texts may include Siddhartha, Catcher in the Rye, The White Castle, Macbeth, and The Handmaid’s Tale; poetry, sacred texts, and historical documents; iconography, art, and architecture. Assessments may range from formal essays, sermons, and research papers to original poetry, digital storytelling, and manifestos. Students can expect to participate in frequent Harkness discussions, to collaborate actively with one another, to build a digital portfolio, and to engage in project-based learning. Honors Humanities 10 : Meaning and Modernity Good candidates for this course are students who have earned a B+ or above in Humanities English: 9 and Humanities History: 9. Completion of all Honors-level assessments and exemplary work throughout the course is required to earn the Honors designation, and this designation will appear on the student’s transcript after completion of the course. N.B. This course provides credit for both Grade 10 English and World History. Upper School Curriculum Guide 9


Honors Humanities 10 offers an option for students to assume greater independence as scholars and to challenge themselves to read and write more critically across various disciplines. Offered within the context of the regular Humanities 10 class, students will have heightened expectations in discussion, as well as complete differentiated assignments and readings. Honors Humanities 10 offers students both the communal experience of a heterogeneously mixed class, as well as the enriching experience of occasional break-out sessions with the other Honors students only. In addition to the regularly assigned summer reading, students interested in pursuing Honors must read the designated Honors text. American Studies Prerequisite = passing grade in Humanities 10. N.B. This course provides credit for both English 11 and U.S. History. American Studies exposes students to the breadth and complexity of American history and culture by approaching the study of the United States from a cultural standpoint that synthesizes social, aesthetic, economic, philosophical and political transformations of the United States from a multi-disciplinary approach. Using historical documents, novels, poems, plays, films, art, and architecture, students will examine the symbiotic relationship between historical experience and self-expression as well as the ways in which culture registers changes in society, and how these works of art influence the trajectory of history. In addition to a major research paper, all students will engage in both team and individual projects. American Studies instructs students in a variety of types of writing while stressing the essentially collaborative nature of scholarship through comments on the work of their peers. Honors American Studies Good candidates for this course are students who earned an A- or above in Humanities 10 or a B+ or above in Honors Humanities 10 and who seek to commit themselves to a serious study of core and honors-level texts and projects. Completion of all Honors-level assessments and exemplary work throughout the course is required to earn the Honors designation, and this designation will appear on the student’s transcript after completion of the course. N.B. This course provides credit for both English 11 and U.S. History. Honors American Studies offers an option for students to assume a role as class leaders while also engaging in significant outside work that will simulate the kind of independent work and elevated discussion of a college seminar. Students will have heightened expectations in discussion, complete differentiated assignments as well as independently read and discuss major novels. Each trimester, students will be expected to read a novel and historiography that reflect on the historical periods we study. Because the independent projects and seminars are a key aspect of the Honors course, there will be high expectations for Honors students in their written work, tests, and daily class discussions. Students will also be expected to create a culminating project that will contribute to the public discourse either through sharing in a public forum at our school, creating a website or blog, or through submitting their work for publication to an outside body. Humanities 12 Prerequisite = passing grade in American Studies Humanities 12 is a course designed to explore and expand upon skills of written and oral expression, deep listening, and developing an understanding of the individual, the individual within the family, and the individual within the community, as well as within the world. Acquiring self-knowledge and taking an active role in our classroom community are fundamental to this course. Students will read, discuss, and write about poems, short stories, novels, memoirs, plays, film, and visual art – all selected to introduce complex personal and social issues, and challenge critical thinking skills. Writing assignments – ranging from personal narratives and essays to letters, poetry, and responses to readings, in addition to alternative assessments – encourage reading audience awareness and an exploration of varying perspectives. The art of analysis and writing about students’ own lives form the foundation of a collection of the students’ written work. Students will hone skills as readers and editors of each other’s work. Special emphasis will be placed on student participation in Harkness discussions. Representative texts include Shakespeare’s Hamlet, O’Brien’s The Things They Carried, and Katherine Boo’s Behind the Beautiful Forevers. Honors Humanities 12 Students who earn an A- in Honors American Studies will automatically be placed in Honors Humanities 12. • A student may also qualify for the course by meeting 4 of the following benchmarks: • B+ or above in Honors American Studies AND a completed application to move into the honors track (2 benchmarks) • A- in American Studies AND a completed application to move into the honors track • (2 benchmarks) • A or an A- on the American Studies final exam (1 benchmark) • A or A- on the American Studies Research Paper (1 benchmark) 10

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• Standardized testing (1 benchmark) • A “4” on the AP English Literature Exam or AP English Language exam or • Above a 675 on the SAT II Subject Test • Approval of the Humanities Department in consultation with American Studies instructors (1 benchmark) Designed for the student interested in delving more deeply into the study of literature, the arts, and philosophy, Honors Humanities 12 is intended to help students become stronger critical thinkers and independent learners. Be forewarned that we will expect much of you. We expect you to read, think, and write with passion. Our essential questions range from Who am I? and What are our obligations to others? to What ultimately matters? We will study a broad range of texts, all intended to teach students to analyze and discuss texts with greater sophistication and greater sensitivity toward the human condition. In the hopes of fostering global empathy, our texts are chosen with an eye towards international representation, and recent texts have ranged from William Shakespeare’s Hamlet to Junot Diaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things, and Kamel Daoud’s The Meursault Investigation. Finally, this course encourages students to become nimble writers by composing in multiple genres, including journal reflections, college essays, memoirs, creative nonfiction, avant-garde poetry, as well as formal essays. Honors European History: People, Things, and Ideas in The Atlantic World, 1450 - 1945 Prerequisite = For seniors: minimum grade of A- in American Studies OR minimum grade of B+ in Honors American Studies; OR recommendation of Humanities Department in consultation with American Studies instructors. For juniors: minimum grade of A- in Humanities 10 AND recommendation of Humanities Department in consultation with Humanities 10 instructors. In this course we will chart flows of goods, information, and people, captive and free, throughout the Atlantic World. While at moments we will pay more careful attention to some regions or countries than others, at all times we will explore the connections and relationships among multiple places and communities in order to understand the larger systems in which historical actors lived. Major topics will include colonialism and imperialism, the emergence of the nation state, global trade and industrialization, religious thought and practice, the rise and advancement of science, the discovery of the diversity of cultures and the limits of Enlightenment universalism, the emergence of the ideas of human rights, and war and its consequences. Throughout the course we will be especially attuned to the ideas that lay behind political and social change, to cultural responses to those changes, and to enduring contests over authority and identity. Readings will include primary sources, such as novels, philosophical treatises, letters, and personal narratives, as well as monographs and articles. The course will include a major Digital Humanities component. Over the course of the year, students will work together to map the movement of people, commodities, or intellectual property through the Atlantic World using visualization software created by St. Anne’s-Belfield Students.

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MATHEMATICS

The above chart shows the various pathways a student may progress through our mathematics curriculum. “H” indicates honors-level. “I.M.” stands for Integrated Mathematics.

INTEGRATED MATH CURRICULUM

During Integrated Mathematics 1 and Integrated Mathematics 2, students learn all of the concepts taught in the traditional Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2 sequence. Integrated Mathematics 3 is equivalent to Advanced Algebra/Pre-Calculus. Students who complete Integrated Mathematics 3 are prepared for AP Statistics and/or Integrated Mathematics 4. Integrated Mathematics 4 is a combination of data analysis, analytic geometry, and an introduction to Calculus. The honors sequence prepares students for AP Calculus and AP Statistics upon successful completion of Honors Integrated Mathematics 3. Integrated Mathematics 1 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Math 8 Integrated Mathematics I is a geometry course tied to algebraic processes. Students deepen their understanding of linear functions and inequalities, systems of equations, and inequalities through the investigation of lines, polygons, and vectors in both two and three dimensions. Right-triangle trigonometry is introduced, as are circles and parabolas through a thorough study of polynomials. These concepts are reinforced through many different types of word problems and are applied to the real world through a variety of projects. Throughout the course, students will have opportunities to use tools such as graphing calculators, compasses and straightedges, protractors, and a variety of computer programs to explore concepts, analyze data, and to solve complex problems with realistic data. The focus on word problems builds algebraic skills within a context rather than from drill and practice for its own sake. The amalgamation of geometry and algebraic skills allows for a more dynamic course of study and will provide the foundation necessary for all upper-level mathematics courses. Integrated Mathematics 2 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Integrated Mathematics 1 This course begins with an introduction to sequences. Throughout the year the class incorporates a review and an extension of the algebra and geometry skills developed in Integrated Mathematics 1. Along the way, students will build a library of “parent” functions that form the foundation of the mathematics program of the Upper School. The functions studied during the year include linear with two and three variables, quadratic, radical, and absolute value. Students will also explore conic sections and tie their understanding of algebraic processes to geometric properties. Rational equations, complex numbers, inequalities, function notation, and matrix algebra will be studied and used in a wide array of applications. Each concept is presented in three ways: numerically, algebraically, and graphically. Modeling problems form the foundation of the program and real-world applications will help students to develop a deeper understanding of the material being studied. Graphing calculators are used extensively to facilitate explorations but each unit will also contain a non-calculator component. Honors Integrated Mathematics 2 Prerequisite = From Honors Integrated Mathematics 1: A student must meet three of the following benchmarks: • Earn an A- or better during each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn a B+ or better for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn a B or better on the end of year exam (1 benchmark)

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From Integrated Mathematics 1: A student must meet three of the following benchmarks: • Earn an A during each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn an A for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn an A or better on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) N.B. Summer work will be required for a student who moves from Integrated Mathematics 1 to Honors Integrated Mathematics 2. This fast-paced course is designed to challenge those students who have shown a high degree of ability to synthesize and apply mathematical concepts in a variety of ways. Students will develop an understanding of patterns and recursion and apply this to investigations of data, linear models and systems. They will study a variety of functions such as: exponential, power, logarithmic, polynomial (including quadratics) and rational. Students will also be introduced to a variety of relations, such as conic sections, and their transformations. Geometric concepts will be studied throughout the course and algebra will be used to develop a deep understanding of geometric properties. In each unit students are expected to tackle the most difficult problems. Students use statistical analysis while exploring real-world applications of the functions that they are studying. Modeling problems are emphasized throughout the course. At every step students are honing skills that will be needed in the study of Honors Pre-Calculus and AP Calculus. Graphing calculators are used extensively, although many units contain non-calculator components. During the 3rd trimester, students are introduced to circular and right triangle trigonometry, measuring in radians as well as degrees. Although the graphing calculator is a necessary tool throughout the course, students are expected to master the values of the “special” angles and arcs. Students will also be required to memorize the fundamental identities and be able to use them to solve real world problems. Since many natural and man-made situations can be represented by trigonometric functions and sinusoidal graphs, it is imperative that the student who plans to study higher levels of mathematics fully understands this material and how it is applied. To this end, modeling problems will be used extensively. Furthermore, students will solve trigonometric equations and apply both trigonometric graphs and inverse trigonometric functions. Integrated Mathematics 3 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Integrated Mathematics 2 This course will begin with an in depth study of trigonometry. As the year progresses, students will further develop their understanding of the parent functions that they began to study in Integrated Mathematics 2, and then delve into more complicated relations and functions. Some topics of study include step functions, piecewise defined functions, conic sections, compound interest, area under a curve, and sequences and series. Modeling problems will be used extensively throughout the course. Honors Integrated Mathematics 3 Prerequisite= From Honors Integrated Mathematics 2: A student must meet three of the following benchmarks: • Earn a B or better during each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn a B or better for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn a B or better on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) From Integrated Mathematics 2: A student must meet three of the following benchmarks: • Earn an A- during each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn an A- for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn an A- on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) N.B. Summer work will be required for a student who moves from Integrated Mathematics 2 to Honors Integrated Mathematics 3. This fast-paced, rigorous course is designed for the highly motivated, well-prepared student who relishes mathematical challenges. This course is designed to prepare the student for the study of Calculus. The curriculum for this course includes a review and extension of linear, exponential, logarithmic, rational, and trigonometric functions. New topics include natural logarithms, vectors, polar coordinates, parametric equations, and series. The end of the course is designed to prepare the highly motivated student for Advanced Placement Calculus. Students will investigate the concepts of limits, continuity, and instantaneous rates of change. Students will also develop the formal definition of derivatives and explore other aspects of differential calculus. Note: A student who has completed the topics included in Algebra 1, Algebra 2, and the algebra component of our Pre-Calculus course at another school may take Trigonometry concurrently with Honors Pre-Calculus. Such students will be required to complete an examination, demonstrating their proficiency in all algebra concepts. Upper School Curriculum Guide 13


Integrated Mathematics 4 Prerequisite= minimum grade of C- in Integrated Mathematics 3 This course is designed to prepare the student for the study of Calculus and college level statistics. The curriculum for this course includes data analysis, probability, review and extension of linear, power, exponential, logarithmic, rational, and trigonometric functions. Students will also be introduced to polar coordinates and equations, and parametric equations. The third trimester is designed to prepare the student for college level Calculus. Students will investigate the concepts of limits, continuity, and instantaneous rates of change. Students will also develop the formal definition of derivatives and explore other aspects of differential calculus. Advanced Placement Statistics Prerequisite= From Integrated Mathematics 4 or from Honors Integrated Mathematics 3, a student must meet four of the following benchmarks: • Earn a B- or better in each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn a B- or better for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn a B- or better on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) • Earn a score in 70th percentile or better on mathematics section of the PSAT (1 benchmark) From Integrated Mathematics 3, a student must meet four of the following benchmarks: • Earn an A- or better in each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn an A- or better for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn an A- or better on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) • Earn a score in 70th percentile or better on mathematics section of the PSAT (1 benchmark) This course prepares students for the Advanced Placement examination in Statistics. Advanced Placement Statistics is equivalent to a one term, introductory, non-calculus-based college course in statistics. It introduces students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. Through the use of the TI-83/84 calculator, Fathom software, and hands-on activities, students will be actively engaged with real data. The paper-and-pencil approach to statistics is minimized. Instead, the emphasis is on statistical concepts and problem solving. Good written communication skills are important. Advanced Placement Calculus AB Prerequisite= From AP Statistics = minimum grade of B From Honors Integrated Mathematics 3: A student must meet three of the following benchmarks: • Earn a B or better during each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn a B or better for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn a B or better on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) From Integrated Mathematics 4: A student must meet three of the following benchmarks: • Earn an B+ during each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn an B+ for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn an B+ on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) N.B. Summer work may be required for a student who moves from Integrated Mathematics 4 to AP Calculus AB. This course prepares students for the Advanced Placement examination (AB) in Calculus, teaching them to perform computations and to solve problems in the following areas: analytic geometry, limits, derivatives of algebraic functions and transcendental functions, applications of the derivative including curve sketching, maximum and minimum, and rate of change, integration, application of anti-differentiation including solutions to differential equations, slope fields, and exponential growth and decay, applications of the definite integral including area of a region, average value of a function, volumes of solids with known cross sections, and distance traveled by a particle in a vertical or a horizontal direction. Advanced Placement Calculus BC Prerequisite= From Integrated Mathematics 4 or from Honors Integrated Mathematics 3, a student must meet four of the following 14

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benchmarks: • Earn an A in each term (2 benchmarks) • Earn an A for the end of year grade (1 benchmark) • Earn an A on the end of year exam (1 benchmark) • Earn a score in 90th percentile or better on mathematics section of the PSAT (1 benchmark) • From AP Calculus AB = minimum grade of BThis course prepares students for the Advanced Placement examination (BC) in Calculus. The topical outline for Calculus BC includes all topics described in Advanced Placement Calculus AB. Additional topics in Calculus BC are: parametric, polar and vector functions, Eüler’s method, improper integrals, areas of regions bounded by polar curves, length of a curve including curves given in parametric form, logistic differential equations, series of constants, and Power Series including Taylor polynomials. Post Calculus options include year-long courses like: • Honors Differential Equations (2018-19) • Honors Linear Algebra (2017-18) • Honors Number Theory • Honors Multivariable Calculus • Honors Non-Ordinary Differential Equations These courses will be offered in alternating years. Prerequisite for these courses= minimum grade of C in AP Calculus BC or minimum grade of A in AP Calculus AB The Differential Equations course focuses on equations that describe and solve many real world problems, including many from the fields of engineering, the physical sciences, and the social sciences. This course will demonstrate the usefulness of ordinary differential equations in a wide array of situations. Topics to be discussed are: first order differential equations, second order linear equations, the Laplace Transform, mathematical modeling, and higher order linear equations. Linear Algebra is a powerful field of mathematics that is used in a wide range of fields such as physics, computer graphics, cryptography, and sociology. Linear Algebra is traditionally introduced to university students after they have completed their basic Calculus courses. This abbreviated course will introduce some potent problem solving techniques. Some topics that will be discussed are: vectors in a plane, matrix algebra and solving linear equations, vector spaces, determinants, linear transformations, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors.

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WORLD LANGUAGES

*Level 1 courses are for beginners, and many students are able to arrange their schedules to take more than one language.

FRENCH French 1 Prerequisite = none An introduction to the study of French language and Francophone cultures, this course is designed to teach basic grammar and vocabulary that enables students to communicate on a variety of topics related to their daily lives. Cultural study and engagement with authentic materials forms an important part of daily classwork. Students will use an online program called Middlebury Interactive in lieu of a textbook. The level of interaction of this program allows students to develop the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing whether in class or working independently. The lessons are constructed so that the students’ knowledge of words, phrases, sentences, and situations slowly builds into a complete entity. From the first day, students are exposed to French, and with the exception of an occasional grammatical explanation in English, the vast majority of class time is conducted in French. French 2 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in French 1 or 8th Grade French This course is designed for Learning Village students who have successfully completed the seventh grade and eighth grade French 1 program and for Upper School students who have successfully completed the French 1 program. The course reviews elementary grammar and introduces students to more verb tenses, as well as to current vocabulary and idioms necessary to use the language in authentic contexts. Ample practice is given to writing skills in order to move students toward more complex writing. Honors French 2 Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of A- in French 1 or 8th grade French This course is designed for motivated students who have demonstrated great facility in speaking and writing French, and who are interested in a deeper dive into the French language and Francophone cultures. Candidates for this course have exhibited the potential to pursue French at an accelerated pace. Students will apply their knowledge of grammatical structures through creative projects, class discussions, and brief essays. Students will interpret both adapted and authentic Francophone texts of increasing difficulty. Vocabulary studies are theme-based and will emphasize lexical choice. French 3 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in French 2 This course is designed for students who have successfully completed the French 2 program and do NOT intend to take the Advanced Placement examination at the end of the following year. The course encourages self-expression in the language through conversation and writing. Selected pieces of literature, articles and films provide a starting point for class discussions and for the comprehension of French culture. Students also complete a review of all grammatical concepts, so as to improve their command of grammar in both writing and speaking. Honors French 3 Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of A- in French 2 or B- in Honors French 2 This course is designed for students who have a strong interest in the language and who intend to pursue their study of French in the Advanced Placement program in the following years. Students are introduced to literary works by French and Francophone writers. The focus is on precision, correctness and authentic pace in the target language.. Students are expected to perfect their command of grammar through a review of all grammatical concepts. At this level, students are expected to read, discuss, and write essays about works of literature, films and global and contemporary issues. French 4 - Film Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in French 3 This course is designed for students who have completed the required sequence of World language, yet want to refine their skills. This course allows them to bridge the gap between high school and university French studies. The course is a structured presentation of films and readings from French-speaking countries. The film-based approach, coupled with a variety of readings is appropriate for a course dedicated to building language skills with a focus on critical thinking and authentic texts. 16

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The class draws on students’ existing interest and involvement in film in their everyday life as a way to engage them more fully in language acquisition and to enhance their cultural awareness of the French and Francophone world. Advanced Placement (AP) French Language Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of B- in Honors French 3. Strongly recommended = minimum grade of B+ in Honors French 3 The principal goal of this course is to expose students to the widest range of authentic materials possible, so as to give them the breadth and depth of language study comparable to a university-level course. This course also prepares students for the Advanced Placement examination in French language. Materials vary from classic to contemporary texts, and also include film, television, radio, and all genres of literature. (Honors) French 5: Advanced Literature Prerequisite for Honors = Minimum grade of B- in Advanced Placement French Language. Prerequisite for non-Honors = Minimum grade of B- in French 4 This course is designed for students who have successfully completed the AP French language course or French 4: Film, and who have an interest in pursuing their studies in twentieth and twenty first century French or Francophone literature, drama and cinema. The course is designed to replicate a course in literature usually offered in the third year of an American university. This course puts a strong emphasis on class discussions and interactions in the target language as well as written compositions. This course does not necessarily prepare students for the AP French Literature exam. The course can be taken with or without the Honors designation. Students taking the course for Honors will be assessed more rigorously on tests and quizzes and will be required to complete additional writing assignments commensurate with the Honors designation.

SPANISH Spanish 1 Prerequisite = none An introduction to the study of Spanish language and culture, Spanish I is designed to teach basic grammar and vocabulary that enables students to communicate on a variety of topics related to their daily lives. Cultural study and engagement with authentic materials forms an important part of daily classwork. Students will use an online program called Middlebury Interactive in lieu of a textbook. The level of interaction of this program allows students to develop the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing whether in class or working independently. The lessons are constructed so that the students’ knowledge of words, phrases, sentences, and situations slowly builds into a complete entity. From the first day, students are exposed to Spanish, and with the exception of occasional discussions and instruction giving, the vast majority of class time is conducted in Spanish. Spanish 2 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Spanish 1 or 8th grade Spanish This course is designed for students who have successfully completed the Spanish 1 program either in the Learning Village or Upper School. It reinforces the listening, speaking, reading and writing skills that were stressed in the first-year course. The consistent use of the spoken language in the classroom is combined with an emphasis on a sound grammatical foundation. Students will use an online program called Middlebury Interactive in lieu of a textbook. The level of interaction of this program allows students to develop the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing whether in class or working independently. Discussions of the culture of Spain, Central America and South America are regularly included in the course. Honors Spanish 2 Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of A- in Spanish 1 or 8th Grade Spanish This course is designed for motivated students who have exhibited the potential to follow a curriculum that emphasizes contextualized content at an accelerated pace. Students will apply their knowledge of many grammatical structures through self selected projects, will read and discuss works of contemporary Hispanic authors, explore the culture of Latin America and Spain, and will write short essays about selected works. Vocabulary studies are theme-based and will emphasize lexical choice. Video material is also an integral part of the course.

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Spanish 3 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Spanish 2 This course is designed for the student who does not plan to prepare for the Advanced Placement examination in Spanish. It seeks to prepare students to understand Spanish spoken at a regular pace, as well as Spanish written for native speakers. It encourages self-expression in the language through conversation, debate, research, and both reporting and persuasive essays. The thorough grammar review should serve as an opportunity to solidify previously learned skills and apply them with mastery. Selected pieces of literature, articles and films provide a starting point for class discussion and the understanding of Spanish, Central American and South American cultures. Honors Spanish 3 Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of A- in Spanish 2 or B- in Honors Spanish 2 This course is designed for those students who have a strong interest in the language and who intend to pursue their study of Spanish in the Advanced Placement program in the following years. At this level students will read, discuss, and write essays about works of literature by Spanish language authors. Students will also be introduced to the cultural and historical context of the works. Students are expected to refine their command of grammar through a review of all grammatical concepts. The focus is on precision of word choice, grammatical accuracy, and authentic pace when speaking. Spanish 4 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Spanish 3 Spanish 5 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Spanish 4 This course is both for students coming from Spanish 3 and Spanish 4 (i.e. anyone who has completed the required sequence of world language yet wants to refine his or her skills). This course allows students to bridge the gap between high school and university Spanish studies. The course is a structured presentation of films and readings from Spanish-speaking countries. This approach is appropriate for building language skills with a focus on critical thinking and authentic texts while also allowing students to polish grammar points previously learned. The class draws on students’ existing interest and involvement in film in their everyday life as a way to engage them more fully in language acquisition and to enhance their cultural awareness of the Spanish-speaking world. In addition, students will research and discuss current events that have an impact on the Spanishspeaking world. Student progress will be assessed and grades assigned through grammar and vocabulary quizzes, comprehension exercises, participation in class discussion, group projects and essays on topics germane to the films and literature. Assignments are differentiated according to the level of a student (level 4 or level 5). Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture Prerequisite = minimum grade of B- in Honors Spanish 3 Strongly recommended = minimum grade of B+ in Honors Spanish 3 Spanish AP is an intermediate-advanced course, taught at a college-level. The goal is for students to attain proficiency in the relevant cultural topics and the interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication described in the AP Spanish Language and Culture Curriculum. Students are exposed to a variety of important contemporary and historical topics and a vast array of authentic materials/resources including podcasts, documentaries, movies, newspaper articles, databases and literature. Honors Spanish 5 / Honors Spanish 6: Advanced Literature, Film and Current Events Prerequisite for Honors = minimum grade of B- in Advanced Placement Spanish Language This course is designed to replicate a course in literature usually offered in the third year of an American university. The underlying aim of the course is to teach the skills necessary to do a close reading of a text in Spanish in order to best prepare students for the study of Spanish language and literature in college. Students will examine the language as well as the historical and cultural context of prose, poetry and plays. Students complete a detailed study of each work through extensive class discussions and essay writing. This course does not seek to prepare students for the AP Spanish Literature exam.

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LATIN Latin 1 (not offered as a class for 2018 - 2019*) Prerequisite = none This is a course designed for students who have not studied Latin in Grades 7 & 8 at St. Anne’s-Belfield, or who are new to the School. Depending on the level of a student’s performance, he or she can move to Latin 2 or Honors 2 the following year. The course will cover the fundamentals of Latin grammar. Students will learn verb conjugations and noun declensions, as well as the other basic grammar necessary for translating Latin stories of increasing difficulty. Introduction to sight reading and to the culture of the Romans will complement the formal study of grammar. Latin 1 will ask students to read aloud Latin sentences, to practice aloud the learning of vocabulary, and, on occasion, to turn English sentences into Latin. Cultural and historical information and word derivations in English are also an important part of the course. *In years when Latin 1 does not run due to low enrollment, interested students may pursue an online, independent study of introductory Latin through Middlebury Interactive. Students who wish to pursue this path should contact the world languages department chair. Latin 2 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Latin 1 or 8th Grade Latin This course will follow a similar curriculum to the Honors Latin 2 course but at a more measured pace. The course seeks to develop students’ knowledge of Latin grammar and vocabulary and to improve their ability to read connected prose of increasing difficulty. Discussion of culture, history and word derivation will continue to be an important part of the course. Honors Latin 2 Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of A- in Latin 1 or 8th grade Latin The typical Honors Latin 2 student has taken seventh and eighth grade Latin in the St. Anne’s-Belfield School Learning Village (or Latin 1 in the Upper School) and has been recommended for more advanced work in Latin by the department. The course seeks to develop students’ knowledge of Latin grammar and vocabulary and to improve their ability to read connected prose of increasing difficulty. Development of a more extensive vocabulary and a more in-depth mastery of grammatical concepts, distinguish the Honors course from the non-Honors option. Students finish the year with a study of the poetry of the Roman author Martial. Cultural study and word derivation play an important role in the course as well. Latin 3 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Latin 2 In Latin 3, students continue the study of grammar, syntax, and Latin vocabulary. A special emphasis is placed on the culture of Rome of the Classical era, and on English vocabulary that derives from Latin. In the first term, students will focus on translating adapted prose passages and on completing the major grammatical structures found in basic Latin prose. By the second term, students will be able to read, with appropriate aids, unadapted Latin written by native speakers such as Pliny and Livy. An introductory unit of Latin poetry, especially Catullus, Horace, and Martial, finishes out the course. Honors Latin 3 Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of A- in Latin 2 or B- in Honors Latin 2 The object of the Honors Latin 3 course is to read and study Latin authors in their original texts, while continuing to learn and review Latin grammar. The goals of the course are for students to have an understanding of all basic Latin grammar, to develop the ability to read passages of Latin at sight, and to be able to read and study Latin literature, poetry and prose in the original language. The course entails exposure to both poetry and prose of the late Republic and early Imperial periods, including the prose of Livy and Cicero, and the poetry of Catullus, Horace, Ovid, and Vergil. The successful student in Honors Latin 3 is prepared to continue into AP Latin. Advanced Placement Latin Prerequisite = recommendation of the department AND minimum grade of B- in Honors Latin 3. Strongly recommended = B+ in Honors Latin 3 The Advanced Placement course follows the syllabus for the Advanced Placement examination. Students will study Vergil’s Aeneid and Julius Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. Students will translate selected passages from Books I, II, IV, and VI of Vergil’s Aeneid, and will study the content of the poem as a whole, in the context of classical epic. Students will also read selected passages of Caesar and study the historical context surrounding them. Students will also synthesize the Upper School Curriculum Guide 19


study of these two important works to better understand the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Principate. The main object of the course is to translate Latin poetry and prose literally, to scan dactylic hexameter, and to identify and analyze figures of speech and other features of poetic style. In addition to reading Vergil and Caesar, students will practice translation at sight from various Latin prose and poetry authors in order to prepare them for the multiple-choice sight translation paper on the AP examination in May. Latin 4, Latin 5, and Honors Latin 5 meet concurrently. The prerequisites and course description are as follows: Latin 4 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Latin 3 Latin 5 Prerequisite = minimum grade of C- in Latin 4 or Advanced Placement Latin Honors Latin 5 Prerequisite = minimum grade of B- in Advanced Placement Latin or A- in Latin 4 This course has two primary goals: to review and confirm the principles of Latin grammar learned in Latin 1-3 and to strengthen students’ ability to read and interpret Latin prose and poetry. The selection of text will vary with students’ background and ability. The course will generally provide intensive study of a different author, genre, or time period each trimester. Possibilities include studies of ancient comedy, especially the works of Plautus and Terence; I, Claudius, from the Suetonius to the BBC, in which we would watch the complete BBC mini-series alongside Robert Graves’ novels and, most importantly, the ancient literary and material evidence, primarily Suetonius and Tacitus, for the period; an introduction to Ancient Greek. The course requires strong Latin skills, and will also focus on college-level writing skills, with substantial papers (written in English) each term. Students taking the course for Honors will be assessed more rigorously on tests and quizzes and will be required to complete additional writing assignments commensurate with the Honors designation.

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SCIENCE Physics Corequisite = concurrent enrollment in Integrated Mathematics 1 or higher level mathematics course This course presents the fundamental framework of physics, and applies physical principles both qualitatively and analytically, using tools of basic first-year algebra. The course relates physics to the student’s personal experience in the everyday world, so that physics is seen as a part of life rather than as a classroom activity. The course focuses on the principles behind mechanics, light, electromagnetism, and basic atomic physics. It provides a foundation for further studies in the science curriculum, giving the student the knowledge about the universe which permits more sophisticated mathematical analysis of relationships. Advanced Physics (Earned Honors option) Corequisite = A- or above in Science 8 and concurrent enrollment in Integrated Math 2 or higher This course presents the fundamental framework of physics and applies physical principles both qualitatively and analytically, using tools of algebra and geometry. Successful students of Advanced Physics have been exposed to and/or are comfortable with a high level of analytical thinking and independence, skills the School emphasizes and intentionally develops in our Honors Integrated Math 1 class. Principles of physics are examined with a focus on understanding the connections between various topics. The experimental experience includes design of experiments, quality and reliability of data, and comparison with theoretical expectations. It provides a foundation for further advanced studies in the science curriculum, giving the student the knowledge about the universe which permits more sophisticated mathematical analysis of relationships. Chemistry Prerequisites = successful completion of Physics or Advanced Physics. Corequisite = concurrent enrollment in Integrated Mathematics 2 or higher level Mathematics course. The focus of this course is to expose students to a core science that is fundamental to further work in science and is crucial to understanding many issues they will face as citizens. The course is constructed around a common theme of connecting the chemistry facts and equations to typical problems and situations in the students’ world. The course includes units on atomic theory, the periodic table, chemical bonding, chemical reactions, chemical composition and nomenclature, stoichiometry, solutions chemistry, including acids and bases, gases, oxidation-reduction reactions, and nuclear chemistry. Throughout the course, students are encouraged to ask “why” in order to understand the implications and applications of what they are learning. Labs and demonstrations are an integral part of the course, as are current summaries on science research. Using laboratory skills and concepts learned during the course, students will complete a laboratory-based project and write a formal lab report of their results. Honors Chemistry Prerequisites = minimum grade of A- in Advanced Physics, or minimum grade of B- in Honors Advanced Physics, or minimum grade of B- in Chemistry Corequisite = concurrent enrollment in Honors Integrated Mathematics 2 or higher level Mathematics course The focus of this course is to prepare very able students for further work in the sciences, as well as to train them to look at their world through the eyes of a scientist. In teaching atomic theory, the major focus of the first part of the course, the aim is not to tell that matter is made of unbelievably small particles with certain properties, but to convince them that this is the best way to account for the macroscopic properties we can measure in the laboratory. Nuclear chemistry is covered in depth. During the second half of the year emphasis is placed on thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, chemical bonding, and organic chemistry. Throughout the year, course material is related to environmental issues. Students successful in this course are prepared to take the SAT II in chemistry. Beginning in the fall of 2018, Biology and Advanced Placement Biology will be replaced with an earned honors course called Advanced Topics in Biology. Advanced Topics in Biology (Earned honors option) Prerequisites = successful completion of a chemistry course Students will explore the living world from the perspective of being human. The course begins with the study of the necessary elements for building a human and how molecular biology within differentiated cells forms body systems. The curriculum then expands to study how humans affect the larger world both spatially through ecosystem use and impact and temporally Upper School Curriculum Guide 21


through genetics, heredity, and evolution. Students will pursue big questions in life science, the understanding of which relies on core biological principles. Students will regularly complete and design laboratory experiments that examine the topics they study. An earned-honors option is available to students that will include reading and writing at a greater level of detail, and designing and completing experimental projects. This course does not actively prepare students for the AP Biology exam. Advanced Placement Chemistry Prerequisites = minimum grade of B- in Honors Chemistry or A- in Chemistry. Corequisite = concurrent enrollment in Honors Integrated Mathematics 3. Or higher level Mathematics course This course is a college-level introductory chemistry course, meant to be taken after successful completion of (Honors) Physics, (Honors) Chemistry, and Honors Integrated Mathematics 2, since a familiarity with exponential and logarithmic equations is essential. All topics in the Advanced Placement course outline are covered. There is a strong emphasis on laboratory work. Students do at least sixteen major experiments, and are required to keep reports of their laboratory work in a bound notebook. Advanced Placement Physics C Corequisite = enrollment in Advanced Placement Calculus AB or higher level Mathematics course. Recommended = successful completion of a prior physics course This calculus-based course focuses in depth on classical mechanics. The course corresponds to a one-term sequence course required of physical science and engineering students at the university level. Qualified students who expect to study physics, engineering, or mathematics at the university level should enroll in this course.

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PERFORMING ARTS Concert Choir Prerequisite = None. Open to Grades 9 - 12 students. May be repeated for credit. The Concert Choir will study and perform choral literature from a variety of time periods and musical genres throughout the year. Students will explore what constitutes effective performance practice for various styles, and come to a deeper understanding of how each piece fits (or does not fit) into the larger choral tradition. Each student will also develop his or her vocal technique, sight reading skills, and understanding of music theory and terminology. Honors Saints Chorale Limited Enrollment. Performance Audition Required. Open to Grades 9 - 12 students. Following an audition with the instructor, students will be eligible for the Saints Chorale, the earned honors ensemble excerpted from the larger Concert Choir. An honors choral singer must be able to read music in bass and treble clefs, identify all major key signatures, perform basic tonal memory exercises, and produce a consistent, healthy vocal tone. Chorale students may also join one of two Upper School a cappella groups, Elements of Sound (mixed voice) or TrebleMakers (treble voices). The students will sing as a part of the Concert Choir, attend outside rehearsals and perform in additional concerts. Students will study and perform high-level choral literature from a variety of time periods and musical genres throughout the year. Students will meet bi-monthly to practice musicianship skills outside of regular class time, including sight-singing, tonal memory, and keyboard skills. Finally, each Chorale member will design a directed study project that furthers their development as an artist within a specific musical area, either composing/arranging, solo performance, musicology, or cross disciplinary projects. Philharmonic Strings Open to Grades 9 - 12 violin, viola, cello, and bass players. Prerequisite = Performance equivalent of at least two years of study or permission of the instructor The Philharmonic Strings study and perform a variety of repertoire including baroque, classical, romantic, contemporary classical, folk, jazz, and music of the stage and screen. Students advance their technical facility and ensemble skills through in-depth study of scales, tone production, and stylistic performance practices. The Philharmonic Strings perform an average of four concerts during the year, and compete in local competitions and festivals. In addition to rehearsing ensemble pieces, there is ample opportunity for students to study solo and chamber music under the direction of the orchestra conductor and visiting faculty. Honors Counterpoints Limited Enrollment. Performance Audition Required. Open to Grades 9 - 12 students. Honors Counterpoints is an honors course for advanced level string players. The ensemble studies and performs standard string orchestra repertoire and progressive jazz music. All members play as part of the Philharmonic Strings and are also required to work on solo and small group pieces. Counterpoints musicians perform and travel often throughout the year, representing the School at local, state, and regional music festivals and competitions. Music Theory Open to Grades 9 - 12 students. The Music Theory curriculum at St. Anne’s-Belfield School will generate a cross-disciplinary field of study that connects music to the rest of the world. The focus of this course will be in-depth musical analysis. Instruction will also include an exploration of aural analysis and music history. The music studied in this course will come from all major practice periods, as well as from non-western traditions around the world. Project-based learning will be a major focus in this course. Students will compose their own pieces, design listening examples, write papers, and prepare presentations. All of these assignments will have collaborative elements within their processes. Students will also have the opportunity to teach what they learn to the class on a regular basis. Advanced Placement Music Theory Prerequisite = minimum grade of B in Music Theory and/or permission of teacher. This course presents materials for study from a first-year college music theory curriculum. Preceded by a preliminary review of Music Theory, we approach the mastery of music theory through the study of chord construction, chord successions, harmonic analysis, and part writing. The course also focuses on the study of melody, including melodic construction (form) and the characteristic elements of successful melodic writing. The development of aural skills through interval and chord Upper School Curriculum Guide 23


recognition, and melodic and harmonic dictation are also a major aspect of the course. Project-based learning will be a major focus in this course. Students will compose their own pieces, design listening examples, write papers, and prepare presentations. All of these assignments will have collaborative elements within their processes. Students will also have the opportunity to teach what they learn to the class on a regular basis. Ultimately, all of these methods of investigation will prepare students to take the AP Music Theory Exam at the conclusion of this course. Theatre Arts 1 Prerequisite = None Theatre Arts 1 is a yearlong course designed for students with any range of theatre arts background and does not require previous stage experience. Students involved in theatre work at the School should plan to take Theatre Arts 1 during their Upper School career. Theatre Arts 1 students participate in skill-building activities at an elevated intermediate to advanced level. These activities are designed to increase kinetic awareness, refine vocal techniques, and enhance imagination, analytical thinking, and improvisational skills. Theatre Arts 1 students will become familiar with the elements of action as outlined in A Practical Handbook for the Actor (Bruider, Cohn, Oknek, Pollack, Previto, Zigler), and they will explore the twelve guideposts to character development and acting drawn from Audition by Michael Shurtleff. In the second half of the year, the focus of study and practice is improvisational theatre work. Students will apply their new skills and knowledge to original scenes and published monologues and scenes which they will analyze and perform for their classmates. The course will conclude with a project that includes a memorized monologue, a personal process paper, and a series of three improvisational scenes. The performance projects will be presented during the final week of the term for the Theatre Arts 1 class and/or a select audience. Participation in some aspect (technical or performance) of the Upper School drama productions is encouraged. Theatre Arts 2 (Earned Honors) Prerequisite = Theatre Arts 1. This course is offered based on scheduling and enrollment as of May 1. Theatre Arts 2 will be offered as a year-long, Earned Honors course for students who have completed Theatre Arts 1 and wish to continue their study of Theatre at a more intensive level. In this course, students will become familiar with a canon of plays and playwrights beginning with the reading of an extant play selected from those of the Greek playwrights, and continue with plays written in the centuries to follow through contemporary theatre. Students will direct and perform in scenes from these plays, as well as write one, three-page analytical comparison paper each term. Students will also be required to perform one monologue per trimester and to attend three live theatre performances over the course of the school year, two of which must include the two school productions. In addition, students will study and apply the techniques of performance as developed by Constantin Stanislavski, Sanford Meisner, Stella Adler, and Lee Strasberg and create a workshop based upon one of the pioneers of the theatre. Students will further hone their performance skills through participation in kinetic, improvisational, and vocal exercises. The course will conclude with a major project to include a research paper and performance component. Participation in some aspect of performance in the Upper School drama productions is encouraged. For those students wishing to earn Honors credit, students will expand their experience by: • Performing four monologues over the course of the year (two per term) • Attending five live theatre productions over the course of the year and write a short critical paper about their experience • Reading two theatre-related books over the course of the year (titles to be approved by instructor) • Reading two additional plays each term and discussing them with the class • Write an additional two pages to expand each play comparison analytical paper • Direct one 30-40 minute two-three person play at the end of the second term.

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VISUAL ARTS

The work of these courses requires time beyond class to complete the course expectations. Art Constructions (Term 1 only) Prerequisite = None. This course is offered based on enrollment as of May 1. This is an exciting and challenging one-trimester class that will have students design and construct a garment made of materials not associated with clothing. The focus will be on the exploration of ideas, experimentation with a variety of materials, and on design as it relates to materials and the human body. Students will experience the creative process and begin to understand how art is created through this pop culture medium. Students are encouraged to wear their garments in the Fall Runway Show. Students who do not want to be in the show must find a model to wear their garments. This class may be repeated by art students who are preparing a portfolio and by others who want to continue making garments for the runway show. Drawing and Design Prerequisite = None As a year long foundation course, the assignments in this class will focus on realism with an emphasis on learning to see with a more critical eye and on discovering individual interests. Students will also make introductory explorations into abstraction. Curiosity and willingness to take risks will be encouraged as students build their skills with dry media as they learn to navigate the creative process. Painting 1 Open to Grades 9 - 12 students. Students in this yearlong course will turn their attention to color and painting. The focus will be on color theory, color mixing, value in color, painting skills, and how materials affect the image. Students will learn how to use acrylic, oil paints and watercolor on found objects, wood, paper and will learn to sketch a canvas. As we move from skill building to painting as a creative process, students will begin exploring their ideas as they begin making increasingly more of the decisions regarding the size, materials, techniques and styles used in their work. Painting 2 Prerequisite= Successful completion of Painting I Students in this yearlong course will continue to build on skills from Painting I. The focus will be on style, voice, subject, repetition and how materials affect these choices. Students will get to choose their painting medium and size with guidance from the teacher. Students will dive deeper into their subject and style choices to create the beginnings of a series guiding them into Art: Continuing Studies. Continuing Studies in Art: Image and Meaning Prerequisite = Completion of two of the following courses: Painting, Painting 2 or Drawing and Design, and permission of teacher. This class is designed for students who wish to continue with class assignments and those who prefer to work independently. Independent work will be based on the pursuit and development of an idea through a body of work. What is a body of work? How does an idea evolve? How do the materials and methods affect the idea? These are some of the questions we will explore. Students are asked to keep a sketchbook to document their references, ideas and progress. Individual and group critiques will occur throughout the course. Ceramics 1 Prerequisite = None This is a yearlong, introductory course with emphasis on skill acquisition and design awareness. Both functional pottery and sculptural assignments provide an opportunity for students to discover the creative process and their particular interests. Students will work with earthenware clay, low fire glazes. A raku firing is held every spring. Ceramics 2 Prerequisite = Successful completion of Ceramics 1 The focus of this yearlong course is on design and skill refinement. Students will work on more complex assignments as they develop new skills for functional and sculptural ceramics with an increasing emphasis on surface design. Students will make more of the decisions regarding the content, the size, the techniques and the style of their work. Upper School Curriculum Guide 25


Continuing Studies in Ceramics Prerequisite = Successful completion of Ceramics 1, Ceramics 2 and permission of the teacher. This course will consist of students who wish to continue with class assignments and those who prefer to work independently. Independent work will be based on the pursuit and development of an idea through a body of work. What is a body of work? How does an idea evolve? How do the materials and methods affect the idea? These are some of the questions we will explore. Students are asked to keep a sketchbook to document their references, ideas and progress, and technical notes. Individual and group critiques will occur throughout the course. Foundations of Photography Prerequisite = None During this year-long course students will learn the basics of black-and-white and digital photography. The emphasis of this class will be skills that support storytelling, using the photographic building blocks of light and time to express visual ideas. By the end of the first term, students will learn the fundamentals of camera and darkroom work; during the second term, they will work with either film or digital photography to establish mastery over exposure and image correction. By the end of the course, students should be able to work independently to create a body of images that convey a personal vision. Equipment and supplies: The school has a well-equipped darkroom, and all chemicals are provided for processing film and making prints. A limited number of cameras (both film and digital) are available for loan during the school day; during the darkroom portion of the course, students will need to purchase film and photographic printing paper. Please direct any questions or concerns about acquiring a camera or supplies to Ms. Moore-Coll. Continuing Studies in Photography & Video Prerequisite = minimum grade of B+ in Foundations of Photography and one other photography class. May be repeated for credit. Students who want to continue working in photography or video for credit may pursue projects and ideas of their own design. As advanced photographers, students will be expected to work in defined cycles or projects and to become increasingly independent with their technical work. Students will learn to mix and maintain darkroom chemicals, help beginners in the darkroom, and select and arrange work for student publications and exhibits. Students undertaking continuing studies should aim to expand their range of skills in both traditional and digital processes. Projects may focus on exploration of craft or on development of a defined documentary or artistic project. This course is especially suited for highly motivated, self-directed students who plan to study photography and/or film at the college level and who may be preparing work to submit with college or art-school applications. It is open to any qualified student who loves the medium and wants to continue making images. N.B. This can be taken as a trimester or as a yearlong class. If taken in term 1, a credit of 0.4 will be applied to the transcript for participation in this course. If taken in term 2, a credit of 0.6 will be applied to the transcript for participation in this course.

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OTHER CREDIT & GRADE OFFERINGS Computer Science Principles - Level 1 (AP-optional) Prerequisite = Departmental Approval Computer Science Principles presents the fundamental ideas and problems of computer science, exploring material under seven thematic areas: creativity, abstraction, algorithms, programming, data and information, the Internet, and global impact. The course places a strong emphasis on collaboration,investigative reasoning, and student-directed learning. Students design creative artifacts, solve applied software and hardware problems (using Python, Processing, physical computing devices, and other contemporary and course-specific tools), and design and complete project-based assessments evaluating understanding and impact of the fundamentals of computation. No prior experience with programming or computation is required, but students should be comfortable with reasoning about unknown quantities and basic computer usage. Students have the option of meeting more advanced benchmarks on each major course assignment to pursue a deeper understanding of computational abstraction. Those who achieve the established criteria for AP-level work throughout the year will be eligible to earn AP credit whether they sit for the AP exam or not. All students have the option to take the AP Computer Science Principles exam at the end of the year. Regardless of their decision to take the exam, every student completes two project-based assessments that make up the free response question section of the exam. Computer Science: Honors Data Structures - Level 2 Prerequisite = Computer Science Principles Honors Data Structures is the second course in the St. Anne’s-Belfield School computer science sequence. Honors Data Structures is intended to develop students’ ability to solve larger-scale problems confidently, skillfully, and efficiently. To that end, the course principally focuses on solving problems in the domain of artificial intelligence (AI), an interdisciplinary field that incorporates areas of computer science, logic, probability, statistics, and even philosophy. Speech and facial recognition, handwriting interpretation, and automatic image feature detection are just some examples of the enormous amount of ongoing research in the field. Students solve applied software and hardware problems in the AI domain while learning the basics of structuring large amounts of data and investigating the low-level function of electronic machines. Computer Science: Honors Software Engineering - Level 3 Prerequisite = Honors Data Structures In this course, students work in teams throughout the school year to complete a final project of significant magnitude. Class meetings and collaborative work along the way concern general production design principles (scalability, security, framework optimization), team engineering technologies and strategies, and particular technologies and concepts on an as-needed basis to support ongoing project work. After completing prescribed software design projects of a gradually increasing scale, students will elicit and document requirements from a real-world stakeholder (a department at St. Anne’s-Belfield School or a member of the Charlottesville community), meet benchmark milestones throughout the year, and present their final project to a panel consisting of stakeholders and faculty. Economics and Business Principles (Grades 11 & 12) Prerequisite = None This course is designed as an introduction to the critical components necessary to operate a successful business enterprise based on the underpinnings of key economic principles. Students will be introduced to Marketing, Finance, Operations, Accounting, Organizational Behavior, Business Ethics, Quantitative Methods, and Macro/Micro economics. Outside subject matter experts, case study, and group projects will be heavily utilized to supplement the formal teaching. Those who wish to take the course need have no previous business knowledge or training and simply need to bring a desire to learn and willingness to participate in classroom discussion. Teaching Apprenticeship: Life-Long Learning through Teaching (Grade 12) Term 2 This course, offered in the second term, provides the opportunity for seniors to apprentice one of our faculty members in any of our three divisions, both to experience the classroom and to learn through teaching a subject or topic of particular interest. Seniors will research and teach a topic within the context of a course or homeroom, while at the same time learning about the art and science of teaching, including pedagogy, curricular design, lesson planning, assessment, and classroom management. Always under the guidance of a faculty member, these seniors will participate in the practice of life-long learning through teaching while at the same time inspiring younger students with their own passion and knowledge. With sufficient enrollment, we will create a cohort of apprentice teachers who will meet weekly to reflect upon their classroom experiences and discuss common readings about teaching.

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NON-CREDIT COURSES Freshman Life Skills (required course for all ninth grade students) Freshman Life Skills is a general human development course that expands on the basic topics taught in Grades 5 - 8 Life Skills, including creating and maintaining healthy relationships, consent, sexuality, substance abuse, stress management, and effective communication. Students examine case studies on adolescent health and participate in experiential exercises that challenge them to examine their decisions and behaviors. The course utilizes the essential questions of “The Six Most Important Decisions You Will Ever Make” by Sean Covey, as well as multimedia discussion tools that encourage debate and discussion on a variety of adolescent health issues and dilemmas. Freshman Life Skills is taught by the Upper School Counselor. Students are expected to participate regularly in class discussions and exercises, as well as complete in-class writing assignments and opinion papers. Parents are encouraged to follow the syllabus and discuss with their child the topics covered in class. Sophomore Life Skills (required course for all new tenth grade students) The curriculum for Sophomore Life Skills is the same as the Freshman Life Skills course.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Upper School Physical Activity Requirement 1. Students must participate in six seasons of physical activity, four of which must be completed by the end of their tenth grade year and two of which must take place at St. Anne’s-Belfield School • Students who enter school in tenth grade must complete four seasons • Students who enter school in eleventh grade must complete two seasons • Students who enter school in the twelfth grade must complete one season 2. Classes that fulfill this requirement include: • St. Anne’s-Belfield Athletic Team (Varsity or JV) • After school fitness class (offered all three seasons) • Any physical activity class offered during the school day (yoga and/or pilates) • Non School Sponsored Activities which meet the following requirements: • Meets three days a week • Each session must be at least 45 minutes in length • Must be overseen by a coach/professional who will sign off on the requirements • Must be pre approved by the Associate Athletic Director 3. Non-school sponsored activities such as yoga, dance, weight lifting and/or conditioning may be taken but will only fulfill one trimester of credit per year. A non-school sponsored form must be filled out and signed by the instructor/trainer and returned to the student’s advisor.

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APPENDIX I:

STANDARDIZED TESTING AT ST. ANNE’S-BELFIELD SCHOOL Students should consider taking SAT Subject Tests when they are best prepared, usually in the spring of the school year when completing the related course. Consultation with the subject area teacher will help determine if the student is fully prepared for the test or if independent study of topics not covered in our classes is advised. The School strongly discourages taking tests in areas where a student is unlikely to perform well. We recommend that students take the SAT or ACT with the writing component at least once prior to the end of the junior year. Below are the available SAT Subject Tests and our recommendations on when to take them. Many colleges do not require Subject Tests, but some will require two.

Test

Recommended Time to Take

English Literature

Not course-related. Best taken at the end of junior year or the fall of senior year

Math Level 1

After taking Integrated Math 2

Math Level 2

After taking Integrated Math 3, preferably Honors Integrated Math 3

Physics

*The Advanced Physics course does not fully prepare students for success on this test.

Chemistry

After taking Chemistry, preferably Honors Chemistry. If a student takes AP Chemistry as a junior, best to wait until the end of that course.

Biology E

After taking Advanced Topics in Biology

Biology M

After taking Honors Advanced Topics in Biology

Spanish, French, Latin

After taking level 3, preferably 3 Honors

US History

After taking (Honors) American Studies

APPENDIX II:

UNIVERSITY COURSES St. Anne’s-Belfield students may pursue course work at the University of Virginia and at Piedmont Virginia Community College. However, students and their parents are responsible for all tuition, fees and book expenses incurred by matriculation at either institution. The only exception is if a student exhausts all courses within a specific academic department at St. Anne’s-Belfield School. In that case, the School will, with prior approval of the Head of the Upper School upon successful completion of the course(s) with a minimum grade of a B, refund the cost equivalent to the tuition for in-state residents (Virginia residents) for the class(es) taken by the student. Students anticipating course work outside of St. Anne’s-Belfield should speak with the registrar as far in advance of registration at the University of Virginia or Piedmont Virginia Community College as possible in order to determine the impact on a student’s required course work at St. Anne’s-Belfield. Students may NOT substitute a course at an institution other than St. Anne’s-Belfield for a required St. Anne’s-Belfield course without obtaining permission in advance from the Head of the Upper School, and the chair of the department in which the required course is offered.

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St. Anne’s-Belfield School 2132 Ivy Road | 799 Faulconer Drive | Charlottesville, VA 22903 (434) 2 96-510 6 | w w w. s t a b. org

2018 - 2019 Upper School Curriculum Guide  
2018 - 2019 Upper School Curriculum Guide