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The Republic of Sudan

Ministry of Cabinet Affairs Secretariat of Sudanese Working Abroad

Sudan Migration Management Experience


Republic of Sudan The name (Sudan) was designated to the lands that were located Southern of the African Greater Desert which extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red sea and the Indian Ocean in the east. Nowadays, the said name is designated to the region which is located in the South of Egypt in the middle part of the Nile Basin. The name (Kosh) was also designated, in the Old Testament and the Assyrian texts to the same part of land, but the present name (Sudan) is the plural of a Greek word that means (black people). Location and Area Sudan is located in the northeastern part of Africa between the 22.4 latitude northern equator and 38.22 longitude. The country occupies the middle part between Africa and the Arab World which. Such a location distinguishes Sudan with a unique characteristic considering it the main passage between north and south of Africa. Sudan also was the main passage for the pilgrim and trade convoys that forward from the east of Africa to the Holy Lands until the mid of the current century. Total area of the Sudan is (about 1.882.000 million km square) which makes it one of the largest African countries and it comes sixteenth among the largest countries of the world. Sudan is the thired largest Arab country and the second African’s. The following countries neighbor Sudan:- Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central Africa, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan and the Red Sea. Arable lands are estimated to be (200) Million Feddans (84) Million Hectares. Climate Tropical climate, which is characterized by increase of heat degrees on most days of a year, being very dry in the far north then graduates to be semi-wet in the far south, prevails in Sudan.

social and cultural life and in its foreign relationships. Water of the River Nile and all its various branches is utilized in generating electricity from Dams of AlRoseires, Sinnar, Khashm AlGirba and Jabal Awliaa as well as in navigation and fishing. Storage of groundwater is estimated to be about (900) Billion meters utilized in irrigation purposes and civil usages. Airports, Airstrip and Seaports There are (17) airports in Sudan of which (6) are international airports, the biggest one thereof is the Khartoum International Airport, which studies are currently made for transferring and reconstructing it, and (11) local airport distributed in states: Atbara, Al-Fashir and others. There are (63) airstrips currently in the different parts of Sudan. The Red Sea is the only navigation outlet for Sudan to the external world. Port Sudan, Suakin, Awseif and Bashair are the Sudanese ports. Coast of the Red Sea is characterized by existence of coral phylums which provide lodging to different types of rare marine creatures. Population Population of Sudan in the beginning of the year 2011 is estimated to be about (33.419.625) persons at a growth rate of 2,53 annually, population density reaches 14 persons for one km square. Population of rural areas constitutes 24,6% of the total population. Population of Sudan is comprised from tribes that descended from Arab, African and Nubian origins. Religions: Islam, Christianity and local beliefs. Languages: Arabic, English, local languages and dialects. System of Governance According to the Interim Constitution for the year 2005, System of Governance is federalism. Levels of governance is represented in the following:

Annual rain rates range from almost zero in the far north to 500 mm in the central Sudan to more than 1000 mm in the far south of Sudan.

Level of the national governance that exercises power for protecting sovereignty of Sudan, guaranteeing safety of its lands and enhancing welfare of its people.

The River Nile, including all its various branches, plays an important role in the Sudan’s economic,

Level of states’ governance that exercises power at the level of states allover Sudan for providing public

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services through the nearest level to citizens which is the level of local governance which is available all over Sudan. In Sudan there are 17 states. Khartoum is comprised of three towns, Khartoum which is the political capital, Omdurman the national capital and Khartoum North the industrial capital. Most Important Industries Textiles – cement – food oil – sugar – soap – hide products – food stuff – mining and transformational industries.

citizens who reached the age of (17) provided that any citizen is entitled to be a candidate for the post of President of the Republic irrespective of whether he/ she is a representative of a registered party or nonregistered party or he/she is not a member of a party.

The Country has been divided into 25 states that enjoy wide-range of legislative and executive powers while the Center’s role, represented by its federal ministry, is limited in planning and approving general policies.

Number of animal resources per million heads until the year 2005.

Local Governance is considered one of the governance’ pillars, for each state is composed of some localities which undertake, through popular organs, mission of planning, executing and managing all educational, health, agricultural, handicraft and service activities at the level of localities.

Camels :3,547 – Goats: 42,179 – Sheep: 49,797 – cows: 40,369

Governance system is composed of three powers: The Legislature, The Executive Power and The Judiciary.

Animal Resources

Our meeting Can touch •

• •

There are 186 million unemployed persons, 55% of them are in Africa. The unemployment problem is now threatening regimes and countries in light of the increasing growth rates, 65% of the Third World's efficient cadres are found in three rich countries , America, Canada and the Britain). Adopting the double nationality system, as some African countries don’t apply this system the fact that obliges the expatriate to return to work at his original home land. Necessity of concluding agreements which allow legal immigration through educational institutions in a new and organized out of the reach of mediators who provide false contracts. Disseminating free labor culture among workforce in order to reduce immigration. Establishing the digital network for African Scientist and Scholars and the African Diaspora as part of the initiatives that at activating the African scientific and creative reality in order to adopt the voluntary return, which is the same experience for the Sudanese scientist and scholars.

• Network the researching institutes

Forestry Products Hashab and acacia trees contribute in constituting a part of the Sudan’s forestry wealth where area cultivated with Hashab trees reaches (40120) Feddans producing (15200) Million tons average while Hashab trees area reaches (64210) Feddans producing about (3450) Million tons per year. Wood production reaches (11250) meter cubic sawn and (141450) meter cubic as fire wood while average of charcoal production per sacks reaches (1772541) a year. Minerals and Petrol Production of minerals per ton until beginning of the year 2005: Gold (4.73), chrome(14666) , gypsum (5132), salt ( ( 48685, silver (2,40). Crude oil 113,094 barrel for the year 2004. Exports: Sudan has plentiful resources where animal resources, Gum Arabic, cotton, oil seeds and gold are significant sources for treasury of the Country besides mining petrol will definitely contribute in realizing welfare for Sudan’s people.

System of Governance

Friday, 06 June 2008 16:14 Sudan has adopted the Presidential System where President of the Republic is directly elected from all

Migration & Development Migration has moved to the centre stage of development policy after decades of waiting in the wings. For most of the last sixty years, migration has been portrayed in development circles in largely negative terms and identified as one of the problems that development aims to address in Africa. Suddenly in the last five years, the potential positive role of migration in the development process has been recognized – in particular the contribution of migrants through remittances, skills transfers, and the development of transnational networks. A virtuous circle has been identified, whereby migration supports economic growth and development and this in turn reduces the pressure for further migration. Researchers and policy makers are now hunting for conditions which make for a ‘win-win-win’ situation where migration is beneficial for countries of origin, countries of settlement and the migrants themselves. Despite this apparent change in attitudes to migration, the vast majority of development agencies hold on to a sedentary model of development; they aim to enable people to achieve a better quality of life at ‘home’; within such models continued migration is an indicator of failure. This sedentary bias is a reflection of the roots of the ‘development project’ in Africa in the colonial administrations of twentieth century. Today, many of the new initiatives on migration and development have the implicit objective of reducing the flow of international migration, especially to the industrialised world. However, for many people in Africa increased

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• Strengthening and enhancing partnerships and cooperation between the African Countries through implementation of joint programs for encouraging return of the African Diaspora in different areas. • Strengthening South- South relations via expanding programs and project that contribute at enhancing African solidarity and achieving a better position for Africa and the African Diaspora. • Importance of convening international seminars and forums for empowering economic and social interaction. • Exchange of experiences in the various economic fields and capacity building through joint training programs and economic links. • Focusing on food security programs in Africa for attracting the African Diaspora, noting that the agricultural sector is the mobilizing tool of the Sudanese economy, as its contributes 45% of the Gross Domestic Product.

• We need always to remember that AFRICA is a dynamic growing continent . And we need to be together to build the bright future . Thank you

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opportunities for international migration (within and outside the continent) are an essential ingredient for their future well-being. Migration has always been a strategy used by people to try to improve their quality of life, and a development industry that fails to recognize this will severely limit its impact on poverty reduction.

Meeting with Director General of IOM Geneva 2011

DEVELOPMENT ACTORS AND MIGRATION Despite these shifts in recent academic and high level policy debates, many mainstream development actors, especially international development NGOs, have maintained at best an ambivalent, or more commonly a negative view of migration, if they consider the subject at all. International migration from developing countries to the industrialised states is uniformly presented as a problem – highlighting the brain drain and exploitation of migrants in Europe, the abandonment of families, issues of trafficking and people smuggling and so forth. It is rarely, if ever, presented as a potential solution, albeit not a straightforward one, which could be supported. Development practice still clings to its sedentary roots within governments, NGOs and many donors.

Compacting human trafficking • Raise awareness • Enacting laws

Engaging Migrants as Development Actors With the upsurge of interest in migration and development, one of the most obvious shifts in development policy has been the new emphasis on engaging migrants and diasporas as actors in mainstream development processes. These have focused on a range of initiatives around four broad areas:

Civil societies • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • •

Education Integration Family Cultural Identity Political issues (American sanctions)ICC

· Remittances - working with financial services industry to reduce the transaction costs for remittances and encourage migrants to send more funds through the formal banking system. Some have advocated the provision of tax breaks in industrialised states for migrants sending money to developing countries and some developing countries have considered how to tax remittances to raise funds for development. After highlighting the scale of remittances and the potential contribution of migrants to development, the World Bank has made some moves to moderate states’ resultant enthusiasm for ‘capturing

Future plans and programs:

Regional training center Agricultural projects (IFAD) Digitalization Remittances Education Right protection Cs forums Lobar markets Emigrants Training and Education Investment Incubator

remittances’ by emphasising the private nature of these transactions.

many areas diaspora groups with their origins in the same area establish hometown associations to channel resources to the ‘hometown’ for ‘development activities’. These might range from sending funds to an existing initiatives (support for schools and clinics), to establishing new development projects designed, funded and implemented by the migrant association. · Knowledge transfer – there are various schemes to harness the skills and expertise of migrants to support development. For example, the UK-based diaspora organization Africa Foundation for Development (AFFORD) has established a Diaspora Development Professionals Network with the aim of supporting Africans who are working in development organisations. They have also established a network, MAHDREIA, for people interested to invest in Africa with their time, money and skills. Migration & Knowledge There have also been multilateral programmes to engage the diaspora in development initiatives (Ghosh 2000). The UNDP programme for the Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) established in 1976 was one of the earliest multilateral initiatives to encourage migrants to contribute their expertise for the benefit of their country of origin. TOKTEN aims to counter the effects of the brain drain by matching migrants with appropriate expertise for short-term consultancy assignments in their country of origin. For example, in Rwanda, TOKTEN operates under the strap line ‘encouraging Rwandan diaspora professionals to serve their country.’18 IOM took another approach with an attempt to encourage the permanent return of African migrants from industrialised states. From 1993- 1998, it ran the Return and Reintegration of Qualified African Nationals programme (RQAN) funded mainly by the EU, which supported the return of 2,000 people but was found to be very expensive19. In 2001, a new initiative was launched with more moderate aims of encouraging migrants’ engagement in development initiatives through temporary placements rather than permanent return. It describes Migration for Development in Africa (MIDA) as a capacity-building programme, which helps to mobilize competencies acquired by African nationals abroad for the benefit of Africa’s development.

· Investments – while remittances are private flows targeted to families and friends, the governments of developing countries are increasingly attempting to encourage their diasporas to invest in their country of origin by building up businesses or the purchase of government bonds. · Active engagement in development processes – in

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The Sudanese American Relations between Continuation

Of boycott and doctrine of interests Sudan through its various social and cultural components has shown a rare model of social coexistence, religious tolerance and cultural integration, during the last two decades, Sudan community has fulfilled all its commitments, promises and civilized entitlements, also has committed by all covenants that accepted, as follows: • Putting the democratic experiment to test, and opening the gate for multi political system through disciplined elections which were monitored locally and internationally and witnessed the greatest public participation in the history of the continent. • Agreed to give South Sudan its self-determination and welcomed the referendum before declaration of separation in a spirit of sacrifice and tolerance. • It was not a part of any terrorism processes by its all forms and titles within or outside its territories. • Maintained the religious tolerance in its finest pictures and during its history didn’t record any single event of religious bias. • Sudan enjoys good relations with its neighbors which sustain and dedicate the international peace and promote links between people and nations in the region. • Then, why and on which basis, the American boycotting against Sudan still running, for nearly two decades, which set on assumptions that the political and social realities in Sudan has refute it? And Why the US government is boycotting a developing country, which looking forward into development of its communities as such of other communities? Why the US government didn’t apologize to this community when the pharmaceuticals industry has been destructed by us cruise missiles, because of information which was confessed later as wrong information what led to deprive thousands of patients and needy people of their most needed matters, and return back of the national Sudanese pharmaceuticals industry for years far from the present…!? Why the US government continues and follows the same miscalculation and misleads approach in adopting the conception of unjustified sanctions under the influence of pressure groups, interests and lobbies that don’t know anything about Sudan? • It became clear that the time has come to conducting the primary brainstorming phase, then affirmation, mobilizing and crystallizing of the popular efforts momentum and NGOs, towards all over the world in order to promote the positive image and disseminate this message as a comprehensive integrated sustainable intellectual project.

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National Expatriate’s Day

External Activities

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Repatriation of sudanese

Prelude: The Sudanese migration is subject to the laws and regulations of the Country in the Labor Act for the year 1997 and the regulation of Employing Sudanese Abroad for the year 1980, amendment of 1990 which organize and protects the rights of Sudanese working abroad.

Emergency Evacuation : Voluntary return Temporary return • Iraq an Kuwait during the First and second Gulf War . • Yemen

The Sudan interim Constitution of the year 2005 stipulates the freedom of movement compatible with Article (13) of the International Declaration of Human Rights. Regarding taking care of the Sudanese working abroad, their rights, duties, communities and communication with the country, is stipulated by Taking Care of Sudanese Expatriates Affairs Act for the year 1998, in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the relevant bodies.

• Lebanon • Libya

Distribution of Sudanese migrants

%5

Gulf and Middle East africa

%6

%10 %15

Europe

%55 %9

USA Asia Australia

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The Sudan interim Constitution of the year 2005 stipulates the freedom of movement compatible with Article (13) of the International Declaration of Human Rights. Regarding taking care of the Sudanese working abroad, their rights, duties, communities and communication with the country, is stipulated by Taking Care of Sudanese Expatriates Affairs Act for the year 1998, in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the relevant bodies.

for Preparatory Meeting onal The Middle East Regi ce Consultative Conferen

Administrative Hierarchical System of SSWA.

The first conference of Arab Diaspora

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The 6th International forum for Migration and Development Geneva 2011

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Statistics

Education Issues • Established Sudanese schools Abroad : – Qatar – Libya – Chad – Iran – Pakistan – Weekend schools : London , Paris,…other countries – Examination centers abroad

• Mugtaribeen University

Students association of the Sons of Expatriates Sudanese school - Nairobi

Mugtaribeen University 8

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Migration and Development

The first Consultative forum for Sudanese representatives of communities and civil societies abroad

Sudanese Partnership for Knowledge Transferred by Expatriates Nationals (SPaKTEN) Strong contribution of Sudanese expatriates to development at home .

Youth Forums • There is an annual forum of Sudanese from different emigration countries in a form of youth camp through which we consolidate the Sudan's cultural identity to them and presenting to them the Sudan and its resources in different fields.

Setting a strategy for organizing the applications of need for experts and qualified persons. Designing programs for meeting some needs in the country. Establishing a system for information exchange and hence application of knowledge transfer. Supporting agencies and institutions for satisfying their needs of qualified emigrants. Distinguishing these gaps and bridging them by means of motivating the partners for meeting the serious needs within the available human resources. Fulfilling the needs according to the experience and qualified persons. Capacity building and support through training and researches. Coordinating the mainstreaming of women working in the field of technology and knowledge transfer.

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Geneva Group

Zeinab Badawy

Chairman of the Supreme Council for Migration Directs the formation of a committee to implement the recommendations of the Migration Economics Conference

Dr. Salah Mandil International Expert in telemedicine (WHO)

Women media (BBC)

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SPakten

• Cultural event

DR.Rasheed Saeed Orthopedic surgeon

Founder of new techniques in Orthopedic surgery For children between 5 – 9 age

Salamat Group

London Group

Sudanese family - Geneva

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Prof .Abd Elmageed almustafa

Prof .Allam Alnour

Nano Technology Expert Jefferson lab (NASA)

Sustainable management Expert

Appreciation From AUE as Arab women scientist

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Investment Opportunities Forum for Sudanese expatriates 2010 (DUBAI)

She is the author of many journals and is active in publishing and editing referred journals. She works hard with her undergraduate and graduate students on different research endeavors.“I am very pleased,” stated Elmahboub regarding the recognition from Who’s Who of American Women. “Working hard always pays off.”Elmaboub has also been featured in Who’s Who in America Medicine and Healthcare and Who’s Who in America Science and Engineering

Identity and communication • Mugtarebeen Digital channel • Web site http://sswa.sd » http://Spakten.net » Galyat.sswa.sd » http://Scims.org

Dr. Widad Elmahboub

• Facebook page ‫ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻥ‬ • SSWA publications • TV programs

HU Mathematician Honored in Who’s WhoThis September, the 28th edition of Who’s Who of American Women will feature Hampton University’s Dr. Widad Elmahboub. As an assistant professor in the HU Department of Mathematics, Elmahboub also serves as the team chair of the HU Research Center of Earth, Space and GIS Analysis (RCESG) Mathematics.Her current research focuses on the simulation and modeling for surface materials on Mars. She developed a new methodology to accurately target classifications of Earth’s resources.

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Dr .Ebraheem eltayeb

President of Sudanese national council in Uk & Ireland Sponsor of Medical Convoy

International Sudanese council of Experts and Competences

Sustain remittances • • • • •

ISCEC

Expertise Support World bank African development bank Sudan central bank Islamic development bank

Incentives Legislation

Continent Specialty country

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Individual Investment

Group investment Joint Stock investment Specialization investment

Established on January 2010 to materialize a set of objectives and core values emanating from a crystal clear vision, a well stated mission and rationally developed objectives.

Established Sudan Center for Migration, Development and Population Studies

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Sudan Center for Migration, Development and Population Studies

Sudanese civil societies abroad

The Centers mission is to inform and influence policy decisions and practice through conducting high quality, policy relevant research and actively disseminating the results, and to promote a culture of well _ guided exploration of focal problems. It also highlights the imperative of sustained, life _long learning, since people’s mobility, take different shapes, directions and governed by a high degree of variability.

Sudanese protestants against ICC - Lahaye

Migration Profiletechnical working group

Sudanese civil societies abroad

Hamadalnel Alkbashi

Research and studies

Foreign labor. Return Migration issues. Migration Economies. Expatriate education issues. In addition, the centre has also issued sixth volumes of Migration Horizon Periodical, covering different aspect of migration regulation, beside conducted in collaborating with International Organization For Migration, the Sudan migration profile which addressing a new national migration concepts, eventually the centre has successes in playing an effective role, in regard of general migration regulation.

Economics and Investments of Sudanese Abroad

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mas  

safuat aziz nasur

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