( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) VoLume 53/ Number 1 / March 1999 •
The Census of 2000: Our Source of Information about Who We Are, How We Got Here and Where We Are Going in the Next Century by ReynoLds FarLey* The civil rights revolution, the war on poverty and a variety of other federal and private initiative of the 1960 generated an intere t among ocial cienti t in producing y tematic ocial indicators to measure our well-being. Over the decade , the federal tati tical y tern developed a variety of ignpo t about the economy: the monthly unemployment rate, quarterly e timate of growth of the Oro Dome tic Product, annual e timate of per onal income and earning and the rate of inflation that i u ed for many purpose including the once-a-year adju tment in Social Security payments. The e measure , widely viewed a accurate and crucial, have al 0 come to playa role in the political arena, ince the rate of unemployment and inflation are u ed to judge whether an admini tration managed the national economy competently or poorly. • Reynold Farley, a demographer, i vice-pre ident of the Ru sell Sage Found tion and author of 'I'M Nffli Amuican R~ality: Who W~ A~, How W~ Got He~, Whe~ We A~ Going (New York: Ru sell Sage, 1996).
810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019
Starting in the late 1960 , there was a movement to devise imilarly important and unambiguou ocial indicators that would tell u how well we were doing with regard to health, education, ocial mobility, racial equity and other quality-of-life i ue. The hope was to develop uch mea ure , popularize them and then have them calculated regularly by the federal stati tical agencie and their counterpart in the private ector. Thi movement ended by the early 1980 , but our need for information about American ' health, education, ocial mobility and racial equality i a trong a ever. The enumeration of 2000 is the ideal occasion to initiate a new di cu ion about ocial indicator . Data from the cen u will give u fre h information about familie , about who i doing well and who i not, about educational difference and about which location are pro perou and which are falling further
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE •
The Cen us of 2000: Our Source of Information about Who We Are, How We Got Here and Where We Are Going in the Next Century, R~nolds
Farlt!J Who Counts? The Politic of Censu -TaJcing in Contemporary America, Margo "nd~rson and St~pMn E. Fi~nberg 4 Cen u 2000--Science Meets Politic , K~nn~th P~itt 7 Cen u Challenge , K~nMth Wachtu 8 Collective Memories of Repression:
Comparative Perspective on Democratization Proce se in Latin America' Southern Cone,
Building Bridge with the Chine Academy, Mary Bym~
McDonMll 13 Good Fellow hip: Fellows' Conference at the Council, Shui Ranis, Bevulu Bruc~, Ell~n P~~cman 16
and Dione di Mauro Eleanor C. Isbell Dies at 94, David L. Sills Current Activities t the Council Recent Council Publication
20 21 28
behind the national average. It will report unique information about racial difference and about gender change, e pecially gender change in education, occupation and earning . Pre umably any array of ocial indicator for the United State in the new millennium will u e data from next year' enumeration a the tarting point. Fortunately, our tati tical y tern already provide information about economic trend , and about favorable ocial trend including a ri e in educational attainment and a much longer life pan. Doe the decennial cen u need to a k American everal dozen que tion about their hou ing, their education, their employment and their ource of income? Let me empha ize that while there i vibrant con trover y about u ing ampling to complete the count and to adju t for net undercount, there i no controver y about u ing a ample in the cen u to obtain ocial and economic information. Although cen u re ult will be u ed to paint an important national self-portrait, the ocial and economk que tion are mandated by Congre for the purpo e of en ibly allocating federal program and expenditure . National ample give u preci e information about trend acro the country but their ize i uch that they cannot tell u about local areas or maller group . Con ider the important i ue of which group benefited from the economic growth of thi decade and which fell behind. Throughout the 1990 income and earning ro e, but there i clear evidence of polarization a the gap between tho e at the top and bottom got larger. Did thi occur in all part of the United State, or i it more pronounced in orne citie and tate than in other ? If 0, why? I the hift toward greater economic inequality evident for all educational group or only for orne? What about occupation ? Evidence from the cen u of 1990 ugge ted that earning inequality was growing within pecific profe ion and job categorie . Did that continue in the 1990 ? Only the cen u will inform u . The overall poverty rate i dec rea ing but it remain high for orne group , e pecially minority children. The cen u will inform u about uch i ue and will hed orne light on the ucce or failure of ameliorative program . A compari on of finding from the two mo t recent cen u e how that young women made coniderable progre in the labor market in the 1980 as
they were inc rea ingly repre ented in occupation formerly dominated by men. The gender gap in earning al 0 grew maIler. Did thi continue in the 1990 ? We need a very large ample ize to determine if the gender change among veterinarian , in urance adju ter and bartender continued. The 1990 cen u reported mode t decrea e in black-white re idential egregation as ub tantial number of African American moved from central citie to the uburban ring. Did thi trend, perhap encouraged by the Fair Hou ing Act of 1968, persi t? The A ian and the Hi pank-origin population are now growing extremely rapidly. They have traditionally been much Ie re identially egregated than black from non-Hi panic white. I that till the ca ? The cen u i the only ource of information about which racial group live on each block. In addition to giving u information about local geographic area and group far too mall to how up in meaningful number on national urvey, the cen u inquire about important topic not inve tigated in other tudie. Three uch topic are migration within thi country, commuting from home to work and international migration. The cen u of 2000 will a k one American in ix where he or he lived in 1995, allowing u to de cribe who i moving where. Are many retiree till moving from the Midwe t and Northeast to Florida and Arizona? In thi pro perou era i there a ub tantial or only a mode t flow of low- kill worker from place of high unemployment to place where job are plentiful? Are many rural countie acro the nation 10 ing population or i there new evidence of a rural renai ance imilar to that one that occurred briefly in the 1970 , propelled, perhap , by low energy co t ? Are there many high-tech worker in the computer indu try who are moving them elve and their job to location in rural Colorado or Vermont where the cenic amenitie are great but, until recently, job were few? What type of people commute to which job ? How long doe it take them to get there? Do they u e public tran it or go in a car or van? If 0, are they traveling by them elve or are they riding with other ? Will the cen u upply u with evidence that minoritie who remain in central city ghetto are mi ing out on good job located far out into the uburban ring, perhap because of the absence of public tran it, or doe place of re idence have little to do
with employment or occupation? An wer to these que tions have ignificant implication for local planning and for under tanding how labor markets favor orne workers and di advantage other. But the e que tions can only be an wered by crutinizing data for the decennial cen us. Approximately one-third of our total population growth is due to immigration but these new arrivals are hardly distributed evenly acro s the country. Rather they are highly concentrated in ix tates and 18 metropoli e . Are immigrants filling jobs that American workers do not take either becau e they lack the credentials that immigrants bring or because American are reluctant to work at low-paid job in the ervice sector and agriculture? Are immigrant and their children geographically segregating themelve into enclaves or are they, unlike the African American population, pretty much dispersed acro metropolitan areas including uburban rings? How do immigration treams differ from one another? We know from Cen u Bureau urvey and from Immigration and Naturalization Service data that Filipino immigrants report exceptionally great educational attainment while tho e from Mexico, outh China and Central America generally enter without much in the line of chooling. Only the cen u will give u detailed information about immigrant , their educational credential and their occupational achievements or failures in this country. 1\\'0 innovation make the cen u of 2000 different from earlier enumeration . The large t ample of hou ehold will be a ked if a grandchild is living there. If 0, the re pondent will be asked to report whether a grandparent cares for a grandchild and, if 0, for how long. For the first time we will be able to analyze pecialized and comprehensive information about the frequency of grandparenting and the economic welfare of grandchildren-a topic currently of great intere t, ince pre reports ugge t that quite a few mother who 10 e AFDC payments turn their children over to their own mother . Even more clo ely watched will be re ult from a
new approach to obtaining an wers to an old que tion-()ne that ha appeared on every cen u . Cen u procedures have alway a sumed that each per on could be identified with only one race. Now the cen u que tion about race has been fundamentally altered. Interracial marriage ha increa ed since the 1960 , and with it multiracial children. In 2000, people will be told to mark all race that apply. Will only I or 2% of the population indicate that they are multiracial? Or will it be 5 or 7% who identify with two or more race ? Thi new procedure will give u , for the fir t time, a count of the increa ing multiracial population and information about their education, their earning and with whom they live, including the race of their pou e, ib and children. However, it al 0 mean that there will be no one number telling u how many white , or black or A ian live in a city, tate or electoral di trict. We will have a count of tho e who aid, for in tance, that African American was their only race and then a larger count of tho e who identified them elve as black along with one or two or three other race . The implication for civil rights litigation and for the drawing of electoral di trict are uncertain. We can expect more than a few law uits ince there will be competing valid counts of each racial group. And, for purpo e of redrawing di trict in tate legislature , it is po ible that different tates will u e different definition of race. There have been lively controver ie throughout our history about how the cen u hould be taken and how cen u re ults hould be used to apportion congre ional eats. But since 1996, conflicts have been exceptionally bitter about the u e of ampling to complete the count of population and then u e of the ub equent po t-enumeration urvey to adju t for net cen u undercount. Indeed, thi vociferou debate makes it likely that we will forget that the decennial cen us provide the nation with crucial information about who we are, where we have come from and where we are going in this era of fast-paced ocial and economic change. â&#x20AC;˘
Who Counts? The Politics of Census-Taking in Contemporary America by Margo Anderson and Stephen E. Fienberg* The framer of the Con titution created the cen u a mechani m to apportion political power and tax dollar among the variou con tituencie of the population. Every 10 year the federal government would count the population and reapportion Congre on the ba i of the re ult . Like election , the cen u and reapportionment proce hifts political power in the United State . And a with election , the 10 ers have to concede to the winner . Over the pa t two centurie , the cen u has ba ically accompli hed it goal. Congre ha managed to reapportion ucce fully de pite profound population growth and migration, ethnic and racial and political, ocial and economic change. The concept of "cen u undercount" i a function of the development of modem probability ampling method and their u e in tati tical methodology. Cen u official from George Wa hington and Thomas leffer on to the pre ent have been aware of the extraordinary difficuItie of counting a dynamic, diverse and mobile population. Until the 1940 , cen u official had hunche but few tool to mea ure accuracy, and certainly no mechani m to "correct" for undercount , overcounts or mi count beyond doing the enumeration over again. Beginning in the 1940, tati tician and demographer perfected method of mea uring cen u accuracy, u ing the technique of demographic analy i and dual y tern e timation. Sample po t-enumeration urvey (PES), tati tical inference from ample to national rate and compari on to the vital regi tration y tern through demographic analy i replaced the hunche and lament about cen u error with increa ingly reliable point e timate of error and interval of confidence about tho e e timate . • Excerpted from Who COUIll ? Th~ Politics ofC~nsus·Taking in Con· Amuica. by Margo Anderson and tephen E. Fienberg. Fonh· coming from the Ru 11 ge Found tion , ugust 1999. To order pie of hi tory and urb n call ( (0)-524-640 I. Margo Ande n i profe tudie at the University of Wi on in, Milwaukee. tephen E. Fi nberg i profe r of tali lic and social ience at Carnegie Mellon University. t~mporary
Since 1940, the Cen u Bureau has conducted evaluation tudie based on probability ample of ub et of the population to mea ure the level of accuracy of cen u re ults, in term of both coverage errors-that i , under- and over-enumeration-and content error-that i , incorrect information on the characteri tic of the population. The often reported tati tic of the net undercount, 1.8% in 1990, reprent , at the national level, the net undercount once undercount are ubtracted from overcounts and erroneou enumeration . It doe not mean that 98.2% of the population wa counted accurately. The evaluation tudie of cen u coverage have them elve improved over the past 20 year , incorporating new mea ure of accuracy, including mea ure of gross error in the cen u -that i ,the urn of overcount , undercounts and erroneou enumeration. The purpo e of the 1950 PES was coverage evaluation, with the goal of identifying area in which to increa e accuracy. At about the ame time the Cen u Bureau expended con iderable re ource to develop a tati tical model for cen u error. The mea ure of correlated re pon e error due to interview led, for example, to the trial in 1960 of the mail-out, mail-back approach to enumeration which worked to eliminate the role of the interviewer . With the recognition during the 1980 that mo t coverage improvement effort had failed to addre the differential undercount, attention focu ed anew on u ing the PES to correct to raw enumeration re ults. In the end, the 1990 de ign wa a compromi e, a traditional cen u complete with coverage improvement program and a PES for po ible u e in correcting the count. The ample ize of the 1990 PES, of approximately 165,000 hou ehold ,wa a compromi e between the original de ign of 300,000 hou ehold and the Republican admini tration effort to eliminate the PES. De pite the generally acknowledged ucce of the 1990 adju tment a an improvement over the raw enumeration count ,the mall ample ize had two major impact on accuracy. Fir t, the level of ampling error was a eriou component of the overall cen u error; and econd, the data at low level of geography were ufficiently par e as to require moothing of the adju tment re ult , even acro tate line . The public di cour e on the 1990 cen u and adju tment ha conflated" ample ize"
VOLUME 53, N MBER I
problem with a more general condemnation of ampling in the context of cen u taking, and ha led to the myth that" ampling" it elf i a u pect enterpri e. The 2000 cen u plan propo e to employ orne time-honored method of counting and orne innovation . The time-honored method include the u e of a mail cen u as the primary mean of contacting hou ehold . The mail cen u wa fir t u ed in 1970. In that year about 60% of American hou ehold received their cen u form in the mail and were in tructed to fill it out and mail it in. In 1980 and 1990 over 90% of hou ehold were contacted by mail. For the part of the country that cannot be reached by mail, the Cen u Bureau u e enumerator to canvas a particular geographic area, the fundamental enumeration procedure from 1790 to 1960. The Cen u Bureau will al 0 u e enumerator to contact hou ehold that do not return the mail cen u form in a timely manner, in the counting pha e known a the nonce pon e followup. The 2000 plan propo e collecting additional detailed information on the population through the u e of a long form ample (which began in 1940) in conjunction with the hort form complete count. And the Cen u Bureau will evaluate the quality of coverage of the count with a po t-enumeration ample urvey, a procedure u ed in one form or another ince 1950. The new method envi ioned for 2000 originally included ampling for nonce pon e followup. It i thi new procedure that generated orne of the mo t heated objection in Congre . Cen u official know from past experience that re idents at about one-third of the addre e will forget to fill out and mail back a cen u form, will ignore the form or perhap not receive it in the fir t place. The Cen u Bureau follow up by ending an enumerator to the addre . Thi pha e of the count tart in late April, and is de igned to retrieve information from the hou ehold that have not re ponded to that point. In 1970, 1980 and 1990, nonce pon e followup was conducted for all hou ehold that did not mail back their cen u form . The evaluation re ults of the last two cen u e indicted that the quality of data collected by enumerator from nonre ponding household got much poorer the longer it took the enumerator to collect it. That i , re pon e gathered from hou ehold in June or later were ignificantly more error-filled than
tho e collected in April and May. Thu the Bureau concluded that a higher quality ampling proce for nonre pon e followup would produce better data than 100% followup becau e the proce could u e better-trained employee and be done much more quickly. The cen u plan guarantee that 90% of the hou ehold in each cen u tract will be counted; they will make inference for the re idual nonce ponders derived from the ampled nonce pon e followup hou ehold . The opponent of ampling for nonreponse followup, a noted above, claim that the Cen u Bureau ha given up the effort to contact everyone, and will make up people, a proce that could be manipulated to the benefit of Democrat . The other ignificant and controversial innovation of the 2000 Cen u Plan was the integration of the po t-enumeration urvey proce into the traditional enumeration. In 1990 the Cen u Bureau took a po tenumeration urvey and produced adju ted cen u counts on the ba i of the urvey re ults. But the 1990 cen u did not fully integrate the PES and the traditional enumeration to produce adju ted cen u count on the basi of dual y tern e timation. Rather the bureau relea ed the re ults of the April, or traditional, enumeration in December 1990 and then relea ed adju ted re ult in June 1991. There were eight year of litigation on the quality and legality of the two et of figure . Thi decade, the Cen u Bureau propo ed a one-number cen u -that i , procedure that would produce a final cen u count which could not easily be di aggregated into the traditional enumeration and the adju tments made on the ba i of the re ult of dual y tern e timation. Again, critic charge, the adju tment proce i ubject to political manipulation, to making up people. In it January 25, 1999 ruling in Department of Commerce v. House of Representatives, Nos. 98-404 (1999), the Supreme Court held that the Cen u Act prohibits the proposed u e of tati tical ampling to determine the population for congre ional apportionment purpo e . The ruling invalidated the Cen u Bureau' plan to u e tati tical ampling for the nonce pon e followup phase of the enumeration, but it did not explicitly ban ampling in the cen u for u e other than apportionment. The major u e of ampling in the Cen u 2000 plan would be via a po t-enumeration urvey, the re ult of which could be u ed to adju t tho e from the "traditional" enu-
meration for purposes other than apportionment. There remain major differences of opinion regarding this use of sampling in the census context between the Congressional Republicans and the Clinton administration and some state and local governments. Hence it is reasonable to expect the constitutional questions to be raised again in litigation in the future, and for Congress to debate legislation to resolve the controversy. The bureau's plans for the PES discussed above were intended to produce direct state estimates for apportionment and thus called for a very large sample of 750,000 households. Without sampling for nonresponse folJowup, the bureau will need to spend more time in the field doing traditional followup, which will delay the start of the PES. As a consequence, it plans to reduce the size of the PES sample to about 300,000 households and to relax requirements for direct state estimates. We agree with the leaders in Congress who point out that there are political implications of using one or another counting technique. Deciding to use integrated coverage measurement can move a seat in Congress from one state to another, as can a "computer mistake." But we would like to direct attention to the discussion of how best to avoid mistakes, and to enhance the accuracy of the census. Many other decisions about census or apportionment methodology also move seats among state . Deciding to count the overseas military in the apportionment totals may shift a seat. So may changing the apportionment formula or the size of the House. We expect that Congress will continue to focus on the details of census
taking in the year ahead. Changing census methods may move seats in Congress between states, not the two dozen seats some claim, but one or two. It is not a coincidence that the undercount controversies emerged on the heels of the Supreme Court "one person, one vote" decisions of the 1960s. Once the courts required congressional districts to adhere to that rule, not only did urban representation increase dramatically, but the accuracy of state populations with reference to one another, and for within tate districting, also became very important to the political life of the nation. The differential undercount of racial minorities is also a differential undercount by state, and a differential undercount that impacts on districting within states. And at these lower levels of geography the national net differential undercount of a few percent gets magnified many times over. As a consequence, the differential undercount is a partisan issue because of the political fact that minority groups in the United States vote heavily Democratic. And thus the litigation that has emerged, and the political splits within Congress, pit Democrats against Republicans, and apportionment losers against apportionment winners. Thus, in an apparent paradox, as the technical capabilities of the Census Bureau to measure and adjust for the differential undercount have improved over the past three censuses, the political controversies of the legality and constitutionality of doing so have heightened. To resolve the controversies, one must separate the technical questions from the political questions and determine who has responsibility â&#x20AC;˘ and authority to address each.
53. NUMBER 1
Census 2000-Science Meets Politics by Kenneth Prewitt* The Supreme Court has ruled that it is illegal to use statistical sampling to provide population counts for congressional reapportionment. Should scientists other than statisticians, demographers and political scientists bother to follow the strange politics that have engulfed Cen us 2000? Ye , as a warning about how partisanship can affect a scientific agency. The census began as the result of the great political compromise that founded the United State . IT congressional power was to be apportioned geographically (satisfying small states) and proportionate to size (satisfying large states), regular measurement of the number and distribution of residents was a necessity. In the 19th century, census results regulated the pace for admitting new states to the union, as partisan interests took turns vying for advantage. In 1920, the census measured a population shift from rural to urban states so alarming to Congress that it postponed for a decade its con titutional obligation to reapportion. But past politics focused mo tty on how census results were to be u ed. Today's battle has been broadened to focus on how data will be collected. Technical decisions (for example, how many census forms to mail) normally made by career professionals are today routinely reviewed by an oversight apparatus intent on influencing how the cen us will be conducted. Regrettably, the division of views falls along partisan lines. Even the Supreme Court divided along conservative and liberal lines in its recent decision. Science by partisan vote is a risky enterprise. The Census Bureau takes as much professional pride in accurately reporting how inaccurate it is as it does in trying to be completely accurate in the first place. We know that we miss people in our decennial count, and we know that this undercount is unevenly â&#x20AC;˘ Kenneth Prewitt. director of the US Bureau of the Census. WIS SSRC pre5ident (rom 1979-85 and from 1995-98. Reprinted with pennission from Scitnce 283 (February 12. 1999). p. 93S. 0 Copyright 1999 American Association for the Advancement of Science.
di tributed demographically and geographically. This knowledge comes from our own po t-census quality survey. The quality survey we recommend for Census 2000 is under attack because of its potential use for drawing legislative districts in 200 1. Such use is an altogether appropriate is ue for re olution in the political-legal arena. But other critical uses should not be compromised. To discard the quality survey would take away the science by which we assess our performance; we could not then tell the public whether cen u procedures in 2000 improved on those used in 1990. Planning for the next census would be crippled. Moreover, for at least a decade, stati tical surveys of any kind would be based on an imperfect sampling frame and error-prone sampling weights. Ju t as there can be reasonable differences among lawyers about the interpretation of the census tatute, there can be reasonable differences among politicians and among statisticians about the operational feasibility of the sampling design recommended by the bureau. But no tatistician can accept the widespread misrepresentation of modem sampling methods. There can be no national statistics on unemployment, housing transportation, health or education without sampling. We can accommodate the Court ruling that Census 2000 is not to include statistical adjustment for the apportionment count, but without sampling the Census Bureau cannot fulfill its broad statistical re ponsibilities to policy making, to busine s planning and to cientific research. Also at issue is the damaging and unfounded claim that the bureau opted for sampling so it could then manipulate numbers for partisan purposes. To seek tactical advantage in a political dispute by questioning the integrity of a scientific agency is troubling. When national leaders say that the bureau cannot be trusted they invite public doubt about other statistics, such as the consumer price index, poverty trends, unemployment rates, even measures of the gross domestic product. When partisanship intrudes into the conduct of science, when widely accepted scientific methods are deliberately misrepresented, when scientific agencies are casually accused of dishonesty, a shadow falls across all of US science. â&#x20AC;˘
Census Challenges by Kenneth W. Wachter* On January 25, 1999, the Supreme Court ruled that the Cen u Act a revi ed in 1976 "prohibits the propo ed u e of tati tical ampling to determine the population for congre ional apportionment purpo e ." However, the Cen u Bureau may till decide to generate a et of cen u re ult adju ted for e timated undercount and overcount --on the ba i of a ample urvey from it ICM or integrated coverage mea urement program-for purpo e other than apportionment. Political po turing ha hampered the independence of the Cen u Bureau and over hadowed the cientific debate over adju tment method . The method proposed for 2000 are a larger- cale ver ion
- Kenneth W. Wachter. a profe or of demography and tati tic at the Univ rsity of California. Berkel y. repre nlS the American tati tical A sociation on the Council' board of directo .
of the method rejected by the Secretary of Commerce for the 1990 cen u . A key problem for 2000 i the threat of "differential correlation bias." Thi bias occurs when people of orne kind mi ed in the cen u are al 0 y tematically underrepre ented in the ICM urvey, more in orne part of the country than in other. In 1990, contrary to expectation, adju tment would have actually reduced the hare of Northeastern tate with large inner-city and other minority population like Penn ylvania Mas achu ett , New York and Ohio. Differential correlation bias i the likely cau e. Another challenge for 2000 i the inherent en itivity of the ICM to mall deci ion and unnoticed mi take , which rai e fear of po ible manipulation. Actual take, in term of change in hare for tate , citie , and juri diction , are much mailer than the rhetoric would ugge t. But choice about cen u ampling have become a battle of ymbol . A more detailed overview of "Stati tical Controver ie in Cen u 2000" may be found in a multiauthored technical report on the web at www. tat.berkeley.edultech-report . It i report number 537 . â&#x20AC;˘
VOLUME 53, NUMBER
Collective Memory of Repression: Comparative Perspectives on Democratization Processes in Latin America's Southern Cone by Eric Hershberg* During the 1980 , tran ition to civilian rule marked the clo e of a traumatic period in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Urugay). State- anctioned abuse of human rights-including politically motivated di appearance and kidnapping , as as ination and torture of di idents, arbitrary arre t -had directly affected ten of thou and of people and fo tered a "culture of fear" (Corradi, Fagen and Garreton, 1992). But while citizen no longer live in fear of repre ion by tate agencie or their proxie , human rights violation remain a central theme of contemporary politic in the region. Truth commi ion convened to inve tigate abu e under the dictator hip and to forge con en u account of the pa t have achieved orne important ucce e, but their finding , and the judicial proceeding that en ued in Argentina and Chile, have not generated clo ure. Amne tie granted to violator continue to elicit prote t from victim and their advocate , for whom the logan "Nunca mas" (never again) typically implie both a complete accounting of what took place under the dictatorship and puni hment for the perpetrator . State official , by contra t, have demon trated little inclination to revi it the painful experience of authoritarian repre ion, and empha ize in tead the need to avoid diviive arguments about the past. Social mobilization in Chile following General Augu to Pinochet' entry into the senate in March 1998 and hi arre t in London seven month later on charge of genocide and crime again t humanity offer a particularly dramatic example of what Alex Wilde (1998) call "irruption" of memory in the
â&#x20AC;˘ Eric Hershberg i a program director at the SSRC. He i indebted to Elizabeth Jelin and participants in the November 17-1 â&#x20AC;˘ 1998 workshop on "Memoria colectiva en el cono ur" for harpening the ide contained in thi e y.
contemporary Southern Cone. Indeed, truggle over how to remember human rights abu , give public recognition to the victim and officially commemorate their uffering, con titute a persi tent feature of the political landscape in much of the region. A in other parts of the world emerging from period of officially ponsored violence, the outcome of these conflic i proving central to the proce of crafting democracy and, at a more fundamental level, that of forging individual and collective identities. Although emotion continue to run high acro the political pectrum, ufficient time ha pa ed ince the end of military rule to begin y tematic inquirie into the proce e through which conflict over memory are unfolding in the Southern Cone. The que tion that emerge are hardly unique to the region: How do ocietie remember, and how do the way in which both citizen and in titution articulate memory forge individual and collective identitie and e tabli h boundarie between "u " and "them?" Howare truggle over what to remember and how to characterize the past channeled through and reflected by public in titution ,norm and policie , and how are the in titution and norm of new democracie crafted by ocial and political actors preci ely in an effort to hape collective memory? How doe conte tation over the nature and relevance of memory itself give meaning to identitie , and motivate attitude and behavior? What are the broadly held ocietal view of memory, of the importance of coming to grip with-or uppre ing-a past that evoke feeling of angui h, conflict and hatred? What are the implication of the e attitude for effort to legitimize "agreement to di agree" in ocietie long plagued by low level of tolerance? An wer to the e que tion require en itivity to the multiplicity of memorie and the different meaning they engender. Re earcher mu t attempt to under tand and explain per pective not only of the victim but al 0 of the perpetrators, con ideration of who e action may be e pecially painful, on ethical and political ground . A ati factory under tanding of ocial memory cannot ari e from the tudy of culture to the exclu ion of in titution ,or of practice and norm to the exclu ion of identitie and ubjectivitie. Indeed, the intellectual challenge i to bridge the e dichotomie , infu ing them with the ten ion and ambivalence that real world proce e imply. Thi i an opportune moment to pursue thi agenda in the iTEMs/9
Southern Cone becau e there ha been relatively little cholar hip devoted to the topic in the region. Re ponding to thi gap, in July 1998 the Council' Regional Advi ory Panel (RAP) for Latin America launched a multi-year program of re earch and training on collective memory of repre ion in the Southern Cone. Funded by the Ford Foundation and directed by Elizabeth Jelin, a member of the RAP ba ed at the Univer ity of Bueno Aire , the initiative ha three eparate but related aim . The fir t concern the opportunitie for theoretically informed re earch to enrich debate about the ource and nature of memory, it role in con tituting collective identitie and the con equence of truggle over memory for ocial and political practice in ocietie emerging from dictator hip. The econd involve the need to nurture a new generation of methodologically and theoretically ophi ticated academic re earcher prepared to articulate fre h per pective on collective memory, a well a on other pre ing i ue that will emerge in the Southern Cone in the future. Finally, the project aim to help create an enduring network of re earcher concerned with collective memory.
Preparing a new generation of researchers We hope to fo ter the development of a new generation of internationally-networked intellectual who are engaged with proce e of collective memory and who can be expected to articulate the e concern ubequently through re earch, teaching and activi m. Opportunitie for young re earcher in the Southern Cone to receive high quality ocial cientific training or to hone their kill through involvement in analytically-driven inve tigation have been limited. The decline of public univer itie during the dictator hip and their continuing tagnation due to falling level of funding i partly to blame, and thi ha been accentuated by the economic difficultie of independent academic center . Lacking opportunitie to conduct ba ic re earch in academic etting ,junior re earcher become increa ingly dependent for income on hortterm con ultancie which eldom trengthen their re earch kill and which di courage effort to engage theoretical cholar hip. Thu, the ocial cience confront a eriou ri k of generational rupture. Concerted effort i needed to en ure that during the coming decade Latin American ocietie will be able to draw on the experti e and per pective of indepenIO\lTEMS
dent, theoretically-minded re earcher . By training a carefully elected cohort of junior re earcher in method for conducting comparative re earch, oral hi torie , archival work, in titutional analy i and other technique , and by expo ing them to an analytically-driven re earch experience, the project aim to create a critical ma of ocial cienti t and humani t in the region who will enrich under tanding of collective memory. The program al 0 target the need of junior Latin Americani t in the United State. Funding for di ertation field re earch in Latin America remain extremely carce, far below that available for predi ertation or po tdoctoral tudy. Yet the doctoral di ertation i the mo t important piece of re earch for young cholar in the American academic y tem. At a time when the importance of careful empirical fieldwork i que tioned in many univer itie and department , the Council i e pecially determined to provide incentive for tudent who wi h to do extended fieldwork in Latin America.
Fostering creation of networks Re earch network are e ential for the development, di emination and maintenance of knowledge over time. Network expo e re earcher to innovation and to new idea , and afford opportunitie for them to collaborate with colleague . International networks help to prevent debate in anyone place from developing in i olation from intellectual trend el ewhere. Moreover, network that engage on equal footing individual from the South and the North provide a u eful corrective to the all-too-common tendency for Northern re earcher to neglect the re earch of their Southern counterpart , which typically i never pubIi hed in Engli h and which circulate outside the academic journal that tend to define cholarly quality in the United State and Europe. Thi project aim to con truct enduring network along everal dimen ion: ub tantive, involving re earcher ,acro di cipline or country, with hared intere t in i ue relating to memory or in analytical approache to the topic; generational, both within a cohort of junior re earcher and between that cohort and more enior inve tigator ; regional, both within the Southern Cone and between the region and other part of the world; and in titutional, involving individual ba ed at re earch organization of different VOLUME 53, NUMBER I
kinds-such as univer itie , independent academic centers and activist organization . An evolving program A November 1998 meeting [ ee p. 22] at Centro Latinoamericano de Economia Humana (CLAEH) in Montevideo, Uruguay, brought together an international group of approximately 20 re earcher to di cu the tate of cholar hip on collective memory in the Southern Cone and to help in the de ign of the training component of the program. Several participant will remain as ociated with the project a contributing faculty in training eminar and/or a academic advi or to the project and to program fellow . While the program will continue to evolve, training expected to focu on enabling fellow to: a) trace proce e of intergenerational and intercohort tran mi ion of memorie and of truggle about the meaning of individual and collective trauma ; b) reveal di tinct "layer" of memorie (Jelin and Kaufman, 1999). Dictator hip typically attempt to erase previou identitie and to fo ter oblivion, but recognizing the e era ure doe not imply going back to the pa t. In thi en e, identitie inevitably reflect the violence and oblivion that ha been inflicted on diver e layer of memorie ; c) analyze the ubjective dimen ion of memory: victimization, re entment and blame on the part of tho e who con ider them elve and are defined by other as' victim" (an identity that mu t it elf be decon tructed); guilt and complicity, at time hame and repentance, on the part of the "guilty." Here it i e ential to analyze how the trajectorie of both of the e group are haped by official policie, uch a tho e of pardon and reconciliation, which have typically been applied in the Southern Cone; and d) explore linkage between the public and private phere . Analy i of truggle over public commemoration require en itivity to the meaning that different political and ocial actor give to the experience of repre ion. The e ta k will be a umed by program fellow ,
working under the upervi ion of an international team of faculty led by M Jelin. Nineteen junior re earcher -15 from the Southern Cone and 4 from the United State -took part in an initial training work hop held in La Lucila del Mar, Argentina, during the fir t two week of March 1999. Sub equently they will carry out empirical ca e tudie de igned to illuminate orne of the i ue outlined above. A econd training work hop, cheduled for the fir t two week of December 1999, will provide an occa ion to critique draft paper and for further methodological training. The fellow are: Argentina Ana Laura Pereyra, Facultad de Ciencias Sociale , Univeridad de Bueno Aire Silvia Ine Jen en, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca Laura Cecilia Mombello, Facultad de Ciencia de la Educacion, Universidad Nacional del Comahue Federico Guillermo Lorenz, Facultad de Filo offa y Letra , Univer idad de Bueno Aire Claudia Viviana Feld, Universidad de Bueno Aire y la Univer idad del Centro de la Provincia de Bueno Aire
Brazil Simone Dubeux Berardo Carneiro da Cunha, In tituto de Filo offa e Ciencias Sociale , Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Ludmila da Silva Catela, In tituto de Filo offa e Ciencia Sociai , Univer idade Federal de Rio de Janeiro Samarone Lima de Oliveira, Univer idade de Sao Paulo Valdenia Brito Monteiro, Universidade Cat6lica de Pernambuco
Chile Claudia Rojas Mira, Con ejo Nacional de Poblaci6n Azun Candina Polomer, Centro de E tudio del De arrollo Marco Antonio En ignia Zapata, Divi i6n de Organizacione Sociale, Mini terio Secretarfa General de Gobierno Ximena Tocornal Montt, In tituto de la Mujer, Centro de E tudio Municipale Cordillera, In tituto Latinoamericano de Salud Mental y Derecho Humano
Paraguay Myrian Angelica Gonzalez Vera, Centro de Documentaci6n y E tudio
Uruguay Aldo Marche i, Centro Latinoamericano de Economia Humana
US Claudio Duran, modem thought and literature program & cultural anthropology, Stanford University Gabriela Fried, ociology, University of California, Lo Angele Victoria Lawle ,hi tory, Yale University Tamara Teghillo, anthropology, Univer ity of California, Irvine A econd cohort of fellow , to be cho en in a competition during 1999, will hold fellow hip for training and field work during 2000. All program fellow will take part in a equence of work hop devoted to reviewing the critical literature relating to collective memory; addre ing i ue of re earch de ign (including method of comparion) and grappling with methodological challenge involved in work related to memory (e.g. interviewing for oral hi torie ). Fellow hip al 0 will enable all participants to conduct field work on memory-related i ue in the Southern Cone. They will produce analytical paper for inclu ion in a regional research project upervi ed clo Iy by nior faculty, and it i anticipated that revised version of their papers will be publi hed as part of a erie of volume . The fellow hip we are providing for Southern Cone fellow are tailored to the pecific need of junior re earchers operating in a "thin" in titutional environment in which opportunitie are limited both for advanced training and for conducting ba ic re earch in the ocial cience and humanitie . Unlike that of mo t fellow hip program thi approach
i highly tructured. The model of u re earch apprentice hip " would generally not make en e in the US or in other etting in which univer itie provide a mechani m for repleni hing the rank of highly trained re earcher. Indeed, becau e the need of the US participant are different, their fellow hip are different a well. It i imperative that the work of US participant be geared toward ucce ful and timely completion of doctoral di ertation upervi ed by advi or on their home campu e . Participation in program workshop and input from program faculty will likely facilitate their di ertation re earch, but US fellow will not be expected to fit their re earch into the collaborative volume. The SSRC ha e tabli hed a mall library, located in the Facultad de Filo ofia y Letra of the Univer ity of Bueno Aire , to make academic work on collective memory available to re earcher throughout the Southern Cone. The library will provide ervice to project fellow (including bibliographical earche, provi ion of photocopie and di tribution of paper ) and to re earcher in the field.
References Corradi, Juan; Patricia Wei Fagen and Manuel Antonio Garreton, ed . Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Re istance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Pre ,1992. Jelin, Elizabeth, and Su ana Kaufman. "Layers of Memory." Forthcoming in Memory and Narrative 2 (1999). Wilde, Alexander. "Irruption of Memory: Expre ive Politic in Chile' Tran ition to Democracy." UnpubIi hed paper, pre ented at a eminar on Authoritarian Legacie co- pon ored by the Universidad Di Tella and Columbia Univer ity. Bueno Aire ,Augu t 1998.
53, NUMBER I
Building Bridges with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) by Mary Byrne McDonnell* In November 1998, the Council igned an agreement of cooperation with the Chine e Academy of Social Science -the large t ocial cience in titution in the People's Republic of China. The agreement wa igned on the occa ion of the vi it of an unu uaJly high-ranking CASS delegation that included the new CASS pre ident Li TIeying. It i an agreement "in principle," ba ed on imilar agreement the Council ha negotiated with a variety of international academic in titution . CASS and the Council have agreed to a et of principle , including reciprocity and non-exclu ivity-that facilitate re earch and training effort uch a communication, vi a, pon orship and ho ting. The range of i ue we may work on together i large, encompa ing all the current SSRC portfolio of intere t and then orne. Cooperation i to take three form initially: delegation and training mi ion , re earch and infra tructure development and workshop and cientific meeting . In the coming year we have agreed to develop a concrete plan for further cooperation and to convene two work hop , one in each country, for taff of CASS and SSRC to exchange information and to provide recommendation for local participant at the reque t of either organization. CASS i intere ted primarily in the Council' problem-oriented work and ee an opportunity to interact with taff and cholar a ociated with the e program . The formal igning ceremony pre ided over by SSRC Interim Pre ident Orville Gilbert Brim and the CASS pre ident came after a year of negotiation with CASSo More important, it repre ent the culmination of a long effort to re-engage the Council with China and Chine e cholar, which began when former Council pre ident David Featherman and I vi ited Beijing at CASS' invitation in the ummer of 1991.
路 Mary Byrne McDonnell, an hi torian, i executive program director
of the SSRC.
At that time, we wanted to re-open the po ibility of work in China in order to involve China and Chine e cholar in the Council' emerging tran national and comparative re earch agenda. The Council has been engaged in China ince 1966 with the joint founding of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China (CSCPRC) by SSRC, the National Academy of Science and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). The frr t decade of contact under CSCPRC au pice focu ed on the cience ; CASS it elf wa formed in 1977 and ocial cience then began to emerge a a ignificant part of
10 Ih~ fulu~: K~nn~lh
Pm.,'iu alld Huan Xiang in 1979.
CSCPRC program . The Council, and its pre ident at the time, Kenneth Prewitt, wa a key player in tho e early year , ho ting, for example, the 1979 vi it of Huan Xiang, the vice-pre ident of CASSo Hi vi it, heading the highe t-ranking delegation of ocial cienti t to date, followed clo ely the igning of an agreement enabling ocial cience to be a real part of CSCPRC work. The large- cale exchange that followed re ulted in the training of tho e who are now the middle generation of China cholar here, a well as enormou number of Chine e tudent in the ocial cience. De pite intere t on both ide ,very little wa po 1ble in 1991. Social cience were till in di repute following TIananmen Square, and CASS wa in the early tage of privatization after year a a line item in the national budget. Condition for creative ocial cience appeared to be at a low ebb in both Beijing and Shanghai. On the home front, the Joint Committee tructure a igned re pon ibility for working with China to ACLS. The e factor meant that the
idea of forming a partner hip with CASS was put on the back burner. Many thing have changed in the past ix years. SSRC now has an East A ia program that de facto include China as a ubject and Chine as partICIpants. In addition, the Committee for Scholarly Communication with China (CSCC, formerly CSCPRC), the conduit for CASS contacts with the American academy and vice versa, icon iderably Ie active than it was in the 1970 and 19 0 ,following vere funding cuts. Meanwhile, CASS has emerged from its po t-TIananmen re tructuring tronger both financially and politically; no longer able to depend olely on CSCPRC, it i earching for partner . The emergence of ocial cience a a force for improving ocial condition in China i in part ignaled by the appointment of Li Tieying. A the elde t on of one of China' foremo t revolutionarie , Li wa for many year enior among "the prince " and wa con idered likely to attain one of the country' highe t office . He i a member of the politburo of the Central Committee and thi i the fir t time CASS ha ever been headed by a powerful a political leader. He traveled to New York with a ecretary and a bodyguard and wa attended here by a full compliment of Chine e-language pre . For CASS, thi
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A page of the agrument signed by Li 7ieying and Orville Gj/ben Brim.
appointment i a mile tone in its effort to rai e the vi ibility and effectivene of ocial cience within China; for Li, it may be an effective idelining from the top rank of political power. At our meeting in New York Li' forceful intellect, curio ity and openne to new way of thinking was evident de pite the formal etting and the contraint impo ed by interpretation. It was clear that he has the per onal trength and political clout to create the condition to allow a creative and thoughtful ocial cience to develop at CASSo Given hi enior po ition within the ruling elite, he hould be able to minimize bureaucratic impediment to international collaboration between CASS and foreign partner . Scholar we poke with at CASS hope that uch a powerful pre ident make it more likely that their work will be read in high government circle , and that real data may actually come to have an impact on policy formulation. The in titutional bridge we are beginning to contruct ha clear benefits both to CASS and the SSRC. Throughout it hi tory, the Council has served a a bridge-linking di cipline , re earcher from many walk of life and countrie around the world. By drawing on and bringing into productive intercourse the intere t and abilitie of the academy, the foundation ,government and the public who upport and may find u eful the work emerging from its activitie , the SSRC ha ought to enrich the tore of knowledge available for managing generation -old ocial problem . A ocial cience unfold once more in China, the Council may again be in po ition to contribute to it development and deployment while enriching our own work in area of con equence to u all. A a fir t tep, we hope to build a relation hip of tru t and cooperation between the Council and CASS with the intent (a a econd tep) of increa ing the participation of Chine e cholar and of their re earch in the wider relation hip and conver ation we facilitate. Today it i almo t unimaginable to work on East A ia or on many thematic problem of regional or global concern without including China as a case and Chine e cholar as knowledgeable re earchers. It i crucial to our work to be able to engage with re earch in China on i ue of importance to u and to have easy acce to Chine e cholar and develop our network there. With thi new agreement we hope that we will be able to provide acce within VOLUME 53, NUMBER 1
China for our fellows, and will gradually be able to hold the kinds of conference and re earch planning meetings that have been 0 ucce ful el ewhere. Changes at the Council and at CASS, coupled with our new agreement, provide the condition that will make it po ible to reach the e goal . Our ta k remains to develop an East A ia program that fully include China, and to engage orne of the que tion involved with "building the ocial cience" in China as we have el ewhere. While orne a pect of our emerging work with China may be bilateral-the development of ocial cience through re earch and training project , for example-other a pect will be multilateral, connecting Chine e cholar and cholar hip into emerging networks on larger regional and global que tion . We will begin mall, by linking China to other
project already underway at the Council in areas of mutual intere t. For example, we hope to add Chine e member to our emerging network on poverty, on labor i ue or on memory and ociety. We plan to appoint a cholar from CASS to our East A ia Regional Advi ory Panel; we want to increase linkage between Chinese scholars and other researchers in other part of A ia around topic of mutual intere t. A the East A ia RAP become a board for the region we may con ider other office in A ia to complement our Tokyo office. On their ide, CASS' privatization i generating fund that can be u ed to bring Chinese cholars to events and project abroad. Both bilateral and multilateral approache will en ure that Chine e cholar have a trong role in the international community of ocial cienti t fo tered by Council activitie in the coming year . â&#x20AC;˘
Good Fellowship: Fellows' Conferences at the Council by Sheri Ranis, BeverLee Bruce, Ellen Perecman and Diane di Mauro* The Social Science Re earch Council fellow hip program are much more than a tran fer of fund . Be ide underwriting re earch, the program attempt to facilitate intellectual and per onal interaction among our fellow and with people and in titution to whom they might not ordinarily have acce . The Council run numerou fellow hip program with a variety of theme ,goal and target audience . During the 1998 calendar year, orne 14 different fellow hip competition awarded approximately 400 fellow hip , with an a ociated 35 fellow ' event . (Note that thi doe not include all fellow hip competition or training work hop .) The taff member who manage the program competition pend a great deal of time exploring new way for SSRC fellow to hook up. Several program , for example, u e new letter to contact their member . In the early 1990 an e-mail reflector for all grantee wa e tabli hed under the au pice of the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program (IPFP), and the Sexuality Re earch Fellow hip Program ha a Ii t erv. We al 0 continue to earch for higher interactivity through the SSRC web ite. Example of thi effort are the web-ba ed earchable databa e begun by the SSRC-MacArthur Program on International Peace and Security la t year and the recently-e tabli hed experimental e-mail Ii t for the Applied Economic program' fellow. Neverthele , face-to-face meeting are till the mo t popular mean of timulating interaction. Mo t of the fell w ' event have a number of feature in common. The e are: etworking. We eek to build a en e of the group-identification with the cohort and therefore with the program and its goal . We al 0 hope to create ocial upport y tern and profe onal net• heri Rani • B veri Bruce. Ellen Perecman nd Diane di Mauro fT. re peclively. the Abe Fellow hip Program. RC-Mellon Min rily Fellow hip Program. Inlem lion I Predi rtalion Fell w hip Program and xualily Research Fellow hip Program of the RC. I
work among the fellow . Diversity. We deal with diver e population ~if ferent di cipline career tage , re earch intere t , method and approache . Depending on the program' particular goal, reconciling or highlighting the e difference i a key part of any event' de ign. Cohort building. We don't rely on natural force to create a en e of the group among our fellow . Mo t of our meeting are engineered for internal cohort building-for example, they may mix fonner fellow with new one , or involve committee member and other faculty. tructured exercis . Meeting alway involve a variety of exerci e , many ba ed on model developed at the Council. The e fonnally tructured exchange often concern interdi ciplinarity or methodology; orne attempt to bridge the gap between academic re earch and policy-relevant work. Free time. Un tructured time i often the mo t productive time of all. Unexpected outcome -intellectual park, propo al for collaboration, innovative idea for fonnat change or follow-up meeting pring from meal , late-night talk or walk on the beach. Tracking. The outcome of fellow ' event are monitored thr ugh participant evaluation and through the record of collaboration they engender. In the page that follow, everal program director -Beverlee Bruce of the SSRC-Mellon Minority Fellow hip Program, Ellen Perecman of the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program, Diane di Mauro of the Sexuality Re earch Fellow hip Program and Sheri Rani of the Abe Fellow hip Program- di cu the fellow ' conference on which they have worked. De cription of other fellow ' conference can frequently be found in the "Current Activitie at the Council" ection of Item . S RC-Mellon Minority umm er Conference The SSRC-Mellon Minority Fellow hip Program i the graduate component of the Mellon Minority Undergraduate Fellow hip Progam (MMUF). In the MMUF, qualified African American Latina/o American and Native American tudent enrolled in private in titution around the country and majoring in art and cience di cipline de ignated as Mellon field are elected as fellow in their oph more or junior year . Once a Mellon fellow i admitted to
graduate chool, private or public, here or abroad, to pur ue a Ph.D. in preparation for an academic career in a Mellon-de ignated field, s/he i eligible to attend the annual Summer Conference and to apply for the Predoctoral Research Grant. The conference and the grant, both managed by the Social Science Re earch Council, demon trate the foundation' commitment to racial diver ity in American higher education. Unique among Council program, the SSRCMellon Minority Fellow hip Program ha a tudent conference planning committee that work with SSRC taff. In the five year of Council leader hip conference have been held at Clark Atlanta Un iver ity (1995), Stanford Univer ity (1996), Hampton Univer ity (1997), Bryn Mawr College (1998) and Brown Univer ity (1999). The conference provide a venue for tudent of color to network with Mellon fellow imilarly ituated; to attend work hop that addre uch i ue as balancing family life, urviving the fir t year, preparing for qualifying exam , writing the di ertation and getting publi hed; and to pre ent their work in a variety of contexts including conver ation by di cipline, methodological roundtable , thematic panel and po ter e ion. Invited peaker, u ually enior cholar , pre ent their current re earch and erve a role model. On average, 160 tudent attend the conference each year. At the Bryn Mawr conference, 30% of the fellow were fir t-year graduate, 68% were continuing graduate and 2% were recent Ph.D.' . Student complete a comprehen ive evaluation that erve a the template for the committee and taff deliberation that hape each conference. Communication are maintained through alit erv and the SSRC-Mellon Minority Fellow hip page on the Council' web ite (www.rc.orglfcom8.htm) where ab tract of and excerpt from conference pre entation are po ted.
International Predis ertation Fellow hip Program For the la t eight year , the IPFP ha ought to trengthen re earch on the developing world by offering training fellow hip that enable tudent to pur ue language training and multidi ciplinary area tudy a part of their graduate training. The goal of the program, which i funded by the Ford FoundMARCH
ation, ha been to create an environment on American campu e that promote and reward locally grounded ocial cience re earch. A part of the fellow hip, about 30 current and former fellow meet for three day at an annual fellow ' conference. The conference offer the opportunity to get a broader per pective on plan for di ertation re earch and to trade practical information. Conference faculty conduct plenary e ion on re earch de ign and methodology. For the pa t few year , we have invited omeone to talk to the group about hi or her experience developing a re earch project-both ucce e and failure . Other are invited to talk about when it i appropriate to u e archive, oral hi tory, urvey, cen u data or ethnography in re earch, and when tho e tool would not be u eful in an wering the que tion being asked. In preparation for concurrent work hop , fellow ubmit memorandum de cribing their plan for re earch. The e are circulated in advance and fellow pend many hour at the conference in mall workhop exploring each other ' re earch plan . Ten to twelve fellow and three faculty from a variety of di cipline and with varied regional intere t are a igned to each work hop. Here they challenge each other to think more broadly about their plan for re earch in a upportive environment. Many fellow have told u that the fellow 'conference i among the mo t valuable experience of their graduate career . Other cheduled event at the conference include optional meeting for tudents intere ted in the ame region or di cipline. Fellow are al 0 encouraged to organize impromptu di cu ion on topic of intere t. Each year fellow 'conference material include reading on different tool and tragegie recommended by our former and current conference faculty. Thi cumulative bibliography i reviewed and updated annUally. It now include 360 reference . Another re ource for fellow i the information culled from fellow ' final report to the program. Fellow are a ked to indicate important academic re ource at the over ea training ite (Iibrarie , language program, etc.); to provide name and addre e for particularly helpful contact in the area and to comment on the availability and co t of hou ing, banking procedure and 0 on. The e report are made available to fellow of all SSRC fellow hip program , and 10 of them are now available on the
LPFP page on the SSRC web ite. The increa ing internationalization of the cholarly community place a burden on tho e re pon ible for training ocial cienti ts to ee to it that tudents are equipped to communicate acro language barrier , cultural divide and difference in academic and cholarly tradition , as well a acro di ciplinary boundarie . In 1993, we initiated a mode t effort to en itize tudent to the need to be 0 equipped by e tabli hing a workshop erie entitled "Conducting Social Science Re earch in the Developing World." Work hop have now been held in 16 countrie . Modeled after the work hop at the annual fellow ' conference, the e 4-5-day work hop -which take place in developing countrie -involve a mall, multidi cplinary group, u ually including 10 tudent and two faculty. Half of the tudent are SSRC fellow and half are tudent from local universitie or re earch in titute . Local cholar typically erve as work hop faculty. The IPFP encourage fellow to hare their knowlede and experience on the SSRC fellow 'e-mail reflector. The reflector wa e tabli hed in 1993 by an IPFP fellow who thought hi colleague hould have orne way to hare the kind of information he found o valuable at the fellow 'conference he attended. All recipient of SSRC grant and fellow hip are invited to ub cribe to the reflector.
Ellen Perecman Sexuality Research Fellow hip Program (SRFP) The SSRC initiated the Sexuality Re earch Fellow hip Program (SRFP) with fund from the Ford Foundation in 1995 to provide di ertation and po tdoctoral upport for ocial and behavioral re earch on exuality conducted in the US. Our overall objective ha been to build con tituencie among exuality re earcher that can publicly promote the u efulne of uch re earch, trengthen exi ting re earch network within the ocial cience and improve re earch di emination. Initiating and trengthening re earch network i an important component of the program, one that i built into the application proce . The annual fellow 'conference take place over three day . It i typically co-ho ted by re earch in titute and academic departments focu ing on exuality 18\ITEM
research. Thi arrangement provide an opportunity for fellow to conduct archival research and meet with re earchers at the in titute . In 1997, our conference wa co-ho ted by the Kin ey In titute at Indiana University, and la t year it coincided with a re earch meeting organized by the Human Sexuality Program at San Franci co State University. In promoting productive alliance with other fellow and with enior researchers, the conference make optimal u e of the diver e group of participants. While thi diversity i obviou Iy connected to the cro -di ciplinary nature of the program, the fellow 'work-even within the ame di cipline-often focu e on topic that require diver e methodological approache . The mix include election committee member ,invited peakers, a mall number of fellow from the previou year and a range of current fellow ju t beginning their tenure-from po tdoc and di ertation fellow to cholars recently advanced to candidacy. Prior to the meeting, all participant receive a packet of ab tract , one-page outline of each of the fellow ' re earch project . Upon arrival at the conference, each fellow i given an index card-we call it a "dance card"~ontaining ix line for the name of "dance partners." We refer to thi dance card activity by it acronym, ODO, for "orche trated di cour opportunity." De igned to encourage focu ed di cu ion ,thi exercise provide for ix 30-minute conver ational dance , during which fellow participate in one-on-one di cu ion with other fellow or with election committee members or program taff. U ing the ab tracts packet to become familiar with each other' work, fellow make their dance reservation during the fir t day of the conference. Thi activity has been an unqualified ucce ,enabling the fellow to begin a networking proce that doe not leave making contacts to chance. Sugge tion for conver ational topic - uch a re earch ob tacle or difficultie , preliminary re earch finding ,compari on acro topic and di cipline the the benefit or di advantage of pecific methodological de ign or technique -are provided. Other conference activitie include more traditional formal pre entation on different topic -ethical i ue in exuality re earch, public and private ector re earch in exuality and 0 on. There are al 0 3-4 mall group di cu ion, to which fellow are as igned by di cipline and/or topic. VOLUME
53, NUMBER I
The conference conclude with a u eful di cu ion between current and former fellow . Each year, a mall number of fellow who have completed their tenure are invited to hare their in ight about the fellow hip year with a group of four or five fellows. One focu i the program's requirement that di emination and outreach be part of a fellow' re earch plan. Former fellows share with current one information about how they engaged other re earcher both within and out ide of academia. The Sexuality Re earch Fellow hip Program' empha i on networking, both in the program and in it meeting, is de igned to ensure that collaborative effort initiated during the fellow hip year endure long after the fellow ' conference ha ended. Diane di Mauro
Abe Fellow hip Program The purpo e of the Abe Fellow hip Program, which i funded by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partner hip, i to encourage multidi ciplinary re earch on topic of pre ing global concern and to facilitate new network of uch re earcher ba ed in the US and Japan and around the world. The three main theme of Abe- pon ored re earch are global i ue, problem common to advanced indu trial ocietie and i ue relating to the improvement of USJapan relation . Abe Fellow hip are individual award de igned to provide 12 month of upport for both academic and non-academic re earcher . Since 1991 between 15 and 20 award have been given out each year-currently 50% to individual in the US and 50% to tho e in Japan. Our fellow repre ent a wide range of academic ocial cience peciaIitie a well as experti e as lawyer, policy anaIy ts and journali t .The program di play a imilarly broad career pectrum-from fre hly minted Ph.Do's to very enior individual . The Abe program ha both internal and external networking goal . On the internal front, the program ho ts an annual retreat to build identification a a cohort among active Abe fellow . We al 0 produce a new letter twice a year and hold pre entation , lecture and holiday events for fellows in both the US
and Japan. External network are fo tered through a work hop erie focu ed on crticial re earch theme that gather together fellow ,committee member and out ide expert . The challenge for the Abe Fellow hip Program i to plan activitie that will be meaningful to bu y, highly motivated re earcher . The e are not graduate tudent but academic meeting veteran who can be re i tant to being "trained." Often they do not hare di ciplinary background or re earch intere t . We've u ed everal trategie to addre thi problem. We try to i olate our fellow in a retreat-like etting 0 that they can focu on each other without di traction. We've hortened our event to a maximum of three day to accomodate demanding chedule. And we prepare our elve to drag our participant (often prote ting) into exerci e in which they will not alway be comfortable. So, for example, at our retreat we u e a variation of the tandard SSRC re earch pre entation exerci e in which fellow purpo ely mixed by nationality, di cipline and pecialty critique each other' work. We al 0 hold methodology work hop that mix them up again. Recently we created an ambitiou exerci e called the "problem- olving work hop," a quasi- imulation or thought experiment. We elected key i ue area uch a aging, rapid technological change and global regulation. We collected exten ive current reading for each topic group. Then we invited enior practitioner from the policy world to join with fellow and academic expert to make pre entation on pecific cenario . For example, the UN group wa asked to draft an agenda on UN reform for an upcoming eion of the General A embly; the aging group wa asked to provide advice to the OECD on the be t way to provide healthcare and pen ion given limited fi cal and bureaucratic re ource . Thi wa a complicated e ion to con truct and run, but it got po itive review from participant . And then, of cour e, there are the unexpected outcome . Some of our be t idea for work hop and networking activitie grew out of walks on the â&#x20AC;˘ beach. Sheri Ranis
Eleanor C. Isbell Dies at 94 by David L Sills* Eleanor C. I bell, who erved the Council a a taff as ociate from 1940 until her retirement in 1975, died in a nur ing home in Connecticut on February 24 at the age of 94. She had lived ince her retirement at her childhood home in Columbia, Connecticut. When Eleanor I bell retired, the headline of the front-page tory in Items noted that her departure marked the "end of an era" at the Council. She had nurtured it growth from a mall cholarly ociety funded largely by a few foundation to a large, international organization with the broad upport of a large number of foundation and government agencie . She wa born in Columbia on April 24, 1904, the daughter of Hubert P. and Frannie Lyman Collin . She attended the Columbia elementary chool, Windham High School and Smith College, from which he graduated magna cum laude in 1924. She married Roger S. I bell but wa prematurely widowed. After working as a traffic engineer at both the ew York and New Jer ey telephone companie , and undertaking graduate tudy in ociology at Yale Univer ity, M . I bell erved a a re earch a i tant to the famou ociologi t Dorothy Swaine Thomas during her tudy of population migration in Sweden. Later he worked for the even more famou ' Swedi h economi t Gunnar Myrdal during hi cia ic tudy of American race relation , publi hed in 1944 as An American Dilemma. In 1940 M . I bell joined the taff of the Council on the enthu iastic recommendation of the ociologi t W. I. Thoma . When asked what he would do at the Council, Donald Young, then the junior member of the Council' two-man profe ional taff, replied with characteri tic pithine , "I don't know what he would do, but I know that he would fmd omething that need doing and would do it well." Mr. Young' prediction was correct. For 35 year, M . Isbell was an important key to the Council' growth, eminence and ucce . She erved a editor, board ecretary, archivi t and public information officer. She wa the founding editor of Items, and oon became both the con cience and the keeper of the Council, the largely anonymou per on who kept the organization functioning on a day-to-day ba i during many period of leader hip turnover. For the hundred of cholar who benefited from her editing and encouragement, he wa one of tho e who are referred to in The Book of Common Prayer a "aint known and unknown." While living in retirement in Columbia, M . I bell wa active in the American A . ociation of Univer ity Women and the Columbia Hi torical Society. She al 0 a i ted the CIa of 1924 in it uppport of the Smith College Alumnae Fund. In addition to her former a ociate at the Social Science Re earch Council, M . I bell i urvived by a iter, Beatrice C. Grimm of Bridgeport, Connecticut; a nephew, Thomas H. Collin of Columbia; two niece aloof Columbia, Janet Erick on and Linda Spector; and a niece, Virginia Gould, of Brielle, New Jersey. David L. Sill , the Council' Ellecutive As
i te Emeritu , h
written frequ ntly about Council hi t ry.
VOLUME 53, NUMBER I
Current Activities at the Council Local Governance and International Intervention in Africa: A Correction Due to an editorial error, the names of participants at a workshop on "Local Governance and International Intervention in Africa" held at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy on March 28-29, 1998, were omitted from the December 1998 Items. They were: Musa Abutudu (Institute for Advanced Study and University of Benin. Nigeria). Michael Barnett (University ofWiscon in. Madison). Thomas Callaghy (University of Pennsylvania). Frederick Cooper (University of Michigan). Karin Dokken (University of Oslo. Norway). Kaj Eckholm-Friedman (University of Lund. Sweden). Oyvind Hansen (Research Council of Norway). Ron Kassimir (SSRC). Gilbert Khadiagala (School of Advanced International Study). Audie Klotz (University of Illinois. Chicago). Robert Latham (SSRC). Carolyn Nordstrom (University of Notre Dame). Cyril Obi (Nigerian Institute of International Affairs). Peter Otim (Centre for B ic Research. Uganda). William Reno (Rorida International University). Paul Richards (Wageningen University. Netherlands). Thomas Risse (EUI. Italy). Janet Roitman (University of California, Berkeley). Hildegard Scheu (GTZ) and Han Peter Schmitz (University of Konstanz. Gennany),
International Dissertation Field Research Fellowship Program Fellows' Workshop Twenty-four fellows attended the second SSRC-ACLS International Dissertation Field Research Fellowship (IDRF) fellows' workshop at the University of San Francisco on January 812, 1999. Catherine Boone, profes or of political science at the University of Texas and Douglas
Holmes, professor of anthropology at the University of Houston, Clear Lake were the facilitators. Guest lecturer Michael Watts (geography, University of California, Berkeley) spoke about his work in Africa and participated in a lively discussion about issues in international field research. Fellows presented their projects and field research experiences at a series of six panels, organized loosely around thematic and methodological similarities. Each presentation was followed by a brief question and answer period, and each panel concluded with a longer discussion of the substantive intellectual issues raised by the panelists' work. Panel members were also given time to discuss their work among themselves. Most of the fellows were finishing or had recently completed their dissertation research. As at the first IDRF workshop in Amsterdam (October 2-6, 1998), that experience, in conjunction with a shared commitment to scholarly dialogue across disciplines, erved to bring together researchers with widely disparate interests and affiliations. Their discussions were informed by a set of readings distributed prior to the workshop, including articles and book chapters by Lisa Anderson, Arjun Appadurai, K. Anthony Appiah, Albert Hirschman, Ira Katznelson, Sherry Ortner, William Sewell, Jr. and Immanuel Wallerstein. Staff: Kenton W. Worcester,
Michael Brogan, Abby Swingen
Japan Studies Dissertation Workshop On January 8-12, 1999, twelve outstanding students and three faculty members came to Monterey, California for the fourth annual Japan Studies Dissertation Workshop. The workshop targets those students whose work is especially promising or ambitious, who seem particularly in need of critical feedback or who are not affiliated with institutions recognized as Japan Studies centers. The program brings together students at varying stages of the dissertation process and from varying disciplinary backgrounds who might not otherwise have the opportunity to interact. The workshop aids students in designing innovative and insightful research and in planning, executing and analyzing fieldwork. Over the course of four days, students present and critique individual projects and meet in small groups with faculty and peers to discuss cro scutting themes and methodological issues. The 1999 workshop participants were selected from a pool of more than 40 applicants and represented 9 disciplines from the social sciences and humanities and II institutions nationwide. This year many proposals focused on such topics as intermediary organizations in Japanese civil society and politics and various groups that have been
marginalized hi torically within Japane e ociety. The program, which i funded by the Japan Foundation, accepts application annually in October. F ulty : John C. Campbell, University of Michigan; Edward B. Fowler, University of California, Irvine; Patri ia G. teinhoff, University of Hawaii. taff: Mary Byrn McDonnell , Jennifer A. Winther, Thurka angaramoorthy
Abe Fellows' Retreat The Abe Fellow hip Program held it third annual retreat on January 14-17, 1999 in San Diego, California. Twenty current fellow as well as program committee members and taff pent two-and-a-half day involved in re earch pre entation , methodology workshop and di cu ion group . The retreat wa led by Abe Fellowhip Program Committee chair Jame White of the University of North Carolina, and committee member Hideki Kan of Kyu hu Univer ity and Alan Miller of the Global Environment Facility at the World Bank. Re earch pre entation eion that allowed the fellow to expo e their work to critique from individual with very different di ciplinary, theoretical, methodological and national background , as well a differing amount of international re earch experience, accounted for much of the retreat. Methodology eion were group exchange on two e ay by Arjun Appadurai and Gabriel Almond, which Mr. White labeled work on' metamethodologie "for ocial cience. The fellow al 0 participated in di cu ion focu ed on propo al for new global y tern 22\lTEMS
of environmental governance led by Mr. Miller and on US-Japan relation and American hegemony in the A ia Pacific led by Mr. Kan. The meeting wa de igned to provide opportunitie for interchange both in e ion and more c ually. The participant were unanimou in their appreciation of the multidi ciplinary inten ity; a one put it, ''Thi kind of di cu ion i n't found in the ivory tower." Participants: Jame White, Hideki Kan and Alan Miller of the Abe Fellow hip Program Committee; Arthur Ale)(ander, William Alford, Marie Anchordoguy, David Arase, Mary Yoko Brannen, Laura Campbell, Mark Fruin, Heidi Gottfried, Y. hihi Hayakawa, David Johnn, Peter Katzen tein, t hi Kin hita, T utomu Kono, Elli Krau ,Yuko Nishimura, Kazoo Ogawa, TJ Pcmpel, Karl Schoenberg r, Scott Snyder, hinji Y: m hita. taff: Mary Byrne McDonnell , Frank Baldwin, heri Rani , Fumika Mori.
Collective Memory in the Southern Cone of Latin America With a November 15-17, 1998 work hop on ' Collective Memory of Repre ion: Comparative Per pective on Democratization Proce e in Latin America' Southern Cone," the Regional Advi ory Panel (RAP) for Latin America launched a multi-year program of re earch and training. Held at the Centro Latinoamericano de Economia Humana (CLAEH) in Montevideo, Uruguay with fund from the Ford Foundation, the work hop reviewed the tate of the field. Its goal wa to identify ub tantive and methodological i ue that merit priority in activitie deigned to train junior re earcher working on collective memory.
Nearly two dozen re earchers analyzed a erie of commi ioned paper and di cu ed the curriculum for the training component of the program, which i being coordinated by Elizabeth Jelin of the Univer ity of Bueno Aire , a member of the RAP. A election committee met prior to the meeting to review application from an initial cohort of program fellow . More than 75 application were received from junior re earchers based in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, and from doctoral candidate at universitie in the US. The 15 Latin American fellow cho en repre ent a broad pectrum of discipline , including law, joumali m, ociology, anthropology, political cience and ocial p ychology. In addition to taking part in two inten ive training work hop , one in March and another in December 1999, Latin American fellow will receive tipends to enable them to carry out field work as part of a collaborative regional re arch team analyzing ocial conflict over contemporary efforts to commemorate experience of repre ion. They will be joined by four US-based fellow , who received upport to conduct field work on memory-related di rtation work on Chile, Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina. A cond cohort of fellow will be lected later thi year to carry out research and receive training during the year 2000. Information for pro pective applicant ,a well a more detailed information about the program, i available el ewhere in thi i ue [ ee p. 9], and on the SSRC Latin America page VOLUME
53, NUMBER I
located athttp://www. rc.org/ LAmenu2.htm. Participants: Hugo Achugar, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay; Line Bareiro, Centro de Documentaci6n y Estudi (CDE), A unci6n, Paraguay; Loui Bickford, Ford Foundation, S ntiago, Chile; Alfredo Boccia Paz, Asunci6n, Paraguay; Gerardo Caetano, CLAEH, Montevideo, Uruguay; Carl Ivan Degregori, In tituto de Estudi Peruan (lEP), Lima, Peru; Paul Drake, University of California, S n Di go; Silvia Du~nit, In tituto Mora, Mexico City, Mexico; Eric Hershberg, SSRC; Katherine Roberts Hite, Va sac College; Elizabeth Jelin, IDES, Universidad de Buen Aire, Argentina; Susan Kaufman, Universidad de Buenos Aire ,Arg ntina; Norben Lechner, United Nation Development Program, Santiago, Chile; Leigh Payne, University of Wiscon in, Madi n; Ale sandro Ponelli, Dipanimento de Angli tica, Universita di Roma, Italy; Graciela Sapriza, Montevideo, Urugu y; Dom Schwanzstein, F uhad de Filosoffa y Letras Universidad de Buenos Aire ,Argentina; Cat Iina Smulovitz, Universidad de Bueno Aire ,Argentina; Steve Stem, University of Wi onsin, Madi n; Tere Valdf, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencia Sociale (FLACSO), Santiago. Chile; Marcelo Viilar, Montevideo, Uruguay; Maren Ulrilcsen, Montevideo, Uruguay; Alexander Wilde, Ford Foundation, Santiago, Chile.
Forced Migration and Human Rights The International Migration Program ha received $450,000 from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for a project on Forced Migration and Human Rights. The project will employ a human right framework to facilitate collaborative re earch by teams con i ting of practitioner from nongovernmental organization and ocial cienti t . They will explore a number of i ue related to the cau e of forced migration and the protection of forced migrant , particularly in Africa.
Ethnic Customs, Assimilation and Americ~n Law The Working Group on Ethnic MARCH 1999
Cu tom ,A imilation and American Law of the Program on Culture, Health and Human Development at it fll' t meeting at Stanford Univer ity on November 6-8, 1998, examined a wide range of i ue. For example, in a se ion on "A imilation and the Harvard Immigration Project" (led by Marcelo SuarezOro co), participant di cu ed how current pattern of immigration to the US are creating increa ingly multicultural communitie a well a uch topic a return migration and the relationhip between co mopolitan elite and lower- and undercla egment of immigrant group . A e ion on "Per pective on Female Coming-of-Age Ceremonie " (led by Corrine Kratz) explored the ten ion between re pect for plural practice and the legal protection of group on the one hand, and concern for individual human right on the other. A related di cu ion of "Ca e of Norm Conflict" (led by Ali on Dunde -Renteln) focu ed on the re pon e of child protection agencie and the legal ytern in the US to family practice that are con ide red problematic. Since orne of the e ca e have received exten ive coverage in the media, the way in which the i ue, and thu different egment of the community, are preented and repre ented wa al 0 con idered. Finally, in a e ion on "Fir t Amendment Per pective on the Free Exerci e of Culture" (led by Arthur Ei enberg) the participants que tioned whether con cientiou behavior that i not explicitly or conventionally religiou might be protected under
the Fir t Amendment of the US Con titution. On the basi of their re earch and experience in a range of etting , the participant concluded that, at least in the US, conflict between diver e family practice and ocial in titution i frequent and widepread. Since uch di cu ion (and tho e that will take place at two more meeting in 1999) are directed toward the preparation of two pro pective i ue of Daedalus devoted to the Working Group' agenda, the participant al 0 con idered the po ible organization of the i ue . Among other thing ,thi involve the que tion of how to integrate international, comparative analye into the group' deliberation and re earch. Participants: Caroline Bledsoe (Nonhwe tern University); J h DeWind (S RC); Arthur Eisenberg (New York Civil Libenies Union); Phoebe Ell wonh (University of Michigan); Stephen Gmubard (American Academy of Arts and cience); Corinne Krotz (Emory University); Hazel Marku (Stanford University, Cochair); Martha Minow (Harvard University, Coch if); Richard Ni beu (University of Michigan); Alison Dunde Renteln (University of Southern California); Au lin Samt (Amherst College); Bmdd Shore (Emory University); Richard Shweder (University of Chicago, Coch ir); Marcelo Suarez-Orosco (Harvard University). Staff: Fmnk Ke I.
Sexuality Research Fellowship Program Fellows' Conference The Sexuality Re earch Fellow hip Program (SRFP) held its 1998 fellow' conference on November 5-10, 1998 at San Franci co State Univer ity in conjunction with the "Kin ey at 50" conference ho ted by SFSU' Human Sexuality Studie Program. The fellow 'conference
wa attended by all 1998 SRFP fellow, elected 1997 fellow , member of the SRFP election committee, SRFP taff and gue t peakers. The conference provided an opportunity for the fellow to form productive alliance with each other, di cu their work in progre and gain a greater under tanding of important re earch i ue. The conference con i ted of formal pre entation , large and mall group di cu ion, and one-on-one "conver ation ." Formal presentation were made on the following topic : the policy relevance of exuality research, media i ue, methodological concern and i ue of researcher identity. The group had the opportunity to addre fellow 'plan for outreach and di semination activitie and to discu uch topic as preliminary research finding, ob tacle or difficultie encountered and the ethical i ue of their research. One lunchtime se ion included mall group di cu ion, each led by one of the former fellow in attendance, who provided recommendation and other useful information for tho e beginning a fellow hip tenure. The "Kin ey at 50" conference, attended by the SRFP fellow a well as other re earchers and cholars working in the field of exuality re earch, focu ed the influence of Alfred Kin ey' work on American ociety, 50 year after the publication of hi frr t research. Both conference provided u eful opportunitie for networking and learning more about what it mean to be a "sexuality researcher." 24\1TEMS
Bio-Behavioral-Social Perspectives on Health The Council' collaborative project with the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research (OBSSR) received major impetu from the frr t meeting of it Co-Ordinating Group (COG), held at the SSRC on February 5, 1999. Given the project' focu on the condition that fo ter integrative interdi ciplinary re earch on health, the agenda wa compri ed of three primary part : Fir t, the COG finalized the title and cope of the project' broad topical domain ; in a related tep, proviional deci ion were made on the title and ub tance of the case tudie on integrative re earch that form the heart of the endeavor (along with agreement on the potential author-analy ts for each tudy). Second, di cu ion served to harpen and deepen the analytical framework, i.e., the i ue and que tion that will frame all the case tudie. And third, the COG prepared a work plan and chedule. The project will include five topical domain ,each directed by a member of the Co-Ordinating Group: "Aging and the Life Course: In Search of Methu elah" (Linda Waite); "Impact of the Social World on Cardiova cular Health and Di ease: Home I Where the Heart I " (John Cacioppo); "Affective/Cognitive Neuro cience and Health: Mind Matters" (Richard David on); "Po itive Health: Mapping the Biology of Human Flouri bing" (Carol Ryff); "Prevention and Management of HIV/AIDS: A Tale of Two Citie " (Neil
Schneiderman). The domain ' case tudie (two or three in each) will oon be cho en, along with their as ociated authors, and the tudie them elve launched in the pring. Participan : Norman Anderson (OBSSR): John Cacioppo (Ohio State Unive ity): Virginia Cain (OBS R): Richard Davidson (University of Wi onsin, Madison): Patricia R nfield (Carnegie Corporation, Co-Ordinting Group Chair): John W. Rowe (Mount Sinai-NYU Medical Center): Carol Ryff (University of Wi nsin, Madi n): Neil Schneidennan (University of Miami): Linda Waite (University of Chicago, NORC Center on Aging). Staff: Frank ICe scI.
Pledges of Aid "Pledge of Aid: Multilateral Donor and Support for Po tWar Recon truction and Sy tematic Tran formation," a project implemented jointly by the SSRC and the Center on International Cooperation (CIC) at New York Univer ity (NYU), has recently concluded with two major conference . The project, upported by the Ford Foundation, centered on an analy i of the pledge of billion of dollar by the international donor community to countries emerging from violent conflict and/or undergoing political and economic tran formation. Through grants, loan and other in truments, multilateral in titution and UN member tate have upported war-tom and tran itional ocietie to demobilize military force , re tore e sential ervice, rebuild infrastructure , reform political and economic in titution and embrace tructural adju tment and privatization of economic activity. Good intention notwith tanding, there have in many case been repeated VOLUME
53, NUMBER I
delays and recurrent gaps in aid disbursement, serious coordination problems among donors and evidence of limited absorptive capacity and the politicization of aid within recipient countries. The project sought both to explain these problems and to offer policy recommendations through a comparative study of six recent cases: Cambodia, EI Salvador, Bosnia, Mozambique, the Palestinian-Administered Territories (West Bank and Gaza) and South Africa. SSRC and CIC convened pairs of researchers from both donor and recipient states to produce indepth reports that featured a shared methodology and set of questions concerning aid delivery, coordination and implementation. After a planning meeting (in September 1997) and an interim meeting (in May 1998) of the research teams and an advisory panel of scholars, practitioners and pol icy makers, the results of the case studies were presented at a conference at NYU on November 13-14, 1998, entitled "Investing in Peace: Donor Support for Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Transition." Several factors were identified as central to aid flow problems and variation in outcomes: the role of a lead donor in mobilizing assistance and negotiating with recipient country governments; the differences in donor organizations' mandates, policies, ideologies and institutional structures and processes that often lead to sub-optimal cooperation; the uses of conditionalities on aid; and the political conflicts within donor countries that were occasionally eased but often MAROIl999
exacerbated by struggles over access to aid flows. From February 1-5, 1999, the results of the project were presented to representatives of a wide range of donor institutions at the conference "Underwriting and Coordinating Post-Conflict Recovery" at the Rockefeller Foundation's Bellagio Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy (also supported by a grant to the CIC from the United States Institute of Peace). The conference featured frank discussion and reflection on obstacles to more effective collective action among donors, and between them and recipient country governments and nongovernmental organizations. Better tracking of aid pledges and disbursements, imprOVed cooperation among donor agencies, deeper engagement with a wide range of voices within transition countries and more analytical attention paid to the politics of aid (including the conditions placed upon it) were highlighted at the meeting. There was basic agreement that the international community'S understanding of what is called the "triple transition" to peace, democracy and economic development is limited, and that policy can be better informed, imprOVed and coordinated through comparative evaluation of past successes and failures. Two publications are currently being prepared based on the activities of the "Pledges of Aid" project. CIC staff Shepard Forman and Stewart Patrick are editing a volume, entitled Good Intentions: Pledges of Aid For Post-Conflict Recovery, that will include the six case studies as well as an overview chapter by Patrick and con-
cluding reflections by James Boyce. In addition, CIC is transforming the lessons learned from the project into a set of recommendations to be published in its policy paper series, Paying for Essentials. These publications will be disseminated widely among donor agencies and recipient country actors, both public and private. Participants: Nicole Ball (Oversea<; Development Council). James Boyce (University of Massachusetts). Hugh Cholmondclcy (private consultant, fonncrly of the United Nations Staff Collcee Project). Nat Colleta (World Bank). Niels Dabcl ein (Dani h MinisUy of Foreign Affairs). Larry dcBoice (United Nations Development Prognunmc). Alvaro DeSoto (United Nations As i tant Sccrctary General for Political Affairs). Roger Ehrhardt (Canadian International Development Agency). Geldolph Evens (United Nations High Commi ion for Refu&CCS). Shepard Forman (CIC). Marianne Heiberg (Norwegian In titu for International Affairs). Ron Kassimir (SSRC). David Malone (International Peace Academy). R Mountain (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs). Stewart Pntriclc (CIC), Libuse Paukcrt (Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Robert Scharf (British Department for International Development). Niclc Stockton (OXFAM) and Henrike Trautmann (European Community Humanitarian Office).
Training Junior Scholars in Latin America and the Caribbean A February 19-20, 1999, workshop in San Jose, Costa Rica provided an occasion for a multidisciplinary group of senior social scientists to compare experiences with "Innovative Approaches to Training Junior Researchers in the Social Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean." Drawn from eight countries in the region, participants in the workshop have all helped to launch recent initiatives that provide postgraduate training through universities, independent research centers and/or internalTEMsI25
tional consortia. The e efforts reflect a shared commitment to the reproduction of social scientific expertise in Latin America. and typically emerge from a deep preoccupation with the impact of institutional crisis on the capacity of training programs in the region to provide students with the analytical and methodological skills needed to carry out high quality social scientific research. Concern about the e issues has shaped the content of several programs developed in recent years under Council auspices. However. the absence to date of any opportunity to share experiences across fields. countries and sponsoring institutions-and thus to better understand which approaches seem most promising for future initiatives at the Council and elsewhere-led the Regional Advisory Panel (RAP) for Latin America to convene this meeting. in collaboration with the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO-Co ta Rica). which has played a leading role in addressing advanced training needs in Central America. f
Participants: Manuel Contreras. Maeslrias para el Desarollo. Universidad Calolica, Bolivia; Carlos Ivan Degregori. In tituto de Estudios Peruano • Peru; Magdalena Leon. Universidad Nacional. Colombia; Orlandin De Oliveira, Colegio de Mexico. Mexico; Norman Girvan. Consortium Gr.aduate School. University of the 'W t Indies. Jamaica; Elizabeth Jelin. Universidad de Buenos Aires; Moacir Palmeira, Museu Antropol6gico. Brazil; Juan Pablo Pmz Sainz, FLACSO·Costa Rica, Co ta Rica,
Call for Book Donations to Cuban Institutions The ACLS/SSRC Working Group on Cuba welcomes donations of current scholarly litera26\ITEMS
ture in a number of academic fields. and with assistance from the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. will facilitate delivery of donations to appropriate research institutions on the island. If you are interested in making a book or journal donation. please contact staff at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Transitions and Futures in Southeast Asia A workshop on "Transitions and Futures in Southeast Asia" was held in Cebu City. Philippines. February 3-4. 1999. This was the second in a series of workshops sponsored by the Southeast Asia Regional Advi ory Panel (RAP) which seek to provide a forum for public intellectuals from across the region. Feeling that the eries of crises that had devastated the region in the last year had led to a crisis of the imagination or. put less grandly. a difficulty in thinking beyond crisis-management, the workshop's organizers chose the selfconsciously utopian and fantasist project of the articulation of Southeast Asian "futures." As they stated. this project sought to "air and critically imagine futures-from the most pedestrian and literal to the most utopian and seemingly far fetched ... (But while) futures can depend on technology. can refer to art. can insist upon convergence. and only see difference ... let us not read 'future' as 'prediction· ... A sample of the papers preented are likely to be published by Kasarinlan. the quarterly journal of the Third World Studies Center. Manila.
Participants were drawn from across Southeast Asia and included: Arief Budiman (University of Melbourne). Tun Aung Chain (Universities Research Center). Janad Devan (Straits TImes. Singapore). Maria S. Diokno (University of Philippines. Diliman). Francisco Nemenzo (University of Philippines. Diliman). Nirmal PuruShotam (National University of Sing· apore). Joel Rocamora (In tilUle for Popular Democracy). as well as members of the Regional Advisory Panel. Leonard Andaya (University of Hawaii. Manoa). K. S. Jomo (University of Malaya). Resil Mojare (University of San Carlos). Cruig Reynolds (Au tralian National University). Takashi Shiraishi (Kyoto University). Anna Tsing (University of California, Santa Cruz). and Diana Wong (Universiti Kebangsaan Malay ia).
Russian Faculty Development Seminar The Eurasia Program. with a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. sponsored a Social Science Seminar for Russian curriculum development from March 13-16 in Korolyov. Russia. just outside Mo cow. The Eurasia Regional Advisory Panel (RAP). which organized the event. hoped to meet the need of Russian faculty for new curriculums by engaging in historically rich discussions of key theoretical paradigms in the West and how they impact on issues of transition. The seminar focused on developments in the two disciplines-political science and sociology-that were particularly isolated from Western scholarly developments. with an emphasis on political and economic sociology. It gathered Russian scholars and faculty to exchange experiences with one another and with several US colleagues. Russian scholars in these disciplines now face demands to
53. NUMBER I
deliver practical help in the tranition proce a well a to update their academic teaching. In order to addre the e need , US cholar examined the intellectual hi tory of their field , debating crucial paradigm within ociology and political cience. Victor Nee (Cornell Univer ity) and Neil Flig tein (Univer ity of California, Berkeley) compared the "new in titutionali m" to more hi torical, con tructivi t in titutional approache . Ronald Suny (Univer ity of Chicago) lectured on Marxi m and agency theory, and Philippe Schmitter (Stanford Univer ity) rai ed the i ue of "tran itology" a a viable, di tinct analytical approach. The US cholar then pre ented key we tern theoretical argument on tran ition i ue. Andrew Arato of the New School for Social Re earch di cu ed the role of civil ociety, Mitchell Abolafia
(State Univer ity of New York, Albany) poke on market a culture, Mr. Suny talked about nationali m and Mr. Schmitter addre ed democratization. At each juncture, Ru ian cholar offered critici m and hared their own di tinct approache to the e i ue. Ru ian participant included Tatiana Alek eivaia (Mo cow State In titute for International Relation ), Leokadia Drobizheva (In titute of Ethnography and Anthropology), Alexander Filipov (Moscow School of Social and Economic Science), Vladimir Gellman (European University, Ru ian Federation), Mikhail llyin (Ru ian Political Science A ociation), Leonid lonin (Higher School of Economic ), Antoni Kamin ki (Institute of Political Science, Poland), Yaro lay Kyzminov (rector, Higher School of Economic ,Ru ian Federation), Olga M. Ma lova (In titute of Sociology), Andrei Melville
(Mo cow State In titute for International Relation ), Vadim Radaev (In titute of Economic ), Ovsey Shkaratan (Higher School of Economic and Sociology) and Alexander Soloviev (Mo cow State University). A plenary se ion on pubJi bing in Ru ia preented editors of journal and pubJi bing house , including Alexander Livergant, Open Society In titute, Alexei Salmin, Politeia, Leonid Shipov, A peet Pre , Andrei Sorokin, Russian Political Encyclopedia, Jean To chenko, Sods (Sociological Studie ), and Oleg Zirnarin, Ves' Mir. Representative of variou foundation in Ru ia also attended. The ultimate aim of the eminar i to help narrow the divide in approache to the common and crucial ocial and political i ue the US cholar hare with their Ru ian counterpart . Staff: Judith Sedaiti ,Je ica 01 en.
Recent Council Publications Figures of Criminality in Indon ia, the Philippines, and Colonial Vietnam, edited by Vicente L. Rafael. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia (1976-96). Ithaca. New York: Southeast A ia Program Publication, Cornell Univer ity, 1999.258 page. What i crime? Who are criminal ? In who e eye and under what condition of looking do crime and criminal appear? The e ay in thi volume emerged from a conference entitled, "Crime and Puni hment: Criminality in Southea t A ia," held on March 20-22, 1997 at the Center for A ian Studie in Am terdam under the joint ponor hip of the SSRC and the International In titute for A ian Studie . In thi volume, editor and conference organizer Vicente L. Rafael ha put together a number of e ay that di cu the notion of the criminal within a variety of hi tori cal and national context . The e ay engage the relation hip between criminality and the law in relation to tate formation, nationali t thought. ethnic identity and contending notion of power. They offer way to think about criminality comparatively Ie a a ettled object of inve tigation than as an un ettling pre ence of figure the jago, the preman, the bandit, the 'Chine e," the "foreigner," the criminal of kriminalita, ubver ive writer and other -that accompany the emergence of modernity in the Sou thea t 2 \ITEM
A ian region. Notion of criminality can hift as bandit become national heroe and police become murderers. Studying Native America: Problems and Pro peets, edited by Ru ell Thornton. Spon ored by the Native American Studie Advi ory Group (1994-1995). Madi on: Univer ity of Wi conin Pre ,1998. 443 pp. Studying Native America addre e for the fir t time in a comprehen ive way the place of Native American tudie in the univer ity curriculum. The book' 13 contributors and editor Ru ell Thornton empha ize the incompatibility of traditional academic teaching method with the ocial and cultural concern that gave ri e to the field of Native American tudie. Beginning with the intellectual and in titutional hi tory of the field, the book examine its literature, language, hi tori cal narrative and tie to other di cipline . It con ider what Native American tudie has been, what it i and what it may be in the future. The Politics of Strategic Adjustment: Ideas, Institutions, and Interests, edited by Peter Truhawitz, Emily O. Goldman and Edward Rhode . Spon ored by the Committee on International Peace and Security. New York: Columbia University Pre ,1998. 331 pp. Examining a century of American experience, The Politics of Strategic Adju tment illu trate
how the United State choo e it ecurity policie . While cholar have typically focu ed on international pre ure and opportunitie , thi book how that deci ion about grand trategy are critically haped by dome tic politic political ideologie, tate tructure and ocietaI intere t . At a time when America' ecurity need and goal are changing rapidly, thi book offers policy maker and cholars of international affairs new critical model for undertanding the complex reality of security policy. Uncertain Transition: Ethnographi of Change in the Postsocialist World, edited by Michael Burawoy and Katherine Verdery. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publi hers, 1999. 322 pp. Thi volume emerged from a conference pon ored by a number of organization including the Social Science Re earch Council and the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe of the American Council of Learned Societie and the Social Science Re earch Council. The ethnographie it collects offer a urpri ing and compelling picture of change in Ru ia and Eastern Europe. Looking at the everyday proce e by which individual and group forge new live , the authors challenge the idea that we can under tand thi tran formation by the predictable model -whether capitaIi m, po t ociali m, modernity or po tmodernity. VOLUME
The collection brings together a wide-ranging group of authors from sociology, anthropolgy and political science to reveal the complex relationships that still exist between the former socialist world and the world today. Through evocative ethnographic research and writing, they bring to light the unintended consequences of change and show how the "slates" of the past enter the present not as legacies but as novel adaptations. Often what appear as "restorations" of patterns familiar from socialism are something quite different: direct responses to the new market initiatives. By showing the unexpected ways in which these new patterns are emerging, this book charts a new and important course for the study of postsocialist transition.
Staff Publications On December 9, 1998, Leon V. Sigal (research associate, East
Asia Program) received the American Academy of Diplomacy's annual award for the best book written on the practice of United States diplomacy for his book Disarming Strangers: Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea (Princeton University Press, 1998). In November 1998, The Making of the Indian Atomic Bomb: Science, Secrecy and the Postcolonial State by Itty Abraham was published by St. Martin's Press. This book is the first historical account of the development of India's nuclear program. Mr. Abraham, the program director for the Council's South Asia and Southeast Asia programs, argues that~ontrary to orthodox interpretations-the atomic explosions in May 1998 had nothing to do with national security as conventionally understood. Rather they had everything to do with establishing the legitimacy of the independent nation state. Mr. Abraham
demonstrates the links between the two apparently separate discourses of national security and national development. We Were So Beloved: Autobiography of a German Jewish Community by Gloria DeVidas Kirchheimer and Manfred Kirchheimer was published in November 1997 by the University of Pittsburgh Press. The book, an oral history of the flight of some 20,000 German Jews to Washington Heights in New York City during the Nazi era, draws on interviews with several dozen people. The interviews, some of which were used in Mr. Kirchheimer's movie of the same name, are reproduced in fuller form and edited and annotated by Ms. Kirchheimer, the Council's former editor. Jean Bethke Elshtain called the book "the story of a unique group of Americans who e way of life is here lovingly and lavishly recalled."
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Dinctors, 1998-99: ARJUN AI'PADlIRAI, University of Chicago; PAUL B. BALlES, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin (Chair); IRIS B. BERGER, Slate University of New York, Albany (Secretary); NANCY BIRDSAU., Inter-American Development Bank; ORvlU.ÂŁ GILBEIIT BRIM, Social Science Research Council; ALBEIIT FlSHLOW, Council on Foreign Relations; SUSAN FISKE, University of Massachusetts; EuzAsImf JEUN, University of Buenos Aires; SHIRLEY LINDENBAUM, Graduate Center, City University of New Yorlc; CORA B. MARRETT, University of Massachusetts; BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University; NEIL SMELSER, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; SIDNEY VERBA, Harvard University; KENNImf W. WACHTER, University of California, Berlceley; MICHELLE J. WHITE, University of Michigan (Treasurer). Officers and Staff: ORVIu.E GILBEIIT BRIM, Interim Pnsident; KRISTINE DAHLBERG, Chief Financial Officer; MARY BYRNE McDoNNELL, Executive Program Director; ELsA DIXLER, Editor; IlTY ABRAHAM, JOHN AMBLER, FRANK BALOWIN (Tokyo), BEVERLEE BRUCE, JOSH DEWrND, DIANE 01 MAURO, AMy FROST, INNA GALPERINA, ERIC HERSHBERG, RONALD KASSIM1R, LEILA KAzEMr, FRANK KEssEl., ROBEIIT LAllfAM, Eu.EN PEREcMAN, SHERI H. RANIS, JUDI11i B. SEDAI11S, PETER SlANTON, DAVID WEIMAN, JENNIFER WIN1llER, KEHroN W. WORCESlU.
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