Items Vol. 52 No. 4 (1998)

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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 52/ Number 4 / December 1998 •

The Social Science Research Council: 75 Years Young by Paul B. Baltes * The la t time the Council celebrated an anniver ary wa 25 year ago, on the occasion of it 50th birthday. Birthday of in titution are different from birthday of people, and the difference carrie important meaning. Beyond age 30 or 0, we as individual want to be younger, and thi de ire for youth increase with age. Be ide , the lifetime of individual ha definite limit ! When the e limits are reached, living longer become an exception to the rule. A vignette from hi tory illu trate the point. Clo e to 250 year ago, Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757) wa the permanent ecretary (secreta ire perpetuelle) of the French Academy. One day Fontenelle, who lived to the ripe age of 99, wa itting in the Academy together with a much younger colleague, a mere 89 year old. Thi friend turned to Fontenelle and a ked worriedly, "Why do you think we are getting 0 old? Could it be that the Almighty ha imply forgotten u , that God doe not know that we are till around?" Fontenelle, known for hi cynical humor and practical wi dom, whi pered, "Shhh, hhh, dear colleague, not o loud!"

• Paul B. Balte , a p ychologi t at the Max Planck In titute for Human Development in Berlin, ch irs the SSRC board of directors. Thi piece i adapted from a peech delivered at a ympo ium in honor of the SSRC's 75th anniversary on June II, 1998.

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The ituation i very different for in titution . Their live in a way are limitle ,thu they can be loud and clear where their age i concerned. The older, the better, ince longer tradition make for pre tige, health and influence. They tand on the houlder of many and the many reach acro generation . Regarding in titution , there i the potential of eternity. In thi en e, at age 75 the Council i young. That in titution can have a much longer life than individual i one of the rea on why in the end, the ocial and cultural i 0 powerful, perhap more 0 than the individual. A ide from the genome, in titution are the primary carrier of the fabric of the human condition and the dynamic of continuity and change. For a p ychologi t uch a my elf to reach uch in ight into the ignificance of the ocial-cultural-in titutional i perhap a rarity. That I am able to do 0 i due foremo t to my experience in the Council and it pirit of interdi ciplinarity. My a 0-

• CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE • The Social Science Research Council: 75 Years Young, Paul B. Ball~s The Social Science Research Council: Plu C;a Change. K~lIIon W. Worc~ Iu Public Intellectual : A View from Southeast A ia Loc ted Knowledge, Craig J. R~'nolds Que tion of Minoritie , Kasian T~japira Civil Society and Public


73 79 79 81

Space, Khoo Khoy Jin 82 TheP ibilitie of "Asian" Intellectual ,Nimraln PuruSholam 84 Tracking the Human Genome Project, Rayno Rapp, Deborah H~alh, Karen Su~ Tau ig 88 Current Activiti at the Council 92 Recent Council Publication 99 Award Offered in 1997 100 Grants Received by the Council in 1997-98 III


ciation with the Council ha helped me to think beyond the ingle-per on paradigm of main tream behavioral cience. The ritual of thi anniver ary require me ay a few word about the rai on d'etre of the Council. Four activitie hape the profile of the Council a ee and have experienced it.

Pure, Applied and Action Research Fir t, the founder of the Council placed its quarely at the inter ection of cience, ociety and ocial reform. Operationally, thi can be interpreted in variou way. One interpretation i that the Council ince it inception ha been and remain committed to joining the pure with the applied or action-oriented in ocial cience work. A ociated with thi empha i i an important function of encouraging communication between the ocial cience and the private and public ector. In thi pirit, the Council ha more than once been a meeting place of diver e mind and intere t group who from their re pective vantage point a pire to make the world a better place. Con equently, the Council i ubject to pull and pu he in alternative direction by the trend of fa hion in the academic world and by the ever-changing political i ue of the day, a well a tho e of other in titution that are in the bu ine of ocial analy i and ocial reform. It i not ea y to re pect the e often incompatible demand and at the arne time to pur ue a coherent program aimed at the advancement of the ocial cience and the public good. We a k our in titutional peer, upporter and takeholder to continue to help u in thi regard and to en ure that the condition of financial upport do not eparate u from the core of the ocial cience a it field develop. Only by continuing to attract the be t of academia to it work can the Council achieve it objective; that i , to explore how ocial cience-ba ed knowledge can be brought to bear on matter of public concern.

Methodological and theoretical innovations Throughout it hi tory, the Council ha made a econd topic part of it ignature profile: the frontier of methodological advance and ocial-science theory. Indeed the Council' record on that core i impreive, covering uch diver e topic a the role of math70\lTE.1

ematic in the ocial cience, method of urvey re earch, method of qualitative and hermeneutic analy i , ocial indicator and the role of ethic in the planning and conduct of re earch. At it 75th birthday, I urge the Council to continue it effort to be in the center of ocial- cience methodology and theory con truction. Currently, for intance, the Council i grappling with the challenge pre nted by modern technologie of genetic and neuro cience. Has the time come to inform the ocial cience better about h w a close collaboration between ocial cienti t and neuro cienti t might open new door toward under tanding uch i ue a the life cour e, aging, gender, ocial cla or education? Similarly, on the topic of genetic and gene technology, the ocial cience occa ionally appear to take a hand -off po ition. One rea on, from an international point of view, i that American di cu ion urrounding the genome-behavior- ociety interface are unfortunately completely locked into i ue of race. But the methodological and theoretical challenge i not limited to the intertwining of the life cience with the ocial cience. It al 0 involve eemingly oppo itional methodological and theoretical approache within the ocial cience. Think only of the negative dynamic urrounding current di cu ion of hermeneutic and decon truction. Rather than exploiting the opportunitie for humani t and empirici t to hed their re pective light on in titution and behavior, cholar have allowed deep canyon to open between them. Department are breaking up becau e the faculty wa not able to talk productively acro methodologie. At uch juncture , the Council ha a pecial r Ie. It long tanding tradition qualifie it to tran cend di ciplinary bia e and i olation. For in tance, many ocial cienti t think that the modern age of biology produce another hegemony, that of biological determini m. For the mo t part however, biologi t themelve do not believe that at all. On the contrary, during the la t decade biologi t and neuro cienti t have opened their mind more than ever to the powerful role of environmental, behavioral and ocial factor in gene expre ion. They are interactioni t to begin with. Yet many ocial cienti t believe the oppo ite, largely becau e they are underinformed and reluctant to engage them elve . Thu , the more we learn about the human genome. the more we need to have a good ocial cience in VOLUME

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place to promote the kind of tran di ciplinary collaboration that pell progre . The di course between the biological and the ocial-cultural i a dialectic, where the ocial cience are challenged more than ever. Biologi ts are naive when it come to the meaurement of the ocial and cultural. They need our experti e in mea uring behavior, in identifying method that permit quantification of the micro- and macroenvironments in which we human live. The are the kind of opportunitie that the Council eek out to fulfill it re pon ibility a one of the premier in titution in the making of the theory and methodology of the ocial cience. Interdisciplinarity

The third comer tone, and hi torically perhap the foundational one, in the profile of the SSRC i interdi ciplinarity. Keep in mind that the charter of the Council wa framed by collaboration among even cientific organization . When creating the Council, the organization recognized that the in titutional tructure of cience and cholar hip favor di ciplinarity. Yet problem in the world are not organized that way. Thi dynamic continue to provide a pecial opportunity for the Council. Let me u e my elf a an example. I wa trained a a p ychologi t and in my department, the primary goal was to how that, in que tion of human behavior, we p ychologi t knew be t. My experience in the Council opened my eye to alternative view , view that made me re peet colleague and their approache to the tudy of behavior and ociety in field uch a ociology, anthropology, economic , hi tory or political cience. For me, thi broadening of my mind and my intellectual ecology was a gift from the Council. Thi gift from the Council ha much worth, to individual and di cipline a well a in titution of higher learning. Univer itie , for in tance, benefit from the opportunitie that the Council offer regarding interdi ciplinary training and di course. The Council often ucceed in connecting cholar acro field and their boundarie in way that universitie are imply not de igned to do. I hope the Council will never depart from thi principle, the principle of linking di cipline , of generating networks among tho e who in their home in titution live the live of di ciplinary peciali t . And we need to focu in our D



effort in both direction -the link to the humanitie and the link to the behavioral cience. Note al 0 that thi effort applie to all level of training and experti e, graduate to po tgraduate, and to the retraining and nurturing of the elder in the academic community. A recently initiated Council program on the tructure and function of higher education i one example. Another i the initiative to trengthen the ocial- cience per pective in doctoral training of economi t . Internationality

The fourth cornerstone of the Council' architecture i internationality. A a community, American cienti t are underinformed about work out ide the United State, including Europe. Since it beginning, the SSRC ha contributed to overcoming thi limitation, and has brought to the United State the be t ocial cience that other countrie have to offer. At the ame time, the Council has played a major role in encouraging ocial cience in other parts of the world. Indeed, among the ucce torie of the Council are it international program in area tudie and in international comparative analy i . Originally, thi wa called "Foreign Area Training and Research." Hundred if not thou and of young cholar have been a i ted and encouraged by the Council in learning about other area of the world. The beneficiarie included not only the world of learning but al 0 the private and public ectors. Recently, in the wake of the Council' effort to reexamine it approach to area tudie, there ha been much di cu ion about whether the Council i weakening it inve tment in internationality. I do not believe that the Council' review and reformulation of it program in area tudie wa meant to reduce it commitment to internationality; on the contrary. Together with the American Council of Learned Societie , we have put in place a new organizational tructure of comparative and area tudie work that we believe i innovative and forward-looking. From my experience on the Board, I can unequivocally ay that weakening internationality wa not and i not part of the Council' agenda, neither under the former pre idency of David Featherman nor that of Kenneth Prewitt. The i ue wa a different one. In the tradition of the Council, we al 0 want to tay ahead of the game, lTEMsn1

to innovate and demon trate what evolutionary cienti t call adaptive fitne . A a Council, we are intere ted in exploiting thi world-wide empha i , not only for the public good and the cholar who work a area peciali t but al 0 for the di cipline at large and the more general advancement of the ocial cience . Non-area peciali ts, a omeone on the board recently remarked, would like a piece of the action. We need to recognize, therefore, that internationality it elf ha taken on new per pective . Not only of intere t to tho e who want to under tand pecific culture and localitie it ha become a way to live and do cience for practically all di cipline . In thi pirit, the Council i making an effort not to aboli h one of its prized program -that i , area tudie -but to enrich it, and in addition to entice additional cohort of cholar to engage themselve more fully in the pur uit of international dimen ion of re earch. Many on the Council' board believe that our portfolio of international activitie need to be expanded, and that a in the pa t the Council need to demon trate it facility to match organizational tructure to intellectual agenda . I believe thi dynamic i to be expected if one con ider the cope of the cientific organization that are the founders and intellectual power of the Council. A ide from


the American Hi torical, Economic and Anthropological ocietie, there are at lea t four other who have a take in the international agenda of the Council. Thi goal wa the rea on why the board decided to initiate a new y tern of committee tructure , and we are grateful to the foundation that upported u in thi exciting venture. The next year will how that the Council mean what it ay , that it reach regarding internationality will be enriched and extended, not curtailed. The Council fundamentally i a collective enterpri e. It i made by human for human . The be t divine intervention the Council expect , therefore, are love, upport, hard work and cooperation with our proven in titutional coalition and partner , invi ible a these might want to be. The community gathered here make me hopeful and optimi tic about the Council' chance for continued ucce . Unlike Bernard de Fontenelle, we a k God not to forget u o that we might continue to live, but you, the audience and the invi ible college of the Council, to be with u a we continue to expand the commitment and value of the SSRC in a changing world. While the general profile of the Council continue to tand, it method and ubject matter need to reflect and • prefigure the future.



The Social Science Research Council: Plus <;a Change by Kenton W. Worcester* The Social Science Research Council was one of a number of professional organizations established in the interwar period to nurture research and promote new forms of knowledge .• In the early months of 1923, a small group of ocial scientists, representing the American Political Science Association, the American Sociological Society, the American Economic Association and the American Hi torieal Association met informally to consider how they might assist scholars to secure funds for "field work and other special re earches"; to "carry on inquiries of a fundamental nature"; to make provision for "the publication of results of scientific research of a type that do not possess immediate commercial value"; and to convey the value of social cience "to the appropriate university authorities and to the general public.''2 The group was soon joined by representatives of the American Statistical As ociation, the American P ychological Association and the American Anthropological Association. Informal arrangements were found inadequate, and the Council was incorporated in late 1924, for reasons of convenience, in Illinois. What made the Council distinctive was its exclusive focu on "the advancement of re earch in the social sciences.") The founders of the SSRC-mo t notably University of Chicago political cienti t Charles E. Merriam; economist Wesley Clair Mitchell, director of research at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); and psychologist Beardsley Ruml, director of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial (LSRM)--envi ioned an organization that would place the highest priority on improving the quality of, and infrastructure for, social knowledge. The aim was not to propo e legi lation or other ameliorative measure , nor to repre ent the interests of any single discipline or faction. Merriam hoped instead that the new body would provide for a

• Kenton W. Worcester directs the International Dissertation Field Research Fellow hip Program. Mr. Worcester i at worlc on a hi tory of the SSRC since 1973; this article is adapted from the introduction. DEcEMBER


"more adequate organization of our technical research, and its coordination with other and clo ely allied fields of inquiry."4 It was understood that the committees making up the Council would focus on "the planning exercise," or what later became known as research planning. While training fellowships would enable individual scholars to undertake their own research projects, committees would guide and stimulate research in a given area, rather than complete an entire research program. Thu , the research planning proce s enabled committees to evaluate topics, marshal resources, identify obstacles and announce strategie for effective research. They were empowered, in other words, to exerci e intellectual and programmatic leadership. In pursuing a program of (e earch planning, the new organization could complement, rather than compete with, work undertaken within the research universities and academic discipline . As a medium of scholarly communication, the Council was destined to playa very different role from colleges and universities, disciplines and departments, and public policy think-tanks. Located at a remove from the bustle of campus life, the SSRC could offer its members a respite from entanglements with students, colleagues, dean , trustees and even taxpayers and state legislators. Committee members were encouraged to get on with the task at hand without paying attention to disciplinary boundarie , campus squabbles or ve ted interests. Over time, scholars identified with the Council were encouraged to think of them elves as part of an invi ible college of researchers and re earch planner . Membership implied an elevated professional status; as the first national social science institution in the world, the Council clarified the position of individual social scientists even as it strove to enhance the authority of the social sciences writ large. Four aspects of the Council's original conception merit special emphasis. First, the organization was premised on the assumption that social science was a collective enterprise requiring the combination of multiple perspectives. It was, in other words, an intrinsically interdisciplinary operation.s Rather than promising to deliver an all-purpose, all-encompassing social science, the Council was constructed as a platform on which scholars from diverse traditions could come together in a spirit of problem-solving intellectual cro s-fertilization. h~Msn3

Second the Council wa al 0 an intermediary organization. That i , it built up a thick layer of relationhip with di ciplinary a ociation, re earch center , government agencie private foundation , internationaJ bodie and other knowledge-ba ed organization . Tie with the re earch- upporting foundation were of particular ignificance. The foundation. provided money, of cour e, but their upport made it po ible for the Council to act a an intermediary between re earcher and re earch funding in the fir t place, given that the federal government wa n t prepared to put it weight behind a centraJ funding agency for the ociaJ cience. "Inter cience" relation were imilarly important. Linkage with the humanitie , via arrangement with the American Council of Learned Societie , proved e peciaJly durable, but the founder of the SSRC anticipated that the Council would interact with the phy ical, medical and biologicaJ cience a well. By th ame token, while the Council wa never intended to become a lobby for the ociaJ cience at the federal level, it re ponded from time to time to potentially important matter uch a the e tab Ii hment of the NationaJ Science Foundation in 1950. Third to take advantage of changing ocial condition and method of inve tigation, the Council wa de igned to be a ela tic a po ible. Even in it early day , the Council' re earch planning committee were expected to carry out their work for a limited pan of time- ay, five to even year -and for the arne rea on fellow hip program were kept going only a long a a per ua ive argument could be made for their continued effectivene . The etho of flexibility al 0 allowed committee to pin off new committee, ubcommittee and working group, ometime with overlapping member hip. At lea t a few ociaJ cienti t huttled back and forth among committee , governance bodie and working group a circum tance required. FinaJly, the Council wa conceived a a place where re earch could provide the foundation for a more rationaJ approach to the management of ociaJ problem . In part thi wa a que tion of "doing policy"-Council committee have overlapped with the policymaking proce on everaJ occa ion -but more generaJly the Council in i ted on the pragmatic value of ociaJ cience. From the tandpoint of Merriam and hi fellow "captain of intellect,"6 the



ocial cience could only addre reaJ-world concern by moving in a more data- en itive, empirical direction-and they could onJy become more cientific by evaluating their theorie and hypothe e in relation to genuine ociaJ problem . "What the SSRC ought to do,' explained David Featherman, "wa to u e contemporary ociaJ problem as a re earch laboratory. The laboratory would provide the te ting ground for theorie and hypothe e and in the cour e of doing 0, generate new knowledge about fundamental feature of human behavior and ocial in titution . The generated cientific kn wledge would provide the ba i in fact and in legitimacy for informed policymaking."7 Each of the e premi e -interdi ciplinarity, intercience relation , in titutionaJ flexibility and cientific advance in the greater intere t of ocietyreflected the Deweyean, Progre ive-era en ibility of a mall core of well-placed academic and philanthropi t who ought to go beyond the limitation of 'pre cientific" appr ache to knowledge-building in the ociaJ cience. Together the e organizing principle provided the ba i for a new kind of in titution, one that derived it legitimacy from the vitality of it network and program a much a from any particular intellectual product. If the apparent indirectne of the enterpri e ometime baffled outsiders, it made perfect en e to a gr up that aw it elf on the cu p of a qualitative tran formation in the coherence, relevance and cientificity of ociaJ knowledge. The impact of the 1920 generation went beyond the e deceptively imple premi e . For one thing Merriam, Mitchell and everaJ of their peer remained involved long after they ceded executive po ition to other. More important, line of communication that the fir t generation e tabli hed with funder , particularly the Rockefeller F undation (which incorporated the Laura Spelman Rockefeller MemoriaJ in 1929), the Carnegie Corporation, the Juliu Ro enwaJd E tate and the Ru ell Sage Foundation, provided the organization a olid footing right through the end of World War II. Merriam remained a member of the Council' Board of Director until hi retirement in 1948. Thi was the ame year that the board appointed a Harvard political cienti t, E. Pendleton Herring, a pre ident of SSRC. The inevitable a cen ion of a new generation of leader hip- ymbolized by





Herring' remarkable twenty-year pre idency (19481968)-coincided with the po twar "golden age" of higher education. The growth in re ource and human capital provided the Council with new opportunitie for advancing the tatu and reach of the ocial cience . At the arne time, a hi torian Thomas Bender ha argued, the "ocial cience eemed to hold pecial promi e for addre ing the challenge of the po twar era."s To take advantage of these new challenge and opportunitie , the Council in the early po twar period titched together a broad portfolio of program encompa ing methodology, area tudie, inter cience i ue, training and dome tic problem . While reearch method had alway been an important area for the Council, new initiative on hi torical tati tic, ociolingui tic, urvey re earch, econometric , mathematical training in the ocial cience and caling theory reflected the breadth of innovation that wa characteri tic of the period. In addition to producing book and report on approache to re earch methodology, Council committee pon ored training workhop and fellow hip program that introduced graduate tudent to the mo t up-to-date re earch method . Herring and other po twar Council leader firmly endor ed what ha been de cribed a "the new rigori m in the human cience The Council' agenda went beyond que tion of method and training. In the early 1950 , the Council launched a handful of committee with an area focu , including the Committee on Slavic and Ea t European Studie (1948-71) and the Committee on Near and Middle Ea t Studie (1951-59), that combined training activitie with a trong empha i on re earch planning. Starting in the late 1950 the Council began to collaborate with the American Council of Learned Societie in e tabli hing a network of jointly- pon ored area committee , mo t notably in the field of Latin America (1959-96), Near and Middle Ea t (1959-96), Contemporary China (195981), Japan (1967 -96) and African Studie (1960-96). It wa not until 1975 that the Council would organize a joint committee on We tern Europe, and the area committee on South and Sou thea t A ia were both con tituted the following year. A couple of the re earch planning committee became, by the tandard of academic life, famou . One of the mo t celebrated wa the Committee on



Comparative Politic (1954-72), chaired by Gabriel Almond. The committee "helped produce over 300 written report ... [it] pon ored 23 conference, co pon ored 6 other, [and] conducted 5 ummer work hop ,"10 and aI 0 generated an eight volume erie ("Studie in Political Development") that enjoyed an undeniable impact on the comparative tudy of developing area . Other prominent committee included the Committee on Economic Growth (1949-68), chaired by 1971 Nobel Prize-winner Simon Kuznets; the Committee on Economic Stability (1959-74); the Committee on Sociolingui tic (l96379); and the Committee on Genetic and Behavior (1961-66), which wa uperceded by the Committee on the Biological Ba e of Social Behavior (196679). Each wa a ociated with the publication of keynote text in their re pective field .11 The Committee on Political Behavior (1949-64) wa c10 ely a ociated with the o-called behavioral revolution that tran formed political cience and ociology re earch and teaching in the 1960 . Council committee incorporated the per pective of many di cipline but in thi period political cience, economic and p ychology were e pecially vital to the life of the in titution. One of the notable a pect of the Council wa it ability to draw on the talents and energie of di tingui hed cholar working in a variety of field . A David Sill ha ugge ted, the membership of po twar governance committee "read like a 'who' who' of the ocial cience ," and he cite uch vi ible po twar intellectual a Clifford Geertz, V.O. Key, Jr., Frank Knight, Gardner Lindzey, Frederick Mo teller, Neil Smel er, C. Vann Woodward and other .12 A can of committee ro ter and fellow hip recipient li t ay a great deal about the SSRC' capacity to enli t the upport of, and lend upport to, ucce ive group of leading ocial cienti ts. In 1945, for example, in an effort to make up for the training 10 t during the war year , the Council i ued Demobilization Award to uch future luminarie as Gabriel Almond, Jame McGregor Bum, Morri Janowitz and Paul Sweezy. All but Sweezy were later drafted onto Council committee . A decade later, Merle Curti, Robert Dahl, John Hope Franklin, Melville Her kovit , Henry Ki inger, Paul Lazarsfeld, Robert Merton, Lucian Pye and Thomas Schelling could all be found on SSRC committee . By 1970, orne of lTEMsn5

the better-known committee member included Norberto Bobbio, John K. Fairbank, Eugene Genove e, Samuel Huntington, Chalmer John on, Arthur Okun and Mar hall Shulman. Lurking behind the dynami m and increa ed international awarene of the ocial cience in the po twar period i the ine capable pre ence of the cold war. The pur uit of uperpower antagoni m played a critical, if often indirect and ometime conte ted, role in fueling univer ity growth, haping research priori tie galvanizing re earch center , building information y tern and defining the boundarie of acceptable cholar hip. Thi period ha recently come under clo er crutiny a cholar have inve tigated the connection among area tudie, campu re earch center , foreign policy imperative and grant-making in the ocial cience. Stanley Heginbotham' frank admi ion in the page of Item that "cold war goal ... motivated much of the private foundation grant-making in the arena of international cholar hip and educational exchange,"13 truck orne ob ervers a "too little, too late," while other in i ted that even early po twar program had been able to function without compromi ing their academic integrity.14 Each of the e development -the ex pan ion of higher education, the ratcheting up of pre ure to achieve cientific re ult and cold war agenda that imultaneou ly rendered the Coun il a complicit and potentially ubver ive organization (in 1954 the Council, Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation and Ru ell Sage Foundation were inve tigated by a Congre ional committee looking into allegation of, in Herring' word, "a con piracy to take over the control of public affair "IS)- haped the environment in which the Council operated from the 1940 to the 1960 . By the early 1970 however, the era of uninterrupted growth wa coming to a clo e. Confidence in the capacity of technically-a c mpli hed ocial cience to develop ound policy dimini hed a the lofty ideal of the 1950 and 1960 di olved into the deepening pe imi m of the 1970 . Above all, ocial cienti t were blamed by orne for the perceived failure of the dome tic program (and foreign policy) of the Kennedy and John on admini tration . Meanwhile, greater attention wa paid to the i ue of re earch funding it elf. A mall but revealing epi ode took place in 1973, when the Army In titute for Behavioral and Social Science approached the



Committee on Work and Personality in the Middle Year about the po ibility of upporting re earch on military career . While the Committee wa inclined to apply for funding, everal other committee were critical of the idea. Although Program and Policy (P&P), the principal policymaking component of the governance apparatu , re olved that Army In titute upport would be acceptable, provided that • the acceptance of uch fund would involve no pecial reporting or other pecial condition reque ted by the grantor," the Army In titute quietly re cinded it invitation. A year later, P&P returned to the broader debate over funding ource and re olved that "neither governmental nor any other grant for re earch that i cia ified or imilarly re tricted may be accepted by the Council under any circum tance .' 17 Another di cu ion at the governance level that reflected the changing tenor of the time concerned the demographic make-up of the Council' network and taff. The board mandated that the pre ident deliver an annual report to P&P on the compo ition of Council committee . In the fir t report, in 1972, Acting Pre ident Ralph Tyler noted that, out of a total of 202 committee member, 9 (4.5%) were cia ified a African-American, 5 (2.4%) were female, 6 (2.5~) were A ian-American, 9 (4.5%) were ba ed at n nU.S. in titution and 12 (5.9~) were under 40. 1 The Board further re olved in 1973 that the organization "develop guideline for the taffing of committee which take into con ideration the range of talent, ingenuity, experience and ability in the ocial cience community, e peciaJly with reference to race, ex, age, ethnicity, and foreign tatu ."19 By the end of the 1970 , many more women were active member of committee than had been the ca e at the tart of the decade. In the academic year 1979-80, for example, out of a total of 411 committee and ubcommittee member , 81 were women, or ju t under twenty per cent of the total. And in 1995-96, out of 376 committee and ubcommittee member , 126 were women, or approximately one-third of the total. Change in the in titutional environment may have been a ignificant a the e demographic hift. In the 1920 , and even in the 1950 , very few in titution were in the arne bu ine a the Council. By the 1970 thi wa no longer the ca e. A proliferation of think tank , re earch center, cholarly a ociation , ad hoc committee and 0 on inter ected with


52. NUMBER 4

the Council' area of intere t and in orne ca e began to move onto the turf of research planning. Federal agencie , notably the National Science Foundation, began to play more of a leadership role in certain areas of the ocial cience. It was for thi rea on that Nobel Prize winner Herbert Simon, who served on Council governance committee from 1958 until 1971, raised the que tion of whether there was till a compelling raison d'etre for the Council when he tepped down from the organization' board of directors. 20 It i at lea t arguable that the Council' identity a a forum for cholarly communication and exchange wa to orne mea ure eroded a well as complicated by change in the re earch environment. Change taking place within the Council in the early 1970 al 0 under cored the ense that the organization was entering a moment of tran ition. Fir t, the organization 10 t three key taff member : Elbridge Sibley retired in 1970, after joining the taff on a temporary basi in 1944; Bryce Wood retired in 1973, after serving as taff a ociate for 23 years; and Eleanor I bell retired in 1975 after 37 year on taff, including 27 a editor of Items. At the ame time, several of the Council' mo t influential re earch planning committee, uch as the Committee on Comparative Politic , which had been taffed by Wood, were either winding down or had been di olved by the early 1970 . Second, finding a pre ident who could command the re pect of committee ,funder and taff proved more complicated than expected, and tho e who did were not alway inclined to ettle into the job. After Pendleton Herring tepped down, Henry Riecken, a p ychologi t who had erved under Herring as vice pre ident, and who had been the program director for the ocial and behavioral cience at the National Science Foundation, a umed the pre idency. Riecken re igned in 1971 and wa followed by Acting Pre ident Ralph Tyler, the founding director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science . Eleanor Sheldon, an empirical ociologi t at the Ru ell Sage Foundation with a trong background in the field of ocial indicators, became pre ident in the fall of 1972, and left even years later. Her ucce or was Kenneth Prewitt (1979-85), a University of Chicago political cienti t who was former director of the National Opinion Re earch Center. Franci Sutton, one of the architect of the




Ford Foundation' po twar International Program, served as interim pre ident for a little over a year (1985-86), and wa followed first by Frederic Wakeman, a hi torian of modern China at the University of California, Berkeley (1986-89) and then by David Featherman, a ociologi t at the University of Wi con in, Madi on pecializing in human development (1989-95). After erving at the Rockefeller Foundation a enior vice pre ident for ten year , Kenneth Prewitt returned to the SSRC for a econd tenure a pre ident in 1995. He re igned in October 1998 to direct the US Cen u Bureau, and ocial p ychologi t Orville Gilbert Brim, a former pre ident of the Ru ell Sage Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development, tepped in a interim pre ident. It i a di tingui hed group, and highly indicative of the organization' broad intellectual agenda, but it may be a ked whether the po t-Herring leadership dynamic was optimal. Third, the board was reorganized in 1975, 0 that the di ciplinary as ociation de ignated one repre entative rather than three, a change which reduced expen e and accorded at-large member a greater voice in Council affair , but which al 0 100 ened tie between the Council and the a ociation. Finally, in the early 1970 the Council merged the Foreign Area Fellow hip Program (FAFP) into the joint international program. The FAFP had been founded in the early 1950 , with funding provided by the Ford Foundation. Starting in 1962, ACLS and SSRC hared re pon ibility for appointing committee member , but the fellow hip themselve were admini tered by an independent office with everal full-time taff. The merger of FAFP provided the joint international program with greater control over a budget of over $2 million for fellow hip upport on world area , and allowed the area committee to link their re earch planning agenda to regionally-tailored program of fellow hip upport. A it turned out, a merger on thi cale required that the Council move office ,reinvent taff role and reorganize it international program. A a re ult of the FAFP-Council merger, the area committee acquired a renewed sen e of purpo e a well a greater weight in ide the organization. Thi would have important repercu ion further down the road. In the 1970 and beyond the Council faced the familiar challenge of devi ing innovative re earch


trategie , preparing training agenda , attracting and retaining funder upport and m bilizing and repleni. hing cholarly network . But it al 0 confronted a larger project, that of rea erting and redefining it elf in the context of a tran formed intellectual, cultural and in titutional en ironment. De pite the e change , the ability of the Council to prom te re earch agenda and build re earch infra tructure would reflect the core principle articulated by the interwar generati n and refined in the po twar era. •

13 lanley J. H ginbotham. "R Ihinking Intern.llional cool rship: The Chall ng ofTran IIi n from the old War Era." Items 4 • n .. 2-3 (Jun - pi mber 1994): 34. 14 An hi lorian flhe Cold War


ot I Eltampl includ Ih Am rican Coun il of Learned oci lie. (1919). the American Law In lilule (1923). lhe In. Ii lUI ion (1927). lhe oun il on Foreign R lalion (1921). Ihe In lilule for Advan d ludy (1930) and Ih Ii nal Bureau of Ec nomic Research (1920).

2" Decad f Coun il Hi I ry." 77r~ ocllli Sden ~ R~ ~art'h COllncil: O~c~nnial R~port. 1923-33 ( R . 1933). p. I.

3 Elbridg Y~a,


ibley. Social S RC. 1973). p. 2.


nc~ RI' art'h COllncil: Th~ Firsl Fifl)

4 Quoted in Barry D. Karl . Clrar/~ E. M~"iam and Ih SlIIdy of Polilic ( niversily of Chica 0 Pre . 1974). p. 107. al Dorothy Ro . TIll' Origin of American ocial cienc~ (Cambrid e niversuy Pre • 1991). ch p. 10. 5 A David ill ha pointed OUI. Ihe \liord "interdi iplinary" did not elti I in lhe early 192 and il I I. veral years for holan. 10 coin a term 10 d ribe aClivilie Ihal "combin d the method and per..pecliv of lhe difli renl di ipline." David L. ill. "A ot on lhe Ori in of ' Interdi iplinary...• II~n 40. no. I (M h 19 6): 17. 6 The phra i t I.en from Thor..! in Vi bl n. TIr Higher Learnillg ill Am rica (191 ). 7 David Fealherman." RC. Th n and ow: Commentary on Recenl Hi lorical Analy i ." II~'/IS 4 • no. I (March 1994): 15. 8 Thoma Bender. "Polilic • Intell I. and the merican niver..ily." in American Academic Cllllllrt' ill Troll {onnalion: Fifl)' Y~ars. FOllr Oi ciplilll' ed. Thoma B nder and arl E. ch k (Prin el n Universily Pre • 1998). p. 31. 9 arl E. coo l.e.·The ew Rlgori m in Ihe Human cienc 1940-1960." in Bender nd cho k . p. 309. 10 Lucian W. Py ." Ellro~ ed. Char

W. t rn

II E ample

upplied in I

12 David L. ill. " Requi m for P P." II m 50. no. 4 (December 1996): 95.

7 \IT 1


20 Leuer from H rben . imon 10 lhe RC B rd of Direclors. cited in Commiuee on Program and Poli y Minute . March 21-22.1975. RA • Acce ion I. ri 9. Box 364. Folder 2145.


52. NUMBER 4

Public Intellectuals: A View from Southeast Asia The following exchange i drawn from di cu ion that took place at a work hop pon ored by the Social Science Re earch Council Regional Advi ory Panel (RAP) for Sou thea t A ia. Like other international panel at the Council, the Sou thea t A ia RAP ha been debating a term much in vogue all over the world today-civil ociety. The theme of the workhop, "Hi tory, Civil Society and Social Change: Public Intellectual in Contemporary Southea t A ia," emerged from an effort to under tand the growth of civil ociety in that region through an exploration of public intellectual -here defined a individual articulating and repre enting novel political pre ent and future -even a it challenge the validity and utility of tho e term in a etting far from that in which they originated. The work hop had four theme : hi torie of public intellectual , public intellectual and power, que tion of minoritie and globalization. Participant, orne of them well-known public intellectual ,came from acro the region. While orne of the debate referenced in the e article are pecific to the region, many theme will re onate with concern in other part of the world a well. Participant were (alphabetically) Leonard Andaya, Univer ity of Hawaii; Chua Beng Huat, National Univer ity of Singapore; Ariel Heryanto, National Univer ity of Singapore; Jomo K. S., Universiti Malaya; Khoo Khay Jin, independent cholar, Sarawak; Tin Maung Maung Than, In titute of Southea t A ian Studie , Singapore; Re il B. Mojare , San Carlo Publication, Cebu City, Philippine ; Sek an Pra ertkul, Thammasat Univer ity, Bangkok; Nirmala PuruShotam, National Univer ity of Singapore; Norani Othman, IKMAS, Univer iti Kebang aan Malay ia; Craig J. Reynold ,Au tralian National Univer ity, Canberra; Ru tam Sani, independent cholar, Kuala Lumpur; Kasian Tejapira, Thamma at University; Anna T ing, Univer ity of California, Santa Cruz; and Diana Wong, In titute of Southeast A ian Studie ,Singapore. Itty Abraham i program director of the Council' Southeast A ia program; Alana Ro enberg i program a i tant. They acknowledge the help of Mr. Foo Ah Hiang of Univer ity of Malaya. The work hop wa held on May 8-9, 1998. DECEMBER


Located Knowledges Craig J. Reynold The economic di location that have affected Southea t A ia ince the middle of 1997 were very much on everyone' mind when the Regional Advi ory Panel for Sou thea t A ia convened a work hop in Kuala Lumpur in early May 1998 on "public intellectual ." The cholar from Southea t A ia who participated in the work hop had all been involved in public di cu ion of the effect of the economic cri i on their ocietie . A if to under core where public intellectual put their prioritie ,invitee from the Philippine could not make the trip becau e of impending national election . And mo t pro pective participant from Indone ia declined becau e of the upheaval that would oon lead to the overthrow of the Suharto regime. In Southea t A ia, a everywhere el e in the world, globalization i both a ble sing and a cur e. On the one hand, it mean new kind of connection and form of organization, new network that can benefit the di enfranchi ed and the poor. New kind of nationali m are flowering; dia poric and indigenou people have more advocacy than ever before. The tran formative power of the globalizing proce can be immen ely appealing. On the other hand, capitali m reorganize itself at a blinding pace. DeregUlation, free trade policie and tran national market in labor, a well a commoditie and con umer good , are putting people out of work while trying to ell them thing they do not need. Both the marketing manager and the NGO worker alike have rea on to feti hize globalization and confer on it magic power. It i almo t a if globalization i expected to olve the problem of it own creation. One of the object of the work hop wa to hear public intellectual reflect on the pre ent moment in light of their own experience . What, for example, did public intellectual con ider to be their relationhip to power and how might they compare that relation hip in the pre ent globalizing epoch with earlier hi torical moment both colonial and po tcolonial? In the pa t, line may have been clearly drawn: for or


again t the colonial power; for or again t the bureaucratic or militari tic tate; for or again t ociali t or communi t ideal . But what about today, when intellectual have a more ambiguou , more nece arily complicit, relation hip to power? The privileged acce of orne public intellectual in the region to holder of tate power can give them a ignificant influence on public policie . I it then po ible to articulate an alternative view of ociety and remain a , public" intellectual? Becau e of thi complicity with power, one participant in Kuala Lumpur argued the era of public intellectual had come to an end. Another aid that the po ition of power and influence of a Sou thea t A ian public intellectual today ornetime blunted one' critical edge. Another aim of the work hop wa to problematize what "civil ociety" mean in different political culture in term of the ethnicized and gendered pace that are conte ted by writer , arti t , activi t and academic . The character of thi pace varie enormou ly acro the region. Singapore ha only two NGO ,pre freedom are greater in Thailand and the Philippine than in Vietnam and Cambodia, military regime till dominate in Myanmar and Indone ia (a of September) and 0 forth. De pite the e variation acro the region, participant from very different etting found plenty to di cu . One of the common feature wa ecurity law , framed in an earlier period to deal with in urgency, but u ed today to "manage' political di ent. It would be folly to try to reduce the complexitie and in pired digre ion of two day into a et of generalization . Three of the participant offer their own comment below. My own contribution to thi report-from the field, a it were-i to note the di crepancy between the kind of knowledge that public intellectual bring to bear on the problem they confront and what normally pa e for "re earched" knowledge in a We tern or We ternized educational culture. While almo t all the Southea t A ian participant had tudied in the We t and had thu e tabIi hed their reputation initially with foreign academic credential , the e two day of di cu ion were not about re earch plan ,methodologie and re ults. Rather, they were about the con traint and re traint on public di cu ion, the problem of negotiating media that could protect a well a ilence peech and the chaJlenge of confronting nationali t and other powerful di cour e . O\lTE


What i the character of thi knowledge and how i it deployed? I u ed to hear thi knowledge referred to a "engaged knowledge" which the knower would deploy polemically again t adver arie , particularly bureaucrat ,official and tate functionarie . One participant in Kuala Lumpur talked about "located knowledge ," which re onate with the new vocabulary of globalization. An example of located knowledge would be familiarity with a particular eco y tern in a ocio-cultural etting threatened by the force of official development. What i ometime caJled for in the e circum tance i not a "properly" drawn up re earch plan but technical know-how and data that challenge the pronouncement of government or multinational corporation . An official bureaucracy that under-reports the rate of HIV infection 0 as to maintain a teady flow of touri t need to be confronted with accurate number in the intere t of public health. Empirici m can till be a formidable weapon again t certain opponent . The other point that trike me about the character of the e located knowledge i how they are di eminated. In the eminar and conference I have attended in Southea t A ia I have been truck by how often the mo t important audience are out ide the wall of the eminar room. What to me eem , merely academic" may have immen e public ignificance. A e ion on early epigraphy, which at fir t eem arcane or antiquarian, i reported the following day in the national pre becau e it ugge t that new evidence radically alter the narrative of the nation' past. Moreover, what account for the public prominence of an i ue may be the per onal qualitie , peronal connection ,oratorical kill and flair for attracting headline that a public intellectual can bring to an i ue. Ma media i ignificant here. A TV interview i of more intere t to mo t people than a footnoted article in a pre tigiou , peer-reviewed international journal. For thi rea on one of the participant in Kuala Lumpur was adamant that the media wa ab olutely critical in the role and effectivene of public intellectual . I conclude with a que tion po ed by Arjun Appadurai in ''The Re earch Ethic and the Spirit of Internationali m" (Items 51 :4, Dec. 1997): "We might a k our elve what it mean to internationalize a re earch ethic which it elf ha a rather unu ual et of cultural diacritic ." Similarly, we might a k about the character of the located knowledge in variou part of VOLU 1E



the world that are to be the object of the internationalizing proce . I hazard the ob ervation that the international cholarly community may take "located knowledge ," which are not alway produced by a We tern academic re earch ethic, for granted and thu devalue them. But the que tion i whether thi re earch community will figure out how to "internationalize" its re earch ethic without riding rough hod over local knowledge , many of which are in language other than Engli h. While the work hop in Kuala Lumpur wa conducted in Engli h, perhap we hould have addre ed the que tion of tran lation and di emination acro the lingui tic divide 0 characteri tic of the region. It i in and acro the e other lingui tic world that located knowledge have their place.

Questions of Minorities by Kasian Tejapira "Que tion of Minoritie "i it If an intriguing title. To begin with one can a k, "minoritie " in relation to what? The obviou an wer i the "majority." But what kind of majority i involved here? Speaking from the Thai experience, I would argue that it i n t a majority of number . EthnicaJly peaking, the Thai have never been the majority in Thailand, in ab olute or relative term . According to a recent cholarly e timate, the ingle large t ethnic group in Thailand, totaling 31 % of the population, i in fact the Laotian in the country' northea tern region. Altogether the non-Thai actually outnumber the Thai in "Thai" -land. (See Charle F. Keye , Thailand: Buddhist Kingdom as Modem NationState, 1989, Table 1.2, p.16.) Therefore, a a matter of fact, we are talking about an imagined, invented or con tructed ' majority" with orne kind of ethno-ideological or political cultural content built into it. The 'minoritie " in que tion are 0 only in relation to a particular project of nation- tate building. A uch, the emergence of national minoritie preuppo e two thing . The ftf t i boundarie, both internal and external, by which a phy ical, natural pace i carved out and mapped a a definite national frame, a pa t i elected and interpreted a a national hi tory and a ubject icon tructed and narrated a the nation-people. The crucial moment here, with regard to the "minoritie ," i when the divide both DEC



internal and external to the nation- tate wa drawn, the proce being the political minoritization or political identification a minority in relation to a nationtate. And thi proce evolve over time, with the political divide being redrawn again and again as orne minoritie become co-opted and re-categorized a member of the "majority," while other remain excluded or perhap are reinvented as new' minoritie ," depending on political circum tance . The econd thing that national minoritization preuppo e i the ab tract equality of atomized individual citizen . Thi deep, politicaJly uncon ciou notion ha a lot to do with the idea of popular overeignty and democracy. One may think about thi along the following line : when people are held to be equal, then power come from number , i.e. greater number lead to greater power (for the majority) while Ie ser number lead to Ie r power (for the minoritie ). Thi kind of notion eem to inform the inferiority complex of being in a minority, or ' minority complex" 0 to peak, a if there were omething wrong with it and no way to e cape it. Contra t the calm and ea e, confidence and pride, with which traditional monarch wore the badge of being the minority of one! In thi context, one remember Benedict Ander on' quip that the European colonizer were "perhap the fir t minoritie in Southea t A ian hi tory ... by their own raci t doing" and "quite naturally the fir t to think in the e maj rity-minority term ." (See hi Introduction to Southea t Asian Tribal Group and Ethnic Minorities: Prospects for the Eighties and Be 'ond, proceeding of a conference co- pon ored by Cultural Survival Inc., and the Department of Anthropology, Harvard Univer ity.) The re t, ala ,i hi tory. There i al 0 a further problem re ulting from an ambiguou en e of equality according to which equality i taken to mean amene (Noberto Bobbio, Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction, 1996, p.xiii). To in i t on that equality re ult either in the brutal and unnatural negation and eradication of difference in the name of equal citizenhip and democracy, or in the con ervative rejection of egalitariani m per e a plain utopia. On the contrary, people hould be able to be both equal a well a different and a utopian ociety ought to be conceived a one in which people could be different without fear (Theodor Adorno, Minima Moralia, 1991, p.103). lTEMsI8l

Simply put, the que tion of minoritie ari e when the minoritie become di ati fied with the tory that the majority tell about them becau e it doe n't accord with their own lived experience . They want to tell their own torie. And in 0 doing, they end up undoing the old national tory of the majority and retelling a whole different tory. So, in a way, the 0called que tion of minoritie are actually the que tion of the majority and the nation it elf. The peculiar po it ion of public intellectual in the que tion of minoritie ha to do with their problematic, trouble orne, love-hate relation hip with their pre umed audience or con tituency under the name of "the people." For, in mo t ca e , public intellectual are the i olated and not-alway -under tandable intellectual minority within a minority. They can't live without the people who are the public con umer of their idea but neither can they live in peace with them. Public intellectual u ually have to argue with, cajole and criticize the public who don't alway heed their ugge tion , and more often than not di appoint and de ert them. So many public intellectual often feel hopele about and di dainful toward the people, and then feel uncon cionably guilty about it. The oppo ite, no Ie trouble orne, attitude i to hold to the cult of the people which regard it a the font of wi dom and final arbiter of all i ue, to whom the intellectual are unque tioningly bound to adhere. Thu characterized, one can ay that the public intellectual 'relation hip to the people i one in which they try to ell their rea oned argument to it, or try to buy it with their accumulated and borrowed cultural capital (read re ource for argumentation, ignification, communication and per ua ion available in ociety' cultural repertoire). Their capacity to win over the people eem to vary with (for want of a better term) the current, given tructure of pIau ibility or cultural opportunity tructure. Hence the pre ent financial and currency cri i in the region allow a critique of neo-Iiberal economic policy and capitali t globalization to ound much more convincing than during the period of the bubble economy. However, prior to the coming of that rare moment of cultural opportunity, what are public intellectual uppo ed to do, e pecially tho e who feel they owe their loyalty to a higher authority than the power or the people-that-be, namely the truth? Ba ed on the experience of Thai public intellectual , 1 w uld ay that they practice orne form and degree 2\1TEM

of elf-cen or hip, i.e. entering into a continual dialogue with the public in which they negotiate between the truth and their own truth-telling, until the day of truth dawn on them.

Civil Society and Public Spaces b Khoo Khay lin I recognize the fa hionable tatu of the term "civil ociety," it role in the di cour e of the international financial and development in titution and, it hould be added, that of a ignificant number of non-governmental organization (NGO) that have benefited from the "di covery" of civil ociety and governance. Neverthele ,the term ha a certain vaguene of content, and not ju t becau e of it varied meaning or of it tatu a a logan-phra e into which meaning can be poured. Rather, "civil ociety" ha , I think, come to acquire a tatu a emblem of the uniquene of the "We t' and of the "We tern" route to modernity-mo t evident in Erne t Gellner' Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and It Rival (I994)--even a a concerted attempt i being made to univer alize it. "Civil ociety" has been deployed to great effect buttre ing what i otherwi e old-~ hioned modernization theory. It would appear that what wa eemingly applauded in the World Bank' Ea t A ian Economic Miracle document was imultaneou Iy di counted by promotion of the twin notion of "civil ociety" and "governance"- omething made evident by how they have been called upon to do double duty in what might be aid to be the mo t wide pread explanation of the A ian economic cri i , i.e., that it i a con equence of" tati m." Given thi , it i perhap inevitable that de pite the attempt to problematize "civil ociety" and "public intellectual," there appear to be irre i tible Iippage toward the broad tandard view of "civil ociety" (an arena independent of and u ually tanding in oppo ition to the tate). From thi , it i but a light eli ion to a con ideration of "public intellectual "a independent per on articulating alternative vi ion and option , where "alternative" di olve into alternative to the vi ion and option of tho e holding tate power. (That aid, it neverthele appears that we cannot do without orne notion of "civil ociety" a a pace in which non- tate and non-corporate- in the narrow en e-in titution ,organization or individuVOLUME

52. NUMBER 4

al can operate and function with con iderable latitude. Of cour e it mu t be recognized that the tate and corporate in titution , local and global, are ever co-pre ent in that arne "civil ociety.") There i continual danger that the territory the tate encompa e come to define the territory of ociety, abetted by the tendency of intellectual who conceive of them elve a at the patiaV ociaVreligious/ethnic/political "center" to view "civil ociety," in whatever form they variou Iy under tand it, as ocio- patially co-exten ive with the "national ociety." (The exception might be intellectual who conceive of them elve in trictly regional, ethnic or religiou term pursuing a project of autonomy or eparation.) In addition, the ever-pre ent global dimen ion ri k being 10 t to view. In the ca e of "local" ( ub-national) intellectual ,the ituation i further compounded by the di Juncture and linkage between the local and the national, e pecially if that local i elf-viewed a backward and undeveloped. All thi ha alway been problematic, and not only in Southea t A ia. But it might be e pecially problematic in in tance of relatively new tate (compri ing not only diver e ethnicitie but al 0 diver e population of effectively di tinct ocial formation ) who e unitary founding myth have not quite gained a ufficiently amne ic hold on all part of the "nation, ' even a the coherence of the "nation" i continually de tabilized by current global economic force . Malay ia might be een a one uch in tance. However, to the extent that the pace for "civil ociety" i delimited by the tate or by what the tate i made to accept, then the conception actualized at the "center" do affect the re ource available to tho e in the margin . Thi i particularly 0 with re pect to pace for independent mobilization and action. Even then, the limit for tho e at the margin , irre pective of the conception holding way at the "center," are generally much more re trictedexcept through ubterfuge and indirection-than for tho e in the "main tream." Three concrete i ue draw together orne of the theme et out for the work hop. The fir t i that of dome tic violence, an in tance in which what wa apparently private ha been made public and placed within the purview of the tate. It repre ent one of the mo t ucce ful campaign by women' NGO in Malay ia, a ucce ignificantly deriving from the D



alliance forged between the e NGO and at lea t a few of the holder of tate power. It wa al 0 an in tance in which orne religiou view were effectively marginalized. It i a ignal fact of campaign pertaining to orne women' i ue that at lea tome dimen ion of the public-private divide are called into que tion, thu redefining what i public. Seen in thi light, it may not provide much in ight to inquire whether women have control of pecific public phere ; rather it may be a que tion of whether they are able to redefine what properly fall within the public phere. The latter may more properly reflect the power that women actually have. In contra t one may take the in tance of electoral campaigning, which i very much a public phere in which UMNO women have a very prominent role, or of voluntary charitable organization in which prominent women have prominent role . At the arne time, in ofar a the i ue amount to a redefinition of the public and the private they inevitably mu t draw in the tate, the major in titution that give recognition to what i properly public. It i not 0 much a que tion of an ambivalent relation hip to power a one of getting power to re pond and to act in way con onant with the objective and view of non- tate, non-corporate organization . But it wa never ju t a que tion of the public-private. A noted, the i ue of dome tic violence had a religiou dimen ion. Thi religiou dimen ion wa equally public, pecifically an interpretation of a pecific injunction apparently permitting legitimate force to be u ed again t "recalcitrant" wive . Thu , there were two view of what wa properly public. In contra t, a recent i ue, while generating much debate largely in Mu lim circle, ha re ulted in making public (a in tate public) what wa previou Iy a religiou public concern. I refer to the propo ed anti-apo ta y bill. While orne egment of Mu lim opinion would apparently prefer that the que tion of apo ta y be privatized, it i in tead going to be taken fully into the public phere at lea t in 0far a Mu lim are concerned. While the propo ed bill obviou ly ha no application to non-Mu lim , it has implication for all to the extent that it re hape the tenor of national ociety. The econd i that of international campaign , whether over United Nation Conference on ITEMs! 3

Environment and Development, the World Trade Organization or more recently the Multilateral Agreement on Inve tment (MAl) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) deal . Here there i indeed an ambivalent and ambiguou relation hip to power in ofar a the tate ha a hared nationali t agenda with the NGO and their intellectual . It i multiply ambivalent becau e the GO are (a) cognizant of the role of economic power in getting a voice in international forum, (b) imultaneou Iy concerned with the nature and direction of national development and (c) cognizant of the power of governmental voice in the North while (d) concerned over domination by the North whether government or corporate. Thu , in the A ian economic cri i and the con equent IMF deal , more careful NGO and their intellectual repre entative have found them elve walking a tightrope, joining with the government in critici m of international financial flow and eeking their regulation critical of the government for policie which they ee a having led to the cri i -culminating in orne of them providing te timony to the US Congre and allying with orne of the mo t outpoken voice of the "Wa hington Con en u 'in an attempt to deny the IMF the I billion being reque ted from the US. A ociated with thi ha been the GO campaign again t the MAl which, reportedly, repre ent the fir t ucce ful u e of the internet. A Malay ia-ba ed GO, the Third World Network, ha been credited with a primary role in the ucce ful conduct of thi campaign. In ofar a locally-ba ed NGO have poken with a broadly imilar voice a the government of the day with re pect to global economic and environmental i ue, they have not only been tolerated but indeed gi en orne mea ure of prominence in con ultation and even in the media. Simultaneou Iy, tho e iew which are omewhat at odd with officialdom are idelined. Finally, where there ha been no uch ambivalent relation hip to power, the ability of movement to make their voice heard within the national, a contra ted to the international, arena ha been greatly circum cribed. We can ee thi in relation to environmental campaign , e pecially where uch campaign have involved local marginal population . In uch in tance , it i more often than not the ca e that by virtue of lingui tic and other divide , the "public \IT


intellectual" who may emerge have largely been tho e at the "center." Without wi hing to devalue the effort that have been put into uch campaign , it i doubtful to what extent thi repre ent an imaginative re-mapping of the nation and to what extent an "exoticization" of tho e at the margin , whereby tho e who tand in an ambiguou relation hip to the blandi hment of "modernity" oppo ed to their own hi torie and identitie are often dropped from con ideration. I would be the fir t to acknowledge that uch a bald characterization i an exaggeration and, m t important, pay in ufficient attention to the re triction of the tate. Still, it erve to bring out the fact that ociety (whether civil or uncivil) i not unitary, even Ie 0 hi tory, compounded by the fact that orne live in marginal ocial formation . In uch a context, the linkage of a common cau e of oppo ition often belie the difference in objective .

The Po ibilities of "Asian" Intellectual b Nirmala PuruShotam The que tion before u i, how do we who would call our elve 'intellectual" do our work uch that pace are opened up through which the i1ent and the i1enced are repre ented. In thi re pect, there are two main problem . Fir t, the pace that are opened up pertain to the work that I do in the production of knowledge, and hence di cour e by which particular ocial realitie become both under tandable and productive. In thi re pect, intellectual occupy certain ite which give them a greater po ibility to peak (or be heard) than the average citizen. Here the intellectual ha the re pon ibility, or claim to have the re pon ibility, to peak for the i1enced and the ilent. Second and more crucially, the intelle tual ha the re pon ibility to participate in the creation of pace by which other, "normally" deemed not to have the authority to peak, are given confidence in their own voice . Here the intellectual mu t be willing to allow for the 10 of hi or her experti e: ideally, the i1ent and the i1enced find their voice ufficiently 0 that they peak for them elve , rather than be poken for by the intellectual. Underlying the e two concern i the problem of the appropriatene of the language in which the VOLUME




intellectual mu t peak today. In the main, we are alway to be mindful that we pre ent our Ive decolonized mind . Thi di tinction of decolonization i mo t ea ily claimed when we make tatement with a con ciou attention to our "A ian" identity and tatu . The eductivene of the' A ian" identity i under tandable. To be po tcolonial, after all, i to talk back to the empire and rea ert what wa denied u in that hi tori cal time. Thi rea ertion involve the elevation of that which et u apart from the We t; that by which our voice were ilenced becau e we were not of the We t. Corre pondingly, the very proce by which we come to bear the qualification of an "intellectual" involve orne important connection to an evaluati n through which we are alway open to be caught out a "not A ian enough" or wor e, ' not A ian at alL" Yet to accept the identity i to accept the paradigm of race, one of the mo t ba ic principle of the colonial mode of cla ifying the world. I hould add that many who attach thi identification with "A ian' would boldly tate that they de-race the label. That i , their particular u e of the identification i devoid of e entiali m. Hence it i not a racial identification but a political one, a mean by which we can recognize and make tatement again t the colonial and the neocolonial. Thi context by which we have become "A ian" intellectual ha been managed and con tructed both in term of a larger hi tory involving u as ubject of a received knowledge informing u who we are, a well a the more immediate hi tory of u a member of particular nation. In both in tance we are caught within the di cur ive realitie of particular cla intere t . But cla intere t are hidden, and, additionally, difficult to extricate becau e they have been wedded to what con titute our A ian-ne . The primary area of my concern, in thi re pect, i with the claim that democracy, and by implication and explication, civil ociety, mu t be ubject to A ianizing. Nowhere i thi more powerfully argued than in Chua Beng Huat' Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore (1995). In contra t to hi optimi tic rendering, I ee in "A ian democracy" the device by which ongoing managed ver ion of democracy and civil ociety are legitimately contrained. Limit can "rightfully" be placed upon civil ociety, and hence too on the intellectual. Indeed, the intellectual ha before him/her a tailor-



made excu e for the ilence that slhe participate in reproducing. Thu my que tion: given A ian democracy, how are intellectual to make repre entation of the ilent and the ilenced? "A ian" democracie that limit political freedom for individual citizen in the name of the greater good do 0 by claiming there i an e sential difference between We t and Ea t. Thi difference uppo edly re t upon a divide between the individual and the family and community. Thu , the "We t" i perceived an "individuali tic" ociety; while the "Ea t" i read a e entially communitarian in it ocial arrangement and concern . Thi i of cour e a rather impli tic reading of the world, which I hall not go into here. However what i ignificant i that uch a reading legitimize limitation on the right of citizen . Thu the individual citizen become cognizant that hi or her claim to right mu t not compromi e the intere t of the larger community of which he or he i a part. The individual citizen' rights, including the work of intellectual, are framed by hi or her member hip in an "A ian" community. Thi "A ian" it elf involve a complex, alway ongoing number of configuration . Yet it claim to be ba ed on an e ential characterization that i uppo edly reflective of our "true" tradition. One of the mo t crucial in titutional form that the claim to being "A ian" carrie i the reference to our member hip in a particular, patriarchal form of the family. Thi 'normal family" i based upon a hierarchy of membe ,at the apex of which i a male head of hou ehold. Thi pyramidal image of the normal family, together with the familial role it pre ent , particularly with re pect t the , father," ha more often than not been u ed a a primary mean of depicting even elected ruler of the modern tate. In the la t in tance, "father know be t" and father will make deci ion ba ed on hi uperior under tanding. He will have all the fact . The authority of the government' po ition in Southe t A ia i ba ed on thi claim. It i notable that while the concept of "founding father" i n t original to thi part of the world, the "founding father " in thi part of the world are not tho e of a di tant pa t, but of fairly recent colonial hi tory. At time , they are figure that are till with u . Thi include the identity of real political figure , who e authority to conte t for tate power i located in the identitie of their father . ITEM


The claim of fatherly or paternali tic authority i augmented further by the proce by which certain kind of information are not available for the average citizen; they are "cia ified." In a democracy that claim "the normal A ian family" a it metaphor, the claim that orne information mu t nece arily be cia ified become a mean to a Iimitle end. Who decide what information i cia ified? How long mu t uch information be cia ified? Why i it nece ary for that particular information to be cia ified? There i no pace to table thi proce of cia ification; to open it up for di cu ion.With time, more and more information become cia ified without public di cu ion or crutiny. I hould tre that cia ified information i not, nce again, pecific to the Sou thea t A ian ituation. The point i that the proce of cia ification i it elf highly cia ified. The cia ification i ue i not open to que tion either before, during or after information i rendered unavailable to all but a pri i1eged few. The e privileged few may include the intellectual who can how them elve to be expert n pertinent i ue. Thi in tum i tied to that intellectual' public pre ence; the ocial recognition and di tinction accorded to himlher a the expert. Intellectual activity require acce to information and knowledge. But information and knowledge in the "A ian democracy" are not open to ju t anyone. Additionally, the clo ure of ource of information become a continually available mean to reject a di enting po ition a not being ba ed on enough "fact " and hence limited and weak: • they" don't know what "we" know. Another a pect of thi problem i that the official ver i n of knowledge often involve urrunarizing the complexity of ocial reality into neatly ordered tati tical information. The number that a re earcher ha acce to thu reduce hi or her ignificant voice. More crucially, if the re earcher peak via the voice of tho e s/he repreent , that repre entation can be di mi ed a "anecdotal." Summarily, "they" will alway know more-including that "m re" that i particularly ignificant. • CIa ified information" i alway in exce of what i available to a perceivably di enting intellectual, who would not be tru ted with the information. To become ocially relevant, an intellectual mu t be able to di eminate the alternative way of thinking that herlhi work can create/enable. Indeed, the 6\lTEM

more public her or hi di emination become , the more recognized her or hi "expertise" on the ubject; and hence her or hi ability to be an effective intellectual. There are at lea t two crucial kind of public pace that an A ian intellectual need to acce : ftf t, conventionally recognized public pace, particularly tho e involving rna media expo ure; and econd, privatized public pace, the clo ed door pace where one enters into di cu ion with politically powerful expert ,i.e., tate and government official . In these cret pace you can be given "facts" that others are not privy to. Hence the intellectual can be in the know and yet not have the right to di pense thi received knowledge. In thi re peet, uch a pace give an intellectual a particular di tinction which, effectively, can be u ed to win himlher over and give himlher the legitimacy to make tatement without having to fully clarify them. How can and/or what doe it take for an intellectual to enter the e pace ? Girded by the fear of falling, which include both a iege mentality and a concern for the nati n, fear of repri al , fear of 10 ing what ha already been gained or given (or will be given if we behave our elve ), i the en e that there are limit to what an intellectual can po ibly accompli h in an A ian democracy. Law back the e limit , for example, the definition of what con titute a " ubver ive" document: "any document or publication" that i "calculated or likely to ... promote feeling of ho tility between different race or cia e of the population." Clearly thi allow for the wide t po ible interpretation. In any ca e, political intere t are often conjoined with i ue of race and cia they emanate preci ely becau e there i a perceived difference that i read a generally unequal, if not ppre ively or exploitively o. In urn, the intellectual' public relevance i "public" becau e s/he locate her elflhim elf in given pace and ite of authority. But a the pre tige and influence that follow from being a public intellectual increa e, they can and have taken orne intellectual further and further away from the ground from whence they fir t poke. Additionally, it legitimize that growing di tance becau e they now know more and more about that which i ecret or private-including the per onal relation hip and hence true character of individual in power. The A ianizing of public di cour e by intellectual thu place them in a seriou bind. If di cour e i to VOLUME

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be truly about un- ilencing the ilent and the ilenced, then the trapping of what con titute the normal limits-derived from a pecifically A ian reading of the body, the body ocial and the body politic-mu t be open to examination and reinterpretation. Thi hould bring the intellectual face to face with hi or her own raced and gendered identitie ,hi or her own u e of 'A ia" to claim a po tcoloniality that i used as a mantle of correctne . It bring to mind the tatement that "all men are created equal" at a time when .. wa not by any mean a generic reference. Likewise "A ian" a the hyphen before the intellectual i a dangerou myth; a notion of ourselve that, paradoxically, i the di gui e of a colonial mode of orientation. An alternative trategy mu t involve u going to the ground, where the ordinary people are, and getting them to peak with reference to their own en e of what i relevant and from actual life experience: 0 that there i grounded data from which to • begin our work.

Social Science Research Council President The Board of Directors invite nomination and application for the po ition of pre ident of the New York City-b ed Social Science Re earch Council, effective July I, 1999. The Social Science Re earch Council i an independent, not-forprofit organization compo ed of ocial and behavioral cienti ts and humani ts from allover the world. Founded in 1923, the SSRC erve a a re ource for ocial cience cholar hip working dome tically and internationally to e tabli h intellectual bridge among the academy, foundation , the academic di cipline , government and the public. Nongovernmental and interdi ciplinary, the Council maintain a flexible portfolio of two to three dozen national and international program of ocial cience re earch and human capital development. A mall profe ional taff manage these projects, which rely on hundred of cholars and re earchers erving on a voluntary basi . Project personnel are drawn from universitie , re earch in titution and nongovernmental organization worldwide and are organized into teering committee , research networks, creening panel and working group . The pre ident i the chief admini trative and executive officer of the Council, re pon ible for developing a broad portfolio of program ,directing the profe ional taff, en uring the fi cal health of the in titution and repre enting the Council and the ocial cience to cholarly communi tie , foundation , governmental and international agencie and the public in the US and abroad. The pre ident of the Council hould be: • a di tingui hed cholar knowledgeable about the ocial and behavioral cience and connected to network of cholars and re earchers in the US and abroad • committed to advancing theory, re earch and application in the ocial cience • committed to building a Council for cholars everywhere in the world who a pire toward international re earch and trengthening the ocial cience in their re pective region • an accompli hed leader of cientific program with a proven record of developing and managing the program • people and finance of academic units, re earch in titute ,foundation or public policy in titute • capable of working in partnership with a wide variety of individual and in titution acro the intellectual, foundation, governmental and nongovernmental sectors • per onally flexible and comfortable with the promotion of intellectual, programmatic and demographic diversity throughout the tructure of the Council Review of application and nomination will begin immediately. Completed application , including a letter of intere t and a vita, hould be ubmitted by January I, 1999. Please end all inquirie to:

Presidential Search Committee, Chair Social ience Research Council 810 Seventh Avenue, 31 t Floor ew York, .Y. 10019 Fax: 212-377-2727 e-mail: search@ The Social Science Research Council is all equal opportunity employer. Applicant need not be US citizen .





Tracking the Human Genome Project by Rayna Rapp, Deborah Heath, Karen Sue Taussig * In 1988, when the con trover y about Congre ional funding for mapping the entire human genome wa heating up, Jame Wat on-the renowned co-di coverer of the tructure of DNA and the Project mo t vi ible and influential cienti t-encountered a tough que tion at a pre conference. A reporter opined that eugenic ca t a hadow over the genome project and a ked what Wat on intended to do about it. Seemingly pontaneou Iy, Wat on immediately replied that 3-5~ of the (hefty) annual budget would be devoted to ocial impact tudie . From uch origin tale are Reque t for Propo al born! What Wat on propo e ,Congre di po e , and every year ince 1990 the Human Genome Project' budget ha contained an allocation for ocial impact tudie . The range of i ue that fall under the umbrella of" ocial impact' travel under the acronym ELSI- Ethical, Social and Legal Implication . Not everyone i overjoyed by thi di po ition of government monie ; critic variou Iy denounce the ELSI funding tructure a window dre ing or too little, too late. Moreover, orne legi lat r ho tile to ELSI ha e a ked, "Why do you need all thi money? Who care what juri prudence cholars and philo opher have to ay, let' get on with the work.' In re pon e to one uch critic, Wat on replied that for better or for wor e, the cat wa out of the bag, and the public wa quite concerned. The needling Senator continued, "OK, 0 the cat' out of the bag, but do you have to put the cat on TV?" And the cat certainly i on TV. When I tarted tracking media coverage of genetic i ue more than a decade ago while conducting re earch on amniocente i torie were few and far between. Now,

\IT 1

hardly a day or week goe by without genetic torie appearing in The New York TIme ,Newsweek or TV' evening new . Public intere t and knowledge about thi project ha certainly become much more wide pread. National opinion urvey now query attitude toward prenatal genetic diagno e and in urance-related di crimination again t tho e who e inherited predi po ition may make them u ceptible to certain workplace condition . The ELSI Program i admini tered by the National Human Genome Re earch In titute, a branch of the National In titute of Health. It ha funded almo t $40 million worth of re earch ince 1990. The ELSI portfolio ha four funding priority area . They are: (1) privacy and fair u e (how can genetic in~ rmation be t be u ed while protecting individual and familie from it abu e?), (2) clinical integration (how will new genetic knowledge be applied in patient-centered medicine?), (3) re earch i ue (once the genome ha been mapped what pre ing re earch que tion will follow?) and 4) education (how are America' many public to be informed of the benefit and burden of new genetic knowledge?). Tho e public include not only key educator at every level, but the country' phy ician , mo t of whom report a tunning lack of under tanding of the genetic te t they are increa ingly ordering for their patient. From the beginning, the lion' hare of ELSI budget ha con i tently gone into clinical integration re earch aimed at operationalizing advance in genetic while taking enduring ethical dilemma into account. Clinical integration ha averaged a 48% hare of the budget over the fir t even year . Funding ha al 0 covered the project of bioethici t and philo opher ; primary, ec ndary and higher education planner and analy t ; legal cholar and their fellow traveler working on intellectual property right , patent right and the protection of privacy. ELSI grant have been awarded for tudying the public impact of the new cience journali m and for inve tigating the u e of the internet for haring genetic -ba ed information. Into thi volatile mix, ocial cience and humanitie cholar have tepped rather gingerly. realizing how little mo t of u undertand about the theoretical foundation and practical activitie on which contemporary molecular biology (or any of the other up-and-coming-ologie ) re t .


52, N 1BER 4

Yet method developed within and acro the ocial cience may provide u eful, even innovative framework for under tanding the ocial con equence of rapidly evolving cientific world view and practice. Here, we report on an ELSI-funded anthropological project aimed at mapping new genetic knowledge among three con tituencie : re earch cienti t , clinician phy ician and patient living with the di ea e and di order that have become the object of genomic inve tigation. We believe that participant ob ervation (or "deep hanging out") enforce and enable tho e of u who practice it eriou Iy to engage the native -in thi ca e, the cience native - right at the center of their belief y tern and practical activitie . We hadow cienti t in laboratorie , collaborative project , profe ional meeting , on the web and in corridor talk, trying to de cribe and interpret how their fact -inthe-making are produced and how they travel. We watch and li ten a clinicians diagno e and treat rare condition that run in familie . We attend meeting of upport group and voluntary health organization , learning h w the knowledge gleaned from living with a genetic c ndition i put into ocial action. In our three-year tudy, we have developed re earch trategie that are both national and 1 cal, working acro the three con tituencie of molecular genetici t doing the ba ic mapping and biomedical re earch; clinician-phy ician , who are in a po ition to traffic in that kn wledge; and patient upport group , of which there are over 200 in thi country, 100 ely connected in the Alliance for Genetic Support Gr up . We are particularly intere ted in the recent proliferation of uch upport gr up for familie and individual coping with chronic phy ical difference and di order that have a hereditary ba i . How doe communication (and mi communication) occur among the e three con tituencie ? Who e knowledge travel in which network ? How do clinician and re earcher (who are, of cour e, often the arne people) under tand what their patient population under tand de ire and need from new genetic knowledge? How doe patient knowledge enter into re earch agenda ? Genetic knowledge i generated in many venue ; how do the e location inter ect and influence one another? The genome i ,of cour e, a va t re earch pace;



we focu on one mall portion of it. Our project track three connective ti. ue di order that have been the ite of recent and dramatic reoearch activitie. . Connective ti sue include cartilage, . kin and bone; all are u ceptible to genetic change with re ultant con equence for individual health and ocial well-being. Moreover, a mall range of genetic variation generate a large range of human variability and a ociated pathogene i and a va t range of differential expre ivity, which mean that people may have relatively mild or evere expre ion of the arne condition. From a mall et of genetic alteration that can be grouped into a neat et of cientific problem. , an enormou range of individual and ocial difference develop . The particular condition which we follow are the chondrody pIa ia. (or dwarfing condition ), Marfan yndrome (alleged to have affected Abraham Lincoln and re pon ible for eriou cardiova cular and keletal di order) and EB (epidermoly i bullo a, a family of bli tering kin di. ea e ). They are linked through variou national organization although member of each group may have little or no knowledge of their connection to one an ther. The new knowledge we are tracking aloha implication. for our working relation a anthropologi t . In undertaking thi re earch, we have con tituted our elve a a cience team; that i , we're learning to act like the people we're hadowing. What better way to do participant ob ervation than to form a ocial grid like the one through which cienti t organize them elve.? Our project include three co-inve tigator. (PI ), three graduate tudent re earch a i tant and three tape tran criber , whom we might think of a. our lab technician . We are e pecially plea ed to have in i ted on thi cienceteam model for it involve three-year funding for a group of . tudent, omething which i unu. ually hard to provide in the ocial cience but i de rigeur in the life ience where we c nduct our re earch. We argued trenuou ly for the need to train a new generation of anthrop logi t to tudy the cience by having them participate in the work that produce cientific knowledge. We and our re earch a. i tant therefore pend time in laboratorie and on the internet, a well a in more conventional field locations like clinic and home . We are a likely to find urelve at fundrai er to benefit voluntary genetic


health organization a in laboratorie ob erving how genetici t interact with a dizzying array of veterinarian and mice, orthopedi t , biochemi t , medical engineer , ob tetrician , ophthamalogi t and pediatrician . We operate on two coast , in four citie , with five in titutional affiliation ; much of our communication take place on the net where we are endIe ly con tructing a web ite into which to pour and hare our data. Like the cienti t we are tracking, we're engaged in a collective endeavor in which the data belong to the project, not individual inve tigator . CIa ically, US anthropologi t "go to the field" a individual ; even when we collaborate, we often bring our individual data to the collective project. Here, we tackle problem none of u can inve tigate on our own. We author collaborative publication , help re earch a i tant to organize e ion at profe ional meeting and learn to u elide pre entation with bullet that index conclu ion (rather than the exqui itely rambling narrative much beloved by anthropologi t and hi tori an ) when we present our work to ientific audience . Genre witching i part of experiential learning. Our field work ite are diver e; ome are repetitive but ephemeral. We have attended national and local meeting of Little Pe pIe of America, National Marfan Foundation and DEBRA (Dy trophic Epidermoly i Bullo a Re earch A ociation) in Georgia, California and North Carolina; ob erved cienti t at work in laboratorie in Oregon, California Ma achu ett and New York; interviewed people living with the condition that we are tracking in the tate in which we re pectively live. The impact of thi work on u a participant i highly vi ual and kine ic, a well. At the LPA, for example, the PI had to regi ter a "average tatured" although our taJle t member i 5' 4.5" tall. In convention hotel temporarily given over to more than a thouand hort- tatured member, we learned to u e hotel regi tration counter on elevated plat~ rm and hairdryer dropped much clo er to floor level. At the National Marfan Foundation, we craned our neck upward and learned about tall humor. At each of the e national convention , which are u uaJly held in the ummer, lay people, cienti t and clinician whom we are tudying come together. Recent experimental and clinical finding are preented in work hop ; clinician committed to erving the organization' member often offer pro bono 9O\ITEM

con ultation ,e peciaJly valuable for tho e living far from major re earch center ; re earcher al 0 recruit participant for their tudie ; activi t olicit new member and renewed commitment from old one ; expo ition di play product of pecial intere t to particular bodily-defined con tituency. A den e and complex matrix of exchange i thu continuou . So i intere t in and controver y about what we have come to think of a "oft eugenic ," notably in the field of prenatal diagno i where, once a gene for a condition i found, the po ibilitie for amniocentei or pre-implantation diagno i open up. Eugenic fear are mo t clearly expre ed among LPA member and their biomedical upporter. In 1994, for example, when the gene that cau e achondropla ia wa cloned T- hirt appeared at national meeting proclaiming dwarf to be an "endangered pecie " indexing the profound di crimination Little People face. Genetici t clo e to the organization run informational work hop on the Human Genome Project; they participate not only a cienti t but a individual concerned about the co t and benefit of prenatal te ting. Genetici tlob tetrician conduct workshop concerned with reproductive health among hort- tatured people; their goal i to make pregnancie afer, not to prevent them for thi group. Moreover, prenatal te ting a it i currently practiced almo t alway involve a reproductive couple who are both hort- tatured. For tho e with achondroplaia there i a one-in-four chance of conceiving a fetu that inherit thi dominant condition from both parent . Double dominance i inevitably fatal; thu dwarf may eek prenatal diagno i ,de pite the wide pread fear in thi community that the general public will u e te ting to eliminate dwarf fetu e . A controver ial techn logy hold different meaning when u ed in ide and out ide the community. The very notion of "community" i ,of cour e, al 0 differential. People with dwarfing condition have a lengthy ocial hi tory a repre ented in folk tale , Baroque art, circu e ,movie and theater. They can and do conte t the ignificance to acquiring genetic information. But Marfan yndrome, characterized by French pediatrician Antoine Marfan in 1896 can be life-threatening; aggre ive medical intervention ince the 1970 have added two decade to the average life pan of tho e with the yndrome. They are therefore likely to be extremely receptive to genetic diagno i and the circulation of VOLU 1E





genetic information. Being medicalized ha had dramatic benefit for people with Marfan. Likewise, familie in which member have EB live under continuou medical urveillance. Becau e the condition i 0 overwhelming, the controver ial world of gene therapy eems to offer the mo t hope, de pite the failure of all gene therapie to date. Thu , what contitute a "genetic ucce tory" varie dramatically with the condition and the ocial circulation of information, a piration and practical knowledge. And genetic torie aren't the only torie to which we are attentive. The people and group from whom we are learning are diver e not only in light of their location vi -a-vi genetic di ea e. They al 0 live out the complex ocial relation of gender, generation, ocial cla ,racial-ethnic identitie political opinion and cultural re ource that currently tructure all our live . We are learning to ituate their torie in a much larger framework that include attention to kin hip, work and community relation . Learning our way around thi new territory take time, and a commitment to new language and technique . We are often Ie killed at these ta k than many bright undergraduate biology major. But a antbropologi ts we have a willingne to go back to quare one, in the hope of learning "from the native 'point of view," or, in thi case, multiple point of view. Our method leave u urfing the internet for the online mou genome, observing fundrai ing art auction for genetic di ease organization and in chat room of people with Marfan di cu ing drug pre cription . It al 0 make u acutely aware that many national genetic organization are di proportionately white in their member hip and leader hip; that lab per onnel are highly international in their origin and training; and that the national voluntary health organization, where we're watching a ignificant tran formation in the way people think about them elve and their political aspiration for inclu ion, largely run on female labor. Who i participating in the genomic exerci ,who i po itioned to truly conduct re earch or to truly give informed conent, who benefit and who i burdened (of cour e tho e outcome are often imultaneou) by new genetic knowledge i in large me ure al 0 a contruct of much older form of ocial differentiation and tratification of which we need alway be aware. In 1993, during the hearing on propo ed




national health care reform ,member of the ELSI Working Group (who were not allowed to lobby a member of a government-funded entity) joined a individual with a wide range of health advocate in a coalition called People With Gene . Their effort were directed toward pon oring legi lation that would cover genetic di ease and outlaw genetic di crimination while raj ing national awarene of the importance of genetic i ue. We are, of cour e, all people with gene . Here, we argue that we are al 0 all people in ide of cience. Science ha an enormou and rapidly expanding pre ence in our ocial and political life, cultural repre entation and daily per onal experience . And we are located differentially in relation to it benefit and burden . A thi brief re earch report ugge t , it i worthwhile to turn our con iderable collective mind and method toward enhanced under tanding of the many way in which cience can and hould be under tood. The tool of the ocial cience can urely help u to gra p the many powerful way in which cience a • culture play out in ocial life.

ugg tions for furth r reading: My opening and clo ing torie are borrowed from (Jueng t 1996). Introduction to the Human Genome Project particularly u eful to ociaJ cienti t in Iud (Ann and Eli 1992) and (Kevle and Hood I992a). Introdu tion to the anthropology of cience literature can be found in (Downey and Dumit 1998) and (Franklin 1995). Annas, George and Sherman Elias, ed . J992. Gelle Mapping: U ing Law and Ethic a Guides. New York: Oxford University Pre . Downey, Gary Lee and Jo eph Dumit, ed . J998. Cyborgs and Citadel : Anthropological Interventions in Emerging Science alld Technologies. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Studie Pre . Franklin, Sarah. 1995." cience as Culture, Culture of Science." Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 163-184. Jueng t, Eric T. 1996." elf-Critical Federal Science? The Ethic Experiment within th U.S. Human Genome Project." Social Philo oph and Policy 13 (2): 63-95. Kevle , Daniel and Leroy Hood, ed . 1992a. The Code of Code : Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project. Cambridge: Harvard Univer ity Pre .


Current Activities at the Council ew tafT Appointment John Ambler joined the Council profe ional taff in mid-October. For the ne t year, Mr. Ambler will be devel ping the Council' Ea t A. ian program.: trengthening tie and network. in China, Korea and Taiwan; developing Ea t A ia RAP activitie ; and managing the Vietnam Project. Mr. Ambler wa m . t recently the Ford Foundation' repre. entative for Vietnam and Thailand, ba ed in Hanoi. He ha al 0 been the foundation . deputy repre 'entative in ew Delhi and . erved a a program officer in Jakarta. Mr. Ambler received the Ph.D. in Rural Sociology fr m Cornell Univer ity.

Program in Applied Economics ummer Worksbop The Pr gram in Applied Ec n mic (PAE) held it fir t Summer Work hop at the Airlie Center in Warrenton, Virginia fr m Augu t 3 to 8, 199 . Through a national competiti n, the program elected 34 fir tand econd-year econ mic Ph.D. tudent from US univer. itie (ee the li t of tudent participant . on pp. 106-07) to attend the work hop. Led by a di tingui hed "faculty" of cholar and poli ymakers, eminar. addre. sed three of the mo t complex and pre . ing i ue on the ec nomic. re earch and policy agenda: th . pread of curren y and finan ial cri e in A ia, the cau e of and cure ~ r increa ing econ mic in quality, and the limit to regu-

92\1n.. 1

lation and deregulation in network indu trie . Member of the PAE Steering Committee and the SSRC taff, along with a repre entative from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, al 0 di cu ed the goal and opportunitie of the program and the foundation' other inve tment in ec nomic . The eminar and informal di cu ion encouraged tudent to apply their core training in econ mic the ry and econ metric method to the e vital que tion , but al expo ed them to approache not covered in the tandard curriculum. reach topic tudent were introduced to theoretical innovation ("thirdgeneration" model of currency cri e , the theory of ocial interaction and model of network externalitie ), c mparative and hi toncal per pective (on international financial fl w , income inequality and vertical integrati n and deregulation) and policy debate (on regulating international financial flow , improving the plight of un killed worker and the role of antitru t law). In mall discu i n group they analyzed the backgr und reading and eminar presentation and prepared que ti n for the roundtable di cu ion that concluded ea h e i n. Student were invited to apply for mall grant to upport individual or collaborative re earch motivated by the i ue di cu ed in the work hop. They were al 0 tr ngly enc uraged to apply ~ r the 1999-2000 Fellowhip in Applied con mic ,

which will upport third-year Ph.D. tudent to acquire the nece ' ary training or experience for their di ertation re earch. The 1999 Summer W rk h p will be held at the Airlie Center fr m Augu t 2 to Augu t 7, 1999.

International Predi ertation Fellow bip Program Fellow 'Conference and Regional Worksbop The purpo e of the International Predi ertation Fellowhip Program and therefore of the fellow ' conference and regi nal work h p i to prepare tudent ~ r career in re earch on the de el ping world that will begin with the di ertati n re earch pr ~ect but not end there. Thu our goal at the. e events i to help tudent think not only about their di ertati n re earch but al 0 about their long-term career and the reearch that they will go on to d The conference and w rk h p. provide an opportunity ~ r tu-



52. Nu



dent to reflect on the trength a well a the limitation of their own di cipline , to con ider the way in which re earch method and per pective of ocial cienti t in other di cipline might be of value to them and to broaden the cope of their thinking-with regard both to their methodological option a ocial cienti t and to what they con ider good re earch. The gathering provide an environment of collegiality and mutual upport in which they can harpen their re earch de ign kill and become more elf-con ciou about the choice they make in their re earch.

Fellows' Conference On October 8- I 1, 1998, the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program (IPFP) held it annual fellow 'conference in Scott dale, Arizona. A group of 23 current and former IPFP fellow and nine faculty met to di cu theoretical and methodological concern at i ue in the conduct of re earch in the developing world. Roughly one-third of the conference wa devoted to plenary e ion on re earch de ign and method of data collection. David Collier of the Univer ity of California, Berkeley di cu ed method of trengthening reearch de ign, and he and other faculty offered "true confe ion " about their own re earch experience . Mitchell Selig on of the Univer ity of Pitt burgh gave a pre entation on the u e of mall-N urvey data; Robert Vitali of Clark Univer ity spoke about approache to archival re earch; and Albert Park, a


former IPFP fellow who i now an a i tant profe or at the Univer ity of Michigan, gave a pre entation on the u e of cen u data in re earch. In addition to the e method -focu ed e ion, Thongchai Winichakul of the Univer ity of Wi con in, Madi on gave a talk entitled "Native Privilege, Native Blindne : Local In/ en itivity and Local Go ip Behind Foreign Re earcher ." Mo t of the conference coni ted of mall group di cu ion of each fellow' preliminary thought about a re earch project in the developing world. Fellow each prepared 8-10 page Statement of Re earch Goal which were di tributed to all participant everal week prior to the conference 0 that they could prepare thoughtful feedback. Each fellow' tatement wa di cu ed by the mall group for one full hour. Di cu ion empha ized adequacy of methodologie in addre ing a given theoretical i ue, adequacy of attention to i ue of contexten itivity and problem of data collection, analy i and interpretation. Conference faculty moderated the mall work hop group and participated in informal di cu ion. Fellow were invited to organize impromptu di cu ion during meal and free time on topic of their choice-from the practical to the methodological to the theoretical. Thi year uch di cu ion topic included: "doing re earch on/with children," "academic publi hing," "ethic in field re earch" and "problem of returning from the

field." Student and faculty al 0 met for informal di cu ion by di cipline and region.

Regional Workshops In the pring and ummer of 1998, the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program (IPFP) held work hop in Peru, Malay ia and South Africa a part of it continuing erie entitled ' Conducting Social Science Re earch in the Developing World." The work hop in thi erie are de igned to bring a mall, multidi ciplinary group of IPFP fellow together with graduate tudent in the developing world to engage in critical di cu ion about the de ign of ocial cience re earch and to e tabli h contact with local cholar . Student typically pend mo t of the three- or four-day workhop in di cu ion of the perceived trength and weakne e of each other' preliminary plan for re earch. Topic vary, but the di cu ion converge on the adequacy of methodologie in addre ing a given theoretical i ue; adequacy of attention to i ue of context- en itivity; problem of data collection, analy i and interpretation. Work hop agenda typically include one-on-one meeting between each of the tudent and a local cholar with imilar re earch intere t . Lima, Peru (April 20-23, 1998)

Thi work hop wa held in cooperation with Red Para el De arrollo de la Ciencia Sociale en el Peru and wa co-


chaired by Gonza)o Portocarrero and Carlos Ivan Degregori, both of la Red. The five IPFP fellow who participated in the work hop were re iding in Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Guatemala; the five local participant were all affiliated with la Red. Together they con idered topics such a the relation hip ?etween ocioeconomic inequalIty and democracy, identity among gay youth in Lima and the problem and control of corruption in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Participants also met with faculty at the University San Marco and vi ited the San Juan quatter ettlement and pre-Hi panic ruin at Pachacamac.

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (May 31-June 5, 1998) Univer ity of Malaya profe or Jomo Sundaram and Hazim Shah, of the Department of Economic and the Faculty of Sciences respectively, were the co-chair o~ thi ~ork hop, held in cooperatlon With the Univer ity of Ma!aya .. ~FP fellows pur uing their tratntng program in Indone ia, Malaysia and Thailand met with students from the Univer ity of Malaya, the Univer iti Kebang aan Malaysia, Cambridge Univer ity and the MARA Institute of Technology to discu topic such as the relation hip between environmental and demographic change; tran local identity, community and citizenhip in Indonesia; and trategi used by politically marginalized group to attain acce s to the policymaking proce . The workhop agenda al 0 included a vi it to the Universiti Kebang aan


~alaysia and individual meetings with local cholars at the Univerity of Malaya.

Johannesburg, South Africa (June 21-26, 1998) This work hop was held in cooperation with the Social Science Research and Development Forum and was co-chaired by Reno i Mokate, director of the In titute for Recon truction and Development at the University of Pretoria, and Bernard Magubane, profe or emeritus of the University of Connecticut. South African tudent from the University of the North, the Univerity of the North We t, the University of Fort Hare, the University of Cape Town and the University of Pretoria joined SSRC fellow residing in Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe for discu ions of topic uch as the ANC leaderhip in exile, di course and power in multilingual courtroom and identity among Rwandan and Burundian women and child refugee in Tanzanian camp . Other h~ghlights of the workshop agenda tncluded a pre entation by Ibbo Mandaza of the South African Regional In titute for Policy Studie , vi its to both the Human Science Re earch Council and the Council for Scientific and Indu trial Re earch and an excursion to Soweto.

Bio-Behavioral-Social Perspectives on Health On October 5, 1998 a mall group of scholar from everal di ciplines convened at the SSRC

to lay the foundations for a recently-funded initiative at the intersection of the social, behavioral and biological sciences. The Working Group on Bio-Behavioral-Social Perspectives on H~th represents a new partnerhlp among the Council, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National In titutes of Health (NIH) and the National Opinion Re earch Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago (with assistance provided by the National Institute of Aging). The goal of the two-year project is to help fo ter creative interdi ciplinary research on health. Through y tematic and comparative tudy of everal paradigmatic case of collaborative, integrative research, the working group will document both the processes of discovery and noteworthy findings in uch cases. The discussions at this meeting focused on four planning tas.ks: First, harpening and deepentng the working group's analytic framework and thus the i ue and que tions that will guide the project inquiry; second, making final decisions on the case- tudy domains (agingllong~~ity and biodemography; cognttlve-affective neuro cience路 behavioral cardiology; and ' AlDSIHIVlinfectious disease, among others, were given close consideration); third, locating the be t representatives and analy ts for each domain; and finally, pelling out how the material will be produced, integrated and distributed. Based on the e di cussions SSRC and OBSSR staff are producing a detailed plan of


52, NUMBER 4

activitie for the working group, to begin early in 1999.

cial ob ervation atellite preparation.

Panicipant : Nonnan Anderson (OBSSR), Orville Gilbert Brim (S RC). John Cacioppo (Ohio t te University), Virginia Cain (OBSSR), Richard David n (University of Wi on in), Frank Ke I (S RC), hirley Lind nbaum (Gradu t Center, City Univerity of New York), Jay 01 han ky (University of Chicago), Patricia Ro nfield (Carnegie Corporation), Neil chneidennan (University of Miami), Richard (NIA), Linda Waite ( ORC). (TIle I Uer two participated by peaker-phone.)

Organizer: Gregg Herken, Smithsoni n In titution, National Air and Space Mu urn. Panicipants: John Baker, George W: hington Univer ity Space Policy In titute; Li Bin, Union of Concerned cienti IS; Mark Brender, pace Imaging Corporation; Avner Cohen, US In tiMe of Pe e; Mark Goodman, US Anns Control and Di arm ment Agency; Brian Gordon, Direct Infonnation Acce Corporation; Li beth Gronlund, Union of Concerned cienti ts; Vipin Gupta, Sandia Laboratory; Richard Leghorn, Itek Corporation; Karen Litfin, George Washington Univer ity Space Policy In titute; teven Living ton, George Vol hington University pace Policy In titute; Richard McConnick, US Air Force, pace Plan and Policy; Janne Nolan, Twenti th Century Fund; Kevin O'Connell, RAND Corporation; Gordon Oehl r, Potomac In titut for Policy tudi ; William toney, Mitretek Sy terns; Ray William n, George Vol hington University Space Policy In titute; and P ter Zimmennan, Zimmennan As

International Peace and Security Re earch Workshops The Committee on International Peace and Security ponored everal re earch workhop during 1998. De cription follow in rever e chronological order. "Doe Ethnic Conflict Exi t? Globalization and Proce e of Identity and Violence" wa held at Cornell Univer ity on May 30-June I, 1998. Participant gathered to develop a more ynthetic and critical approach to the i ue of conflict and peace building and their localglobal dimen ion . Organiz.ers: Darini Raj ingham, International Centre for Ethnic tudie, ri Lanka; and Chip Gagnon, Ith ca College and Com II University. Participants: Martijn van Beek, Aarhu University, Denmark; Ronnie Lipschutz., University of California, anta Cruz; tefan Senders, Cornell University; Greta Uehling, University of Michigan; Mari Hadjipavlou-Trigeorgi , Columbia University and University of Cypru .

"Secret No More: The Security Implication of Global Tran parency" wa held at the National Air and Space Mu eum in Wa hington, DC on May 21-22, 1998. An edited volume on the ecurity implication of commer-





"Idea , Culture, and Political Analy i "wa held at the Center for International Studie , Princeton Univer ity on May 15-16, 1998. Thi work hop brought together cholar of comparative politic and international relation a well a ociologi t working on idea and culture from a variety of viewpoint . A planned edited volume will et out the ba ic premi e of an ideationall cultural approach to politic and provide concrete guideline for carrying out re earch in a wide variety of empirical etting. Organizers: Kathleen MacNamara, Princeton Unive ity; Sheri Benn n. Princeton University; and Michael Doyle, Princeton University. Panicipants: Mark Blyth, John Hopkin University; Con uelo Cruz, Columbia University; Frank Dobbin, Princeton University; Martha Finnemore, George Washington University; eil Rig tein, University of California, Berkeley; Peter Hall, Harvard University; Judith Gold tein, Stanford University; John Kurt Jacob n, University of Chicago; Robert Jervi ,Columbia University; Peter Katzen tein; Cornell University; J ffrey Legro, University of Virginia; arah M ndel n; tate University of New York, Albany; Daniel Philpott, University of

California, nta Barbara; Thomas Ri , University of Kon tanz; Anna eleny, Princeton University; Kathryn ikkink, University of Minn Ola; Jack nyder; Columbia University; and v n teinmo, University of Colorado, Boulder.

"Democracy, the U e of Force and Global Social Change" was held at Univer ity of Minne ota on May 1-2, 1998. Participant gathered to di cu and rethink the foundation of the democratic peace debate in order to expand the range of theoretical work and empirical data con idered relevant to que tion of democracy and war. Plan for an edited volume are moving forward and everal of the work hop paper will be publi hed in a pecial i ue of Global Security, a Briti h interdi ciplinary journal of international relation , in January 2000. Organizers: Tarak Barkawi, King' College London; and Mark Laffey, Kent tate University. Panicipants: David Blaney, M cal ter Coli ge; Bruce Cuming , Northw tern University; Keith Krau ,Graduate In titute of International tudi ,Geneva; Mark Rupert, Syracu University; Martin Shaw, University of Su x; and Juua Weld Kent State University.

"Civil Society, Democratization and the Remaking of Wartom Societie "wa held at Emory Univer ity School of Law on March 29-30, 1998. Democracy/civil ociety trategie for building peace in war-tom countrie pre ent variou conceptual and operational problem . Participant examined the tran formative nature of uch trategie ,their ucce e and contradiction on the ground, and debated their long-term implication for meaningful ocial and political peace. Organizer: Julie M nu , Emory Univ rsity. Panicipant : Abdull hi An-Na'i m, Emory University; Alexander Co ty, University of Toronto; Dorinda Dallmayer, University of


Georgi ; Ry n Farl y, Emory Unive ity; Lolli Fein, Emory University; Juliu lhonvbere, Ford Found tion; Richard J ph, Emory Univ rsity; Mohammed-Mahmoud Mohamedou, Ralph Bunche In titute on the UN; Roula MajdaJ ni, ESCWA, Leb non; Joyce New, Carter Cent r; Robert Pa tor, Cart r Center; Margaret Popkin, Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Center for Human Righ therine Scott, Agne Scott College; tev n heinberg, Emory Unive ity; George hepherd, Emory Unive ity; Beth tephen; Johan Van der Vyver, Emory Univ ity; Ttbor Varady, Emory Univ ity; and uzanne Wem r, Emory University.

"Regionali m and Globalization: The Impact of External Actor on Vietnam' Development" wa held from March 2130, 1998 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participant di cu ed the impact of the US and China on change within Vietname e ociety; Ea t A ia and the external globalized financial impact on Vietnam; ASEAN' influence on Vietnam; and the impact of US -Vietname relation on Vietnam' development proce . Organizer: Dan We ner, University of Denver. Participants: George Demartino, Univ rsity of Denv r; Ilene Grabel, Univ I"l>ity of Denv r; Harry Harding, George W hington Unive ity; Lynellyn Long, Popul tion Council, Vi In m; Julie Mertu , Emory University; guyen Manh Hung, In titute for Int mation I Rei tion , Vietn m; Pham Doon Nam, In titute of Intemati n I Relati n , Vietnam; Tran Trong Toan, In titute of Intern tional Relati n , Vietnam; and Pet r Van , University of Denver nd Au tralian Nati n I Univ rsity.

Industrial Upgrading There i wide pread awarene of the importance of indu trial upgrading for effort to u tain economic growth and improve living tandard. Communitie and firm that fail to impr ve their productive capacitie are unlikely to pro per. Yet for ocial cienti t , con tructing a theory of indu trial upgrading pre ent intriguing challenge , for upgrad-


ing i not merely a technical puzzle but a fundamentally ocial and political proce . A November 2-4, 1998 workhop at the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva brought together more than a dozen peciali t from A ia, the Americas and Europe with hared intere ts both in the mechanic of upgrading and with the development of empirically te table theorie . Co- pon ored by the SSRC and the International In titute for Labour Studie (IlLS) at the ILO, in collaboration with the United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) the work hop was convened a part of continuing effort by SSRC' Collaborative Re earch Network on Globalization, Local In titution and Development to advance re earch on indu trial upgrading. The work hop' rlf t ion were devoted to a review of competing approache to conceptualizing upgrading and analyzing the ocial and economic linkage that make it po ible in different etting . Sub equent e ion focu ed on key actor and in titution , and on the diverse i ue that ari e in di tinctive regional and ectoral contexts. Panel were al 0 devoted to the employment implication of different trategie for promoting indu trial upgrading and the challenge of linking analytical advance to policy initiative in which everal participant are involved. Follow-up meeting involving re earcher and in titution are planned for everal world region . The organizer al 0 hope to convene a conference at which revi ed version of everal paper

pre nted at Geneva, along with a number of additional contribution , will be debated. Participant : Rick Doner, Emory Unive ity; Oi ter Ern t, Unive ity of C lifomia, Berkeley; Gary Gereffi, Duke Unive ity; Amy GI meier, Penn ylvania t te University; Leonid Gokhberg, Centre for Science Research and Stati tic , Ru ia; Charle Gore, UNCTAD; Raph el Kaplin y, In titute of Development tudie, UK; Zeljka KOlul-Wri ht, UNCTAD, Switzerland; Th ndika Mkand wire, UN Re arch In titute for ocial Development, Switzerl nd; Jorge Monge, Compailia para el Desarollo Tccnologico Indu lri I de Centroamerica, C ta Rica; Lynn Mytelka, UNCTAO, Switzerland; Khalid Nadvi, In titute of Development tudie , UK; Aorence PaJpacuer, Universit~ Montpelli r II, France; Tony Tam; Academia Sinica,Taiwan. ILO participants: Chri tine Evan -Klock, Employment and Labour Market Polici Branch: R mary Greve, nLS; A.V. J , ilLS; Aurelio PariSOlto, ilLS; Nikol i Rogov kyo IlLS; Arturo Tolentino, Entrepreneu hip and Management Development Branch. taff: Eric H rshberg, Judith Sed iti .

International Scholarly Collaboration If one of the la t true global common i repre ented by the invi ible college of knowledge production and cholarly training, trong and clo ely linked higher education y tern acro the world are a mu 1. That aid, we till do not have a rigorou undertanding of the mechanic of the mo t basic of tho e linkage , namely, international cholarly collaboration. However, it i ea ier to preach the need for more and better form of international collaboration than it i to de ign them. Good de ign will tart with an under tanding of what collaboration i , how it ha been done and why it ha 0 often failed. With the e concern in mind, the SSRC e tabli hed an interregional working group on the VOLUME




que tion of international cholarly collaboration. The ftf t meeting wa held in New York City on Augu t 2-3, 1998. The group agreed that it focu would be international re earch collaboration, defined a cholarly exchange that lead to new knowledge production. The group concluded that a nece ary condition wa the creation of common vocabularie or conceptual bridge that aJlow for new way of thinking or new combination of exi ting thought. Participant outlined the principal feature of mo t collaborative exerci e , and identified agendaetting and a y tematic undertanding of the proce of re earch collaboration a feature that needed further examination. The group identified a number of relational zone , i.e., area tudie and di cipline with di tinct form of collaboration, but al 0 noted the need to identify zone of ab ence-where collaboration ha not or typically doe not take place, and to under tand why. The group' objective are to increa e our under tanding of how collaboration have taken place, to compare different international collaborative exerci e and to create an archive of ca e -po ibly leading to orne general conclu ion about the feature, tructure, characteri tic origin and/or ucce e of IRC. At lea t three more meeting will be held over the next two year ; the group hope to prepare report and article ba ed on it work. For more information, contact Itty Abraham, program director, South A ia and Southea t A ia program, taff to the working group. D EMBER 199

TIle working group i comprised of Paul Drake. David Ludden. Penin Mlama, Sujata Patel. Lilia Shev tova and Dian Wong.

International Dissertation Field Research Fellowship Program Fellows' Workshop The ftf t fellow ' work hop organized by the SSRC-ACLS International Oi ertation Field Re earch Fellow hip program (IDRF) wa held at the International In titute for Re earch and Education in Am terdam on October 2-6, 1998. Seventeen fellow took part. The facilitator wa Paul Gootenberg, profe or of hi tory at the State Univer ity of New York, Stony Brook. The work hop featured two gue t peaker : Judith William on (cultural hi tory, Middle ex Univer ity) and Ivan Szelenyi ( ociology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele). The work hop wa tructured around ix panel at which fellow pre ented their project and field re earch experience . The panel were con tituted on the ba i of re earch methodology (interview ,data et, archive and 0 on), and panel member were al 0 given time to di cu their work among them elve . Mo t of the fellow were fini hing or had recently completed their field re earch. Intere tingly, that experience it elf, along with a hared commitment to cholarly dialogue, provided a ufficient ba i on which to bring together re earcher with di parate project and affiliation . The di cu ion were informed by a et of reading on international re earch that circulated prior to the work hop. The reading included article

and book chapter by Gabriel Almond, Li a Ander on, Arjun Appadurai, Albert Hir chman, Ira Katznel on, Sherry Ortner, Jame Scott, William Sewell, Jr. and Immanuel Waller tein. The next IDRF fellow' workhop will be held at the Univer ity of San Franci co on January 8-12, 1999. Staff: Kenton W. Worce ter, Michael Brogan, Abby Swingen.

Local Governance and International Intervention in Africa On March 28-29, 1998, a work hop on "Local Governance and International Intervention in Africa" wa held at the European Univer ity In titute (EUI) in Florence, Italy. The work hop wa jointly organized by the Council' Africa and International Peace and Security Program under the leader hip of Thoma Callaghy of the Univerity of Penn ylvania and Council taff. Support for the meeting wa provided by the Re earch Council of Norway and EUI. The workshop brought together an interdi ciplinary group of cholar to explore the complex interaction between local, tate and global ource of power and authority in Africa. While exploratory in nature, work hop di cu ion highlighted evera1 key theme . In Africa (and perhap el ewhere), the po t-cold war era i characterized by a re haping of the tate a it imultaneou Iy compete with and intertwine with global and local order . Work hop participant called attention to ocial network a a mi ing piece in lTEMs/97

the analy i of local politic in Africa, but argued that network mu t be located within tructural contexts and prevailing di curive practice . Finally, the way in which Africa interact with the "global" are complex and contradictory: the propagation of economic reform program , the pread of norm uch a human rights, the pre ence of peacekeeper and development worker ,the trafficking in weapon and many other phenomena are all example of the "intru ion" of the global, but may have radically different con equence for local and tate power relation .

Forced Migration and Human Rights The International Migration Program held a planning meeting on "Forced Migration and Human Rights" from September lito 13, 1998 to explore way in which academic and practitioner might collaborate by employing a human right per pective to inve tigate the i ue of refugee and the internally di placed. The participant , including legal cholar, ocial cienti t and practitioner from human right and refugee organization , conidered topic uitable for collaborative re earch and di cu sed po ible approache to re earch and writing that would inform policie and practice aimed at the protection and a i tance of forced migrant . The meeting wa made po ible with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Over the pa t two decade growth in the ize and diver ity 9 \ITEM

of forced migration have challenged the protective capacity of international law and organization that were originally created in re pon e to po t-World War II refugee . De pite their hared concern, cholar and practitioner have often found collaboration difficult, in part becau e of their different empha e on intellectual and practical goal . Thi meeting explored how an international human right framework can help to bridge thi divide by integrating conceptual, in titutional, geographical and precriptive approache . To identify particular i ue for collaboration, the participant con idered how human right law upplements exi ting protection for forced migrant and provide a ba i for enhancing cooperation between non-governmental organization , international agencie and tate. Ba ed upon the e di cu ion, the International Migration Program i developing a project to upport training for ocial cienti t and practitioner to undertake collaborative re earch and a erie of international meeting to include diver e per pective and di eminate re earch finding . The e activitie are deigned to bring together the theoretical per pective of academic and the policy per pective of practitioner in order to explore connection between human right and forced migration. Participan : Abdullahi An路Na'im, Alexand r AI inikofT, Peter Benda, Nathalie Borreman , Bev rlee Bruce, B.. Chimni, Franci M. Deng, Raben DeVecchi, Mary Diaz, Stefanie Grant, David Haine Kimberly Hamilton, Iren Khan, Gil Loe her, Richard Ry avage, Marge T itouri , David Tunon, Ari tid Zolberg. StafT: J h DeWind, Walter Miller.

European Modernity and Cultural Difference From September 25-27, 1998, a conference on "European Modernity and Cultural Difference From the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean, 1890 -1920 ," wa held at the Mai on Mediteraneene de Science de I'Homme (MMSH) at the Univer ity of Aix-en-Provence, France. Thi conference wa the third and final meeting of a project organized by Leila Fawaz. Funding for the meeting provided by Tuft Univer ity and MMSH in addition to the SSRC. The project' intent wa to explore the role of port citie as critical arena of interaction during a formative period in the encounter between modern and pre-modern idea , identitie , norm and cultural practice . In focu ing on both the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean , the project not only ought to ituate Middle Ea t case in a larger comparative context, but to highlight link between the Middle Ea t and broader networks of circulation and trade from Southern Europe to the Indian ubcontinent. A project volume edited by Leila Fawaz i under contract at Columbia Univer ity Pre . Participants: Engin D. Akarli , Brown Universily; Chri topher A. Bayly, University of Cambridg ,U K; u n Bayly, University of Cambridg ,UK; ugata B ,Tu~ UniversilY; Ju n R.I. Cole, University of Mi higan; Col tie Duboi , IHCC路 ln tilUl d'Etude africaine , France; Paul Dumont, CNRS lraSbourg, France; H la Fallah, Royal In tilUle for Int rfaith tudie , Jordan ; Leila Fawaz, Tuft Univ rsity; Raben llben, MMSH, France; Re t Ka ba, Univen.ity of Washingl n; Kenneth McPherson, Cunin UniversilY of Technology, Au tralia; Robin Ostl ,Oxford University, UK; Abdul路 Karim Rafeq, College of William nd Mary; Andlt





Raymond. Univ rsit~ de Provence/In titut de Recherche ur Ie Monde Arabe Mu ulman. France; May Seikaly. Wayne State University; Peter Sluglett. University of Utah; Michel Thchscherer. In titut de Recherche ur I Monde Arabe Musulman. France. Oi u ants: Steve Heydeman. Columbia Univ rsity; Jean-Paul Pascual. MMSHllnstilul de Recherche ur I Monde Arabe Mu ulman. France. Staff: Juliana Decks.

RECENT COUNCIL PUBLICATION Imperial Russia: New Hi tories

for the Empire, edited by Jane Burbank and David L. Ran el. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and It Succe or State (1983-96). Bloomington: Indiana Univer ity Pre ,1998. xxiii + 359 pp. Thi collection bring together innovative cholar hip on the hi tory of the Ru ian Empire from the time of Peter the Great to the

1880 . It introduce a variety of methodologie to the field, including demography, family hi tory and gender tudie , legal hi tory, microhi tory and emiotic . Broad chronological, methodological and and topical coverage combined with analy i of the po ibilitie for a more expan ive under tanding of imperial Ru ia make thi volume an important re ource.

The Digital Council Council computer and editorial taff are preparing a complete overhaul of the SSRC web ite (www. in the umrner of 1999; our goal i to make the ite a informative about SSRC program ,event. and publication a it already i about fellow hip . In the meantime, individual program have improved their own web page. The International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program (Ellen Perecman, director; Li a Angu and Alexa Dietrich, program a i tant ) recently po ted field report from a number of it fellow on variou over eas training ite. If you (or one of your graduate tudent) wonder whether the library at the Univer ity of South Africa in Pretoria i worth a vi it or how much ca h to bring to Ta hkent, thi i the place to tum. You can find the report by following links to SSRC Program , then to the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program, and finally to IPFP Fellow' Field Report. Eventually they'll be more directly acce ible. The IPFP taff want feedback on thi feature, 0 if you have any ugge tion for making it more u eful, plea e contact them at angu @ The SSRC Mellon Minority Fellow hip Program (Beverlee Bruce, director; Sara Robledo, program a itant) has enlivened it report on it annual fellow ' conference. Vi itor to it page (follow link to Program and then to SSRC Mellon Minority Fellow hip Program) can now read pre entation by faculty member and tudent fellow and ee picture of la t June' conference at Bryn Mawr College. More program page update will be announced in our next i ue.



Awards Offered in 1998 Following are the name ,affiliation and topic of the individual who were offered fellow hip or grants by SSRC program in the mo t recent annual competition for re earch in the ocial cience and humanitie . The award for re earch abroad were made by the program jointly pon ored by the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). In addition to fund provided by the two Council , the e award received core upport from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Ad· ditional funding for grants admini tered by pecific program i provided by the Ford Foundation, the German Mar hall Fund of the United State , the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion and the Rockefeller Foundation. Support al 0 come from the US Department of State through the Re earch and Training for Ea tern Europe and the Independent State of the Former Soviet Union Act of 1983 (litle VID) and the US Information Agency through the Near and Middle East Re earch and Training Act (NMERTA). Fellow hip in international peace and ecurity are upported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The Ford Foundation up. port the joint ACLS/SSRC International Predi sert· ation Fellow hip Program. The Abe Fellow hip pro· gram i funded by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partner hip. Unle It I pecifically noted that a program i admini tered by the ACLS, the program li ted are admini tered by the SSRC. The Council doe not di . criminate on the basi of race, color, gender, exual orientation, national origin, age, religion, di ability, marital or family tatu or any other characteri tic protected by applicable law . The program change every year, and intere ted scholars h uld contact the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual program u ually publi h more complete de ripti n of their aim and


procedure . Fellow hip information i al 0 available on the SSRC' web ite: http://www.

Pred· ertation and D· ertation Fellow hip for Area and Comparative Training and Research International Predissertation Fellow hip Program-Jennifer Bair, ociology, Duke University Maria Castellano, anthropology, Univer ity of Michigan Deanna Cooke, p ychology, University of Michigan Kenneth Croe , anthropology, Princeton University Michelle Dion, political cience, University of North Carolina Sara Dorow, ociology, University of Minne ota Beth Dunford, ociology, Michigan State University Amy Freeman, geography, University of Washington Payal Gupta. demography, University of Penn ylvania Bruce Hall, hi tory, University of IIIinoi , Urbana· Champaign Sean Hanretta, hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on Rachelle Jacob, religion, Northwe tern University Arang Ke havarzian, politic , Princeton University Jame Ke ler, hi tory, Univer ity of Chicago A im Khwaja, economic , Harvard University Helen Kin ella, political cience, University of Minne ota Gina Lambright, political cience, Michigan State University Enid Logan, ociology, University of Michigan Karuna Mantena, government, Harvard University Jacquelyn Miller, fore try, Michigan State University Elena Obukhova, anthropology, Northwe tern University Shanti Rabindran,· economic , Mas achu ens In titute of Technology Jeffrey Roth tein, Indu trial Relation Re arch In titute, University of Wi on in, Madi on Carmen Ruiz, anthropology, University of Tex ,Au tin Su anna Trnka, anthropology, Princeton University Jocelyn Viterna, ociology, Indiana University Andrea Vogt, anthropology, Michigan State University

• Declined award "Thi program i de igned to prepare tud nt to conduct re the developing world.



h in


Sonny Vu, lingui tic , Mas achusen In titute of Technology Cory Welt, political cience, Ma achu en In titute of Technology Eastern Europe (Admini tered by the ACLS) Postdoctoral Fellowships

Gabriela Ilnitchi, mu ic, New York University. Po tByzantine mu ical iconography: repre entation of mu ical in trurnent and dance in the late medieval frescoe of Moldavia and Wallachia Nicholas J. Miller, hi tory, Boi e State University. The nonconformi t : nationali m in a Serbian intellectual circle Katya V. Nizharadze, hi tory, Georgetown University. The world of provincial bureaucracy, Ru ian Poland, 1870 -1904 Bozena E. Shallcro ,Poli h literature, Indiana University. Journey of the poet' eye: Herbert. Brod ky and the art of travel Timothy D. Snyder, modem hi tory, Harvard University. Poland' ilent 0 tpolitik: how Warsaw avoided national conflict and thereby rejoined Europe, 1989-1998 Jane C. Sugarman, mu ic, State University of New York, Stony Brook. Imagining modernity: mediated mu ic and contemporary Albanian identitie Anna G. Szemere, ociology and communication, University of California, San Diego. Civil ociety and the formation of autonomou elf in po tsociali t CentrallEast Europe Curt F. Woolhi er, Slavic language, Univer ity of Texas, Au tin. From borders to i oglo se: ociolingui tic a peet of dialect divergence in the Poli h-Belaru ian borderland Dissertation Fellowships

David S. Alt huler, ocial anthropology, University of Chicago. Moral ideology and ocioeconomic change in the Czech Republic Ju tyna A. Beinek. Slavic literature , Harvard University. The album and the album ver e in the culture of Poli h and Ru ian romantici m Elzbieta W. Ben on, ociology, University of California, Berkeley. From information monopoly to market for information: in titutional and organizational tran ition


in Poland, 1970-1997 Jame E. Bjork, hi tory, University of Chicago. Neither German nor Pole: Catholici m and national ambivalence in Upper Sile ia, 1890-1914 Barbara A. Cellariu , cultural anthropology, Univer ity of Kentucky. Global priority, local reality: rural communitie and biodiversity conservation in Bulgaria Kri ztina E. Fehervary, ocio-cultural anthropology, University of Chicago. Building Hungarian dream : the built environment and ocio-cultural change in po tociali t Hungary Danielle M. Fo ler-Lu ier, mu icology, University of California, Berkeley. The tran ition to communi m and the legacy of B~la Bart6k in Hungary Eagle Gla heim, hi tory, Columbia University. Nationalization of the nobility in Czecho lovakia, 1918-1948 Thalia S. Gray, archaeology, New York University. The ocial organization of trade and exchange in early medieval Wolin Sean A. Martin, hi tory, Ohio State University. The ethnic identity of the Jew of Krakow, 1918-1939 Judith Pintar, ociology, University of Illinoi , UrbanaChampaign. Recon truction and recovery in outhern Dalmatia Sherrill L. Stro chein, political cience, Columbia University. The component of coexi tence

Eurasia Dissertation Write-up Fellowships

Katherine Burn ,political cience, Mas achu etts In titute of Technology. Subnational power and international cooperation: the Ru ian Far Ea t and its Northeast A ian neighbor Keith Darden, political cience, University of California, Berkeley. From economic myth to in titutional reality: the creation of new form of regional order in the former Soviet Union Michael David, Ru ian hi tory and medicine, Univer ity of Chicago and Yale University School of Medicine. The white plague in Soviet Mo cow: tuberculo i in politic and ociety, 1917-1941 Jennifer Dickin on, lingui tic anthropology, University of Michigan. Language and identity in a Ukrainian border community Adrienne Edgar, hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. The making of a Soviet nation: Turkmeni tan, 1924-39


Katherine Graney, political cience, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Projecting overeignty: po t-Soviet tatehood in a multicultural Ru ia Leonid Livak, Slavic language and literature, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Ru ian emigr~ literature in the context of French moderni m: a tudy in the cultural mechani m of exile Adriana Petryna, anthropology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. The technical and political admini tration of life after Chernobyl: cience, overeignty and citizenhip in a po t-cold war era Guita Ranjarbaran, anthropology, Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York. Strategizing for power: marriage among the Soviet elite in Tajiki tan Robert Romanchuk, Slavic language and literature, University of California, Lo Angele . The textual community of the Kirillo-Belozer kii monastery Barbara Skinner, hi tory, Georgetown Unive ity. Catherine the Great' policy toward the Uniate church, 1765-1796: the ab orption of Belaru ian and Ukrainian into the Orthodo empire Erne t Zit er, hi tory, Columbia University. The kingd m tran figured: parody and power at the court of Peter the Great, 1682-1725

ear and Middle


Predi sertation Fellows Hina Azam, religion, Duke University. Clas ical I lamic juri prud nce, "fiqh" Ali Hu ain, Near Eastern language and civilization , Univer ity of Chicago. Perception of the deaf in I lamic ociety: a ocial and lingui lic hi tory of deaf communitie in the Middle East Agnie zka Pa zyn ka, government, University of Virginia. In titutionallegacie and policy choice: the political incorporation of labor under Na er in Egypt and the contemporary economic reform proce Le lie Weaver, Middle Ea tern tudie , ew York University. Whither Morocco? The emergence of Morocco' early nationali t movement

Di serration Fellows in the Social Science and Humcmitie David Crawford, anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Berber identity formation in the Moroccan High Atlas


Rochelle Davi , anthropology, University of Michigan. Pattern of dia pora among 1948 Pale tinian refugee from the Jeru alem ub-di trict Kathryn Ebel, geography, University of Texas. Image of empire: the city and the Ottoman imperial vi ion, 14501700 Marwa EI hakry, hi tory, Princeton University. Science and evolutionary theory in late 19th- and early 20th-century Egypt llana Feldman, anthropology and hi tory, Univer ity of Michigan. Coloniali m, nationali m and bureaucracy: civil ervice in the Gaza Strip Jason Greenberg, anthropology, Temple University. Comparing failure: ocial reprodu tion and change within the I raeli educational y tern B am Haddad, government, G orgetown University. Reform trategie of populi t-authoritarian regime : tate-bu ine relation in Syria Margaret Lynch, geography, University of Texa . Geographical vi ion of Ankara Anasta io Papademetriou, Near Ea tern tudie, Princeton University. on-Mu lim in Ottoman ociety: the Greek community of I tanbul in the 16th century David Peters, hi tory, Univer ity of Chicago. Development and it di content : the origin of a national moral economy in Egypt, 1928-1952 Michelle Rein, art hi tory, Unive ity of Penn ylvania. Vi ual expre ion of Baraka: aint ' hrine and material culture in Morocco Karen Rignall, anthropology and hi tory, University of Michigan. Urbani m, the tate and th tran formation of property in colonial Morocco Chri topher Toen ing, hi tory, Georgetown University. A ocial hi tory of workers in Suez Canal port , 1924-1952 Je ica Weaver, anthropology, New York University, Cultural and intellectual identity in the contemporary Egyptian art world

8anglad h Predi serration Fellow hips Ian Petrie, hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. Dome ticating development: A century of village uplift in Bengal, 18 0-1980 Robert Yelle, hi tory of religion , Univer ity of Chicago. A poetic and rhetorical analy i of the mantras on Bengali tantra





Di sertation Fellowships

order? Path dependence and impediment to reform of Ru ia' health care y tern

Maimuna Huq, anthropology, Columbia University. Women and I lamic activi m in Banglade h

Institutional Support Programs


Ru ian Language In titute in the United State

Di sertation Fellow hips Su Hong Chae, anthropology, Graduate Center, City University of New York. Working in factory, living in village: the formation of clas identity in contemporary Vietnam Barbara Halpenny, ociology, Indiana Univer ity. Local culture, market force ,global cience: practicing the bio cience in Vietnam Pamela McElwee, fore try and environmental tudie , Yale University. Changing land cape and geographie of place in highland Vietnam Vinh Quoc Nguyen, East A ian language and civilization , Harvard Univer ity. Demythologizing a nationali t icon: Emperor Quang Trung Nguyen Hue of the Tay Son dyna ty in Vietname e hi tory, hi toriography and literary imagination

Beloit College Bryn Mawr College Indiana University Middlebury College Monterey In titute for International Studie Univer ity of Iowa University of Pitt burgh on-Ru ian Language In titute in the United State Arizona State University, Tartar program Harvard University, Ukrainian program Indiana University, Baltic culture , E tonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Georgian, Kazakh, Turkrnen and Uzbek program University of Wa hington, Uzbek program


Advanced Grants for Area and Comparative Training and Research

Postdoctoral Fellow hip (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science)


E. Taylor Atkin ,* hi tory, Northern lIlinoi University. Thi i our mu ic: authenticating Japane e jazz, 19201980 Hiroko Yama hita Butler, Ea t A ian language and culture , University of lIlinoi , Urbana-Champaign. Role of ca e-marked noun in the proce ing of Japane e and implication for univer ality in human language proce ing David Campbell, economic , University of E ex. The wealth and income di tribution of aving: a comparative tudy of Japan and the US in 1990 Sherry Fowler, art, Lewi & Clark Univer ity. Muroji: A contextual analy i of the temple and it image Elaine Gerbert, Ea t A ian language and culture , Univer ity of Kan a , Lawrence. The urban pectator in early 20th-century Japane e literature Theodore Gilman, political cience, Union College. Local government and international relation in Japan: an

Po tdoctoral Fellowships Timothy Frye, political cience, Ohio State Univer ity. The politic of po t-Communi t legal reform Michael Gorham, Slavic language and literature , Univer ity of Florida. Speaking in tongue : the language and culture of early Soviet Ru ia Laura 01 on, Ru ian culture, University of Colorado, Boulder. Making memory: Ru ian folk mu ic revival and the fa hioning of cultural identity Abby Schrader, hi tory, Franklin and Marshall College. The language of the la h: corporal puni hment and the con truction of identitie in imperial Ru ia, 1785-1904 Willard Sunderland, Ru ian hi tory, University of Cincinnati. Steppe-building: colonization and empire on the Ru ian teppe, 1764-1 50 Judyth Twigg, political cience, Virginia Commonwealth University. Following the doctor '


• Declined award.


emerging trend? Robin Leblanc, political cience, Ogelthorpe University. Citizen and assemblie : the po ibilitie for local politic in Japan Coo tine Marran, A ian language and literature, Univerity of Washington. Moral and scientific discourse on woman' nature: the literary and cultural context urrounding the emergence of "poi on-woman" fiction Joseph Parker, East A ian thought, Pitzer College. Zen Buddhi m and power relation in Muromachi Japan (1336-1567) Emanuel Pastreich,· East A ian language and literature, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Advanced re earch on the reception of Chine e vernacular fiction in Korea and Japan Janine Anderson Sawada, religion, University of Iowa. The tran formation of Fuji devotionali m in 19th-century Japan Richard Torrance,· East A ian language and literature , Ohio State University. Literacy and modern literature in o aka, 1880-1940 Li a Yoneyama, Japanese and cultural tudie, University of California, San Diego. Art of laughter and management of life in 2Oth-century Japan

Postdoctoral Fellowships (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Robert Bullock, government, Cornell University. Recasting the con ervative coalition: agriculture, mall bu ine and the LDP in contemporary Japan Su an Bum, hi tory, University of Texas. The body in que tion: the politic and culture of medicine in Meiji Japan (1868-1912) Linyu Gu, philo ophy, University of Hawaii. Research on Ni hida Kitaro and Japane e philo ophy: A com pari on with American proce philo ophy Mizuko Ito, education/anthropology, In titute for Research on Learning. Tran national network : globalllocal relation in the Japanese computer game indu try Yo hiko Kainurna, art hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele . A new approach to the Buddhi t culpture of the Kamakura period, centering on the ignificance of cult practice Sophia Lee, hi tory, California State University. The Japane e pre ence and the tran formation of wartime

• Declined award.


Beijing, 1937-1945 Gregory Pflugfelder, hi tory, Columbia University. Dreaming of uffrage: gender and the politic of the imagination in modem Japan Sumi Shin, law, Inter-University Center. Global migration of labor: low-wage work and human rights

Advanced Research Grants (Japan-US Friendship Commission) Lee Bran tener, economic , University of California, Davi . The role of Japanese technology tran fer in East A ian economic development Kevin Doak. hi tory, University of Ulinoi , UrbanaChampaign. Civil ociety and the formation of the nation- tate in Meiji Japan Michael Dooley, economic , University of California, Santa Cruz. Market tructure and real exchange rate : A comparative tudy on the Japanese yen and the other OECD currencie William Wayne Farri ,hi tory, University of Tenne ee, Knoxville. Land, labor and population in Japan, 11001550 Bai Gao, ociology, Duke University. Fasci m versu liberali m: the tran formation of economic governance in Germany, Japan and the United State in 1930-1945 Senko K. Maynard, East A ian language and culture , Rutgers University. Toward a rhetoric of patho : exploring self-expre ivity in Japanese di course and beyond Su an Napier, A ian tudie, University of Texas. Apocalypse, elegie and alien : a cultural inve tigation into Japanese animation Uma Segal, ocial work, University of Mi ouri, S1. Loui . Cro -national perception of child maltreatment George Tanabe, religion, University of Hawaii, Manoa. Last rite : the demi of funeral Buddhi m in contemporary Japan John Treat, A ian language and literature, University of Washington. The Seoul bundan and Japane e literary moderni m

Japan Studies Dissertation Workshop Jennifer Amyx, political science, Stanford University. From comparative advantage to comparative di advantage: the mini try of finance a variable in the breakdown of Japane e fiscal policy Heather Bowen-Struyk, comparative literature, University of Michigan. Japane e proletarian literature: the conVOLUME




truction, eduction and de truction of an audience Philip Flavin, mu ic, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Sakumono: Mu ical and textual humor in Japane e chamber mu ic of the Tokugawa period Hank Glas man, religiou tudie, Stanford University. The religiou con truction of motherhood in medieval Japan Bethany Grenald, anthropology, University of Michigan. Gender and ecological change in a Japane e diving community Jonathan Hall, hi tory of con ciou ne ,Univer ity of California, Santa Cruz. P ychoanaly i in Japane e cinematic and literary modernity Youngmi Lim, ociology, Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York. Conte ted meaning of becoming Japane e: race, cla and politic in contemporary Japan Jeff Long, hi tory, Univer ity of Hawaii. A Japane e romantic: Haya hi Fu ao and the turn to ultranationali m Leila Madge, anthropology, Univer ity of California, San Diego. Con uming concern : anxiety, modernity and the market in po twar Japan Mari Miura, political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Re i tance to market force : labor market flexibility and political power of labor in Japan, 1980 and 1990 Keiko Suzuki, anthropology, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Printing identity, nation and hi tory: Japane e popular art from Yokohama-e to manga Sarah ThaI, hi tory, Columbia. Rearranging the land cape of the god : a hi tory of the Kompira pilgrimage in Meiji Japan

Postdoctoral Fellows, Mid-Career Skills Enrichment Eleanor Gwynn, health, phy ical education and dance, North Carolina A&T University. Clearing the pace: a que t for the dance of the Nubian in contemporary Egypt Dale Lightfoot. geography, University of Oklahoma. Falaj irrigation in Yemen: hi tory, ecology and changing technology Postdoctoral Fellows in the Social Sciences and Humanities Shahrough Akhavi, political cience, University of South Carolina. Hi toricizing explanation of ocial change: per pective by contemporary Egyptian moderni ts Kenneth Cuno, hi tory, University of Illinoi , UrbanaChampaign. A world 10 t? Family and property in 19thcentury rural Egypt Peter Gran, hi tory, Temple University. Social hi tory of Egyptian education, 1900-1930 Chri topher Melchert, hi tory, Barnwell Chri tian School. The coming together of the Sunni community, 9th-lOth centurie C.E. Donald Quataert, hi tory, State Univer ity of New York, Binghamton, The coal miner of Zonguldak, 1870-1914 Daniel Schroeter, hi tory, University of California, Irvine. Jew in rural Morocco and their di per ion in I rael Samah Selim, Middle East language and culture , Columbia Univer ity. The divided ubject: narrative enactment of the nation in the Egyptian village novel Ahmad Sikainga, hi tory, Ohio State University. Slavery and Mu lim juri prudence in Morocco in the 19th and early 20th centurie

ear and Middle East Po tdoctoral Fellows, Junior Faculty Tenure Support Eva Bellin, government, Harvard University. Courting liberty Daniel Brumberg, government, Georgetown University. Ideological innovation and power haring in Arab tate: a comparative inquiry Sumaiya Hamdani, hi tory, George Mason University. Between revolution and tate: The imam, al-Nu'am and the con truction of Fatimid legitimacy Deborah Kapchan, anthropology, University of Texas. The affecting Sufi pre ence: ae thetic a devotion among Sufi practitioner in Ca ablanca, Morocco


Other Programs Abe Fellow hip Program Arthur 1. Alexander, Japan Economic In titute. Analyzing the link between the economic and political relation of the United State and Japan u ing objective and comprehen ive event data Marie C. Anchordoguy, East A ian tudie, University of Wa hington. A comparative analy i of US and Japane e regulation and deregulation of the telecommunication and oftware indu trie

ITEMs/I 05

Laura B. Campbell, Environmental Law International. Global climate change: the role of Japan, the United State and China Paul M. Evan, political cience, York University. A ia' ecurity order Eric A. Feldman, In titute for Law and Society, New York University. Ju tice, compen ation and the courts: conflicts over HIV-tainted blood in Japan, the US and France Jun Furuya, Faculty of Law, Hokkaido University. Th ri of con ervati m and the redefinition of national identity in contemporary American politic , 1964-1997 Yo hihi a Hayakawa, Faculty of Law, Rikkyo University. Legal problem in international cyber tran action Hide hi Itoh, In titute of Social and Economic Re earch, o aka University. A comparative in titutional analy i of delegation of authority and boundarie of the firm in Japan and the US David T. John on, ociology, University of Hawaii, Manoa. The pro ecution of political corruption in Japan, the US, Italy and South Korea Sato hi Kino hita, Faculty of Law, Kobe Gakuin University. Political repre entation of racial minoritie and the electoral y tern in the United State Elli S. Krau ,Graduate School of International Relation and Pa ific Studie , University of California, San Diego. Japan and APEC: regional multilaterali m and US-Japan relation Yuko Ni himura, foreign language , Komazawa University. Women and labor exchange in aging ocietie TJ. Pempel, University of Washington. Financial deregulation, politic and ocial cohe ion: a comparative tudy Roddey Reid, literature, Univer ity of California, San Diego. Contemporary culture of health and ri k: globalizing tobacco control in the US, France and Japan Karl L. Schoenberger, Graduate School of Journali m, University of California, Berkeley. Corporate ethic : human rights policy in the global marketplace Scott A. Snyder, US In titute of Peace. US-Japan-ROK policy coordination: North Korea' challenge and implication for security in Northeast A ia Kay B. Warren, anthropology, Princeton University. Foreign aid in Latin America: a compari on of Japane e, European and American initiative and practice Shinji Yam hita, cultural anthropology, University of Tokyo. A ian in motion in the tran national age: the case of San Franci co J06\1TEM

ACLS/SSRC International P tdoctoral Fellow hips (Admini tered by the ACLS) Adrian A. Bantje , Latin American hi tory, University of Wyoming. Idolatry and iconocla m in revolutionary Mexico: local religion and tate formation, 1920-1940 Leela M. Fernande , political science, Rutgers University. Con olidating economic reform in India: the middle c1as e , cultural politic and the Indian nation Sheila Miyo hi Jager, independent scholar in anthropology. Manline and civilization: linear hi tory and the nationtate in Korea Joan E. Judge, Chine e hi tory, University of California, Santa Barbara. Reading women: the changing function and meaning of female literacy in early 20th-century China David Chioni Moore, international tudie and Engli h, Macale ter College. On the margin of the Black Atlantic: reading a global color line David W. Robin on, African hi tory, Michigan State University. Path to accommodation: Mu lim ocietie and French colonial rule in Senegal and Mauritania Joanna Waley-Cohen, Chine e hi tory, New York University. Qing culture and Chinese modernity AppUed Economi

Summer Workshop

Ariel Burstein, Northwe tern Univer ity Steven Callander, California In titute of Technology Shachi Chopra-Nangia, Graduate Center, City University of New York Francisco Ciocchini, Columbia University Gauti Eggert on, Princeton University Martin Farnham, University of Michigan Avi Goldfarb, Northwe tern University Jeffrey Groen, University of Michigan Derek Gurney, Stanford University C. Scott Hemphill, Stanford University To hihiro Ichida, Columbia University Dean Karlan, Mas achu ett In titute of Technology Laura Malaguzzi, University of Michigan Paras Mehta, Mas achu ett In titute of Technology Atif Mian, Mas achu etts In titute of Technology David ewhouse, Cornell University Marta Noguer, Columbia University Nienke Oome , University of Wi con in, Madi on Karen Pence, University of Wi on in, Madi on VOL




Su anne Schennach, Ma achu en In titute of Technology Gane h Se han, University of Virginia John Simon, Ma achu ett In titute of Technology Andrzej Skrzypacz, Univer ity of Roche ter AJe andro Tarozzi, Princeton Univer ity Michele Tertilt, University of Minne ota Robert Vigfu on, Northwe tern University Diane Whitmore, Princeton Univer ity Ju tin Wolfer, Harvard University Chong Xiang, University of Michigan Pai-Ling Yin, Stanford University Zhixiong Zeng, Northwe tern University Jonathan Zinman, Ma achu ens In titute of Technology Eric Zitzewitz, Mas achu etts In titute of Technology

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European tudies Dis ertation Fellowships Andrew Bickford, hi tory, Rutgers University. Male identity, the military and the family in the fonner GDR Sace Elder, hi tory, University of lllinoi , UrbanaChampaign. Murder cene : intimacy, di tance and cia in Weimar Berlin Sara HaJJ, Gennan tudie, Univer ity of Califomia, Berkeley. Public detection and ociaJ order: crime narrative in Weimar Gennany Elizabeth Koch, hi tory, Georgetown University. The mu icaJ recon truction and divi ion of Berlin, J945-51 Kelly Kollman, political cience, George Wa hington University. Converging or diverging environmental capacitie? Implementation of EU law in member tate Sabine Kriebel, art hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. Rearming vi ion: John Heartfield and the cri i of the left 1929-38 Jennifer Ratner, hi tory, Brandei Univer ity. The center will not hold: American confrontation with Nietz che and antifoundationali m Galya Ruffer, political cience, Univer ity of Penn ylvania. The con titution of denizen in the democratic polity Li a Vanderlinden, anthropology, Rutger Univer ity. Conceiving fertility: an analy i of the experience and treatment of infertility in Berlin Gregory Witkow ki, State University of New York, Buffalo. Indu try worker in the country ide: a ca e tudy of Communi t policy and East Gennan reaction



Postdoctoral Fellowship Lauren Appelbaum, p ychology, Yale Univer ity. The influence of de ervingne on ocial policy deci ion

German-American Researcb Networking Program (GARN)* GARN Grants, Young Scholars' Summer Institutes Immigration, Incorporation and Citizen hip in Advanced Indu trial Economie ( 1996-97) Felicita Hillmann, Wi en chaft zentrum Berlin fUr Sozialforschung; Abel Valenzuela, University of California, Lo Angele ; and Dae Young Kim, Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York. Immigrant worker on the fringe: gendered urban labor market Dita Vogel, Univer itat Bremen and John Torpey, Univer ity of California, Irvine. "Legitimate yourself': national identification y tems in comparative-hi tori cal perspective Bernhard Santel, Univer itat Mun ter; Gianni D' Amato, Universitiit Pot dam; Virginie Guiraudon, European Univer ity In titute, Florence; Nedim Ogelman, Univer ity of Texa ; and Sarah Wayland, University of Toronto. Comparative per pective on the adaptive trategie of immigrant ocial movement Antje Wiener, Universitat Hannover and Rey Ko low ki, Rutgers University. Practicing democracy tran nationally Annette Kohlmann, Techni he Univer itiit ChemnitzZwickau and Sabine Henning, University of Colorado, Boulder. Fertility difference among the foreign-born in two countrie of immigration: finding for Gennany and the United State The Organization of Behavior in Higher and Lower Animal (1996-97) Caroly A. Shumway, Bo ton Univer ity and Han Hofmann, Univer itiit Leipzig. How do ocial and environmental pre ure affect the brain? Jeff Dickin on, Princeton Univer ity and Martin

• The GARN Program uppons continuing coil boration of p nicip nt in German-American Academic Council n tworking a tivitie , including the Young Scholars' Summer In titute Program.


Hei nberg, Universitat Wiinburg. Te ting learning in fruit flie Frank W. Gras 0, Bo ton University; Sabine Grii ser, Humboldt-Universitat Berlin; and Robyn Hud on, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Do early eating experience have a long-term effect on the perception of food odors? A tudy of Japane e immigrants in three countrie Martin Giurfa, Freie Universitat Berlin and Elizabeth Capaldi, University of lllinoi , Urbana-Champaign. Navigational trategie performed by imple nervou y tern : the "map-like" behavior of insects Wolfgang Stein, Universitat Kai rslautern and Alejandro Backer, California In titute of Technology. Olfactory behavior of the locu t, schistocerca gregaria

International Migration Program Predoctoral fellow hips Gaston Alon 0, political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Becoming Latino in the United State : the formation and political mobilization of panethnic identity AJejandra Castaneda, anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz. Tran national politic : political culture and Mexican migration to the United State Linda Heidenreich, hi tory, University of California, San Diego. Hi tory and forgetfulne in Napa County Richard Kim, hi tory, University of Michigan. Korean immigrant nationali m, ethnicity and tran national politic , 1903-1945 Nelon Lim, ociology, University of California. Lo Angele . Racial and ethnic divi ion of labor, human re ource practice and economic incorporation of lowkilled immigrant Vivian Louie, ociology, Yale University. Academic deciion , group dynamic : the effects of family life on the educational experience of Chine e-American women Kri ten Maher, politic and ociety, University of California, Irvine. A tranger in the hou e: community, identity and tran national women workers Ian Mast, anthropology, Southern Methodi t University. Organizing tran nationally: migrant participation at home and abroad Ronald Mize, ociology, University of Wiscon in, Madi on. The invi ible workers: tate and ociety in the life hi torie of bracero Una Okonkwo, economic , Northwe tern Univer ity. 10 \ITEM

Tran national economic linkage from international migration: theory and evidence from Nigerian immigration Reuel Rogers, politic , Princeton University. Somewhere between race and ethnicity: Afro-Caribbean immigrants, African-American and the politic of incorporation Minority Summer Dis ertation Workshop Maitrayee Bhattacharyya. ociology, Princeton University. Indian immigration to the United State : economic and ociocultural cau e and consequence Leigh Blackburn, public policy, Southern Univer ity. International migration: a threat to the United State ecurity environment Marilyn E pitia, ociology, University of Texas. The meaning of citizen hip: bridging the gap between theory, naturalization trend and the immigrant experience Su Yeong Kim, human development, University of California, Davi . Dynamic of the A ian-American immigrant family for adole cents Sandra Lara. developmental p ychology, Teachers College, Columbia University. A developmental approach to understanding mental health outcome among adult Latino immigrants Michelle Moran-Taylor, anthropology, Arizona State University. Guatemalan migration to the United State Antonio Polo, p ychology, University of California. Lo Angele . Child behavior problems within an ethnic group: ocio-cultural influence on childhood p ych pathology among Mexican-American children. Shalini Shankar, anthropology, New York University. South A ian youth culture: identity, gender and community Nitasha Sharma, anthropology, University of California. Santa Barbara. The role of hip-hop in the formation of econd generation Indian-American identitie Staci Squire, ocial relation, University of California, Irvine. The changing fa e of We t Indian New Yorkers Jerome Straughan, ociology, University of Southern California. Belizean immigrant in Lo Angele Vivian T eng, p ychology, New York University. Po tsecondary education, family background and familial obligation among children from immigrant familie Zulema Valdez, ociology, University of California, Lo Angele .What i "ethnic" about ethnic entrepreneurhip? The intersection of ethnicity and c1as in elfemployment participation Maria Verdaguer, ociology, American University. VOLUME




Latino immigrant female entrepreneurship: women' contribution to the emergence and development of ethnic enterpri e in Washington, DC Janelle Wong, political science, Yale University. Political ocialization and participation among contemporary immigrant in the US Postdoctoral Fellowships

Margaret Chin, Teachers College, Columbia University. Working, immigrants and public as i tance: A ian and Latino immigrant in the New York City garment indu try M. Elizabeth Fu ell, Population Studie Center, Univer ity of Penn ylvania. Hou ehold economic trategie and demographic outcome : l~bor migration to the US and female labor force participation in Tijuana, Mexico Virginia Guiraudon, Center of International Studie , Princeton University. De-nationalizing migration control policy Kenneth Bruce Newbold, geography, Univer ity of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign. Evolutionary immigrant ettJement y tern in the US and Canada: a comparative analy i Mae Ngai, hi tory, University of Chicago. Illegal alien and alien citizen : US immigration policy and racial formation, 1945-1965

on the local terrain: grounding human right in Chiapas, Mexico Postdoctoral Fellowships

Jacqueline Berman, political cience, Univer ity of Washington.Women on the market: the trafficking in Poli h women and the production of a po t-bi-polar European geography Erik Doxtader, rhetoric and argumentation, Univer ity of North Carolina. Between revolution and civil ociety: the theology and politic of reconciliation in po tapartheid South Africa Alli on Macfarlane, geology, Stanford Univer ity. Fi ile material control: alternative for the di po ition of urplu plutonium Obiora Okafor, law, University of Briti h Columbia. Can international human right in titution contribute to world peace? The influence of the ACHPR in Nigeria, 1987-1997 Robert Vitali ,political cience, Clark University. The color line: race, development and the foundation of American international relation Vadim Volkov, ociology, The European University, St. Peter burg, Ru ia. The monopoly of legitimate violence: the diffu ion and recon truction of the Ru ian tate, 1987-2000 Research Workshops

International Peace & Security Dissertation Fellows

Fiona Adam on, political cience, Columbia Univer ity. Globalization and the territorial tate: international migration, tran nationali m and national security Eli a Forgey, hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. Confronting Germandom: colonial law, African experience and identity in Germany, 1884-1945 Alexandra Gheciu, government, Cornell University. Security, community, morality in po t-cold war Europe Tandeka Nkiwane, international relation , SAIS, John Hopkin University. Clash and convergence: political elite and regional ecurity in Southern Africa Erica Razafimbahiny, medical anthropology, Harvard University. Re pon e to the political violence of the coup period in Haiti, 1991-1994 Shannon Speed, anthropology and Native American tudie , University of California, Davi . Global discourse DECEMBER 199

Abiodun Alao, Center for Defen e Studie ,King' College London and Clement Adibe, political cience, DePaul University. Con olidating multilateral conflict management effort in Africa Adam A hforth, political cience, Baruch College, City University of New York and Michael Watt, In titute of International Studie , Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Public violence, public pace, the public phere: global y tern , local conflicts Thomas Chri ten en, government, Cornell University and Alastair lain John ton, Fairbank Center for International Affairs, Harvard Univer ity. International relation theory and the tudy of Chine e foreign policy Jame Der Derian, Wat on In titute, Brown Univer ity. Virtual inve tigation : the role of new information technology in war and peace Alexander George, political cience, Stanford University and Andrew Bennett, government, Georgetown University. Case tudy method in international peace ITEMsll09

and ecurity re earch Gregg Herken, National Air and Space Mu urn, Smith onian In titution. Secret no more: the security implication of global tran parency Kathleen MacNamara, Center of International Studie , Princeton University and Sheri Berman, politic, Princeton University. Ideas, culture and political analy i Julie Mertu , Emory University School of Law. Civil society, democratization and the remaking of war-torn societi Dan We ner, SSRC-MacArthur Di ertation Fellow, Hanoi, Vietnam. Regionalization and globalization: the impact of external actors on Vietnam' development Sexuality Research Fellow hip Program

Ro nberg Kevin Murphy, hi tory, New York University. The manly world of urban reform: homo ocial de ire and the politic of c1as in New York City, 1886-1916. Advisor: Li a Duggan Su ana Pena, ociology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Cuban American gay male culture. Advisor: Avery Gordon Ru ell Shuttleworth, medical anthropology, University of California, San Francisco. The lived experience of the pursuit of xual relation hip for men with cerebral pal y. Advi or: Lawrence Cohen Karen Zivi, political science. Rutgers University. Re i ting regulation: venereal disease, AIDS and the con truction of female sexuality. Advisor: Linda ZeriJJi

Dissertation Fellowships

PostdoctoraL Fellowships

Su an Drei bach, behavioral science, University of Colorado, Denver. Adolescent sexual behavior: the gap between knowledge and action. Advisor: Stephen Koe ter Ro emarie Holz, hi tory, University of lIIinoi , UrbanaChampaign. The birth control clinic: women, planned parenthood and the birth control manufacturing indu try, 1923-1973. Advisor: Le lie Reagan Andrew Ho tetler, p ychologylhuman development, University of Chicago. Source of meaning and wellbeing in the live of ingle gay men: cultural change, adult development and personal narrative. Advisor: Bertram J. Cohler David John on, US hi tory, Northwe tern University. From deviant bureaucrats to homo exual citizen : gay and Ie bian in the federal civil ervice, 19451975. Advisor: Michael Sherry Tamara Jone ,political cience, Yale University. Marginalized identitie and political power: race, c1as and sexual politic . Advisor: Cathy Cohen Thomas Linneman, ociology, University of Washington. Political climate, perception of ri k and contemporary activi m . Advisor: Judith Howard Pablo Mitchell, hi tory, University of Michigan. Coyote nation: xuality, race and conque t in modernizing New Mexico, 1880-1920. Advi or: Carroll Smith-

Katie Gilmartin, American tudieslhi tory, University of California, Santa Cruz. A regional approach to the hi tory of homo exuality in the Rocky Mountain we t, 1940-1965. As ociate: E telle Freedman Dagmar Herzog, hi tory, Michigan State University. The po t-Holocau t politic of the We t German sexual revolution. Associate: An on Rabinbach Karen Kel ky, anthropology, University of Oregon. Butterfly abroad: tran migrant Japanese women and A ian-white sexuality in the United State . Associate: Anne Alli on Johanna Schoen, hi tory, lIlinoi State University. "A great thing for poor folks": birth control, terilization and abortion in public health and welfare in the 20th century. Associate: Ro alind Petche ky Leah Spalding, social p ychology, University of California, Lo Angele . Predicto of women' and men' sexual ati faction in married, cohabiting heteroexual, gay male and Ie bian relation hip . Associate: Letitia Anne Peplau Su an Stryker, US hi tory, Stanford University. Tran gender community formation in the San Francisco bay area, 1910-1990. As ociate: E telle Freedman Theo van der Meer, hi tory, San Francisco State University. Cro -cultural and hi torical analy i of anti-gay and Ie bian violence. Associate: Gilbert Herdt



52, NUMBER 4

Grants Received by the Council in 1997-98 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1998* Anonymous Philanthropy and the nonprofit ector in the ocial cience

Malay ian Institute of Research Project LINK $1,975,000

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Human rights and forced migration International Migration Fellow hips/re earch planning on political integration of immigrant

Ford Foundation Pre ervation of SSRC archive at the Rockefeller Archive Center $50,000 Vietnam project (Indochina program) $160,000 Pledge of aid $175,000 Study of Vietnam $313,000 Re earch and training on collective memory of repre ion in Southern Cone $80 1,000 Core upport for international program 2,786,000 International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program $3,500,000

Di ertation conference (Japan Program)


Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Abe Fellow hip Program


Cuba project


John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Profe ional development eminars for Ru ian faculty and re earchers Cuba project


Rockefeller Foundation Work hop on cro -regional re earch network in Africa Rate of return to Africa of African earning Ph.D.' in the United State Nuclear diplomacy


$50,000 72,000 $75,000

II age Foundation Ethnic cu tom , a imilation and American law


Thfts University European modernity and cultural difference


US Department of State Former Soviet Union Ea tern Europe and Baltic tate

$760,000 $770,000

US Information Agency NMERTA predoctoral program NMERTA po tdoctoral program

$159,589 $200,000

UNESCO Regional Advi ory Panel


United Nations

Japan-United States Friendship Comm¡ ion Grant for advanced re earch in Japan (Japan Program)


Christopher Reynolds Foundation

German-American Academic Council

Japan Foundation


Local governance and international intervention in Africa


Committee meeting of the GermanAmerican Frontier of Social Science Program $18,000 Work hop on the political integration of immigrant $15,000 International Development Re earch Centre Work hop on cro -regional research network in Africa $50,000 International In titute for A ian Studie , Leiden Conference on criminality in Southeast A ia $10,000

$15,000 $390,000

R earch Council of Norway

General Service Foundation ACLS/SSRC Working Group on Cuba re earch workshop for young hi torian


$92,509 $100,000

$45,000 $110,000

Project LI K Project LI K

United atlons Development Program Project LI K


University of Pennsylvania Project LI K


Variou • Doe not include "in kind" grant; th t i . uppon of trav I. hotel. received by Council committee in the conference. and imilar expen form of direct payments by other organiUlllon . DECEMBER


Project LI K

5,000 Total:

$16,732,184 ITEMSIIII


FAX (212) 377-2121

WEB http://www.

The Council was incorporated in the State of 1//inois. Decem~r 27. 1924. for the purpo e of advancing" earch in the social sciences. Nongovernmental and interdisciplinary in natu", the Council advance the quolity and u efulness of "search in the ocial ciences. The activities of the Council a" supponed pri· mnrily by grant from primtefoundation and gO~'ernment agencies. Di"ctors. 1998-99: RJ App DURAl, University of Chicago; PAUL B. BALTES, Max Planck In titute for Human Development (Berlin); IRe B. BERGER, State University of New York, Alb ny; NANCY BIRDSAll., Inter-American Development Bank; ORVIU.E GILBERT BRIM, Social Science Re arch Council; ALBERT FI HLO ,Council on Foreign Relation ; S AN FI KE, University of M hu tts, Amherst; ELIZABETH JEUN, University of Buenos Aire ; SHIRLEY LJ DENBA M, Gradu te Center, City University of New York; CoRA B. MARRElT, University of Ma hu tts; BURro H. SINGER, Princeton University; NEIL SMELSER, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science; SIDNEY VERBA, Harvard University; KENNETH W. WACHTER, University of California, Berkeley; MICHEU.E J. WHITE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Officers and Staff: ORVIu.E GILBERT BRIM, Interim p" ident; KRI TINE DAHLBERG, Chief Financial Officer; MARY BYRNE McDo ElL, Executive Program Di"ctor; ELsA DIXLER, Editor; ITTY ABRAHAM, JOH AMBLER, BEVERLEE BROCE, MARY BETHIA CARTER, JOSH DEWIND, DIANE 01 MAURO, AMy FROST, IN A GALPERINA, ERIC HERSHBERG, Ro, ALD KA IMIR, FRANK K£s EL, ROBERT LAntAM, Eu.EN PEREcMAN, SHERI H. RANIS, JUDITH B. SEDAfTlS, PF:rER SZANTO ,DAVID WEIMAN, J IFER WINTIlER, KENTO, W. WORCESTER.

The Social Science Re arch Council upports the program of the Commi ion on Pre rvation and Acce and i represented on the N tional Advisory Council on Pre rvation. The paper used in thi publication meet the minimum requirements of American National Stand rd for Information Sciences---¥erm nence of Paper for Printed Library Material . ANSI Z39.48-1984. The infinity ymbol placed in a circle indicate compliance with thi tandard.

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