( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 52/ Number 1 / March 1998 •
Social Science and Immunization New possibilities and projects by Paul Greenough and Pieter Streefland* Recent stories about contagion In the late 1990 compelling narratives are circling and swooping around contagion. Chief among these i the saga of AIDS in which themes of ab olute fatality, moral ambiguity, and tropical danger do service a a backdrop to television specials, weekly news e ay and even feature films (Outbreakf, Epidemic) that highlight the terror of "newly emerging" di eases. There is a drumbeat of expert warnings about ebola, Marburg, and dengue hemorrhagic fever , exotic maladie that melt down bodies from within, and about animal plagues like last year's Hong Kong avian flu that jumped straight-away to human and triggered a defensive slaughter of more than a million chicken . Then there's the return of the repre sed: malaria, for example, which was close to disappearing in the 1960s but has become pandemic in the 1990 , and tuberculosis, considered moribund as recently as ten
• Paul Greenough is professor of hi tory and director of the Global Health Studie Program 3lthe University of Iowa; Pieter Slreenand i professor of applied development sociology, University of Amsterdam, and director of the Social Science and Immunization Project (SSIM), Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. The authors wi h to thank Frank Ke I, program director of the Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development, who has served as liaison between the SSIM and the Social Science Research Council ince 1994.
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years ago, now preading rapidly in a form that i inured to the tronge t antibiotic . Cholera too, itself an emergent di ease in the age of team, ha roared back, and made a genetic hift to boot, which poses unexpected clinical challenge . There is even a new infective agent, the prion, which lowly eat away human brains and that, in the gui e of "mad cow di ease," drove Briti h beef off European shop helve . The indu trialization of alimentation, unprecedented environmental di ruptions, and the coUap e of hi toric re traints on exual relation are all invoked to explain the current on laught. A dark moralizing is common as we clo e in on the fin de iecle: humankind ha overstepped Nature's boundarie ; medicine's affair with antibiotics i an exerci e in hubris; the North i endangered by pathogen from the South. In a phrase, it's showtime for The Coming Plague. (See among others Albert 1993; Morse 1995, 1997; CDC 1994; Fox 1997-98; Garrett 1994; Lederberg 1996; Platt 1996; Peter 1997; Prusiner 1995.)
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE •
Social Science and Immunization: New P ibilitie and Projects, Paul G"tnough and Pit tt r Stru fland Appropriating Gender: Women's Activi m and Politicized Religion in South Asia, Patricia Jtfftry 10 Industrial Upgrading and Development: Worlcshop Notes, Eric Htrshbtrg 15 Current Activities at the Council 21 Institutional Frameworks and Flexible Production in Latin
21 America Working Groups on Global21 ization nd Development International Peace and Security Meeting 22 IPFP Fellow 'Conference 23 Immigrant Political Incorporation 23 Local Biology 24 Fellows' Conference on Sexuality Research 24 Recent Council Publication 25 ACLS-SSRC Working Group on Cuba 27
On the other hand, there i another, fainter, tory being told-fainter becau e Ie u ceptible to cinematic and journali tic exce -wherein humankind i wre tling ucce fully with many contagion . Thi narrative, which i marbled through and through with Enlightenment theme of cience, progre ,and univer aI rea on, goe a follow: mallpox wa globally eradicated in the 1970 , polio will be gone by the year 2000, and mea Ie will follow by 2010; uppoedly more than 80 percent of the world' children are being immunized again t ix common di ea e ; and a new generation of genetically engineered vaccine i clo ing in on the diarrhea and pneumonia that till drag down infant mortality rate . Aggre ive urveillance give preci e data about the global di tribution of endemic, re urgent and emerging di ea e alike, and epidemiology how that mea Ie , polio, tubercu10 i ,diphtheria, pertu i, tetanu , and hepatiti B are all in teep decline. Con en u ha been reached on a y tematic attack on the world' communicable di ea e over the next two decade . A huge vaccine upply y tern to meet Third World requirements and a robu t re earch program to develop new vaccine are being orche trated by WHO and UNICEF and are upported by major foundation , government to government aid agencie , nongovernmental organization ,religiou group and private corporation . None of thi i imple technically, and the in titutional and diplomatic politic are formidable. Slip and rever aI occur in countrie di turbed by war or political upheaval, while public upport i alway in danger of drifting away. Neverthele ,focu ed cientific effort, coordinated public health policie , and tenaciou effort in the mo t difficult terrain are repre ented a powerful global re ource for human improvement. (See Anonymou 1997; Fenner et aI 1988; In titute of Medicine 1993; Lee 1995; Vacali et al 1995; Wright 1995; WHO 1996; CVI 1997.
Organizing research Many of the theme gathered up in the di cour e on contagion are ripe for ocial cientific inve tigation. Granted that hi tori an , ociologi ts, economi t , and other have often probed bio cience and public health, a relatively new problem now beckon : how to organize multidi ciplinary re earch in a way that acknowledge the hi toric eriou ne of pathogenic threat , that repre ent affmnatively the diffi-
cult health ta k taken on by national and global agencie , and that doe not undere timate the den ity of local linkage among nature, poverty, and culture that determine finally whether a community uffer deva tating iIIne . The public triumphali m of biomedicine (e.g., re earch communitie implying that the cure for everything i ju t around the comer), of marketplace winner (e.g., drug fmn implying that doing well i the arne as doing good), and of global health organization (e.g., highlighting the ucce with mallpox while eliding the di a ter of malaria) has to be re i ted without attacking the in titution them elve , while the pe imi m of radical environmentali t ,techno-Luddite and trong ocial contructioni t mu t aI 0 be dodged. How can thi be done? One approach i to pick out a ignificant trand of activity that link all the ite and player and pur ue it critically acro the boundarie and juncture that ordinarily inhibit eeing the activity a a whole. Mas immunization i uch an activity; it ucce or failure in our time foretell the likelihood of a general amelioration of mi ery in the future. Moreover, from a biomedical and public policy perpective vaccination i a highly co t-effective intervention. Jami on empha ize that achievement of high immunization coverage i "a practical way of ignificantly improving the health of the poor" (1993: 13). "Practical" mean moving directly toward the control of vaccine-preventable di ea e . In thi en e, technology i uperseding earlier environmental and political-economic trategie and di cour e for ameliorating the health of tho e living under adver e and mi erable condition . Significantly, the World Bank ha decided that di ease i a burden on economic performance and that health expenditure are ju tified when they improve the quality of a country' workforce. In thi perspective, the co t of public health program need not be con idered irrecoverable expen e but a real inve tment from which return can be expected. (The Bank top hort, however, of ugge ting that countrie borrow to pay for their health program a they would borrow for energy or telecom infrastructure.) Not only have economi t affirmed the rationality of ba ic public health ervice, but they have evaluated different approache and judged immunization to be a critical health input; in thi en e a familiar preventive technology ha been brought into even clo er
alignment with the need of the market economy (World Bank 1993). De pite clear ucce e it i di turbing to realize that public health vaccination i difficult to organize and finance, and that maintaining high level of coverage generation after generation i in orne countrie a formidable managerial problem. High coverage (getting a population immunized to the level at which tran mi ion of pathogen low or cea e ) and sustainability ( ecuring high coverage over generation ) are be t run on a complex mixture of (1) public tru t in the medical profe ion; (2) acceptance of the immunizing technology; (3) delivery of high quality immunization ervice; and (4) teady political will that ecure adequate financing for vaccination program . While one or more of the e can temporarily lump without damaging the fundamental , the whole enterpri e i omewhat precariou , e pecially in developing nation. One re pon e from the medical re earch community ha been to de ign better vaccine -more potent, longer-la ting, requiring fewer clinical encounter ,Ie likely to produce ide-effect and more acceptably packaged (In titute of Medicine 1993). The confidence with which the e tep are being taken i urely ba ed on pectacular recent developments in immunology and genetic engineering, but even the be t engineered vaccine can't induce demand from a doubtful public, nor will government agree to finance vaccination program forever without weighing opportunity co t . In hort, the mere exi tence of a powerful technology doe not olve the obviou problem of acceptability, coverage and utainability-problem that ramify into ubtler i ue of culture, politic , admini tration, media, and finance. A long a efficient and effective vaccination program are kept in place to reach target population , the technical po ibilitie opening out for immunization appear to be of a tounding magnitude. Coming on top of maJlpox eradication in the 1970 , the near eradication of polio in the 1990 , and the control of many other infectiou di ea e , there i real optimi m in major policy document, e.g., The State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization (WHO 1996) and the newly pub Ii hed Children's Vaccine Initiative Strategic Plan (CVI 1997), about a wide range of new vaccine . While caution i in order, according to the e document , to en ure that (1) continued and
additional funding for vaccine development and production i forthcoming; (2) the actual vaccination program are u tained in every country; and (3) the allegiance of the beneficiarie i acknowledged, the tage appear et for vaccination technology to become even more ucce ful globally in the next century. Whether tackled top-down a a" upply- ide" phenomenon by tudying. for example, global healthpolicy diplomatic , laboratory-ba ed R&D, or worldcale di ea e urveillance, or alternatively, whether approached bottom-up from the "demand" ide by interrogating, for example, popular local re pon e to vaccination program in village and citie around the world-either way, immunization-ba ed di ea e control will benefit from the detailed explication, midlevel theorizing, and policy-relevant generalization that empirical ocial cience ha alway produced.
The Social Science and Immunization project During an informal meeting in Am terdam in July 1993, American and Dutch cholar I drew up the fir t draft of a propo ed project to conduct tudie of the barrier to high coverage and future u tainability of rna immunization in both advanced and developing countrie . Thi propo al grew out of a March 1993 work hop on immunization and culture that had been held at the Univer ity of Iowa. 2 In 1994 a planning workshop wa held in the Netherland with fund from Dutch and American academic in titution and from the Rockefeller Foundation; thi meeting, which re olved to launch the SSIM project, wa attended by invited re earcher from leading ocial cience in titution in the Netherland, the United State , Banglade h, India, Thailand, and the Philippine . During thi early planning pha e an admini trative office wa e tabli hed in Am terdam at the Royal Tropical In titute.3 Donor were then approached, and by late 1994 ub tantial financial upport wa
I P. Greenough, Anita Hardon (Medical Anthropology Unit, University of Amsterd m), and P. Streefland. 2 The workshop was upported with grant from the University of Iowa, Pioneer Hi-bred International Inc., and the Social Science Research Council. Selected and revised p pers were publi hed a a ymposium, " Immunization and Culture: Compliance and Resi tance in Large- ale Public Health Campaign ," Social Scitnct & Mtdicint 41, 5 (Sept. 1995):
605-86. 3 Project director, Pieter treefland.
ecured for two years (1995-97) from the Dutch and Dani h government through their national developmental aid agencie . The e grant upported central office expen e in the Netherland a well a 10 to 12-per on re earch team in Banglade h, India, and the Philippine . Mode t funding for three tran national re earch group wa al 0 included. In 1996 the Dani h national development agency (DANIDA) extended imilar upport for additional tudie in Malawi and Ethiopia, and the pace and focu of the e wa harmonized with the earlier tudie ; all of the re earch project come to an end in mid-I998. In the more developed countrie of Thailand, Holland, and the United State, much more mode t re earch upport ha been obtained from a variety of governmental and nongovernmental ource. In each country the re earch team ha devi ed it own re earch protocol , but there ha been regular con ultation by the project director with the head of the eight country team , who compri e the SSIM project' teering committee. De pite the diver ity-a diver ity that reflect gro difference in geography, national income, culture, and political economy in the eight countrie -a high degree of integration ha obtained becau e of the u e of common checkli t and indicator that provide ba eline of information about national immunization policie , hi torie , and practice . Special feature built into the SSIM project include training workhop on anthropological field-re earch method and on qualitative data handling, a liberal u e of con ultant to a i t the country team , and provi ion of fellow hip to tudent involved in the project for advanced tudie in the United State and the Netherland. The SSlM leader hip ha al 0 e tabli hed direct link to the Global Program on Vaccination of WHO a well a to UNICEF, the Children' Vaccine Initiative, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Social Science Re earch Council. The organizer of the SSlM project have not kept them elve at arm' length from, among other , national and global immunization policy maker , vaccinologi t and manufacturer of vaccine , and local health authoritie ; on the contrary, there ha been an effort by the country team to hare their early re ult with health official and cientific per onnel (wherever they how intere t) to confirm the pIau ibility of re earch in ight . The e conver ation in them elves have become a re ource for further re earch.
Transnational research teams The SSlM country tudie con titute a ample from four continent of national immunization program , each of which i examined "vertically" in a di tinct political, economic, and cultural etting; the comparative value of the country tudie ari e from thi diver ity and di per ion. The SSlM project has al 0 formed three tran national or "horizontal" team to inve tigate generic immunization i ue of concern everywhere. The e i ue are (I) the practice of public health immunization in relation to the tate; (2) the ocial demand for vaccination in relation to the coverage, quality, and u tainability of program ; and (3) global programming and technology development. While "country-team" per onnel are involved in all three, the tran national team draw upon other peciali ts.
(1) Immunization and the state Thi team4 i exploring how countrie with very different formal characteri tic (e.g., territory, population, level of development, natural endowment ) and contrasting political economie (e.g., capitali t democracie , po t-colonial developing nation , centralized economie in tran ition to the free market) have nearly everywhere embedded immunization a a overeign and con titutive function of the tate, much like printing money or delivering the mail. Given the lack of knowledge of the origin of thi function in mo t countrie , and given the turn by tate to public health vaccination in Europe and it po e ion rather preci ely in the decade ju t after the invention of Jennerian vaccination around 1800, the team ha pur ued a hi torical approach. In the 170-odd year that pa ed between the di covery of vaccination and the eradication of mallpox, numerou additional vaccine made their appearance and the technical ba i for public health immunization wa greatly expanded. The pace of immunization clearly picked up after 1945, and the decade 1967-1977 culminating in the eradication of mallpox i e peciaJly intere ting, becau e it aw for the fir t time a con iderable ubordination of national to international (WHO) vaccination policie . Over the ame period routinized tate4 Cochairs, P. Greenough and Veen 0 University of Delhi).
(Delhi School of Economic ,
provided immunization and routinized urveillance of di ease became common. (In many ub-Saharan nation and in the United State, in contra t, the immunization function ha not been firmly affixed to the tate but ha either been appropriated by international agencie or largely upplied by fee-for- ervice providers.) Only by as embling and comparing national narrative that reflect the diver ity of the African, A ian, European, and American experience over a fairly long period can we begin to under tand how public health immunization ha become a nonnovel feature of mo t contemporary tate . In two recent work hop (Delhi January 1997; New York 1998) medical hi torian and hi torical ociologi t have compiled immunization narrative for ub-Saharan Africa, Brazil, France, India, the Netherland , the Philippine ,Ru ia and the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United State; an additional tudy of China i in preparation. s What ha emerged to date i evidence of enormou diverity. For example, tate-led immunization in variou countrie ha been linked to (or ricocheted off) very different feature of national culture, e.g., "per onal liberty" in England, "civilization" in France, "admini trative order" in the Soviet Union, "military anitation" in the Philippine . Other triking variation in the e countrie ' hi torie concern (1) the extent of popular demand for official immunization ervice and of popular belief in a tate' ability to deliver the e ervice afely and unfailingly; (2) the popular appropriation of immunization within y tern of meaning that exi t a alternative to biomedicine and to co mopolitan cience; (3) the ten ion that en ue when po t-colonial tate attempt to de ign, te tor produce vaccine ba ed on local need within a global y tern of bio cience and drug commerce that i markedly tilted toward We tern vaccine requirement and Euro-American firm; and (4) the entanglement of tate-led immunization plan and programs with ocial ideologie and nationali t en itivitie that have no direct or nece ary relationhip to vaccine efficacy. (2) Social demand for vaccination
tion in relation to the coverage, quality, and u tainability of program 6 ha been deeply involved with i ue of political, financial, and admini trative adequacy of program and how the e factor interact with public acceptance of and demand for immunization in pecific countrie . The work of thi gr up i more do ely related than the others to meeting the concrete need of national and global program -and thu to actually enhancing immunization u tainability and coverage. The team' principal objective are (I) to develop appropriate methodologie and concepts for tudying ocial and cultural a pect of the provi ion, u e, and non-u e of vaccine ; (2) to produce a comparative review of the re ult of variou country tudie on ocial and cultural aspect of provi ion of, compliance with, and demand for vaccination service . The terminology u ed by thi group repre ent an advance in our under tanding of the e ential nature of effective and enduring rna immunization program . It was "re i tance" to immunization rather than "compliance" that had been highlighted at the fir t 1993 work hop (e.g., Greenough 1995), and only in the course of tho e di cu ion did an e ential my tery trike the as embled participant : why hould mo t public around the world willingly accept ometime painful injection of unknown ubtance intended to do invi ible thing to their bodie in way that are u ually poorly explained? Although "re i tance," which ha the character of a ocial movement, and "refu ai," which refer to individual behavior, are immediately compelling categorie for ocial re earcher , their occurrence can u ually be traced to obviou abu e or mi understanding . "Compliance," on the other hand, ha been rendered trange by re earch becau e-<>nce crutinized-it i o multifaceted and never elf-evident. Similarly, the effort being made by thi group to under tand "acceptance" of immunization in term of a reciprocal relation hip with the "quality" of immunization ervice tir up troubling que tion about provider ' conduct and motive ; the e que tion coincide with tho e of ongoing re earch into perceived quality of care.
The team tudying the ocial demand for vaccinaS The papers will ppear in a volume entitled Natioll(JllmmU/liti~s: VacciMtioll and th~ Stat~ in Hi torieal P~rsfNetiv~.
6 Cochairs: Mu htaque Chowdhury. B nglade h Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC. Dhaka); Pilar Ramos-Jiminez. ocial Development Research Center (SDRC. De La Salle University. Manil ); and P. ~nand.
(3) Global programing and new technology The tran national team tudying global programing and technology development' focu e on three objective : (I) to under tand the nature of clinical trial for new vaccine and the route by which certain candidate vaccine come to be elected and other rejected; (2) to develop an ethnography of the Global Program on Vaccination (GPV, a uperior policy-making unit within the World Health Organization) which i re pon ible both for new vaccine development program , and for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EP), the world large t mechani m for vaccine purcha e and delivery; and (3) to form a ophi ticated under tanding of the international politic and in titutional dynamic behind the Children' Vaccine Initiative (CVI), an ambitiou and extremely ex pen ive public-private effort to engineer a new generation of vaccine coupled with new delivery method . While the rhetoric of "child urvival" i already embedded in current WHO program , CVI' tate-of-the-art technical ambition are encru ted in a rhetoric of aving children globally and meeting their di tinctive health need (Mura kin 1996). The global programing and new technology team' principal method i to interview GPV, CVI and EPI policymaker , advi er , and expert in Geneva, as well as commercial vaccine deci ion-maker and government re earcher in Switzerland, the United State, India, and el ewhere. A key concern i to learn how "technical experti e," " cientific diplomacy," and" ocial marketing" have intermingled in the determination of recent immunization policie in Banglade h, Ethiopia, India, Malawi, the Netherland the Philippine, Thailand, and the United State . In a December 1996 work hop, the global programing and new technology team explored conceptual i ue urrounding the emergence of vaccine , e pecially the highly labile concept of" afety" and "efficacy" that con titute the criteria for pha e I and pha e 2 vaccine field trial . Stuart Blume noted that "matter are rarely. .. imple. There are three ort of i ue. The fir t concern limitation of the data; the econd the way in which data relating to efficacy and afety are u ed; the third concern the degree of
, Cochairs: A. Hardon, and Thavitong H ngvi tan (Center for Health Policy tudie , Mahidol Univen.ity, Bangkok.)
ri k which deci ion-makers are willing to bear" (Blume 1996: 14). The e con iderations have been u ed to examine pecific epi ode of historical vaccine development as well a the current, very advanced effort to develop an anti-fertility vaccine in India. The advent of uch a vaccine rai e many concern about the application of vaccine technology to population control, and ha truck a nerve in orne femini t activi t circle (Schrater 1995, Talwar 1994).
Immunization tudi research
as a field for ociaJ cience
The SSIM project a ume that u tained ocial cience re earch can elicit practical in ight into the ucce and failure of immunization program , and the ongoing meeting with global, national and local public health official and policy maker have been gratifying. At the arne time, the participant are puruing re earch agendas at the border of anthropology, ociology, and the hi tory of medicine, health and cience tudie. Clo e attention to vaccine R&D at one end ("the bench") and to village clinic at the other end ("the bu h") ha brought to light a ho t of difficultie with the major narrative of contagion ummarized at the beginning of thi article. We have found, for example, that the uncertain threat of exotic new di ease i more or Ie ignored in the public health immunization community. Much more attention i paid to tracking the di tribution of very common, well-known di ea e , and no one in a po ition to prevent, for example, mea Ie , hepatiti -B, or tuberculo i hare the media' preoccupation with ebola or Marburg hemorrhagic fever . While talk of "prevention" may not park the arne /riSSOtl of terror that accompanie talk about 'the corning plague," it i in fact the more mas ively central theme in contagion di cour e. On the other hand, one of the trength of ocial cience re earch i that it can make even the familiar trange, and medical cienti t and health admini trator how mixed feeling when ocial re earcher elicit trace of re i tance to immunization or unveil wide pread belief in alternative paradigm of vaccine efficacy, or detect rni appropriation of injection technology. The e finding, often couched in local term or local logic (ee for example Nichter' work on Indone ia and India, 1995), imply that modification of hitherto tandard immunization practice might be required to increa e coverage and VOLUME
52, NUMBER I
u tainability. Peter Wright, a ai tingui hed epidemiologi t-vaccinologi t a ociated for many year with the WHO' Expanded Program on Immunization, ha written that immunization efforts can be mo t ucce fully mounted within the con traints of developing country economie and infrastructure u ing a technical or "magic bullet" approach. Although the vaccinepreventable illne e are een with different eye in different culture their impact i largely invariable . . .. Perhap the mo t that can be hoped for at pre ent i that immunization i a vehicle that run independently of ocial cu tom and i a mean to improve health without being a mechani m for ocial change (Wright 1995: 615).
Would that it were o. While the broad component of contemporary immunization program can be a umed to be the ame everywhere-( I) a "cold chain" that refrigerate vaccine en route from manufacturer to inoculee ; (2) an admini trative mechani m and health ervice to bring vaccine from central citie to the mo t local ward and village ; (3) a publicity campaign that awaken popular awarene of the need for a erie of pre-natal (mother' ) and ante-natal (child' ) vaccination; (4) a training program that prepare health per onnel in the mechanic of inoculation and the diplomacy of direct contact with the public; (5) a detailed bookkeeping y tern that record at a minimum do e given and adver eeffects ob erved, etc.-re earch everywhere how con iderable variation in detail and ometime in ub tance. For example, what vaccinator say to mother during the brief moment needed to immunize an infant will greatly affect the mother 'expectation : being told that a vaccination will en ure a baby' "health" with no more pecificity (e.g., antimeasle, anti-polio) lead orne mother to seek two or more vaccination again t the ame di ease on the ame day-an additive trategy. Alternatively, mother who are confident that their babie are already healthy may conclude there i no rea on to vaccinate them at all-a ubtractive trategy (Nichter 1995: 621-25). Both mother' behavior will compromi e the univer al efficacy that Wright take for granted. To generalize, the "magic" in a magic bullet depend as much on vaccinator knowing how the immunization fit into vacinee ' health belief and even co mologie a it doe on the biomedical com-
po ition of the vaccine. When ocial cienti t tum their attention to the medical, epidemiological, and vaccinological peciali t them elve , the latter are ometime baffled. There i a wide pread belief in thi community that their i , in the anthropologi t Emily Martin' apt phra e, "a culture of no culture." Yet the de ire to control or eradicate di ea e by delivering the fruit of immunology to the remote t population con titute a remarkable cultural regularity in the profe ional live of public health and health cience peronnel. Blindne to the ubiquity of the e non- cience factor explain the di intere t SSIM re earcher have found in probing the deeper motive , intere t , and pre ure that lead bio cience to develop, for example, certain vaccine rather than other or to introduce certain type of vaccine in orne countrie but not in other . Pointing the e thing out, however politely, can be perceived a unfair critici m, and SSIM re earcher have learned to tep very carefully. Yet, a cience hi torian Steven Shapin argue , there i a need to write the tory of cience (and medicine) "a the deeply problematic product of intere ted, morally concerned, hi torically ituated people" who undertandably prefer their own torie to tho e of others.
Concluding thoughts Vaccination technology repre ents a biomedical intervention with truly global ramification . Vaccine de ign and development, advance in vaccine delivery y tern (e.g., manufacture of oral and of inglehot vaccine), trategic policy formulation and target etting, and prioritization in funding have become tran national proce e with a wide range of participant , orche trated by global actor uch a CVI. However, the implementation of vaccination program i a national matter. In mo t countrie EPI program ,the tandardized re ult of tran national deci ion-making, have become an integral part of public ector health ervice delivery. But becau e national political and ociocultural context can differ con iderably, 0 will the vaccination program . On the other hand, quality and coverage of national program may fluctuate under the influence of factors with tran national origin, like financial re triction a part of tructural adju tment program (Streefland 1994). The contrast, and ometime the ten ion between tran national proce e and national imple-
mentation provide the fir t challenge for ocial cience re earch. Vaccine are, of cour e, pharmaceutical , much like the pill , injectable , and cap ule u ed for curative purpo e , but beyond their global availability and the imilarity of the delivery mechani m, vaccine have little in common with other medical ub tance and technologie . Much anthropological re earch has been done on the availability and u e of pharmaceutical . Among the mo t ignificant finding that have been documented in a wide range of context in the South are an ample availability of drug combined with con iderable consumer choice among different brand and price (cf. Adome et aI. 1996; Hardon 1991; Ra mu en et al. 1996). The e characteri tic me h well in environment where health care often mean elf-care, but can be contra ted with the way vaccination are u ually delivered: there i a fixed regimen, which i related neither to the everyday health ri k con umer face, nor to their culture of elf-care. Thi contrast-between rigidity on the one hand and choice and elf- management on the other-i reflected in the often u er-ho tile culture of vaccination clinic in many developing countrie , where trict regulation and teep ocial hierarchie between patient and provider contra t with the characteri tic liberaJi m of the commercial drug and private health care ector. In the North, where there i greater re triction on pharmaceutical in the private ector, we ob erve different nuance , and differing North-South pattern con titute a rich area of re earch. Another prong in future re earch program concern the evident contradiction in setting prioritie for technology development. On the one hand, prioritie for vaccine development and vaccine program compo ition are aid to be et on the ba i of di ea e burden and co t-effectivene in combination with the technological frontier at the time. But the disea e burden in que tion may be tho e of the North, and in many case mo t of the technology emanate from the North. A a re ult of the e factor new vaccine choice and technologie may have little relevance for and relation to the hierarchie of di tre ,changing perception of ri k, and epidemic experience among target population in the South. The e contradiction , again underlining the different pattern in North and South, occa ionally lead to ten ion in
policy implementation (cf. Rogers and Pilgrim 1995). The tudy of uch ten ion and their con equence confront ocial re earchers with the need to make choice about their own po ition, whether as objective narrator or a active advocate . â€˘
References Adome, R.O., S.R. Whyte, and A. Hardon. 1996. Popular Pill . Community Drug Use in Uganda. Am terdam: Het Spinhui . Albert, MJ. 1993. "Large Epidemic of Cholera-like Oi ease in Banglade h Cau ed by Vibrio Cholera 0139 Synonym Bengal." Lancet (Aug. 14), vol. 342, no. 8868, pp. 387-390. Anonymou. 1997. "Statu of the Global Laboratory Network for Poliomyeliti Eradication, 1994-1996." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Aug. I), vol. 46,no. 30,pp. 692-94. Blume, Stuart. 1996. "A e ing Vaccine Value: Some Conceptual I ue." In Report of a Transnational Workshop on Technology Development. December 1618, 1996. Social Science and Immunization Project. Am terdam: University of Am terdam. CDC 1994. Addressing Emerging Infectious Di ease Threats: A Prevelllion Strategy for the United States. Atlanta: US Public Health Service. CVI [Children' Vaccine Initiative]. 1997. The CVI Strategic Plan. Managing Opportunity and Change: A Vision of Vaccination for the 21st Century. Geneva: The Children' Vaccine Initiative. Fenner, F., O.A. Henderson, I. Arita, Z. Jezek, and 1.0. Ladnyi. 1988. Smallpox and Its Eradication. Geneva: WHO. Fox, C. William., Jr. 1997/1998. "Phantom Warrior: Oi ease as a Threat to US National Security." Parameters: Journal of the US Anny War College. (Winter), vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 121-136. Garrett, Laurie. 1994. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Di ea es in a World Out of Balance. New York: Farrar, Strau and Giroux. Gleam , Loui , with Jane E. Sewell. Networks of Innovation: Vaccine Development at Merck. Sharp & Dohme. and Mulford. 1895-1995. New York: Cambridge University Pre ,1995. Greenough, Paul. 1995. "Intimidation, Coercion and Re i tance in the Final Stage of the South A ian Smallpox Eradication Campaign, 1973-1975." Social Science and Medicine (Sept.), vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 633-45. Hardon, A.P. 1991. Confronting III Health: Medicines. Self-care and the Poor in Manila. Quezon-City: HAIN.
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Hull, Harry. 1997. "Pax Polio." Science (Jan. 3), vol. 275, no. 5296, pp. 40-41 . In titute of Medicine. 1993. The Children's Vaccine Initiative: Achieving the Vision. National Academy of Science : Washington DC. In titute of Medicine. 1994. Overcoming Barriers to Immunization: A Workshop Summary. National Academy of Science . Wa hington DC. Jamison,D.T. 1993. "Di ease Control Prioritie in Developing Countrie : an Overview." In Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. D.T. Jami on, W.H. Mo ley, A.R. Measham & J.L. Bobadilla (ed .), pp. 3-35. New York: Oxford University Pre . Lederberg, Jo hua. 1996. "Infectiou Disease: A Threat to Global Health and Security." JAMA : The JournaL of the American Medical Association (Aug. 7), vol. 276, no. 5, pp. 417-419. Lee, Jong-Wook. 1995. "WHO' New Vaccine Programme." World Health (Jan.) vol. 48, no. I, pp. 4-5. Morse, Stephen. 1995. "Controlling Infectiou Di ease ." Technology Review (Oct.), vol. 98, pp. 54-61. _ _ . 1997. "The Public Health Threat of Emerging Viral Disease." Journal of Nutrition 127 (May: Supplement), pp. 9515-75. Muraskin, William. 1996. "Origin of the Children' Vaccine Initiative: the Political Foundation . ' Social Science and Medicine 42(12):1721-34. Nichter, Mark. 1995. "Vaccination in the Third World: A Con ideration of Community Demand." Social Science and Medicine (Sept), vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 617-32. Peters, C.J. 1997. Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses around the World. New York: Anchor Book. Platt, Anne E. 1996. Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Di ease. Washington DC: World watch In titute.
Pru iner, S. 1995. "The Prion Di ease ." Scientific American (1995), vol. 272, no. I, pp. 47-52. Rasmu en, Z., M. Rahim, P. Streefland and A. Hardon.
1996. Enhancing Appropriate Drug Use in the Karakorum Mountains. Am terdam: Het Spinhui . Rhode , Richard. 1997. Deadly Feasts: Tracking the Secrets of a Terrifying New Plague. New York: Simon & Schu ter. Rogers, A., and D. Pilgrim. 1995. ''The Ri k of Re i tance: Perspective on the Mas Childhood Immunization Programme." In Medicine, Health and Risk: Sociological Approaches. J. Gabe (ed.), pp. 73-91. Oxford: Blackwell. Schrater, Angeline. 1995. "Immunization to Regulate Fertility: Biological and Cultural Frameworks." Social Science and Medicine (Sept.), vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 65771. Streefland, P.H. 1994. "Shaping the Context of Drug U e: Availability of Pharmaceutical at the Frontier of Co mopolitan Medicine." In Medicines, Meanings and Contexts, N.L. Etkin & M.L. Tan (ed .), Manila: HAIN, 207-225. Talwar, G.P. 1994. "A Vaccine that Prevent Pregnancy in Women." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Aug. 30), vol. 91, pp. 8532-6. Vacali , T.D., L.R.B. Chri topher, and C.G. Shapiro. 1995. "Electronic Communication and the Future of International Public Health Surveillance." Emerging Infectious Diseases (Jan./Mar.), vol. I, no. I, pp. 34-35. WHO [World Health Organization]. 1996. State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Bank. 1993. Investing in Health. World Bank Development Report. Washington, DC. Wright. Peter F. 1995. "Global Immunization-A Medical Perspective." Social Science and Medicine (Sept.), vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 609-16.
Appropriating Gender: Women's Activism and Politicized Religion in
South Asia by Patricia JejJery* Women in South A ia have long been involved in ocial and political activi m. Throughout the 20th century, they have been drawn into nationali t organization and political partie . Mahatma Gandhi, for in tance, regarded women a key actor in the independence movement becau e of their ( uppo edly) pecial moral qualitie . Over the year , too, many women have participated in pea ant movement and trade union . Often, though uch organization have been only marginally-or even not at all--concerned with women' right. Neverthele particularly ince the 1970 with the development of autonomou femini t group , many crucial i ue of gender ju tice have come before the public eye and become the focu of heated debate . In the econd half of the 20th century, too, girl 'acce to education and training ha widened and more women are attaining a degree of financial independence by entering paid employment. Such development and the wide pread example of women' re i tance to unpalatable a peet of their ituation might ugge t that there are orne ground for optimi m.
â€˘ Patricia Jeffery i profe sor of sociology in the Department of Sociology, nive ity of Edinburgh. Thi e y draw on Appropriating Gtndu: Womtn' Activi m and Politiciud Rtligion in outh A ia, edit d by Patricia Jeffery and Amrita B u ( ew York: Routl dg , 1998), and pecially on th author' chapter entitl d "Agen y, Activi m and Agend ." M t of the p pers in the volume were pre nted at a conference held at the Rockefeller Center in Bell gio, Italy, Augu t 30 to eplember I, 1994, pon red by the Joint Committee on South A i (1970-96), the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundati n. Contributors to the volume are Mal thi de Alwi , University of Chic go; Amrita B u, Amherst Coli ge; hell y Feldman, Cornell University; Katy Gardner, University of u x; Zoya Hasan, Jawaharlal ehru University; Patrici Jeffery, University of Edinburgh; Rog r Jeffery, University of Edinburgh; Ritu M non, Kali for W, men, New Delhi; Barbara D. Metcalf, University of California, Davi ; hahnaz Rou , arah Lawrence Coli ge; Tanika Sarkar, t. tephen' College, University of Delhi; nd Farida Shaheed, Shirkat Gah Women' Re urce Centre, Lahore and Karachi .
But other development ince the late 1970 hould caution u . All too often, women' agency ha been deployed toward end that provide no room for complacency and celebration. Indeed, the inten e political turmoil in India in 1990-91 made it clear that tho e concerned about gender ju tice needed to come to grip with orne deeply troubling i ue urrounding women' activi m in South A ia. Among numerou in tance ,perhap particularly di turbing wa the way that 0 many women' energie were being ucce fully appropriated by the Hindu Right in India, e pecially in connection with the di puted Babari mo que in Ayodhya. High-profile female ideologue uch a Uma Bharati and Sadhvi Rithambara, a well a countle unnamed rank-and-file women, have been involved in demon tration and election campaign , or have exhorted their menfolk to arson and violence and have even applauded the rape of Mu lim women. Somewhat paradoxically, thi vitriolic femininity ha coexi ted in the rhetoric of the Hindu Right with image of demure If- acrificing Hindu mother and wive , vulnerable to exual as ault by Mu lim men. Femini t can derive little ati faction from uch mobilization of women, often in far greater number than femini t organization them elve have mobilized women to prote t gender inju tice , and often around agenda that are potentially deeply inimical to women' right and to femini t activi m. Further tudy of thi terrain how that uch development did not fully encompa the way that tate , political partie , and other organization , and women them elve have trategically appropriated gender in their endeavor. Other example of women' activi m are, arguably, m re equivocal for femini ts, a with the women involved in Tablighi Jama'at (an I lamic pieti t organization) or the women in the Mother ' Front in Sri Lanka prote ting the "di appearance " of their menfolk. On the other hand, the tate of South A ia have ometime eemingly denied women' agency or di couraged their activi m by iconizing women as the repo itorie of the nation' 'racial" purity, cultural integrity, and authenticity. In the year oon after Indian and Paki tani independence in 1947, the Indian tate put great tore on the recovery from Paki tan of "abducted" Hindu women, who ymbolically echoed India' own di memberment by partition. More recently, in both Paki tan and Banglade h, dome ticated image of the good Mu lim wife and
52. NUMBER I
mother have been prominent in tate pronouncement apparently intent on demobilizing women, even a economic change have drawn more women into paid employment out ide their home and both countrie have had female head of tate. Further, an exploration of uch matters in relation only to national in titution or epi odic moment of dramatic upheaval i partial and ometime mi leading. People' lived experience at the local level add an important new dimen ion to under tanding both the po ibilitie for and limit to women' activi m and agency. Thi i highlighted, for in tance, by the active endor ement of women' eclu ion a a facet of I lamic puri m by rural Banglade hi women who e familie have achieved economic ecurity through male out-migration, or by the local tate' re pon ivene to locally dominant Hindu ca te group that operate to the particular detriment of Mu lim women in rural north India. Appropriating Gender* explore all the e dimenion -non-activi t women as well a women in leader hip role , the local tate a well a the national tate, and the place of religiou identitie in people' everyday live a well a in the high profile rhetoric of political partie ,religiou organization and tate . One linking thread through the volume i a focu on "politicized religion" in South A ia. The tudy of religion in South A ia, in the en e of theological text , ritual practice , and religiou faith, ha long been an important element in cholar hip. Through the term "politicized religion," however, we hope to capture the way that tate, political partie , and ocial movement electively draw on facet of religiou idiom and belief in order to create and mobilize upport for their political ambition . Politicized religion al 0 enable u to explore important but often elu ive parallel between, for in tance, I lami t movement (ometime called fundamentali t) and political partie (a well a other organization) linked to the Hindu Right (ometime called nationali t or communali t). Throughout the 1980 and 1990 , religious claim have been repeatedly deployed in South A ia. State uch a tho e in Banglade hand Paki tan have tried to buttre their legitimacy through appeal to I lam and Mu lim identity. And political partie , notably the organizaâ€˘ See footnote on previou page.
tion of the Hindu Right in India, have articulated their oppo ition to the tate or their effort to wre t political power through the effective deployment of "religiou "idiom to rally their upporter behind the cau e. The centrality of gendered idiom within the imagining of politicized religion ha been a particularly con picuou and di quieting feature of the e proce e and lead to the volume' econd linking theme. Politicized religion i now a crucial part of the context within which femini t politic mu t operate. Countering the often explicitly anti-femini t program of politicized religion and mobilizing women around agenda to protect or advance their own right are no ea y task . For thi reason alone, politicized religion cannot be ignored. But politicized religion al 0 rai e crucial and ometime di turbing que tion about wqmen' agency and activi m. Hence the book addre e orne of the implication for femini t politic of the experience of women activi ts in politicized religiou organization, particularly with re pect to women' empowerment, women' activi m, and the furtherance of women' right. Mobilizing idioms Femini t organization in South A ia, a el ewhere, have been greatly exerci ed by debate over trategic prioritie . For a long a women are differentiated from men on the ba i of e entialized (and often tigmatized) identitie and are ubject to ytematic gender di crimination there i surely a political imperative to mobilize women around i ue of gender ju tice. Yet, a el ewhere, the category "woman" i problematic. Women' experience and intere ts are not identical and femini t organization have faced intractable problem in trying to create an "imagined community" of women. By contra t, politicized religiou organization have been remarkably ucce ful in mobilizing adherent around purportedly natural, primordialloyaltie , who e core image are deeply gendered. Powerful female deitie and piou role model have con iderable potency and have been very effective vehicle for women' mobilization by the Hindu Right, among other . Such trope are redolent with moral affmnation and textual and doctrinal legitimacy through which women can derive a en e of ocial worth. In addition, the glorification of women' elfle ne in ITEMs/II
the home may be paralleled by the iconized Mother erving the nation, aggre ively defending national honor a he would her children, or relea ed from dome tic dutie to become an activi t for the nation. By imagining the tandpoint of women mobilized like thi , it i not difficult to ee the attraction of appeal that endor e and elaborate-rather than challenge and di mantle-a umption about worthy behavior and noble womanhood. But devotion to duty, elf- acrifice, and ennobling activity on others' behalf me h unea i1y with femini t activi m and demanding women' right. Moreover, motherhood embed women in familie ,derive their identity from relation hip and dutie to other , and give little pace for image of women freely making deciion about their own live . For femini t , it i extremely problematic that the terrain of politicized motherhood legitimated in "religiou 'term has been 0 well-colonized by politicized religiou movement in South A ia. Women' activi m in uch movement doe not nece arily create divi ion among women of different communitie and religiou persua ion . Without doubt, though, a heightened awarene of religiou allegiance drive wedge between' true believer" and the re t, undermine women' identification with women en rna e, and make tran cending the barrier between women e en more difficult than it ha already proved to be.
Femini m , transnational and local Sometime femini t (and other) have re ponded to politicized religion by challenging doctrinal interpretation that tarkJy differentiate women from men. But thi tactic ha rarely proved ucce ful: for intance, femini t in Paki tan trying to develop alternative reading of the Qur'an Sharif and other key text of I lam have found their theological credential undermined by their male opponent . Yet when femini t try to hift the debate toward the terrain of gender ju tice, human right , and the common humanity of women and men, thi ha al 0 been problematic. Femini t critique of the family and other in titution have opened the way for femini t to tand accu ed-whether by the Hindu Right or Mu lim con ervative -<>f di loyalty and inauthenticity, of wanting to create chao by undermining the family and the community, of de troying traditional value , of being We ternized eculari t detached 12\ITEM
from their cultural roots, and demonstrating yet another ign of the perniciou and destabilizing influence of the foreign hand in South A ia. Recently, moreover, po tmoderni t keptici m about the authority of meta-narrative has been as 0ciated with ambivalence about We tern femini m (or more correctly, We tern femini m ) among South A ian femini t themselve . They cannot deny foreign influence on their ideas, but their relation hip with We tern femini ms are often brittle. Do We tern femini ms deal in universal truths about ju tice and gender inequality, or are their agendas and undertanding irredeemably beset by ethnocentri m? Can South A ian femini ts combine a belief in universal tandard for women' right with re peet for the local? Might engaging with "local femini m " enable them to throw off charge of their own cultural inauthenticity? Certainly, heeding the locally generated priori tie of village or urban lum women rather than impo ing femini t agenda from out ide trike a ympathetic chord, but it may al 0 generate dilemma . What hould femini t do if orne a pect of local fern ini m are antithetical to principle they them elve hold dear? How hould femini t re pond when women' everyday ocial world are premi ed on religiou or doctrinal difference (ay, between Hindu and Mu lim) or c1as or ca te nobberie (a when women adopt more "honorable" form of behavior to mark their di tinction from their ocial inferiors)? Further, mo t women are embedded in family and community, their major (though not nece arily exclu ive) ource of ecurityand en e of worth. Thi , indeed, ha been a boon for politicized religiou movement when they appropriate image of family and gender for their own political end , but it create problem for femini t . Dare women di tance themelve from the family where the difficultie they face are off et by the upport it provide ? Femini t agenda that explicitly as ault locally ignificant ocial divi ion or critique the family may outrage or frighten more women than they in pire. It may be pragmatically tempting to remain in tune with gra root opinion, but accepting women' familial and community-ba ed identitie could easily locate women even more firmly within elf-regulated, maledominated communitie that are not the be t place to en ure the protection of women' right. Fragmented
(and maybe also mutually hostile) feminism could eriou ly compromi e the ability of femini t program to challenge what happen within the community a well as beyond.
Women's activism and the state In this context, of course, engagement with the tate has taxed feminists in South A ia, a el ewhere. Femini t organizations within South A ia have taken tances ranging from ambivalence to outright ho tility toward the state, eeing the tate a an uncertain and dilatory ally (at be t) and a powerful adver ary (at worst). Yet, while many femini t advocate di engaging from the tate, to do 0 would leave carte blanche for pre ure group unlikely to have women' intere ts at heart. Indeed, tate them elve have been important contributor to women' problem, often in re pon e to pre ure from politicized religiou organizations and despite prote t from women' organization : witne ,for in tance, the I lamization program implemented in Pili tan from the late 1970 , or the Indian government' role in the Shah Bano ca e* in the mid 1980 . Moreover, femini t prote t about uch development may park a repre ive backla h from politicized religiou organization or from the tate it elf, as when police in Pili tan attacked a demon tration prote ting the enactment of the new law of evidence. If orne ort of engagement with the tate i in order, then, the influence of politicized religion on the tate and the centrality of gender i ue in politicized religion in them elve create difficultie for femini t . In addition, femini t have al 0 often worried that engaging with the tate (or, indeed, collaborating with "progre ive" organization uch a trade union ) may re ult in femini t agenda ' being di torted, diluted or co-opted. Here again, the example of women' activi m in politicized religion i in tructive. Doe uch activi m entail empowerment? And can women work effectively for their own agenda?
Women's activism and empowerment In practice, the linkage between women' agency, activi m and empowerment eem very unclear. Certainly, activi t women, uch as tho e recruited â€˘ A controversial c involving lin neial uppon for an elderly divorced Mu lim woman.
into Hindu Right organization , may experience a en e of empowerment and elf-confidence through being enabled to work with other beyond the immediate family. Yet thi empowerment eem rather in ecure. Women activi t often find them elve circum cribed by virtue of the very idiom through which they were mobilized. Con ider, for example, the women in the Mother ' Front in Sri Lanka who could prote t the "di appearance " of their menfolk only by weeping and cur ing. Their prote t were politically effective, but did not y tematically empower the women involved in the Front. Women' activi m, then, may be contained and i often (but not alway ) re pon ive, with women being mobilized around agenda managed by other . Thi run tarkly counter to femini t dream that women actively mobilize them elve and develop their own parameter for activi m, without being an werable to the caprice and agendas of other. But if women involved in male-dominated organization may be permitted to engage in contained activi m, women organizing around femini t agenda are unlikely to receive uch indulgence. Clearly, women have not alway endor ed the a umption that their primary identitie are as elfacrificing mother and wives, nor have they concertedly oppo ed the appeal of politicized religion. Sometime , women privilege their religiou identitie over their gender (or clas and ca tel identitie , and mobilize around the agenda of politicized religiou organization rather than gender ju tice. Women' capacity for activi minot in que tion, then, but the character of that activi m mo t certainly i . We hould not trivialize or be complacent about women' contained and re pon ive activi m on behalf of politicized religion, for it may be directed again t the intere t of other women. Moreover, a firmer identification a members of a particular religiou community ob truct a tran cendent en e of womanhood and the tran lation of women' activi minto femini t activi m. Women' activi m, then, cannot be a umed to be progre ive and a cau e for celebration. The debate about gender i ue in South A ia ha been 0 indelibly overwritten by the agenda of politicized religion that it i extremely difficult for those concerned about gender ju tice to be heard, let alone be politically effective. It i hard enough for femini t to operate within a ingle country, but politicized religion al 0 pill over national boundITEMs/I 3
arie . Event in neighboring countrie have been u ed to warrant animo itie acro border and ho tility toward minoritie within. Politicized religion casts it hadow over the whole region, and has crucial implication for the attainment of gender ju tice. Moreover, in many other parts of the world, global economic and political change are linked to "locali m " that frame their appeal for political upport in tenns of romanticized "authentic tradition " in which family and gender i ue are ab olutely key. Appropriating Gender addre e local variants on uch globally alient phenomena. The ca e tudie detailed there enable u to appreciate more fully why it i 0 hard to appeal ucce fully to women qua women when their allegiance are al 0 being pulled in other
direction. And, in the face of women mobilized around the cau e of politicized religion, we are compelled to heed orne tough Ie on about women' activi m and the magnitude of the ob tacle to atâ€˘ taining gender ju tice in South A ia.
Letters to the Editor Readers are invited to re pond to Items article by ending email to letters@ rc.org, or by writing to The Editor, SSRC, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 1OO19. The SSRC re erve the right to publi h excerpts from letters in future i ue .
52, NUMBER 1
Industrial Upgrading and Development Workshop notes
by Eric Hershberg * Globalization and development There i a wide pread perception, evident in the popular pre , in tatements by politician , bu ine elite, and labor leader , and accompanied by a growing ocial cientific literature, that a set of proce e 100 ely referred to a globalization will have profound con equence for the fortune of developed and developing economie alike. Notwith tanding cautionary note by ob erver who detect parallel with previou wave of expan ion in global trade and capital flow (Wade 1996), there i no denying that the volume of economic tran action acro national boundarie , and the peed with which they take place, ha increa ed ignificantly. Revolution in tran port technologie and communication, which make po ible a "collap e of pace and time" (Brunn and Leinbach 1991), have coincided with a generalized trend toward liberalization of trade and inve tment. To be ure, liberalization i not an inexorable proce but rather a product of political deci ion implemented by individual tate and by tran national in titution in which tate participate. For thi rea on, prevailing trend could in theory be lowed, particularly if the ub tantial ocial co ts implied by globalization engender y tematic efforts to reas ert control over the cro -border movement of capital. For the time being, however, the dynamic acro much of the planet i one of continuing economic liberalization. Conceptualization of development cannot ignore the reality that co~petition has increa ingly become global in cope, and that u taining pro perity require con tant proce se of innovation.
â€˘ Eric Hershberg, a political scienli I, i an SSRC program direclor. Thi article relie heavily on in igh of participan in an October I()'II , 1997 workshop lthe SSRC, a rapporteur' report co- uthored with Judith Sedaili (SSRC), and exchange with Gary Gereffi (Duke Universily), who chaired the workshop and i cochair, with Barbara Stalling (Economic Commi ion for Latin America and the Carribean [ECLAC]), of the Collaborative Research Network on "Globalization, Local In tilulion , and Development."
The development implication of globalization differ dramatically acro geographical and ocial pace, and re earcher from a range of di ciplinary, methodological and regional per pective have only begun to grapple with the tructure and contingencie that help to account for the e variation . By tudying interaction between local characteri tic and global proce e , cholar are calling into que tion uperficial portrayal of globalization as development panacea or nightmare, finding in tead that an array of factor can condition pattern of growth and di tribution in communitie , countrie , and region as they inter ect with globalization. Approached from thi per pective, the ocial cienti t i called upon to tudy imultaneou Iy practice and in titution operating at the micro- and me o-level - uch as mall enterpri e ,network of finn , community a ociation ,and ub-national government -and the different type of tran national frrm and indu trie , operating under di parate national and international regulatory regime , which con titute the macro-level context through which globalization reache particular localitie . It i through the complex interaction between the e local and global dynamic that we come to understand the way in which globalization offers promi ing opportunitie for improving economic condition in orne setting , while po ing the threat of tagnation or decline in others. Taking these propo ition as a point of departure, an interdi ciplinary, international group of scholar ha been as embled under Council au pice to launch a Collaborative Re earch Network (CRN) devoted to advancing under tanding of development in the context of globalization. 2 With ugge tion from the SSRCIACLS Regional Advi ory Panel (RAP) and other re earcher ,member of the network have begun to outline agendas for three thematic working group devoted to development-related i ue that would eem to take on pecial ignificance under current condition . One group aim to enrich theoretical under tanding of the relation hip between economic growth and reduced inequality, two central components of development that were long thought to be in ten ion but that, at least under orne circum tance ,
2 tart-up funds for the network are provided by the Ford Foundation' core granl in upport of the ACLSISSRC international program.
may complement one another (Carter 1997). A econd team of re earcher i eeking to map (and under tand the ocial con equence of) the variety of mechani m through which worker and communi tie in the developing world become in erted into proce e of globalization. A third working group i focu ing on indu trial upgrading, the importance of which i magnified by the globalization of competition. Upgrading i critical not only in relation to pro pect for u taining economic dynami m of firm and the communitie in which they operate, but al 0 for improving the quality of work and of living condition for people in tho e communitie . An October 10-11, 1997 planning meeting at the Council brought together 15 leading re earcher from univer itie , international agencie , and policy in titute , from 10 different countrie , to debate the implication of indu trial upgrading for development and to a e analytical trategie for furthering under tanding of the topic.3 The remainder of thi e ay draw electively on that di cu ion and ugge t particularly promi ing area for continuing re earch and collaboration.
lndu trial upgrading: defining and disaggregating a concept The concept of upgrading mirror that of development in it allu ion to progre ion from one kind of economic activity to an ther. Wherea development connote advance ba ed on criteria ranging from economic growth to equity to ecological u tainability, upgrading refer to increa e in the complexity of economic activitie ,encompa ing technological ophi tication a well a knowledge and kill level . Amid t heightened competitive pre ure, upgrading become imperative for advanced and developing ec nomie alike. A firm, community, or country that become "trapped" in a given economic niche or that fail to innovate i unlikely to develop in an era during which pro perity hinge in part on the capacity to hift rapidly into advantageou niche of an increa ingly globalized y tern of production and exchange. But while ocial cienti t recognize that upgrading i important, and while policymaker and
3 See pag 22. footnote 4 for a Ii t of parti ipant .
economic actor them elve hare deep concern with the i ue, there i no theoretical con en u concerning how be t to approach to the topic in different etting . Participant in the October work hop ought to identify trategie for filling thi gap. A fir t tep wa to define upgrading and to di tingui h analytically among different type of upgrading. One kind of upgrading entail inte~ ectoral hift , and i commonly de cribed in account of the "East A ian miracle." Export production in the region began in uch ba ic con umer good indu trie a toy and apparel. Over time, the e economie upgraded into ever more complex ector, from con umer electronic to automobile to information technology, which not only provided greater value added but which al 0 offered improved employment condition and fo tered opportunitie for local entrepreneur hip. Another u eful approach i to di tingui h two ph e of upgrading. During an initial ph e, the principal challenge i to hift from export-oriented a embly ba ed almo t exclu ively on imported material to more integrated form of manufacturing. 4 The experience of the o-called Newly Indu triaJizing Economie (NIE) of Ea t A ia, beginning in the 1960 , aJ 0 provide a model of thi intra- ectoral tran ition into what Gereffi ha referred to a "pecification contracting," whereby local upplier ume greater importance and manufacturer move fr m a embly of tandardized good for multinational firm to direct provi ion of made-to-order good for retailer . Today, thi i ue i at the forefront of the agenda for countrie at the lowe t rung of the development ladder, from the Caribbean Ba in to Indochina to South A ia. There, to upgrade involve moving beyond the low value-added niche a ociated with export proce ing zone , where competivene ha been achieved through an abundance of cheap and relatively un killed labor producing tandardized product rather than through de ign capabilitie ,product pecialization, or niche marketing. A concern with intra-sectoral change i al 0 rele-
41be following di u i n of ph t nd ph 2 upgrading draw heavily on a memorandum prepared by Gary Gereffi in advance of the October meeting. 1be di tinction bctw n inter-sectoral and intra- toral hili w offered tthe w li.shop by R ph I Kaplin ki. In titute for Development tudie t Su x.
vant to "Phase 2" upgrading, where one a pect of upgrading concern product niche, both in term of specialization and quality. The well known tory of flexible specialization (Pi ore and Sabel 1984) among small firms in Northern Italy i emblematic of thi sort of upgrading, but examples abound el ewhere a well. Furniture producer in Scandinavia, footwear manufacturers in Brazil, and salmon exporters in Chile have all sought to adapt standardized production capabilities to the exigencies of highly specialized markets in which quality rather than co t alone determines competitiveness. s In some in tance thi form of upgrading entails the adoption of new technologies; in others the relative emphasi i on enhancing production proce e or improving knowledge of shifting pattern of demand in highly egmented markets. Regardle of the basi for upgrading, its effects often mean inc rea ing the unit value of goods that are produced in a given location. And in some instances, though by no mean all, upgrading can imply improved well-being for worker and mall enterprises as well as greater profitability and, hence, opportunitie for u taining economic growth. Moving from one level of activity to another within a transnational production chain con titute a econd key aspect of Phase 2 upgrading: the unprecedented decentralization of highly integrated economic activities implies that a particular et of actor may pecialize in a limited number of function in (or coordinate diverse nodes of) a given global commodity chain or cross-national production network (Gereffi and Korzeniewicz 1994; Borru and Zy man 1997). Thu , in the computer indu try, the mo t advanced of the East A ian NIEs have attempted to develop de ign capabilitie previou ly enjoyed only by U.S. and Japane e firm and to hift manufacturing of relatively imple component to other countrie in the region. 6 Similarly, a Tai-lok Lui noted during our workshop, to upgrade in apparel and other Hong Kong manufacturing indu trie i increa ingly to
S TIle example of Chilean Ii herie and Dani h furniture were introduced during the workshop by Jorge Katz and Dieter Em t. re pectively. 6 TIle "flying geese" model of regional development (Ozawa 1997) was a topic of con iderable debate in the October meeting. Skeptic held that Japanese and U.S. multin tional retain dominant position throughout East A ia, where proponent of the ppro ch argued for a more indetermin te picture.
abandon production and become a trader, matching order from retailing fmn with factorie that have largely been relocated to the People' Republic of China. 7 A crucial ramification of thi example of upgrading i that the power of relevant actor to hape the proce e of integration, coordination, or control in a given chain has taken on unprecedented importance. Another, related implication-echoed by Jorge Katz' de cription of large Latin American firm that have increa ed productivity level dramatically over the pa t decade or 0 through enormou inve tments in capital inten ive facilitie -i that the ocial con equence of upgrading are not alway poitive for all actor concerned. Maintaining global competitivene increa ingly may be a nece ary condition for combining growth and equity, but it would be a eriou mi take to a ume that it i ufficient to meet both of the e objective .8 Foundations of upgrading: learning, institutions, and policies Each form of upgrading de cribed above place a premium on the acqui ition of knowledge, which can be applied to de ign, engineering, advance in production proce e, or to understanding of hifting pattern of demand in global market . For thi rea on, the capacity for organizational learning con titute an e ential foundation for upgrading. Indeed, de pite the traditional bia of political economy toward production-related i ue and technological advance , work hop participant emphasized the need to focu equally on the acqui ition of kill and "know-how." Upgrading i not merely a technical puzzle involving production proce e, technologie ,or pecific kill in engineering or marketing-though each of the e factor i certainly relevant in orne context . Rather,
7 In a personal communication, Gary Gereffi h pointed out th t thi type of upgrading highligh the way in which the boundarie of "sectors" become blurred by the decentralization of function in global commodity chain . Thi pose ignilicant challenge for much theoriz tion in political economy, which has relied heavily on the concept of indu trial or productive "sector." In a memorandum circul ted in advance of the workshop, Roben Wade outlined an additional type of upgrading, from environmentally de tructive activitie to cleaner technologie . Con ideration of pace preclude our addre ing thi complex i ue in detail, but we return to the topic briefly in the conclu ion.
it is a fundamentally political and social challenge that groups of people and in titutions confront by developing capacities for learning and, in tum, for acting on the basis of that knowledge. The network of small firms that coale ce in industrial districts in the "third Italy," for instance, u tain innovation not through a reliance on capital intensive production or technological sophi tication but through the pooling of information and re ources among highly killed workers and managers. Similarly, the dynami m of family firm in Taiwan is attributable in large measure to the close-knit social networks that link enterprises to one another, and to the 100 er but ubiquitous ties through which local managers exchange information with outside buyers and brokers. Learning is e sential because the prerequisites for competitiveness change over time. With globalization, a high growth sector today becomes a low growth trap tomorrow. As Lynn Mytelka argued during the workshop, a particular set of assets-u ually not knowledge as ets--can be capitalized on to launch a given industry, but competitors can be expected to copy the leaders. At this juncture, knowledge content becomes key in order to move into more lucrative sets of tasks-(e.g., genetically engineering fish, designing clothes, managing a sourcing network, etc.}. The elusive questions for analysis of upgrading, and for public policies that aim to foster it, concern how capabilities for learning are created and sustained, and how actors acquire the flexibility needed to transfer a knowledge base developed for one kind of product or sector to another. The methodological challenges this poses to social scientists are daunting, for as Jorge Katz noted, the nature of the data is highly variable and the learning that takes place is of a particular kind: whereas in the past studies focu ed on the characteristics of individual firms, today the focus is on micro relationships that thrive in networks of enterprises, and this foregrounds the relational aspects of learning. It is in this context that local institutions become a critical element in conceptualizations of upgrading. Upgrading is in large measure about occupying niches in which the barriers to entry are high, but for precisely this reason individual firms may lack the resources-information or capital, for instance-neces ary to upgrade effectively. Social and political institutions offer mechanism for achieving collec-
tively efficiencie and capabilities that isolated actors cannot achieve on their own. Indeed, as Anna Lee Saxenian argued during the workshop, capabilities for innovation and learning correlate highly with the presence at the local level of non- tate and non-market social institutions that enable information and re ource to flow freely. The nature of a ociational life-a measure of what some scholars have referred to as social capital-is one critical determinant of local capacities for learning and upgrading. However, de pite broad consensus among workshop participants on the need to study the impact of local in titutions on adaptive capabilities, the methodological challenges are once again substantial: what kinds of evidence are sufficient to disprove the "neo-liberal counterfactual," according to which whatever innovation might have occurred in the presence of nonmarket in titutions is posited as likely to have emerged, perhaps more efficiently, through market proce es alone. 9 This concern highlights the continuing uncertainty about the contours of public policies conducive to indu trial upgrading. Needless to ay, such macroeconomic variables as steady access to finance at moderate interest rates, price stability, etc. can ea e or di rupt economic life in countle s ways, and are basic contextual factors shaping opportunities for innovation. Yet to the extent that policies form part of the institutional underpinnings of local capacities for learning and innovation, the focus of inquiry is at least as likely to be on initiatives at the meso-level, that is, on sector-specific measures and on endeavors undertaken either by local or regional government or by national policies tailored to local needs. The role of specific policies remain insufficiently understood, but two ingredients appear essential. First, the tate itself must possess a range of admini trative and technical capacities; the absence of appropriately trained personnel in public agencies was cited repeatedly as a hindrance to upgrading efforts in much of the developing world. Second, the existence of collaborative ties among policymakers acro s different levels of the state admini tration and between officials and the private sector is often crucial to the effectiveness of policy design, implementation, and
9 Rick Doner and
scott Martin emphasized this point.
VOLUME 52, NUMBER 1
coherence. 10 In this re pect, re earchers might be encouraged to ask how industrial trategy is formulated and implemented rather than what it entails.
Future steps In lieu of a tidy conclusion, participants in the October work hop identified a variety of analytically separate but related themes that offer particularly promising opportunities to advance conceptual and empirical research pertinent to upgrading. Efforts are currently underway to ecure funding to pursue ome of these themes, which are outlined briefly below: • Comparative industry studies. Many workshop participants have conducted detailed empirical studies of particular industries or sectors: Glasmeier on the watch industry, Ernst on electronics, Gereffi on apparel and pharmaceuticals. To better understand how particular localities become trapped in some instances and upgrade succe sfully in others, to asse show learning takes place or is stymied, and to begin to explore the ocial ramifications of different approaches to upgrading, efforts could be made to compare industries on the basis of specific variables that, though implicit in work done by individual re earchers, tend not to have been highlighted in published case studies that did not focus on upgrading per se. • Commodity exports and upgrading. In several regions of the world ( e.g., Southeast Asia, Latin America, Africa) the principal source of exports for decades to come is likely to consi t of primary/natural resource-based products (e.g., mining and agriculture), ectors that traditionally were considered resistant to upgrading. However, we now recognize that knowledge-based productivity increases are as central to success in resource extraction and proce sing as in traditional manufacturing industries. What are the particular challenge of upgrading in primary product markets? How can lessons be derived acro s regions, sectors, and the like? • Embeddedfirm-level networks. Prevailing conceptualizations of learning eem inadequate for analyzing the dynamics of upgrading in the contemporary world economy. The kinds of learning needed for upgrading today are likely to require cooperation 10 Lynn Mytelka articul ted these dimensions of policy suppons for upgrading.
among actors linked in titutionally through economic networks. What are the characteristics of such networks, and how does learning actually take place inside them? By comparing detailed case studies of personal and institutional networks it may be possible to document how learning happens and, when transmitted into enterprise settings, how production chains become established. Learning, in this sen e, is not restricted to technical issues and production innovations but includes information on user needs and market demand as well. • Sub-national public policy. It is increasingly apparent that there is an important role for sub-national policy in promoting industrial upgrading and economic development more generally. However, it is al 0 clear that our understanding of the meso-level policy environment lags behind our grasp of either micro or macro dimensions. What kinds of public policies are best suited to strengthening capacities at the me 0 level, and what sorts of state institutions are most likely to be able to design, implement, and monitor such policies? How can the capabilities for learning be fostered by policy interventions? • The environment and ecological upgrading. 11 Whereas neoclassical economics traditionally took a substitution approach whereby natural capital could be replaced with human capital, environmental economists see the relationship as one of complementarity, where one unit increase in manmade capital must be complemented with one unit of natural capital. This perspective on sustainable development is increa ingly experienced as an issue of industrial upgrading. In Taiwan, which like Japan 20 years or so earlier initially acrificed environmental integrity for economic growth, priorities have now been established to introduce clean technologies into existing indu tries and, moreover, to treat the environmental ector itself as a leading export industry. The pattern is reminiscent of one that has been studied extensively in advanced economies, but that has received hardly any attention at all in the developing world. The appeal of the topic as a subject of future inquiry goes beyond its intrinsic importance, which is considerable, for the introduction of environmental concerns supplements discussions of upgrading that focus heavily on competitiveness, and opens the door as
11 See footnote 8.
well to di tributional i ue. In thi way, we move beyond an exclu ive concern with economic growth and can focu attention in tead on the multi-dimenional objective of improving people' live, that i , on the real tuff of development. â€˘ References Borru , Michael, and John Zy man. 1997. "Winteli m and the Changing Term of Global Competition: Prototype of the Future?" BRIE Working Paper 96b (February). Brunn, Stanley D., and Thomas R. Leinbach, eds. 1991. Collap ing Space and TIme: Geographic Aspects 0/ Communication and In/onnation. London: Harper
Collin. Carter, Michael. 1997. "Economic Growth and Inequality." Unpubli hed SSRC working group proposal. (September). Gereffi, Gary, and Miguel Korzeniewicz, ed. 1994. Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism. We tport, CT: Praeger. Ozawa, Terutomo. 1997. "Toward a Co-evolutionary
Theory of Structural Change: Multinational as Cataly ts for Structural Change." Unpubli hed paper. Piore, Michael, and Charle F. Sabel. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books. Wade, Robert. 1996. "Globalization and its Limits: Reports of the Death of the National Economy are Greatly Exaggerated." In S. Berger and R. Dore, cds., Regional Diversity and Global Capitalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Correction In the last i ue of Items, on page 90, the members of the Sexuality Research Fellow hip Program Selection Committee were incorrectly li ted. Following are the members of the committee: Anke Ehrhardt and John Gagnon (cochairs), Lourde Arguelles, John Bancroft, Barbara de Zalduondo, John Fout, Jacqueline Forre t, Julia Rue Heiman, Gilbert Herdt, and Beth Richie.
VOLUME 52, NUMBER 1
Current Activities at the Council Institutional Frameworks and Flexible Production in Latin America Through the initiative of Alice Abreu and her colleague at the Federal Univer ity of Rio de Janeiro, the SSRC helped to organize a September 1997 international conference analyzing the in titutional underpinning of flexible production in Latin America.' More than a dozen original paper were pre ented at the meeting, which included a commentator numerou participant in an October 1996 SSRCspon ored conference devoted to parallel que tions in Ea t A ia. Encompa ing empirical tudies of a variety of indu trial ectors in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, and Chile, re earch preented at the meeting highlighted the diver e characteri tic of flexibility in different etting . In many context, numerical flexibility remain the rule, and rela• Participan included: Alice Rangel de Paiva Abreu, Universidadc Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil; LaI Abramo, Comi i6n Economica para A~rica Latin (CEPAL), Santiago. Chile; Caren Addi , Rutgers University; Adalbcno Cardoso, In tituto UniversitArio de Pesqui do Rio de Janeiro (lUPERJ), Brazil; Jorge Carrillo, Colegio de la Frontera None, Mexico; Gabriel C buri, Facultad Latinoarnericano de Cienci Sociale (FLACSO), Argentina; Nadya Araujo Castro, Centro Brasileiro de An:1lise e Planej mento (CEBRAP), Brazil; J fa S lete Barbosa Cavalcanti, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil; Stephen Chiu, Chinese Unviersity of Hong Kong; Alvaro Comin, Centro Brasileiro de An:1lise e Planejamento (CEBRAP). Brazil; Fred Deyo. In titute for Development Studie (IDS). University of Auckland; Rick Doner. Emory University; Magdalen Echeverria, Mini try of Labor. Santiago. Chile; Alfonso Carl
tion hip within and between firm tend to be hierarchical and exploitative; in other , there i evidence of a more dynamic flexibility, in which network of economic actors facilitate innovation at the level of product and proce e. Often, the e network are reinforced by new in titutional arrangement within and acro firm , and between public agencie and the private ector. A volume con i ting of revi ed verion of the paper i being prepared for publication in Brazil, under the editor hip of M . Abreu and Lai Abramo, of the Economic Comrni ion on Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in Santiago, Chile.
Working Groups on Globalization and Development Labor and Community Insertion in Processes of Globalization. It i well known that globalization
Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Brazil; Maria Tereza Leme Aeury. Universidadc de Sao Paulo (USP). Brazil; Gary Gereffi, Duke University; Lcda Gitahy. Universidadc de Campinas (UNICAMP). Brazil; Robcno Grun. Universidade Federal de Santa Carolina (UFSCAR). Brazil; MW'cia de Paula Leite. Universidade de Campin (UNICAMP). Brazil; Jacob Carlo Lima. Universidade Federal da Paralba, Brazil; Cecilia Montero. Centre Nacional de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Pari • France; Corporaci6n de Invcstigaci6ne Economic para Latinoarnerica (CIEPLAN). Santiago. Chile; Manha Novick, University of Buenos Aire (UFBA). Argentina; Juan Pablo P~rez Safnz. FLACSO. C ta Rica; Anne Posthuma. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Brazil; J~ Ricardo Ram lho. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Brazil. StatT: Eric Hershbcrg and Juliana Decks.
impose severe pre ure on worker and their organization in many indu trie , and often entail exclu ion. In other in tance , worker and communitie po e combination of a ets, ba ed on kill , knowledge, or territorial attribute , which provide mechani m for becoming incorporated in proce e of globalization. What are the circum tance that dictate how comrnunitie take advantage of the opportunitie po ed by globalization while minimizing the co t ? And what are the implication of different mode of in ertion for long-term dynamic of economic growth and di tribution? A mall working group met in September 1997 in Rio de Janeiro to di cu the e and other related que tion .2 The group empha ized the importance of mapping the " cenario " of in ertion in different part of the world; analyzing the macro-economic and ectoral context in which globalization i experienced in particular place ; and exploring the impact at the microlevel of uch variable a ocial capital.
2 Panicip nlS included: Alice Rangel de Paiva Abreu, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ); Jorge Carrillo, Colegio de la Frontera None. Tijuana, Mexico; Stephen Chiu. Chinese University of Hong Kong; Fred Deyo. In titute for Development Studie • University of Auckland; Gary Gcreffi. Duke University; Juan Pablo P~rez Safnz. Facultad Latin mericano de I Cienci Sociale (FLACSO). C ta Rica; Gay Scidm n. University of Wisconsin. Madison. Staff: Eric Hershbcrg and Juliana Deeks.
MicroLevel Underpinning of Interactions between Economic Growth and Inequality. Growth and equity are perhap the mo t central component of development, but until recently these objective were perceived by economi t as inherently in tenion. Thi conventional wi dom i now being called into que tion in light of Ea t A ian experience . The implication for development theory and practice may be profound, yet opportunitie for re earcher and practitioner to debate tho e implication are few and far between. A mall group of e onomi t met in October 1997 in Wa hington, DC to di cu the e i ue and their ramification , including tho e related to policy.3 E pecial\y promi ing analytical i ue, around which work hop might be organized in future, include the impact of inequality on hou ehold inve tment in education, clarifying the relation hip between indice of inequality at the aggregate level, and income mobility at the individual and hou ehold level . Indu trial Upgrading. Globalization compel countrie, communitie , and economic enterpri e to continually adapt to changing market demand . A a re ult, firm and communitie
3 Participan included: Sara Berry (not in ttendance). John Hopkin University; N ncy Birdsall. Inter-American Development Bank; Mich I Carter, University of Wi on in, M di n; Albert Fi hlow, Council on Foreign Rei tion ; John Schmitt, Economic P Ii Y In tilUle; amuel Morl y, Inter-American Development Bank; Lyn Squire, The World Bank; Barbara Stalling , Economic Comi ion on Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLA), anti 0, Chile. Staff: Eric H rshberg and David Weiman. 22\1TEM
mu t acquire and u tain the capacity to upgrade productive activitie from relatively lowvalue-added ector and function into increa ingly favorable niche in the global y tern of production and exchange. What are the mo t promi ing approaches to the tudy of upgrading, and to what extent doe thi vary according to geographic, ectoral, or technological variable ? In October 1997, more than a dozen cholar from nearly as many countrie held a work hop at the SSRC to addre the e i ue. 4 Principal topic for di cu ion included the role of ocial and economic networks, a well a public policie , in fo tering learning by firm and clu ter of firm regardle of ector or technological ophi tication. The importance of ubnational policie emerged a an e pecially fertile area for re earch and practice, a did the potential ynergie between environmental protection and upgrading into clean technologie .
4 Participants included: Lazslo Bruzst, Budape t College, Central European Univerity; Rick Don r, Emory Unive ity; Dieter Em t, Copenhagen Bu inc School, Denmark; Gary Gerefti, Duke University; Amy GI meier, Penn State University; Raph I Kaplin ky, In liMe for Development Sludie , (IDS), Unive ity of Su x; Jorge Katz, Economic Comi ion on Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLA), s nli go, Chile; Tai Lok Lui, Chine Universily of Hong Kong; Scott Martin, In lilUle for Latin American and Iberian Sludie (ILAIS), Columbi University; Lynn Mylelka, Uniled N lion Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Switzerrland; Terutomo Ozawa, Colorado State University; Aurelio Parisotto, Internalional In tiMe for Labour Studi , Switzerland; AnnaLee Saxenian, University of California, Berkeley; Robert Wade, Ru II S ge Found lion. taff: Eric Hershberg, Juliana Deelcs, and Judith Sed iti .
International Peace and Security Meetings A re earch work hop ponored by the Committee on International Peace and Security (IPS) on "Case Study Method in International Peace and Security" was held at Harvard University's Center for Science and International Affairs on October 17-19, 1997. Participants gathered to di cu the core i ue of ca e study method uch as within-ca e analy i (congruence te ting and proce tracing), the logic of comparative ca e tudie, typological theory, ca e selection, alternative re arch de ign for theory building and te ting, pecific ta k in implementing ca e tudie , and the trength and weakne e of ca e tudy method relative to other approache . Ca e tudy re earch de ign for works on important re earch topic in international peace and ecurity were al 0 critiqued during the work hop.s "Alternative Hi torie : Theoretical and Policy Implication " wa the ubject of a re earch
S Organizers: Andrew Bennett, Georgelown University; and Alexander George, Stanford University. Participants included Pierre Atl , Rutgers University; Michael Brown, Harvard University; Jane Kellett Cramer, M husetts In titute of Technology; David Collier, University of California, Berkeley; David De ler, College of William and Mary; Colin Elman; Arizona tate University; Miriam Elman, Arizon tate University; John Lewi Gaddi , Yale University; Stuart Gottlieb, Brown University; n Lynn Jone , Harvard University; Ch im Kaufman, Lehigh University; Ja k Levy, Rutgers University; Roy Licklider, Rutgers University; Charle Ragin, Norlhwe tern University; Brent Sterling, Georgetown University. Staff: Amy Frost.
VOLUME 52, NUMBER 1
planning meeting held at Ohio State University on November 79, 1997.6 A group of hi torian , ocial cienti t , and international relation peciali ts convened to discuss the debate over counterfactual by commis ioning counterfactual investigations of pecific hi torical ca e , theme ,and protocol for conducting counterfactual inve tigation. The principal hi torical que tion addre ed wa : How inevitable wa the ri e of the We t and it military and technological dominance? The meeting wa a follow-up to an earlier conference on counterfactual analy i which re ulted in the volume, Counterfactual Thought Experiment in World Politics: Logical Methodological, and Psychological Per pectives (Princeton Univer ity Pre , 1996).
IPFP Fellows' Conference On October 30-November 2, 1997, the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program (lPFP) held it annual fellow ' conference in Park City, Utah. A group of 36 IPFP fellow and nine faculty met to di cu theoretical and methodological con-
6 Org nizer: Philip Tetlock, Ohio tate University. Participants: Jeremy Black, University of Exeter; Robert Cowley, Editor-in-Chief, Military History Quanuly; Carole Fink, Ohio tat University; Ri hard Hamilton, Ohio tate University; Victor Han n, Califomia State University, Fre no; Ro H ig, University of Oklahoma; Richard Herrmann, Mershon Center, Ohio State University; Edward Ingram. Simon Fraser University; Ira Lapidu , University of California, Berkel y; Richard Ned Lebow, Mershon Center, Ohio State University; Geoffrey Parker, Ohio State University; Randolph Roth, Ohio tate University; Barry Strau ,Cornell University; and Arthur Waldron. University of Penn ylvania. MARCH
cern at i ue in the conduct of re earch in the developing world. Roughly one-third of the conference wa devoted to plenary e ion on re earch de ign and method of data collection. David Collier, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, di cu ed problem of de igning a re earch project; John Knodel, University of Michigan, gave a pre entation on the u e of focu group; Bryna Goodman, Univer ity of Oregon, poke about approache to archival re earch; and Thoma Spear, University of Wi con in, Madi on, di cu ed the u e of oral hi torie in re earch. Mo t of the conference wa devoted to mall group di cu ion of each fellow' preliminary thought about a re earch project in the developing world. Fellow prepared an eight to 10-page tatement of re earch goal which wa di tributed to all participant prior to the conference. The workhop are intended to provide opportunitie for exploration of idea about how to de ign a olid re earch project. Di cu ion empha ized adequacy of methodologie in addre ing a given theoretical i ue, adequacy of attention to i ue of context- en itivity, and problem of data collection, analy i , and interpretation. Faculty participants moderated the mall wor hop group and participated in informal di cu ion. 7
7 Participant included: 0 ar Barbarin, University of Mi higan, Ann Arbor; Mr. Collier, Daniel Doeppers, University of Wi on in, Madi n; Raquel Fern ndez, New York University; M . Goodman; A. Dougl Kincaid, Florida International University; Mr. Knodel, Gwendolyn Mikell, Georgetown Univeri ity; and Mr. Spear. Staff: Ellen Perecman, Alexa Dietrich, nd Li Angu.
Fellow were invited to organize impromptu di cu ion during meal and free time on topic of their choice-anything from the practical to the methodological to the theoretical. Di cu ion topic included: "Sen itive Topic in Research," "Concepts of Identity," and "Methodological Divide in Political SciencelPolitical Economy."
Immigrant Political Incorporation The International Migration Program pon ored the flf t of two meeting of it work hop on "Immigrant Political Incorporation in Europe and the United State : Public Debate and Social Science," from October 3-5, 1997 at the European Univer ity In titute in Florence, Italy.8 The goal of the work hop i to compare the relation hip between cholar hip and politic with regard to national identity and immigrant political incorporation in Great Britain, France, Germany, the Netherland , and
Work hop coordinators: Robin Cohen, University of Warwick; and Ali tide Zolberg, New chool for ocial Re arch. Participants: T. Alex nder Aleinikoff, Georg town Univerity Law Center; Ay Caglar, Frei Univeritat Berlin; Philomena d, University of Am terdam; Harry Goullbourne, Cheltenham nd Glouche ter College; Michael Kearney, University of California, Riverside; Farhad Kho rokhavar, Ecole de H utes Etud en Science SociaJe; Remy Leveau, Fondation Nationale de Science Politique; Long Lilt Woon, Norwegian Mini try of Local Government and Labor; Fran~oise Lorcerie, CNR Universit~ ; Ken n Malik, 10urnali t; Jan Roth, University of Amsterd m; Ru~n Rumbaut, Michigan State Unive ity; Robin Schneider, Office of the Commi ioner for Foreigner Affairs. Staff: Jo h Dewind and Chri tian Fuersich.
the United States. Scholars and policy experts from the five nation examined how national identity and membership are embodied in the citizen hip laws, cultural traditions, social identitie , and political in titution of each country. The purpo e of the October meeting wa to establish a comparative international framework in which to explore how public debate have influenced research and writing by social scientists about immigrant incorporation, and, in tum, how such re earch and writing has influenced national public debate and policies. The di cu sion about how to frame international compari ons centered on three themes: contending models of national identity and political member hip; national origins and tran national tie (with regard to Mu lim in France, Turks in Germany, Suriname e in the Netherland , West Indian in Great Britain, and Mexicans in the United States); and, conflict over immigrant identity and cultural practice (particularly race, language, and religion). Exploring difference and similaritie related to the e theme in each of the five countrie being examined will be the focus of the econd meeting, which will take place on May 15-17, 1998 at the Multiethnic Center in Berlin. The outcome of thi work hop will be a book, which is expected to contribute not only to understandings of the politics and cholar hip of immigrant incorporation but al 0 more broadly to methods for undertaking international compari ons. The workshop is upported by fund from 24\1TEMS
the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the German-American Academic Council.
Local Biology As part of the Council's continuing exploration of intellectual and practical linkages between the ocial and biologicallbiomedical cience, the Ethnopediatrics Working Group organized a conference on "Local Biology: Relationship of Biology and Culture in Ontogeny."9 Held at Jekyll Island, Georgia on November 15-17, 1997, the meeting was designed to examine a powerful et of models about relation hip between biology and context (or culture) in ontogeny,Âˇ and about how uch relation hip may pertain to differential well-being. The e model have ari en in diverse literature that addre s different level of analysis, and act individually a loci for creative re earch and di cu ion. The conference ought to juxtapose a et of uch model that, in combination, could erve a engine for integrative approache to a broad-ba ed biocultural view
9 Organizers: Carol Worthman. Emory University; and Ron Barr. McGill University. Panicipant : Roben Ader. University of Roche ter, Barbara Anderson. OhIO State University; Adrian Angold. Duke University: Manha Constantin-Paton. Yale University: Jane Costello. Duke University: Lindon Eaves. University of Virginia: Megan Gunnar. University of Minnesota: Charles Nelson. University of Minnesota: Katherine Nelon. City University of New York: John Ne selroade. University of Virginia: Alan Rogers. University of Utah: Esther Thelen. Indiana University: and Barry Zuckerman. Boslon Medical Center. StafT: Frank Kessel.
â€˘ The life hI tory or development of an indIvidual organism from embryo to adult.
of human development. The focus wa on the different ways model -ranging from the proximal cellular level, through the organic and behavioral, to the evolutionary level-inform under tanding of the roles in ontogeny of context (in a ocialecological en e) and the dynamics underlying per on-environment interactions. Five sub tantive domain were compared and contrasted at the conference: life history theory, developmental neurobiology, p ycho-neuro-immunology, tate regulation and activity, and behavioral-developmental genetics.
Fellows' Conference on Sexuality Research The Sexuality Research Fellow hip Program (SRFP) held it 1997 fellows' conference on September 25-28 1997 at the Kinsey In titute of Indiana University, attended by 1997 and 1996 SRFP fellows, member of the SRFP selection commitee, Kinsey In titute staff, and gue t peaker .10 The conference provided an opportunity for the fellow to form productive alliance with each other, di cu their work in progre ,and gain a greater understanding of important re earch i ue. The conference con i ted of formal pre entation , large and mall group discu sion , one-on-one "converations" and a tour of the Kin ey
10 Presenters: John Gagnon. Slate University of New York. Stony Brook: Susan Newcomer. Nallonal In tilule of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD): and John Bancroft. The Kinsey In tiMe. StafT: DIane dl Mauro and Mirja Pilkin.
In titute, which allowed for an appreciation of the hi tori cal ignificance of the In titute and for the fellow to become familiar with archival technique of data collection. Formal pre entation were made on the following topic : policy relevance of sexuality reearch, media i ue, and government funding for demographic
re earch on exual behavior. The group had the opportunity to addre plan for outreach and di emination activitie , and to di cu the following topic : preliminary re earch finding , ob tacle or difficultie encountered, and the ethical i ue of their re earch. A helpful "wrap-up" e ion included mall group di cu ion, each led by one of the
1996 fellow in attendance, in which they hared their thought about the fellow hip experience and provided recommendation and other u eful information for tho e beginning a fellow hip. The conference provided an occa ion for networking and learning more about what it mean to be a " exuality re earcher."
Recent Council Publications Appropriating Gender: Women's Activism and Politicized Religion in South A ia, edited by Patricia Jeffery and Amrita Ba u. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia (197096). New York: Routledge, 1998. xi + 276 page . The relation hip of women to politicized religion in South A ia i paradoxical and complex. Religiou politic ha created opportunitie for women' activi m while imultaneou ly undermining women' autonomy. In order to appreciate the complexitie of women' gendered, religiou , and community identitie ,thi work explore in tance of women' agency in the absence of their activi m, and of women' activi m in defen e of the tate, their religiou communi tie , and their intere t a women. It compare women in leader hip po ition with ordinary one , and textual religiou tradition with everyday practice. The book al 0 analyze epi odic moment of upheaval, like the de truction of the Ayodhya mo que in north India in 1992 and the place of
religion in people' live. Through comparative analy i the contributor al 0 eek to di cern the varied meaning of gender identity and politic through time, by location, and in different political context . (See article on page 10.) Patricia Jeffery i profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Edinburgh. Amrita Ba u i profeor of political cience and women' and gender tudie at Amher t College.
International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the Hi tory and Politics of Knowledge, edited by Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on African Studie (19~96). Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre 1997. xii + 361 page. During the pa t 50 year , colonial empire around the world have collap ed and va t area that were once called "colonie " have become known a "Ie developed countrie " or ''the third world." The idea of development-and the relation hip it implie between
indu trialized, affluent nation and poor, emerging nation -ha become the key to a new conceptual framework. Development ha al 0 become a va t indu try, involving billion of dollar and a worldwide community of experts. The e e ay, written by cholar in many field ,examine the production, tran mi ion, and implementation of idea about development within hi torical, political, and intellectual context . The concept of development ha come under attack in recent year both from tho e who ee development a the imperiali m of knowledge, impo ing on the world a modernity that it doe not nece arily want, and tho e who ee development effort a a di tortion of world market . The e e ay look beyond the polemic and focu on the diverse, conte ted, and changing meaning of development among ocial movement , national government , international agencie , foundation ,and cholar. Authors from the field of economic , anthropology, hi tory, political cience, and public health ITEMsI25
explore the relation hip of academic knowledge to development practice, a king important que tion about the be t way to improve people' live . Frederick Cooper i Charle Gib on Collegiate Profe or of Hi tory at the University of Michigan. Randall Packard i A a Grigg Candler Profe or of Hi tory and International Health at Emory Univer ity.
Liberalization and Foreign Policy, edited by Mile Kahler. Spon ored by the Committee on Foreign Policy Studie (1986-94). New York: Columbia University Pre ,1997. 352 page . What di tingui he liberal democracie from other type of regime ? How do the e di tinction affect foreign policy? Unlike other books on democratization and economic reform, Liberalization and Foreign Policy cover both economic and politicalliberalization. The book take a it ubject the global wave of political liberalization that ha ari en ince the mid-1970 and the even wider trend toward liberal economic policie in the 1980 . Filling the intellectual gap left by neoreali m, which ha failed to addre uch upheaval as the di olution of the Soviet Union, thi volume di cu e how the foreign policy effect of liberalization upport new democratic regime and help launch economic reform -but do not guarantee full democratization.
The contributors first di cu how democracie engage in foreign policie that are va tly different from tho e of other regime. Next, they compare tran itional or liberalizing democracie in Spain, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and ub-Sahara Africa to e tabIi hed democracie like the United State . Finally, they clarify a noteworthy outcome of economic liberalization: the trategies of collaboration within international in titution uch as the European Community and NATO. Mile Kahler i director of reearch at the Graduate School of International Relation and Pacific Studie at the Univer ity of California, San Diego.
"Immigrant Adaptation and Native-Born Responses in the Making of Americans." Special i ue of the International Migration Review. Vol. 31, Winter 1997, Jo h DeWind, Charle Hirschman, and Philip Kasinitz, gue ted. Spon ored by the Committee on International Migration. The e ay pre ented here were originally prepared for a conference titled "Becoming American!America Becoming," that was held on Sanibel I land, Florida in January 1996. The conference was organized by the Committee on International Migration and wa upported with fund from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. It objective wa to provide an interdi ciplinary overview and a se ment of the dominant theorie in the field of U.S.
immigration tudie. In framing the conference, the committee began with the belief, reflected in the printed e ay, that the relation between immigrant and the native born are, in many re pect , remaking America and what it mean to be American.
"Southeast Asian Diasporas." Special i ue of Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. Vol. 12, no. 2, gue ted., Vicente L. Rafael and Itty Abraham. Based on a conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia (1976-96) and the In titute of Southeast Asian Studie in Singapore. The four e says in thi journal emerged from a conference on Southeast A ian diasporas held at the In titute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore on December 5-7, 1997. The topic appear to be di parate: the complexities of Sikh identity in Southeast Asia, the emergence of a globalized "Chinese" media culture, the national truggle over the tran national bodie of Filipina dome tic workers, and the colonial beginning of a diasporic public phere in Singapore. Yet they are tied together by their concern with the contemporary manifestation of one of the region' enduring hi tori cal trait : that of movement of peoples and ideas acro the arbitrary limit of tate, ethnic, religiou , and socioeconomic divi ion , making for the mobility of tradition and the tradition of mobility in Southeast Asia.
ACLS-SSRC WORKING GROUP ON CUBA The ACLS-SSRC Working Group on Cuba w establi hed in 1997 with upport from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur and Chri topher Reynolds Foundation ,to upport and expand linkage between intellectual, acad mic, and profe ional communitie in Cuba and North America. In collaboration with the Academy of Science of Cuba, the Working Group will initiate activitie with scholarly in titution in Cuba and North America and will provide mall grant for everal kind of activitie . (I) Supporting Iibrarie , mu eum , archive, and other repositorie of cholarly information by enabling: (a) Cuban and North American in titution to preserve, catalogue and/or tran fer into more acce ible formats (e.g., microfilm, photograph, pecimen ); (b) Cuban or North American bibliographers, archivi ts and conservation/pre ervation peciali ts to receive or impart training in appropriate profes ional techniques. (2) Strengthening and con olidating partnership involving research in titution in Cuba and North America by providing fund to a limited number of especially promi ing collaborative project . (3) Increasing the flow of re earchers between Cuba and North America by providing fund for: (a) Cuban cholars to participate in international conference and educational seminars; (b) North American research rs invited by Cuban in titution to pre ent lecture or participate in workshop in Cuba; (c) invited Cuban researchers to pre ent lecture or participate in workhop abroad.
Contents of Application • a 5-10 page narrative tatement de ribing activity for which upport is reque ted, field of re earch that will be enriched, proposed participants and in titution , and potential of project to generate ongoing collaboration between cholars and in titution in Cuba and North America. • a project budget not to exceed one page in length and, where relevant, additional budgetary information pecifying portion of program co to be upported by other ource of funding. • a brief CV of principal project collaborators and/or individual for whom fund are being reque ted. There are no fixed award level, and the size of each grant will vary according to project need . Typically, travel grants will not exceed $1,000 per researcher; grants in upport of librarie , mu urn , and archive will not exceed $5,000; award for in titutional partne hip will range from $10,000-20,000. All propo al from North America mu t include pecific documents from Cuban in titution demon trating that the proposed a tivitie reflect the need of academic or cientific in titution in Cuba. Reque ts for other kind of upport mu t be ubmitted jointly by in titution in Cuba and North America. Preference will be given to projects that promi e to encourage ongoing in titutional cooperation and profe sional tie among researchers in Cuba and North America. Fund will be provided contingent upon receipt of appropriate license and travel permi ion from governments of Cuba, U.S. and relevant third countrie . Grants may upport travel, lodging, and meal for participant, purchase/rental of e ential equipment, book , and material, including software. In titutional reque ts for a1ary upport or indirect co t recovery will not be con id red for funding. Recipients of upport are expected to ubmit a report ummarizing the outcome of their efforts and collaborative endeavors that re ult from Working Group-funded activitie . Proposals should be submitted in English or Spanish to:
ACLSIS RC Working Group on Cuba Social Science Research Council 810 eventh Avenue New York, NY 10019 U A tel: (212) 377-2700 fax: (212) 377-2727 e-mail: cordero@ rc.org
Academia de Cienci de Cuba Capitolo La "abana, 12400 CUBA tel:(S3-7) 62-0410 fax:(S3-7) 33-8054 e-mail: email@example.com
Deadline for receipt of proposals: July I, 1998 Applicants will be notified of funding deci ion by October I, 1998.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 810 SEVENTH AVENUE. NEW YORK. NY 10019 (212) 377-2700 Th~
FAX (212) 3TI-2727
WEB http://www. rc.org
incorpora/~d in I~ Sta/~ of Illinois. D~c~mbu 27. 1924. for I~ purpo ~ of ad~'Oncing rts~arch in t~ ocial ci~nc~s. Nongov~m~ntal and in naturt. th~ Council appoints commillUS of cholnrs which suk to achi~~ Ih~ Council's purpo ~ through t~ g~n~ration of fII!W id~as and t~ training of scholars. ~ activiti~s of th~ Council art supporud primarily by grants from privat~ foundations and gov~m~nt ag~ncies.
Dirtctors. 1997-98: PAUL B. BALTES. Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin); ROBERT H. BATES. Harvard University; IJus B. BERGER, State University of New York, Albany; NANCY BIRDSALL, Inter-American Development Bank; ALBERT FISHLOW. Council on Foreign Relation; SUSAN FISKE, Unive ity of M husetts. Amherst; BARBARA HEYN • New York University; SHIRLEY LINDENBAUM. TIle Graduate Center. City University of New York; CoRA B. MARREtT. University of M sachu tts; KENNEnI PREwrrr. Social Science Research Council; BURTO, H. SINOER, Princeton University; NEIL SMELSER. Center for Advanced Study in the Beh vioral Science; KENNEnI W. WACHTER. University of California. Berkeley; MICHELl£ J. WHrrE, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor.
OjJiurs and Staff: KENNE1lf PREwrrr. Prtsid~nt: KlusTJNE DAHLBERG. Chi~f Fi1WllCiai OjJicu: MARy BYRNE McDoNNELl., Ex~cutiv~ Program Director: Irrv JOSH DEW IND. DIANE DI MAuRO. ERIc HERsHBERG. RONALD KAssIMIR, FRANK KEssEL, ROBERT LAnIAM. ELLEN PEREcMAN. SHERI H. RANIS. JUDITH B. SEDAITlS. DAVID WEIMAN. KENToN W. WORCESTER.
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