Items Vol. 51 No. 4, Pt. 1 (1997)

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( SOCIAL SCIENCE Volume 51 / Number 4, Part 1/ December 1997 .

The Research Ethic and the Spirit of Internationalism by Arjun Appadurai* Researching research In much recent di cu ion about the internationalization of re earch, the problem term i taken to be "internationalization." The following remark ugge t that we focu fir t on re earch, before we worry about it global portability, its funding, and training people to do it better. The e comment expand upon orne remark made by the author at a recent meeting organized by the Social Science Re earch Council and the American Council of Learned Societie to plan a new phase in the organization of international "re earch" collaboration . The que tion I wi h to rai e here are: What do we mean when we peak today of re earch? I the re earch ethic, whatever it may be, e entially the arne thing in the natural cience ,the ocial cience , and the humanitie ? By whatever definition, i there a ufficiently clear under tanding of the research ethic in the academic world of North America and We tern Europe to ju tify its central role in current di cu ion of the internationalization of academic practice ? Such a deliberately naive, anthropological reflection upon the idea of re earch is difficult. Like other

• 11le author i Samuel N. Harper Profe sor in Anthropology and South Asian Language and Civilization at the University of Chicago, where he is also director of the Globalization Project. He h served on variou SSRC committee , including the Joint Committee on South A ia.

COUNCIL ) 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019

cultural keyword , it i 0 much part of the ground on which we tand and the air we breathe that it re i t con ciou crutiny. In the case of the idea of re earch, there are two additional problem . One, re earch i virtually ynonymou with our en e of what it mean to be cholar and members of the academy, and thu it ha the invi ibility of the obviou . Second, ince research i the optic through which we typically find out about omething a cholars today, it i e pecially hard to u e re earch to understand re earch. Partly becau e of thi ubiquitou , taken-for-granted and axiomatic quality of re earch, it may be u eful to look at it not hi torically, a we might be inclined to do, but anthropologically, a a trange and wonderful practice which tran formed We tern intellectual life perhap more completely than any other ingle procedural idea ince the Renai ance. What are the cultural pre umption of thi idea and thu of its ethic?


11le Research Ethic and the Spirit of Intern tionali m, Arjun



11le Free Exercise of Culture:

Ethnic Cu toms, As imilation, and American Law, Richord A. Shwt!du, Hazt!1 R. Markus,

Manho L Mil/OW, al/d Frank Kt! st!1 61 Human Resources Needs in A ia in the Next 25 Years, JOM Amblu 68 Recent Council Publications 72 Current Activiti at the Council 75 Intern tional Peace and Security Program 75

lmmigran and Political Incorporation 76 Intern tional Predi sertation Fellow hip Program Research Training Workshop 76 Changing African Familie in Global Perspective 77 A Selection of Council- ponsored Books Publi hed in 1996 and 1997 78 Awards Offered in 1997 79 Grants Received by the Council in 1996-97 93 Index: 50 Years of Items Article , 1947- 1997 (Separate Section)


What doe it eem to a ume and imply? What pecial demand doe it make upon tho e who buy into it? A Y tematic an wer to thi que tion may well emerge by looking again at the cholar hip that we do po e on the hi tory of variou di cipline , on national hi torie of empirici m, on the trajectorie through which laboratory re earch emerged in the middle of the 19th century in variou European countrie , and on the way in which variou empirical inquirie (from the tudy of blood circulation and optic through the emergence of philology and mu icology) gradually emerged out of the earlier en e of empirical inquiry a a natural component of metaphy ical, moral, and poetic inquirie (e.g., Kant on a tronomy, Goethe on color, and the like). We al 0 have a ub tantialliterature on the hi tory of the modern We tern re earch univer ity which contain many clue to the great tran formation through which re earch became the defining characteri tic of all reliable knowledge. Today, every branch of the univer ity y tern in the We t, but al 0 many branche of government, law, medicine, journalism, marketing, and even the writing of orne kind of fiction and the work of the armed force do not command eriou public attention or fund before they demon trate their foundation in re earch. To write the hi tory of thi huge tran formation of our fundamental protocol about the production of reliable new knowledge i a rna ive undertaking, better uited to another occa ion. For now, let u a k imply what thi tranformation in our under tanding of new knowledge eem to a ume and imply. What is new knowledge? Con ider a naive definition. Re earch may be defined a the y tematic pur uit of the not-yetknown. Every peech by a univer ity pre ident u ually refer to the centrality of the production of new knowledge for the mi ion of the univer ity. It i u ually taken for granted that the machine that produce new knowledge i re earch. But re earch it elf i rarely di cu ed in the e pronouncement , except to note grant , prize , and di coverie . One thing i unque tioned: re earch, a a We tern cultural practice, is intended to produce new knowledge. But the re earch ethic i obviou Iy not about ju t any kind of new knowledge. It i about new knowledge that meet certain criteria. It ha to pIau ibly 56\ITEMS

emerge from orne rea onably clear gra p of relevant prior knowledge. The que tion of whether omeone ha produced new knowledge, in thi en e, require a community of a e ment, u ually pre-exi tent, vocational and pecialized. Thi community i held to be competent to a e not ju t whether a piece of knowledge i actually new but whether its producer ha complied with the protocol of pedigree: the review of the literature, the trategic citation, the delineation of the appropriate univer e-neither hapeIe Iy large nor myopically mall-<>f prior, u ually di ciplinary knowledge. In addition, legitimate new knowledge ha to omehow trike it primary audience a intere ting. That i , it ha to trike them not only as adding omething recognizably new to orne pre-defined tock of knowledge but, ideally, a adding omething intere ting. Of cour e, boring new knowledge i widely acknowledged to be a legitimate product of re earch, but the earch for the new-and-intere ting is alway pre ent in profe ional y tern of a e ment. Reliable new knowledge, in thi di pen ation, cannot come directly out of intuition, revelation, rumor, or mimicry. It ha to be a product of orne ort of y tematic procedure. Thi i the nub of the trangene of the re earch ethic. In the hi tory of many world tradition (including the We tern one) of reflection, peculation, argumentation, and ratiocination, there ha alway been a place for new idea . In everal world tradition (although thi i a matter of continuing debate) there ha alway been a place for di covery, and even for di covery grounded in empirical ob ervation of the world. Even in tho e cIa ical tradition of intellectual work, uch a tho e of ancient India, where there i orne que tion about whether empirical ob ervation of the natural world wa much valued, it i recognized that a high value wa placed on careful ob ervation and recording of human activity. Thu , the great grammatical works of Panini (the father of San krit grammar) are filled with ob ervation about good and bad u age which are clearly drawn from the empirical life of peech communitie . Still, it would be odd to ay that Panini was conducting re earch on San krit grammar, anymore than that Augu tine wa conducting re earch on the working of the will, or Plato on tyranny, or even Ari totle on biological tructure or of politic . Yet the e great thinker certainly changed the way their





readers thought, and their works continue to change the way we think about the e important i ue. They certainly produced new knowledge and they were even y tematic in the way they did it. What make it eem anachroni tic to call them re earcher ?

Research and moral voice The an wer lie partly in the link between new knowledge, y tematicity, and an organized profe sional community of criticism. What the e great thinkers did not do was to produce new knowledge in relation to a prior citational world and an imagined world of specialized profe sional reader and reearcher . But there i another important difference. The great thinker , ob erver , di coverer , inventor , and innovator of the pre-re earch era invariably had moral, religiou , political, or ocial projects and their exercise in the production of new knowledge were therefore, by definition, virtuo 0 exerci es. Their protocol could not be replicated, not only for technical reasons but becau e their que tion and frameworks were hot through with their political projects and their moral ignature. Once the age of re earch (and it pecific modem ethic) arrive, these thinkers become nece arily confined to the proto-hi tory of the main di cipline which now claim them, or to the footnote of the hi torie of the fields into which they are een as having tre pa sed. But in no case are they een as part of the hi tory of re earch, as uch. Thi i another angle on the growth of pecialized fields of inquiry in the modem re earch university in the course of the 19th and 20th centurie . The e con ideration bring u clo e to the core of the modem re earch ethic, to omething which underpin the concern with ystematicity, prior citational contexts, and pecialized mode of inquiry. Thi i the i ue of replicability, or, in the aphori tic comment of my colleague George Stocking, the fact that what i involved here i not earch but re-search. There i of course a large technical literature in the hi tory and philo ophy of cience about verifiability, replicability, fal ifiability and the tran parency of research protocol . All of these criteria are intended to eliminate the virtuo 0 technique, the random flash, the generali t' epiphany, and other private ource of confidence. All confidence in thi more re tricted ethic of new knowledge repo e (at lea t in principle) in the idea that re ults can be repeated, ource can DECEMBER


be checked, citation verified, and calculation confirmed by one or many other re earcher . Given the ve ted intere t in howing their peers wrong, the e other re earchers are a ure check again t bad protocols or lazy inference . The fact that uch direct cro -checking i relatively rare in the ocial cience and the humanities i te tirnony to the ab tract moral anction as ociated with the idea of replicability. Thi norm of replicability give hidden moral force to the idea, famou ly a ociated with Max Weber, of the importance of value-free re earch, e pecially in the ocial cience . Once the norm of value-free research ucce fully move from the natural cience into the ocial and human cience (no earlier than the late 19th century), we have a harp line not ju t between uch "ancients" a Ari totle, Plato, and Augustine, on the one hand and modem re earcher on the other, but al 0 a line between Goethe, Kant, Locke, and other "modem " whom we would till feel uncomfortable de ignating a re earchers. The importance of value-free research in the modem research ethic a ume its full force with the ubtraction of the idea of moral voice or vi ion and the addition of the idea of replicability. It is not difficult to ee the link of the e development to the teady ecularization of academic life after the 17th century. Given the e characteri tic , it follow that there can be no uch thing as individual re earch, in the trict en e, in the modem re earch ethic, though of course individual may and do conduct research. Re earch in the modem, We tern en e, i through and through a collective activity, in which new knowledge emerge from a profe ionally defined field of prior knowledge and is directed toward evaluation by a pecialized, u ually technical, body of reader and judge , who are the fir t ieve through which any claim to new knowledge mu t ideally pas . Thi fact has important implications for the work of "public" intellectuals, e pecially outside the We t, who routinely addre s non-profe sional public . I will addre thi que tion below. Being fir t and last defined by pecific communities of reference (both prior and pro pective), new knowledge in the modem re earch ethic ha one other crucial characteri tic that ha rarely been explicitly di cu ed and i addre ed next.

The shelf life of new ideas Re earch knowledge-in its modem We tern idealI~1s/57

type-ha a peculiar helf life. It i new knowledge intended to have an ideal life-hi tory, in which it i as e ed in regard to whether it i well con tructed, replicable, y tematic, and even intere ting in the fir t phase. In it econd pha e, re earch knowledge i cited, u ed, criticized and otherwi e ocially proce ed through the relevant organization of journal , book , conference , and clas room . In it terminal pha e, it either di appear becau e replication how it weakne e (a re pectable form of extinction), or it i fully ab orbed into the world of nece ary peciali t footnote (thu joining the re pectable family of emeritu idea) or, in the mo t exceptional ca e , it join the mall group of great idea that will enter public life and remain forever hallowed, whatever their fate in the hi tory of "normal" cience: Marx on cla truggle, Darwin on natural election, Freud on dream , are example of thi latter and very rare ort of once-new knowledge. For mo t re earcher , the trick i how to choo e theorie , define framework , a k que tion and de ign method that are mo t likely to produce re earch with a piau ible helf life. Too grand a framework or too large a et of que tion and the re earch i likely not be funded, much Ie to produce the ideal helf life. Too myopic a framework, too detailed a et of que tion , and the re earch i likely to be di mi ed by funder a trivial, and even when it i funded, to ink without a bubble in the ocean of profe ional citation . The mo t elu ive characteri tic of the re earch etho i thi peculiar helf life of any piece of reliable new knowledge. How i it to be produced? More important how can we produce in titution that can produce thi ort of new knowledge predictably, even routinely? How do you train cholar in developing thi faculty for the lifelong production of piece of new knowledge which function bri kly but not for too long? Can uch training be internationalized? I have already ugge ted that there are few walk of modem life, both in the We t and in orne other advanced indu trial ocietie, in which re earch i not a more or Ie explicit requirement of piau ible policy or credible argumentation, whether the matter i child abu e or global warming, punctuated equilibrium or con umer debt, lung cancer or affirmative action. Re earch-produced knowledge i everywhere, doing battle with other kind of knowledge (produced by per onal te timony, opinion, revelation, or rumor) and 58\1T 1

with other piece of re earch-produced knowledge. Our children think they are learning to do re earch ever earlier, in middle chool and high chool: u ually thi mean orne low-level mimicry of adult academic practice involving note card ,encyclopedia ,guide to footnote tyle, and rule of pagination. Many of u teach undergraduate who e idea of re earch involve ju t thi ort of ympathetic magic: get the protocol right and pre to! you are doing re earch. Thu two related dilemma of the liberal art college and the re earch university in the United State are: what i the proper relation hip between teaching and re earch (for faculty)? And i there a connection between learning to think critically and learning to do re earch (for undergraduate )? Ab ent a critical en e of what the re earch ethic i , the e que tion tend to be re olved mechanically and without enthu ia m both by teacher and by tudent. The rea on for thi lack of enthu ia m lie in part in the reduced contact between faculty and tudent culture in liberal art euing , which in turn ha many ource, including the growing gap between generational culture in the United State . But there i a deeper problem. The en e of di cipline a ociated with liberal learning, critical thinking, and citizen hip i part of an ethic of elf-cultivation and co mopolitani m that lie at the heart of liberal ocial thought. But the en e of di cipline a ociated with re earch ha little to do with the creation of cultivated, co mopolitan citizen and much to do with the technique and protocol for training peciali t and producing di ciplinary knowledge. The gap between the e two en e of "di cipline" remain largely unrecognized and, a a re ult, unbridged. Though there are numerou debate and difference about re earch tyle, among natural cienti t , po licy maker , ocial cienti t , and humani t , there i al 0 a di cernible area of con en u . Thi con enu i built around the view that the mo t eriou problem are not tho e to be found at the level of theorie or model but tho e involving method: datagathering, amp ling bia , reliability of large numerical data- et , comparability of categorie acro national data archive, urvey de ign, problem of te timony and recall, and the like. To orne extent, thi empha i on method i a reaction to wide pread unease about the multiplication of theoretical paradigm and normative vi ion ,e pecially in the ocial VOLUME

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cience . Furthermore, in thi per pective, method, tran lated into re earch de ign, i taken to be a reliable machine for producing idea with the appropriate helf life. Thi implicit con en u and the difference it eek to manage take on pecial importance for any effort to internationalize ocial cience re earch.

Area studies and internationalization A large and vital area of hared concern between ocial cienti t and humani t i area tudie, which emerged in the 1940 in ub tantial part through the intere t of the major foundation and the Social Science Re earch Council, a a field virtually defined by it need for amalgamating different tyle of re earch. For the la t five decade, ocial cienti t and humani ts have wre tIed over the proper balance between cultural pecificity and the need for com pari on, between inten e language tudy and a more tactical approach to problem of language and tran lation and between the requirement of full fidelity to local ource and primary loyalty to the need for compari on and generalization. Thi i hardly the place for a full di cu ion of the e i ue, which have cau ed a fre h bur t of anxiety among funder and cholar in the United State and have received fairly wide airing in recent year . For the pre ent context, what i important i that the debate over area tudie have not included a critical reflection on the broad cultural a umption behind the modern re earch ethic it elf. Such a critical reflection might move u beyond method to matter of re earch tyle, re earch priori tie , and re earch culture , conceived in the broade t way. Such deliberation i a vital prerequi ite for internationalizing ocial cience re earch, e pecially when the object of re earch them elve have acquired international, tran national, or global dimen ion of vital intere t to the ocial cience. In the per pective ketched out in thi e ay, we might a k our elve what it mean to internationalize a re earch ethic which it elf has a rather unu ual et of cultural diacritic . Thi ethic as ume a commitment to the routinized production of certain kind of new knowledge, a pecial en e of the y tematic for the production of uch knowledge, a quite particular idea of the helf life of good re earch re ults, a definite en e of the pecialized community of experts who DECEMBER


precede and follow any pecific piece of research, and a di tinct po itive valuation of the need to detach morality and political intere t from cholarly re earch. Such a deparochialization of the re earch ethic-of the idea of re earch it elf-will require asking the following orts of que tion . I there a principled way to clo e the gap between many U.S. ocial cienti t , who are u piciou of any form of applied or policy-driven re earch and ocial cienti t from many other part of the world who ee them elve a profoundly involved in the ocial tran formation weeping their own ocietie? Can we retain the methodological rigor of modern ocial cience while re toring orne of the pre tige and energy of earlier vi ion of cholar hip, in which moral and political concern were central? Can we find way to legitimately engage cholar hip by public intellectual here and over ea who e work i not primarily conditioned by profe ional criteria of critici m and di emination? What are the implication of the growing gap, in many ocietie, between in titution for technical training in the ocial cience and broader tradition of ocial critici m and debate? Are we prepared to move beyond a model for internationalizing ocial cience who e main concern i with improving how other practice our precept ? I there omething for u to learn from colleague in other national and cultural etting who e work i not characterized by a harp line between ocial cientific and humani tic tyle of inquiry? A king uch que tion with an open mind i not ju t a matter of ecumeni m or goodwill. It i a way of enriching the an wers to que tion which increa ingly affect the relation hip between ocial cience re earch and it variou contituencie here in the United State a well. If we are eriou about building a genuinely international and democratic community of re earcherse pecially on matter that involve cro -cultural variation and inter- ocietal compari on-then we have two choice . One i to take the elements that con titute the hidden armature of our research ethic as given and unque tionable, and proceed to look around for tho e who wi h to join u . Thi i what may be called weak internationalization. The other i to imagine and invite a conver ation about re earch in which, by a king the ort of que lions I have ju t de cribed, the very elements of thi ethic could be ubject of debate, and to which cholars from other


oclette and tradition of inquiry could bring their own idea about what counts a new knowledge and about what communitie of judgment and accountability they might judge to be central in the pur uit of uch knowledge. This latter option-which might be called strong internationalization-might be more laborious, even contentious. But it i the urer way to create communitie and convention of re earch in which member hip doe not require unque tioned prior adherence to a quite pecific re earch ethic. In the end, the element that I have identified a belonging to our re earch ethic may well emerge from thi


dialogue all the more robu t for having been expo ed to a critical internationalism. In this en e, American ocial cience has nothing to fear and much to gain from principled internationalization. • Letters to the Editor

Reader are invited to re pond to Items article by sending email to letters@, or by writing to The Editor. SSRC, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York. NY 10019. The SSRC reserve the right to publi h excerpts from letters in future i ue.


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The Free Exercise of Culture Ethnic Customs, Assimilation and American Law by Richard A. Shweder, Hazel R. Markus, Martha L Minow and Frank Kessel* "We are not an as imitative, homogeneou ociety, but a facilitative, plurali tic one, in which we mu t be willing to abide omeone el e' unfamiliar or even repellent practice becau e the ame tolerant impulse protects our own idio yncrasie " (Supreme Court Ju tice William Brennan, di enting, Michael H. v Gerald D., 491 US 141, [1989]). "It' amazing the thing we don't know about thi country. I learned that in thi country anyone can caJl the police if they ee you pulling your on' ear." Comment by Jorge Arevalo, a Peruvian immigrant in Miami, who had to convince ocial workers that he was a competent father after an ob erver in a parking lot complained that he had grabbed hi fiveyear-old by the neck (Ojito 1997). "When in Rome, do a the Roman do." A piece of advice given by the fourth-century Italian bi hop Saint Ambro e to a re ident visitor, a devout Chri tian Berber woman from North Africa, who e norm for fasting in her homeland (do it on Saturday) was in conflict with the local norm (do it on Sunday) in the bi hop' home town (based on Poulter 1986). "Cultural difference are beautiful, but they have nothing to do with the law. We can't po ibly have a et of law for American ,a et of law for immigrants, and a set of law for touri ts" (Marceline Walter, director of community education in the New York State Adrnini tration for Children' Service, quoted in Ojito 1997).

• Richard Shweder, a cultural anthropologi t, i profe sor of human development at the University of Chicago and cochair of the SSRC Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development; Hazel Marku , a p ychologi I, i profe SOl" of psychology, Stanford University, and also a member of the committee; Martha Minow, a legal hoLar, i profe sor at the Harvard Law School and was a contributor to the wor hop that served the taning point for thi article (see footnote I); Frank Ke I, a p ychologi t, i program director of the committee.




'The reason for admitting a cultural defense lie not 0 much in the de ire to be culturally en itive, although that i urely part of it, but rather in a de ire to en ure equal application of the law to all citizen .... Individual ju tice demand that the legal y tern focu on the actor as well as the act. . . . Thi , in turn, nece itate the introduction of cultural information into the courtroom" (Renteln 1993, pp. 439-440). 'The current battle over bi-Iingual education [Hi panic disciplinary practice ,A ian arranged marriage ,African female exci ion and coming of age ceremonie , Dani h ocialization practice permitting parental ab ence and emphasizing total elf-reliance in young children, I lamic animal acrificeJ i the late t chapter in a long hi tory of ab orbing 'un-American' elements into the cultural main tream. It i characteri tic of thi proce ,as our culture has evolved from pri tine AngloSaxoni m to the 'ethnic melting pot,' that orne members of cultural and racial minoritie have been champion of as imilation. But more and more, people have come to identify cultural as ifnilation as the problem rather than the cure" (Stolzenberg 1993, p. 666).

Scholar from everal di cipline -notably anthropology, p ychology, and law-have begun to addre an overlapping erie of que tion related to problem of immigration, cultural plurali m, conflict of norm , and legally enforced a imilation in the United State .1 (I) Which a peets of American law impact on ethnic minority cu tom ? (2) To what extent doe American law pre uppose, codify and hence inculcate the ub tantive beliefs and value of a cultural main-

1 An initial exploration of this agenda took place in April in W hington, OC under the aegis of the Committee on Culture, Haith, nd Human Development' Working Group on Ethnopediatric , which i upporled by the William T. Grant Foundation. Participants in the miniconference on "The Free Exercise of Culture: How Free Ought It To BeT' were: Ronald Barr, Montreal Children' H pital; Diana Baumrind, University of California, Berkeley; Arthur Ei nberg, New York Civil Libertie Union; Chri topher Ei gruber, ew York University Law School; Jacqueline Goodnow, Macquarie University; Jill Korbin, C We tern Re rYe University; Corinne Kratz, Emory University; Hazel Marku , Stanford University; U ha Menon, Drexel University; Peggy Miller, University of lIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign; Martha Minow, Harvard Law School ; Martin Packer, Duque ne University; Lawrence Sager, New York University Law School; Brad Shore, Emory University; Richard Shweder, University of Chicago; Elliot Thriel, University of California, Berkeley; Unni Wikan, University of Oslo; and Carol Worthman, Emory University.


tream? (3) How much cultural diver ity in family life practice ought to be permi ible within the moral and con titutional framework of a liberal plurali tic democratic ociety? (4) How trong are the implication of citizen hip for the way people in America marry, arrange a "family," di cipline and rai e their children, conceptualize gender identity, and 0 on? (5) What doe it mean for an ethnic cu tom or practice to be judged "un-American"? (6) How do ethnic minority communitie react to official attempt to force compliance with the cultural and legal norm of American middle-clas life? I ue concerning cultural diver ity and a imilation ari e right now for everal reason related to public policy concern legal cholarship and practice, and con trover ial view of culture within anthropology and cultural p ychology.

Public policy concerns The United State and many We tern and Northern European nation have experienced a ubtantial influx of immigrant from countrie with cultural and religiou tradition that do not fit ea ily into the main tream cultural tradition of the ho t countrie .2 The e immigrant often bring with them their own culture- pecific idea about many a pect of life, e.g., tandard of femininity and rna culinity, ideal of parental authority, marriage practice , pattern of religiou devotion, dietary re triction ,dre and wor hip. Moreover, many of the e immigrant continue to maintain long-term ocial and economic tie with their countrie of origin and are not alway eager to abandon their cu tomary belief and practice and other ign of cultural identity. In Norway the economic benefit a ociated with citizen hip in the welfare tate have encouraged orne Paki tani immigrant to engage in hyper-traditional form of arranged marriage with familie in We t A ia and North Africa who want to de elop an international family network with node in Europe and the United State . A Punjabi immigrant may be driving a taxi cab in New York City but could be building a hou e in Chandigar and carefully chaperoning hi daughter to and from chool while arranging her marriage in 2 Although thi e y i frnmed in tenns of the United tate . a comparntive pe pective would obviou Iy enhanc und r landing of the kind of i ue rni d.


India. A Somali immigrant may be living in Seattle but may not be ready to urrender her cultural identity or jeopardize the pro pect for a marriage of her children to other member of her ethnic group; and if an American ob tetrician i unwilling to circumci e her daughter (a well a her on) he may journey to Canada or Africa to have the cu tomary coming-ofage ceremony performed. Mexican immigrant working in Lo Angele may 0 di approve of the lack of trict di cipline and moral training in the local public chool that they may opt to end their children back to Mexico to become educated. Contemporary immigrant to the United State, then, do not nece arily break their tie with their place of origin. Under uch circum tance ,a Nomi Stolzenberg (1993) remark, cultural a imilation may be viewed as a mixed ble ing or even a problem, rather than a cure; and the que tion ari e whether re i tance to a imilation erve a a protective factor that increa e immigrant' chance for ocial ucce and long-term well-being. A certain ten ion i apparent in contemporary main tream American reaction to the influx of culturally unfamiliar immigrant not nece arily eager to be culturally a imilated. On the one hand, our political ideology, including orne important liberal commitment to individual freedom in con titutional law, favor tolerance and permi ivene toward diver ity (We t 1990). For example, we permit the Ami h to lead an in ular life, to hun the technologie , value , and repre entative of modernity, and to keep their children out of econdary chool (Wisconsin v Yoder, 406 US [1972]). Thi i in keeping with a conception of the United State a a haven for religiou and cultural diver ity, as a land where the " tate" maintain a tance f relative "neutrality" vi -a-vi religiou conviction and cultural value ,a a place where "citizen hip" ha only weak implication for the way one lead one' private life, for the type of a ociation and ocial relation hip one form , for the way one bring up children. On the other hand, de pite the liberal ideal that individual liberty and freedom of choice hould prevail and that the tate hould be "neutral" as to true value and belief and not favor or inculcate any ingle vi ion of the good life, the American polity ha created in titution of regulation and control- uch a the Public Health Service and child protection agencie -which have been legally empowered to VOLU

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intervene in the mo t intimate a peet of the family live of immigrant . Concern about the ub tantive re pon ibilitie and dutie a ociated with a vi ion of the good life, which were once lodged within local communi tie , have been di lodged from familie and face-to-face group and ve ted in governmental regulatory and admini trative agencie . Mexican familie in Southern California, ju t like the Peruvian father in Miami quoted earlier, worry that they will 10 e their children to the tate if they continue to di cipline them (for example, with phy ical puni hment) or expre intimacy with them (for example, by leeping in the arne bed) in the way to which they are accu tomed. Law are targeted at the 2,500-year-old coming-of-age ceremonie and tribal identity ritual of African people (e.g., female circumci ion, male facial carification), ceremonie , and ritual which are grounded on ub tantive view of femininity, family life, and in-group identity and olidarity no more exotic than the Ami h rejection of the modern indu trial world. A ian familie , accu tomed to arranging the marriage of their teenage children a a mean of forming an alliance between kin group and of maintaining the tatu and tradition of their family, are charged with child abu e. Thu , de pite our plurali tic ideal , omething like a cultural un-American activitie Ii t eem to have begun circulating among repre entative and enforcer of main tream American culture (Dugger 1996a, 1996b; Ojito 1997; Terry 1996). A a re ult of the ten ion between ethnic minority cu tom and the cu tom of the American cultural main tream, orne of the limit of pluraJi tic tolerance have become apparent in recent public policy debate . At the e limit either pluraJi m give way to cal1 for a imilation and orne ba ic cultural uniformity, or tolerance give way to attempt to ca tigate, outlaw, or penalize particular ethnic minority cu tom. Con equently, new, difficult, and ometime troubling que tion are being a ked in public policy forum . lour con titutional framework, with it guarantee of variou individual freedom (freedom of expre ion, freedom to contract, freedom of religion, freedom of a ociation), really meant to provide cope for the reproduction within the United State of the ful1 range of long- tanding family life practice known to exi t on a world-wide cale? Such cope could promote and ri k the development of a pro-




foundly real, yet potential1y conflictual, multicultural ociety. Sh uld the current multicultural cene, with it attendant variety of ethnic minority cu tom (orne of which are di turbing to the cultural en ibilitie of the American main tream), lead u to conclude that the tate mu t play an inculcative role and thu renounce the ideal of "neutrality"? Do our con titutionally guaranteed libertie in fact pre uppo e cultural homogeneity and as imilation to a ingle vi ion of what it mean ub tantively to be an American? How much a imilation i minimally nece ary for the cultural reproduction of a democratic pluraJi tic American ociety? And what preci ely doe it mean to be an American in the first place?3 Legal i ues I ue of cultural diver ity and a imilation ari e for a econd rea on. Within the di cipline of con titutional law there i a renewed intere t in the que tion of whether ethnic minority group have a right to reproduce their way of life without interference from the tate or from the cultural main tream. One legal i ue concern the ten ion between parental and tate control over the upbringing and education of children and the lively recon ideration of the power of the tate to inculcate value . A famou erie of Supreme Court deci ion (e.g., Pierce v Society of Sisters; Wisconsin v Yoder; Mozer! v Hawkin County Board of Education) have left u with a omewhat confu ing picture of the right of the tate to act a a uper-parent and arbiter of ta te and value; of the connection between uch freedom a peechlreligion/a ociation and the right to embrace cultural practice of one' own and pa them on to your children; and of the link between religiou freedom, cultural right , and the right to home education. In 1924 in Pierce v Society of Sistu the Supreme Court tated that "In thi day and under our civilization, the child of man i hi parent' child and not the State' ." But i protection for parental power the only, or even the be t way to guard again t the tate impo ition of value ? What, in hort, hould be the place of a view common among 3 A the qu lion ugg I, and ignaled by lolzenberg' reference 10 bilingual educalion in th quote above, i ue at the intersecti n of ethnic cu tom. , as imilation, and the law are relevant to U.S. minority group in general, and not ju t recent immigrant .


children' right advocate ,and powerfully voiced by Ju tice William O. Dougla in hi di enting 1972 opinion in Wisconsin v Yoder, that children are potentially autonomou agent who hould be con ulted about their de ire to exit from the governance and cultural domination of their parent ? And what limit, if any, hould be placed on the tate' right to compel educational tandard and to inculcate civic value? A clo ely related i ue derive from work on the legal principle of "the be t intere t of the child" (AI ton 1994), adopted by the International Convention on the Right of the Child in 1993 (Murphy-Berman and Wei z 1996). The principle, which originally aro e in the context of divorce proceeding and cu tody hearing but ha now been extended to many other deci ion context, tate broadly that "in all action concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private ocial welfare in titution ,court of law, admini trative authoritie or legi lative bodie , the be t intere t of the child hall be a primary con ideration." Although that trongly child-centered approach to the goal of ocial deci ion-making ha been judged by orne critic to be ethnocentric, potentially corro ive of plurali m, and to run counter to the right of adult to perpetuate their language, culture, and ance trallineage (AI ton 1994), it ha rai ed a number of important que tion which mu t be addre ed in a eriou dicu ion of the free exerci e of culture and it limit. Que tion uch a the e: • Are parent ultimate or merely proximate guardian of their children and under what circumtance can the tate, the community, or the court uper ede their judgments a guardian ? • What i the relation hip between the expre ed wi he of a child (for example, to be brought up in a religion other than the parent ' religion, or to live apart from parent, or a de ire to have different parent ) and the child' be t intere t ? • Are both parent coequal in their parental right or hould cultural tradition be re pected in which parental authority de cend only through either the paternal line (a in I larnic law and many We t African culture) or through the maternal line? • What intellectual and moral capacitie are children believed to po e at variou age and how do they relate to the idea of an "age of di cretion" when the wi he of the child mu t be re peeted regardle 64\IT 1

of the wi he of the parent as guardian? • How are determination of the be t intere t of the child to be made? I it that every child ha a primary intere t in growing up uch that he or he can be ucce ful in the cultural main tream of American ociety? Or hould the likelihood of the child' continued engagement in another, particular ociocultural group and tradition be equally relevant to definition of the child' be t intere t? Related to the e que tion there i , within the di cour e of legal tudie, a divide between communitarian and liberal individuali t approache to que tion of cultural diver ity. Generally put, liberal individuali t believe in the neutrality of the tate a an ideal and hold that the main purpo e of the tate i to uphold and promote liberty and procedural ju tice for individual actor within ociety. Within the ground rule of liberty and ju tice for all, individual are free to act, without prejudice or interference, to form communi tie and create and adopt tradition of belief and practice a they ee fit. From thi per pective group and communitie are voluntary organization . For liberal individuali t , then, the purpo e of the tate i to en ure that no individual i treated with prejudice, di criminated again t, or unfairly harmed a he or he make religiou ,cultural and a ociational choice . Liberal individuali t in the field of con titutional law, uch a Chri topher Ei gruber and Lawrence Sager (1994), therefore do not wi h to privilege religion ,cultural tradition , or ethnic group , or to ee them a po e ing orne kind of inherent, pecial value over and above the freedom enjoyed by individual and protected by a value-neutral tate. They believe that principle of procedural ju tice and nondi crimination are ufficient to en ure the free exerci e of religion and, by exten ion, the free exerci e of culture. From the per pective of liberal individuali t the tate doe not have an intere t in diversity per e; it ha an intere t in freedom and ju tice, from which diver ity may (or may not) flow. Adopting a different per pective, cholar uch a Martha Minow (1997) and Nomi Stolzenberg (1993) ee an inherent value in the exi tence of cultural tradition and communitie and are doubtful that the law can ever be imply procedural or the tate neutral. Even the o-called tance of value-neutrality and the idea that everyone i free to hold their own religiou opinions i viewed by Stolzenberg a a ub tantive VOLUME

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cultural commitment to the doctrine that religiou belief are merely ubjective, a doctrine which i being imposed by the tate. In other word , "valueneutrality" in thi view i not a neutral po ition. Although there i a ignificant divi ion between tho e communitarian who equate the community with the tate and tho e who view the community and tate a in ten ion, all who adopt thi general po ition con i tently conceptualize ociety a made up not only of individual but al 0 of larger ocial entitie (e.g., corporate group ) and/or cultural tradition . Beyond that, it remain to be een whether the criteria used by communitarian and liberal to evaluate whether any particular ethnic minority cu tom i acceptable will yield con equentially different conclu ion . Anthropology/cultural p ychology I ue of cultural diversity and as imilation ari e in full force the e day for a third and ironic reason. Ju t a the idea of culture and ethnic minority cu tom gain prominence on the public policy cene and in the context of legal theory, ju t a awarene of cultural variety in family life practice grow, and ju t as the relative power , rights, and re pon ibilitie of the individual, the family, the community, and the tate in a plurali tic ociety become a focu of cholarly debate, from within the di cipline central to uch debate-anthropology-there ha emerged a morally motivated "anti-culture" or "po t-cultural" tance. Thi po ition hold that the idea of "culture" imply and fundamentally reinforce the maintenance of authoritarian power relation hip in ociety, permitting de pots to deflect critici m of their practice with the argument that "thi is our cu tom" or "thi i the way we have alway done thing in our culture."4 Thi anti-culture tance, in which culture i equated with domination, ha prompted other anthropologi t and cultural p ychologi t (Shweder 1996) to reexamine the viability of the culture concept, to bring the " tance of ju tification" into di cu ion of culture, to articulate the ground for defending the idea of a "genuine" (v. puriou) cultural tradition, and to

4 For a variety of views on thi i ue, see the debate on "Objectivity and Militancy" in Cur"nt Anthropology 1995 (36): 399-440, particularly the two opening piece by Nancy Scheper路Hughe and Roy O'Andrade, as well as Wikan (1996).


pell out the te ts that hould be u ed to judge the acceptability of any particular ethnic minority cu tom. Any uch analy i of the criteria for evaluating whether any particular ethnic minority cu tom i or i not acceptable will need to begin roughly where the writing of Seba tian Poulter (1986, 1987, 1990) leave off. With an eye toward potential conflicts between pecific tatute of Engli h law and the cu tomary practice of particular African, We t Indian, and A ian immigrant communitie in England, Poulter' work focuse on uch topic as marriage (arranged marriage, dowry, bride wealth), family pattern (extended v . nuclear), divorce, parental authority (di cipline, fo tering, tattooing and carification, circumci ion), education at chool (bilinguali m, dre at chool, eparation of the exe), religiou ob ervance, and employment (work ab ence for the purpo e of religiou ob ervance, freedom from di crimination on the ba i of dre or appearance). Poulter ummarize hi own approach to the conflict of norm between Engli h law and ethnic minority cu tom a follow : No doubt in the case of matters of relatively little importance it i prudent for a newcomer [to England] to take the mooth path of conformity in order to ave embarras ment on either ide. However, where any particular cu tom has a deeper and more fundamental ignificance for him, deference and politene may well have to give way to a more po itive as ertion on hi part that a moral principle i at take. To have to forego a traditional or religiou practice here may be portrayed as tantamount to the urrender of cultural identity and ultimately to the denial of a human right. While the avoidance of friction i clearly de irable, it can be purchased at too high a price. Broadly peaking ... any ati factory olution mu t depend upon finding a proper balance and upon the acceptance of orne degree of compromi e. Legal recognition mu t be afforded to many ethnic minority cu tom on ground of practicality, common en e, individual liberty, religiou tolerance and the promotion of racial harmony. However. a few re triction and limitation mu t equally be impo edt in the intere t of public policy. to protect certain core value in Engli h ociety and to obviate any genuine and reasonable claim by the majority that ethnic minoritie are obtaining preferential treatment or pecial di pen ation which cannot be ju tified by reference to e tabli hed legal principle (1986. p.v).


Future conceptual and empirical research The ix que tion pre ented at the out et of thi e ay involve both normative and de criptive i ue, i ue that frame an agenda for emerging work on ethnic cu tom ,a imilation, and American law. s It i clear from orne of the more dramatic example of norm conflict between main tream practice and minority cu tom that ethnic communitie are not homogeneou in their reaction to uch ituation. In the face of variou kind of legal and admini trative pre ure to urrender their ethnic cu tom , the advantage and di advantage of a imilation to the main tream are often topic of debate within uch communi tie . A a noteworthy example, in Seattle la t year member of the recently arrived Somali community (a rapidly-growing group of 3,500 member) were initially quite urpri ed to di cover that local ho pital were willing to circumci e their on but unwilling to circumci e their daughter . Some member of the community, in concert with doctor at the Haborview Medical Center came up with a compromi e operation involving informed con ent of both child and parent, hygienic operating condition , and a minor alteration of the genital which wa Ie phy ically con equential than the male procedure. Thi compromi e turned out to be acceptable to orne member of the Somali community but not to member of the cultural main tream in Seattle and in the U.S. Congre . When the Harborview compromi e wa withdrawn, after a public outcry, orne member of the Somali community declared that, a re pon ible mother concerned with their daughter ' honor, purity, and marriageability, they would fly their children back to their homeland for a proper ritual initiation. Other ,however, eemed prepared to urrender the cu tom or to underplay it moral ignificance or centrality to Somali cultural identity. Men and women were not of one mind on the i ue, with men evincing more a imilative tendencie than women. A male poke man for one Somali organization, Forward USA, which even in it name favor as imilation, declared "What the Somali , what the immigrant like me need i an education, not en itivity to culture" (Brune 1996).

S The SRC i exploring the pos ibility of e tabli hing a working group to develop uch an agenda.


Thi complex pattern of reaction i likely to ari e in many ca e and need to be carefully documented and modeled. Thu , one of the major goal of future ocial cience cholar hip in thi area will be to plan a line of empirical re earch-grounded in relevant ocial cience literature-on key in tance of norm conflict between American law and ethnic minority cu tom in the United State, with a particular focu on the condition under which a imilation i either embraced or re i ted.6 Complemented by conceptual analy e undertaken by legal cholar and philo 0pher, uch re earch could hape an interdi ciplinary field of inquiry a intellectually exciting a it i ocially ignificant. •

References Al ton, P., ed. 1994. The Best Interests of the Child. Oxford: Clarendon Pre . Brune, T. 1996. "Refugee' Belief Don't Travel: Compromi e Plan on Circumci ion of Girl Get Little Support." Chicago Tribune, October 28. Dovidio, J.F., and S.L. Gaertner. 1997. "On the Nature of Contemporary Prejudice: The Cau e ,Con equence , and Challenge of Aversive Raci m." In J. Eberhardt and S.T. Fi ke, ed ., Racism: The Problem and the Response. Newbury Park, CA: Sage (in pre ). Dugger, C.w. 1996a. "New Law Ban Genital Cutting in the United State ." The New York TImes, October 12. Dugger, C.W. 1996b. "Tug of Taboo : African Genital Rite v . U.S. Law." The New York TIme, December 28. Ei gruber, C.L., and L.G. Sager. 1994. ''The Vulnerability of Con cience: The Con titutional Basi for Protecting Religiou Conduct." The Univer ity of Chicago Law Review 61: 1245-1315. Fi ke, A., S. Kitayama, H.R. Marku , and R.E. Ni bett. 1997. ''The Cultural Matrix of Social P ychology." In D. Gilbert, S. Fi ke, and G. Lindzey, ed ., Handbook of Social Psychology, 4th edition (in pre ). Minow, M. L. 1997. Not Only for Myself: Identity, Politics, and the Law. New York: The New Pre . Murphy-Bennan, V., and V. Wei z. 1996. "U.N. Convention on the Right of the Child." American Psychologist 51 : 1231-1233. OJ ito, M. 1997. "Culture CIa h: Foreign Parent, American Child Rearing." The New York TImes Week in Review, June 29. Poulter, S.M. 1986. English Law and Ethnic Minority

6 See, for example, Dovidio and Gaertner ( 1997), Fi ke et a1 (1997) and Prentice and Miller ( 1997).


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Cu toms. London: Butterworth . Poulter, S.M. 1987. "African Cu tom in an EngJi h Setting: Legal and Policy A peel of Recognition." 10umaL of African Law 31: 207-225. Poulter, S.M. 1990. Asian Traditions and English Law: A Handbook. Stoke-on-Trent: The Runnymede Tru l with Trentham Books. Prentice, D., and D. Miller, ed . 1997. CuLturaL Divides: The Social PsychoLogy of Intergroup Contact. Newbury Park, CA: Sage (in pre ). Renteln, A.D. 1993. "A Ju tification of the Cultural Defen e as Partial Excuse." Review of Law and Women's Studies 2: 438-526.



Shweder, R.A. 1996. '''The View from Manywhere ." Anthropology NewsLetter 37(9): I, 4-5. Stolzenberg, N.M. 1993. '''He Drew a Circle That Shut Me Out': A imilation, Indoctrination, and the Paradox of a Liberal Education." Harvard Law Review 106: 581-667. Terry, D. 1996. "Cultural Tradition and Law Collide in Middle America: Arranged Marriage Lead to Rape Charge." The New York TImes, December 2. We t, R. 1990. "Taking Freedom Seriou Iy." Harvard Law Review 43: 104-106. Wikan, U. 1996. "Culture, Power and Pain." UnpubJi hed paper.


Human Resources Needs in Asia in the Next 25 Years by John Ambler* A key element oj the SSRC's new international program is the Human Capital Initiative, whichJocu es on the evaluation oj issues as ociated with the training, retention, and utilization oj scholars and researchers globally. Two meetings were held this year, in New York (January 17-18) and in Kuala Lumpur (June 2) to explore some oJthese concerns. TheJollowing is adapted Jrom a presentation made by one oj the participant and lays out some oj the human capital challenges he believes will ari e in the next quarter century in Asia. He makes the point that these are also challenges Jor social science researchers who can only be as effective as the educational system that produce them. Much of the la t 30 years in A ia' development can be characterized by the movement from predominantly rural economie into mixed economic y tem , till largely rural, but with rapidly indu trializing and urbanizing ector. Difference between countrie in term of level of economic development have increa ed, as have within-country income di paritie . In term of income level and life tyle, A ian ocietie have become more heterogeneou , while in term of "national culture," each may be in the proce of becoming more homogeneou . Significant amount of training have been given to technical pecialtie, a • making thing work" in technologically more complex ocietie generally ha been accorded higher priority over the development of ocial cience. In mo t A ian countrie , the la t 30 year have een central governments gain increa ing control over remoter region of their territory, a witne ed by the ex pan ion of civil admini tration and military apparatu , improved tran portation and communication , and more marketized economie operating on imilar precept . A the cultural value of pre-indu trialized A ian ocietie have changed, the ritual ignificance

of many traditional cultural manife tation ha aI 0 declined. In many ca e , the manife tation of culture, uch a dance and dre and local architecture, tripped of their ritual ignificance, have al 0 been appropriated by the A ian tate a evidence of a rich and diver e cultural patrimony, which i then preented to the public in e entially homogenized form . The last 30 year have aI 0 een the expanion of tate educational y tern promoting national curricula and value , which play important role in what u ed to be called "nation-building." Social cience ha much to contribute to understanding the e proce e, and helping chart new direction . What challenge in the next quarter century will A ian countrie face that require new approache to human capital development? A number of trend are already di cernible.

In the political-economic phere • National integration into an increasingly global economy, with international tandard often clashing with particulari tic intere t • The accelerating productivity-and mobility~f capital, and con equent devalued utility of a longterm un killed labor force • The expan ion of intra-A ian economic trade and a concomitant trengthening of A ia' political bargaining power on the world cene • The ri e in the importance of multilateral and cro -cutting economic and political alliance a a con equence of an increa ingly multi-polar world • The information technology explo ion and the expan ion of n n-controlled avenue of communication • Mounting pre ure for decentralizing government a a way of handling increa ing admini trative complexity, in pite of having only recently extended and centralized government control in many ca e • Increa ing awarene of economic, ocial, and cultural right a re pon ibilitie of government to protect and nurture • Continued re i tance to relaxing a generally authoritarian grip on civil and political right • A call for greater political participation, e pecially by the economically di enfranchi ed and the enlarging middle cia of A ian countrie

In the ocial phere • John Ambler i the former Ford Foundation repre ntative for Thailand nd Vi tn m.


• A rapidly urbanizing A ia with new urban VOLUM

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ocial and admini trative problem at community and individual level • The increa ing "nuclearization" of the family and a decline in both extended family and community upport y tern , re ulting in greater demand on tate upport y tern • A continuing dilemma of how to improve low productivity ector of the economy-in tenn of number till concentrated in agriculture and the urban infonnal ector-while faced with the continuing inability of higher productivity ector to create job fast enough • Large number of new entrant into the labor force, many of whom will be only partialIy killed, due to inadequate national education y tern • The movement of labor from one country to another, creating both ocial heterogeneity and international interdependence • Stronger emergence of A ia a a knowledgecreating region, rather than merely as an "emerging market"

In the environment • Continued expan ion of environmental i ue from the local or regional into tran boundary concern which nece itate international diplomacy • A ri ing ten ion between the imultaneou de ire to rai e production and con umption, and an increa ing awarene of the need for Ie polluting method of manufacturing and con umption • The gradual incorporation of environmental co t into national accounting framework , national law , and corporate calculation • The gradual emergence of an ethic whereby environmental protection i not re tricted to advanced indu trial countrie

All of the e trend fore hadow the need to develop enhanced coping mechani m for dealing with rapid change-mechani m in the fonn of in titution that regularize thi proce of change, that provide an orderly context for creativity and change, that promote change a in trument of improving the quality of life and maintaining competitivene in an unforgiving world, and that eek to mitigate the unwanted ide-effect of change. We could talk about the pecific technical di cipline that need developing in A ia, but there really i a more generic i ue at take. The key lie in revamping the education y tern, both fonnal and infonnal, in A ian countrie, ince it i from thi y tern that future re earcher will emerge. (We tern countrie' y tern could u e con iderable revamping a well!) Thi applie to advanced A ian countrie a well a economicalIy truggling countrie .

The teaching tyle question A ia i not alone in placing great re peet on the teacher. However, while rote learning facilitate the tran mi ion of tate value and doctrine and imple fact , it doe not encourage creative thinking and problem olving. A ian countrie will have to become more tolerant of tudent who do not easily accept at face value what the teachers ay, if they are to produce the creative thinker needed for the next generation of chalIenge . Critici m and keptici m will be threatening to ocietie that ee educational y tern a mechani m of ocial control, but the critic and the keptic will be the problem olver A ia need to tay competitive in a world market and to handle the new ocial and technical i ue ari ing from rapid change within their ocietie. Ironically, it i the tate that ha to take a role in actively promoting tudent que tioning, a teachers cannot be expected to refonn themselve .

In the cultural sphere • The trengthening, but not dominance, of "world culture" and a greater sen e of orne hared value worldwide • A concomitant ri e in the need to retain regional and ethnic culture/identity and a de ire to avoid homogenization • An accelerating clash between value of "individuali m" and "community" as ocietie become more heterogeneou D



The rural qu tion De pite it urbanizing trend, during the next 25 year A ia will till be over half rural in almo t all countrie. In their effort at nation-building, central government have ought to tandardize curriculum and to inculcate national value . While orne tandardization of curriculum i nece ary, children in rural area are not being taught what they need to know to be more productive in a rural setting, e.g., lTEMs/69

advanced concept of agriculture, fore try, animal hu bandry, pi ciculture, rural credit in titution , marketing and proce ing. The re ult i that rural parent have Ie incentive to keep their children in chool becau e the curriculum i irrelevant for helping them make a living, and graduating tudent have all the more incentive to migrate to urban area . The curriculum in rural area need to be revi ed to help the next generation of rural people be more productive. In a parallel manner, not enough attention i being paid to developing intellectual capital in the teaching and re earch phere that can be applied to the problem of rural area . Re earch fund are migrating toward area where the individual return to inve tment are highe t, which often mean that they are going to urban and indu trial i ue. In order to addre the alleviation of poverty, A ian countrie might con ider inve ting in re earch on rural productivity and rural i ue. A ia i bifurcating into tho e countrie that draw on their rural area ("extract urplu from," if you will) to upport their emerging urban-indu trial ector (e.g., India, Vietnam, Burma, Pili tan); and tho e that u e urplu from their urban area to upport rural development and rural tran formation (e.g., Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and to orne extent Malay ia). A critical que tion for the allocation of carce re ource in A ian countrie will be the extent to which rural well-being i taken eriou ly, even if rural area may not be the one with the highe t growth rate .

The specialization question Too many A ian curricula track children at too young an age, and force pecialization on them too oon. By early high chool, tudent are often already divided into phy ical cience track and ocial cience track . Apart from the individual problem of ometime mi matching tudent to their aptitude and a pi ration ,thi tracking promote an in ularity of thinking that doe not match with the interdi ciplinary challenge A ia i fa ing. Except in the ca e of orne vocational chool, pecialization might come later, by the third year in college, for example, and tuden could be encouraged to take cour e acro a wide range of ocial and technical ubject. The peciali t will till develop in any ca e, but without a broader curriculum, too many people who could have 70\lTEM

been integrative thinker will apply narrow olution to complex problem as a re ult of their overly pecialized education.

Combining research and teaching In orne countrie , notably tho e influenced by Soviet- tyle education, there i an unhealthy eparation between the in titution that do teaching and tho e that do re earch. Combining the e function into the univer ity tructure and giving univer ity taff the re ource to conduct re earch will be e ential for improving the quality of education and re earch. Although both area are likely to be underfunded in the coming decade , integrating re earch and teaching will be a co t-effective way of generating more productivity from the two enterpri e .

cholarly research A ian intellectual have an out tanding opportunity to change the nature of what icon idered cholarly re earch. The We tern intellectual tradition ha tended to glorify the "theoretical" and denigrate the "practical" in term of the reward given to it intellectual . One ee thi in the informal hierarchy of journal (i.e., the more • pre tigiou " the journal, the more "theoretical" the content). Journal that are interdi ciplinary, or draw heavily on practical example are often Ie valued. Some A ian cienti t are already howing that there i important theoretical ground to chart, ba ed on work with very practical i ue. For example, we are eeing important work in tran forming government bureaucracie in fore try or irrigation; moving HIVI AIDS i ue out of the realm of the epidemiologi t and into the orbit of the ex reearcher, the coun elor, and the ociologi t; dealing with devolution of authority and decentralization of government; and grappling with i ue of human right and local culture. Thi i cholarly work at it be t and A ian government and univer itie can upport it development through thinking about the incentive y tern that it ha for it teacher and re earcher dealing with uch approache . G d practice i not atheoretical, 0 why houldn't the Journal of Practical _ _ology in a particular country not be con idered the premier journal in it di cipline? VOLU 1E




Research funding In other countrie , the e function are already integrated, but re earch i va tly underfunded. A poorer A ian economie continue to develop, more of the urplu mu t be plowed back into re earch if A ia i to move beyond being ju t a ource of cheap labor for multinational indu try. The gap between A ian countrie that pend on re earch and tho e that do not i likely to grow in the next decade.

Funding for higher education Skill level mu t al 0 be increa ed if A ian countrie are to move from labor-inten ive to kill-intenive indu trie . Already Thailand, which ha the infra tructure for continued growth in many ector, i uffering from a lack of killed manpower in a number of area that i hampering it ability to attract new inve tment. Management talent, which require integrative thinking and initiative, will be in hort upply as many A ian countrie that have ba ed their



economie on cheap labor try to make the jump to more value-added indu try.

Social values training As A ian become more individuali tic-in part becau e of ocial differentiation, in part becau e they have Ie time for communal activitie , in part becau e of the influence of materiali m-there will be a greater need than ever for encouraging the individual to do public ervice activitie and make orne acrifice for the poor or di advantaged in ociety. Can thi be part of formal curriculum? To orne extent, ye . But if the tate play too heavy a hand in promoting thi , it open it elf up to charge of hypocri y. With evere corruption a common problem of many tate y tern , teaching by example will not be po ible; imitation of the tate i likely to be a more common and unde ired re pon e. It may fall to the NGO ector to become the vanguard of ocial re ponibility, teaching the population, by word and example, to go beyond individuali m and elf intere t and to reinforce training in ocial value . •


Recent Council Publications Friends in Need: Burden Sharing in th Gulf War, edited by Andrew Bennett, Jo eph Lepgold, and Danny Unger. Spon red by the MacArthur Foundation and the Committee on International Peace and Security. New York: St. Martin' Pre ,1997.362 page. Who contribute to alliance and why? I a tate' aggregate relative capabilitie the major factor in determining participation? How do perceived threat, dependence on other alliance member dome tic politic , and learned experience from analogou ituation matter? For the mo t part, que tion like the e have been an we red by u ing NATO a the example. A the mo t well-known and long- tanding alliance in contemporary hi tory, NATO ha alway been regarded a the tandard. While thi i under tandable, given NATO' role during the cold war period, thi reliance on NATO a a model ha re ulted in a gap in our under tanding of burdenharing more generally. Alliance will be 100 er and more ad hoc in the po t-cold war international y tern than they were between 1947 and 1991. The editor recognize thi ituation and the key policy i ue it rai e with regard to multilateral conflict management. In thi book, the contributor tudy alliance in a more general en e, u ing the coalition that wa e tabli hed to deal with the Gulf War a their example. Looking individually at 311 the coun-


trie that took part in the coalition, they provide a detailed tudy of alliance and the way they work now. Andrew Bennett, J ph Lepgold, and Danny Unger are profe or in the Department of Government, Georgetown Univer ity.

Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas, edited by Muhammad Khalid Ma ud, Brinkley Me iek, and David S. Power . Spon ored by the Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie (198593). Cambridge, Ma achu ett : Harvard U niver ity Pre ,1996. x + 431 page. Legal interpretation hed light not only on the law and it method but al 0 on ociety and the human relation urrounding the ca e con trued. Weighing doctrine and fact, interpreter ~ rmulate opinion that leave mark on the di cour e of their juri t colleague , on their communitie , and on the world at large. To examine a culturally pecific form of legal interpretation i to rai e i ue of an interdi ciplinary and comparative nature concerning law, ociety, and hi tory. Mo t of the paper in thi volume are drawn from pre entation at an international conference on the in titution of fatwagiving a it ha manife ted it elf throughout hi tory in different Mu lim ocietie . Contributor were a ked to tran late a hort fatwa and to write a chapter ba ed on the tran lation, u ing

the per pective of their re pective di cipline , which include law, I lamic tudie , hi tory, and anthropology. The re ult i a hi torical, ca ebased overview of I lamic legal interpretation. Muhammad Khalid Ma ud i profe r of I lamic tudie at the I lamie Re earch In titute, International I lamic Univer ity in I lamabad; Brinkley Me ick i a ociate profe or of anthropology at the Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor; and David S. Power i profe or of I lamic hi tory at Cornell Univer ity.

Modern outheast ian Literature in Translation: A Resource for Teaching, edited by Grant A. 01 on. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia (1976-96). Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, Program for Southea t A ian Studie , 1997. 103 page. The impetu behind thi publication wa the dearth of humani tie, particularly literary, cholarhip on Southeast A ia when "Southea t A ian tudie" emerged after World War II. In a field uch as literature, the diversity of the region pose particular ob tacle for a • Sou thea t A ian" or comparative view. Acro 10 countries-Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indone ia, La ,Malay ia, the Philippine , Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam-the multiplicity of language and cultural form i at once enticing and daunting. In order to fo ter work in thi VOL ME

51, N



area, the Joint Committee on Sou thea t A ia held a ummer in titute for college and univer ity faculty in 1992 at the Univer ity of Michigan, on "Modern Southea t A ian Literature in Tran lation." The in titute wa upported by the National Endowment for the Humanitie and the Ford Foundation. Participant were drawn from a wide range of di cipline , including political cience, hi tory, anthropology, lingui tic ,and ociology. Since it wa not po ible to cover all the countrie of the region, the organizer focu ed on tho e language with the mo t material available in tran lation. The re ult i a collection of yllabi and bibliographie on Philippine, Indone ian, Thai, and Vietname e literature in tran lation. They are not intended a the la t word but rather as an incentive for further tudy of the four language repreented a well a tho e that are ab ent; of theoretical and methodological i ue; and of more general humani tic cholar hip on Southea t A ia. Grant A. 01 on i the information technology coordinator for the Foreign Language Multimedia Learning and Training Center, Northern Illinoi Univer ity, DeKalb. Social Suffering, edited by Arthur Kleinman, Veena Da , and Margaret Lock. Spon ored by the Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development. Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre ,1997. xxvii + 404 page .

Social Suffering take in the human con equence of war, famine, depre ion, di ea e, torD



ture-the whole a emblage of human problem that re ult from what political, economic, and in titutional power doe to people. It al 0 tudie human re pon e to ocial problem a they are influenced by the tho e form of power. In the ame way that ocial trauma-whether cau ed by collective cata trophe, contingent mi fortune, or tructural violence-defie eparation into domain of health, ocial welfare, criminal ju tice, and ecurity, the notion of ocial uffering breaks down boundarie between pecific di cipline . Anthropologi t , hi torian, literary theori t, ocial medicine expert ,and cholar engaged in the tudy of religion join together to tudy the cultural repre entation , collective experience , and profe ional and popular appropriation of human uffering in the world today. The author conte t traditional re earch and policy approache . Recognizing that neither the cultural re ource of tradition nor tho e of modernity' variou program eem adequate to cope with ocial uffering in our time , they ba e their di tinctive vi ion on the under tanding that moral, political, and medical i ue cannot be kept eparate. Arthur Kleinman i Maude and Lillian Pre ley Profe or of Medical Anthropology and chair of the Department of Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School; he i al 0 profe or of anthropology at Harvard Univer ity. Veena Da i profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Delhi, and Margaret Lock i profe or of anthropology in the Department of Social Studies of Medicine and the

Department of Anthropology at McGill Univer ity. Note: Twelve of the 15 chapter were first publi hed in a pecial i ue of DaedaLus (Winter 1996). State overeignty: Change and Per istence in International Relation , edited by Sohail H. Ha hmi. Spon ored by the MacArthur Foundation and the Committee on International Peace and Security. Univer ity Park, Pennylvania: Penn ylvania State University Pre ,1997. xii + 212 page . The notion of tate overeignty ha been put in que tion both by internal fragmentation and by economic and ecological interdependence, which not only deprive tate of much of their power but al 0 eem to tran fer portion of "legitimate authority" to public and private organization , and to the free and largely rogue market. The e ay in thi book how that the evolution of overeignty in recent centurie re ult from material and technological development , from the changing realitie of power, and from the influence of idea uch as elf-determination, human rights, and pan-I larni m. Ju t a economic, military, and technological developments have increa ed the permeability of tate border, 0 mu t the intellectual and cultural boundarie in the tudy of world politic become more permeable to incorporate diver e cultural, ideological, and political factor . The e e ay addre change in tate overeignty from a variety of cholarly per pective -hi tori cal , political, legal, ethical, and sociological-and lTEMsn3

deal with the que tion of overeignty a applied to different cultural and geographical context : We tern European, po tcommuni t I lamic, and Ea t A ian. With regard to the implication of change in tate overeignty for international peace and ecurity, the contributor provide the ba i for both pe imi m and optimi m. Along with an all-toofamiliar pattern of war for political and economic end , or conflict driven by religiou or ethnic hatred , there ha been an unprecedented degree of nonviolent political change, re traint in the exerci e of military force, the implementation of collective action to maintain international peace and ecurity, and the trengthening of a univer al human-right regime. Sohail H. Ha hmi i a i tant profe or of international relation at Mount Holyoke College.

"Community Conflicts and the State in India:' edited by Amrita Basu and Atul Kohli. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia (1970-96). Sympo ium in the Journal of Asian Studies, 56 (2), May 1997, pp. 325-397.


Thi pecial i ue contain a election of paper pre ented at an international conference held in Amher t, Ma achu ett , with upport from the United State In titute for Peace. The e ay collectively addre the ri e in political violence in contemporary India through the propo ition that under tanding thi phenomenon depend on tracing the interplay between the Indian tate and politic on the one hand and the emergence, inten ification, tran formation, and/or decline of community identitie on the other. A hort introduction by the editor outline the key concept and unit of analy i , followed by an e ay comparing the elfdetermination movement of Tamil ,Sikh , and Ka hmiri Mu lim . The author of the e ay argue that a ri e in the number of ethnic elf-determination movement i only to be expected in a plurali tic democracy, but that willingne to hare power, co he ivene ,and longevity determine whether the e m vement e calate into violence, and even, ece ion. Another contributor examine ethnic conflict in the Indian Northea t. He argue

that the extent and degree of violence in the region i overtated and obfu catory. Treating violence a endemic hide the po itive element of civic identity formation and confu e legitimate political demand with extremi t activity. A third paper evaluate the re urgence of the right-wing militia, Shiv Sena, by focu ing on both in titutional and di cour e change . It argue that the Shiv Sena ha a new lea e on life becau e of a con tructed overlap between it original nativi t me age and the national di cour e of Hindu majoritariani m, allowing it to expand beyond core area of upport in Bombay and Mahara htra. A concluding editorial e ay ummarize and analyze the different framework u ed by the variou author , and note the diver ity of trategie and re pon e adopted by different regional communitie in India. Amrita Ba u i profe or of political cience and women' and gender tudie at Amher t College. Atul Kohli i profe or of politic and international affair at Princeton Univer ity.


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Current Activities at the Council International Peace and Security Program (IPS) A planning meeting on "Knowledge/PowerlSecurity" wa held at the Copenhagen Peace Reearch In titute in Denmark on June 27-29, 1997,1 Initiated by IPS committee member Steve Smith, thi project represent the ftr t y tematic attempt to examine the nature of knowledge production in the fteld of ecurity. It eeks to under tand the widepread diffu ion of ite producing knowledge about ecurity, including NOO , international organization , media, and corporation . Que tion central to thi project include: who upplie knowledge? who u e knowledge and how? and how doe knowledge about ecurity relate to action? Another planning meeting wa held on April 18- 20, 1997 at The Joan B. Kroc In titute for International Peace Studie at the Univer ity of Notre Dame, Indiana to di cu "Sovereignty, Modernity, and Security," a project directed by IPS committee member Jean Bethke EI htain. 2

I Panicipants: Barry Buzan, University

of We tmin I r, London; Roben Latham, RC; Harald Muller, Peace Research In tit ute, Frankfun; Th m Ri , Euro-

2 Panicipants: N di Abu EI-Haj , George W hington University; Jorge Bu t manle, University of otre D me; David Campbell, Keele Univ ity, UK; Jean Comaroff, Uni-




The project' goal were twofold: (I) to broaden how overeignty i thought about in current and future debate about contemporary politic and public policy; and (2) to help cholar , policymaker , and activi t truggling with the que tion of con tituting new form of political authority in the face of conflict or de pair at century' end, in order to gain a more expan ive en e of the limit and po ibilitie of collective action. Participant gathered to addre the e i ue and to confront the wide pread concern with the fate of overeignty at the end of the 20th century. The work hop explored four di tinct topic : rearticulation of pace, time, and identity; reframing globalization; reframing plurali m; and recontructing political community. The e will form the outline of the forthcoming volume a well. On May 18-24 1997, the International Peace and Security

versity of Chica 0 ; Fred Dallmayr. University of Notre Dame; Jame Der Derian, Univ rsity of M chu tts; Jean Bethke EI htain, University of Chicago; Siba Grovogui, John Hopkin University; Ru II Hardin, w York University; ohail H hmi, Mount Holyoke Coli ge; Daniel Littl , Bu kn II University; Ashi Nandy, Centre for the tudy of Developing ocielie , Delhi; Manin Palou , Center for TIle relical tudi , Czech Republic ; Paul Patton, University of Sydney; Harry P t, In titule of Publi lntemati nal Law, University of Utrecht; Alex Rood , World Bank; Richard aller, University of Chicago; ki S n, Columbia University; Kara haw, Univeniity of Victori ; Jame Thlly, niv niity of Vicloria; Raimo Vayryn n, Univ rsity of otre Dame; and Rob Walker, University of ViClori . t ff: Roben Lath m.

Program pon ored it II th annual SSRC-MacArthur Fellow ' Conference in Casablanca and Tangier, Morocco. The conference featured a day of plenary pre entation in Ca ablanca at the King Abdul Aziz Foundation and highlighted a number of i ue important to Morocco, including managing economic tran ition; ocial movements and ocial change; and 1 lam, ociety and democracy. Participant traveled to Tangier for the remainder of the week and continued the conference at the Tangier-American Legation Mu eum. There, fellow had the opportunity to participate in work hop panel on re earch methodology well a eminar pre entation about their own research and training activitie . More than 40 people attended the conference, including all 1995 and 1997 SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip recipients, local peaker and paneli t , member of the Committee on International Peace and Security, MacArthur Foundation officer and board member , and SSRC taff. 3

3 Speakers nd paneli I : Abd laziz Bennani, Moroccan Hum n Righ~ Le gue; Mounia Bennani-Chraibi, Con nium d ' ~足 tude Politiqu ; Fou d Ben ddik, Moroccan Uni 0 of Labor; Abdou Fil Ii-An ari , Fondation du Roi Abdulaziz alud, Morocco; Chari HI, Univ r ity of Te a , Au tin; S d Eddin Ibrahim, Ibn Kh Id un Center for Civil ociety, Egypt; Fatima Memi i, Univeniity of Moh mmed V, Morocco; Rente Vauni, World Bank; nd Roben Walker, Univeniity of Victoria. Staff: teven Heydemann, Roben Lalh m, and my F t.


Immigrants and Political Incorporation The International Migration Program held a work hop entitled "Immigrants, Civic Culture, and Mode of Politicallncorporation: A Contemporary and Hi tori cal Compari on" from May 2-4, 1997 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Workshop coordinator were Gary Ger tie and John Mollenkopf. 4 The work hop focu ed on the contribution that a compari on of hi tori cal and contemporary per pective can make to theoretical under tanding of immigrant ' political incorporation and American civic culture. Fifteen immigration cholar from numerou di cipline met for three day to explore five central que tion : (I) How have individual and group mode of political incorporation changed from the pa t to the pre ent? (2) How ha civic culture changed

4 Work hop participants: T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Georg town University Law Center; Loui De ipio, University of lIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign; Paula Fas , University of California, Berkeley; Nancy Fon r, lale University of New York, Purchase; Gary Gerstl ,Catholic University; Philip GI n, University of Notre Dame; Lui Guamizo, University of California, Davi ; David Gutierrez, University of California, San Diego; Ira KalZnelson, Columbia University; Paula McClain, University of Virginia; Terrence McDonald, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; John Mollenkopf, The Graduate Center, City University of New York; Ewa Moraw ka, University of Penn ylvania; Laurie 01 n, California Tomorrow; Joel Perl mann, Bard College; Nina Glick Schiller, University of New Hampshire; Joseph tewart, University of New Mexico; David 'l)tack, Stanford University; Reed Ueda, Tufts University; Margaret Weir, The Brooking In titution; Ari tide Zolberg, New School for Social Re arch. Staff: Josh DeWind.


in po t-civil right America and what are the implication for the mode of political incorporation of immigrant ? (3) What i the difference between tran nationali m among immigrant today and in the pa t? (4) How has the role of the tate haped immigrant ' political incorporation? (5) What i , and ha been, the role of education and ma culture in creating norm for becoming "American"? Each work hop participant contributed a paper or commentary on one of the five que tion . A volume edited by the workshop coordinators i expected to be publi hed.

International Predissertation Fellowship Program Research Training Workshops The International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program (IPFP) continue to pon or re earch training work hop through its erie entitled "Conducting Social Science Re earch in the Developing World." Recent meeting were held in the Philippine , Brazil, Senegal and Uganda. S The workhop are de igned to bring a mall, multidi ciplinary group of IPFP fellow together with graduate tudent in the developing world to engage in critical di cu ion about the de ign of ocial cience re earch and to e tabli h contact with local cholar. Students typically pend mo t of the four- or five-day workshop in di cu ion of the perceived trength and weakne e of one other ' preliminary plan for re earch. Topic vary, but the di -

S Staff: Ellen Perecman.

cu ion converge on the adequacy of methodologie in addre ing a given theoretical i ue; quality of attention to i ue of context en itivity; and problem of data collection, analy i , and interpretation. Typically included on work hop agenda are one-on-one meeting between each of the tudent and local cholar with imilar reearch intere t . Cebu City, Philippines (June 16-20, 1996): Thi work hop wa held in cooperation with the Cebuano Studie Center at the Univer ity of San Carlo and wa cochaired by Re iI Mojare , director of the Cebuano Studie Center, and Paul Hutchroft, a vi iting profe or at the Univer ity of San Carlo from the Univer ity of Wi con in. The five IPFP fellow who participated in the work hop were re iding in the Philippine , Vietnam, Indone ia, and China with the upport of the IPFP at the time of the workhop; the five local participant were all tudent at the Univer ity of San Carlo . Together they con idered topic including the politic of healing in the Philippine and the force haping economic action in China. Participant al 0 vi ited the Univerity of San Carlo . Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (June 24-28, 1996): Alice Rangel de Paiva Abreu and Marco Antonio Gonclave , both of the In titute of Philo ophy and Social Science at Federal Univer ity of Rio de Janeiro, were the cochair of thi work hop which wa held in cooperation with the Graduate Program in Sociology at the Federal Univer ity. IPFP fellow pur uing their training program VOLUME




in Brazil met with tudent from the Federal Univer ity to di cu topic uch as the creation of cultural and economic value in the art market of Rio de Janeiro, and land cape tran formation and power in the Amazon e tuary. The work hop agenda al 0 included a vi it to the In titute of Philo ophy and Social Science and a performance of Brazilian mu ic. Dakar, Senegal (May 25-29, 1997): Thi work hop wa held in cooperation with the Univer ity of Dakar and wa cochaired by Mohamed Mbodj of the In titute of African Studie at Columbia Univer ity and the Univer ity of Dakar, and Aminata Diaw of the Department of Philo ophy and Sociology at the Univer ity of Dakar. Student from the Univer ity of St. Loui ,a well a the Univer ity of Dakar, joined SSRC fellow re iding in Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bi au, and Senegal at the time of the workhop for di cu ion of topic uch as the role of female power broker in the Senegale e nationali t movement and the con truction of per onality in the context of ociopolitical change. In addition, the participant al 0 vi ited three academic center in Dakar: the Council for the Development of Social Science Re earch in Africa (CODES RIA), the We t African Re earch Center, and the United Nation Univer ity. Jinja, Uganda (June 22-26, 1997): The work hop in Jinja was co pon ored by the Makerere In titute of Social Re earch (MISR) of Makerere Univer ity in Kampala. The cochair were Jame Katorobo and Stella Neema, both of MISR. SSRC DE E 1BER


fellow tudying in Kenya, Mauritiu ,Ethiopia and South Africa met with tudent from Makerere Univer ity and engaged in di cu ion of re earch plan for a variety of topic , including multi-ethnic communitie and conflict re olution in Uganda; and money, the tate and the politic of community in Kenya. The work hop agenda al 0 featured a pecial e ion on re earch ethic .

Changing African Families in Global Persective On May 23-24, 1997, the Africa Program held a work hop on "Changing African Farnilie and Reproduction in Global Perpective" at the Univer ite de Montreal, co pon ored by the Groupe Population et Developpement of the Departement de Demographie at the univerity. Co-convener were Denni Cordell, Southern Methodi t Univer ity, and Victor Piche, Univer ite de Montreal. 6 The

6 In addition to the conveners, workshop participants included Magali Barbieri, In titul Nation I d'Etud ~mographiqu ; Jean Marc EJa, niversit~ Laval; Daniel Gauvreau, Concordia University, Qu~bec; Peter Go a e, herbrooke University, Qu~bec ; Tamara H ven, Univ rsity of Delaware; Nancy Hunt, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Ron K imir, S RC; Ali Kouaouci , Ftd~ration Intern tional pour la PI nification Familiale, Tuni ia; Gal!l I.e Jeune, In titul d'Etud Politiqu ,Pari; TM~ Locoh, In tiM Nation I d'Etude ~mographiqu in Pari ; Marc Pilon, Centre Fran~ai ur la Population et Ie ~"eloppement, Pari ; and Kokou Vignikin, Universit~ du B~nin . everal faculty nd re archers at the de Montdal also took part: Dani Ie B~langer, Ann Emmanu Ie Calv~ , B~I~my Kuate Defo, Thomas K. LeGrand, Deirdre Meintel, Jean Poiri r, and Simon David Yana.

primary purpo e of the work hop wa to find way for demographer and hi torian to work together in the tudy of African familie by putting contemporary demographic que tion --e.g., migration, fertility, and mortality-in hi torical context, and by deploying demographic methodologie to complement the oral and archival data u ed by mo t hi torian of Africa. In order to provide a context for a cro -di ciplinary dialogue between hi torian and demographer , the work hop centered on everal theme : ''The Evolution of Familie in Contemporary Africa"; "The Hi tory of the African Family"; and "Global and Comparative Approache to the Hi tory of the Family." Di cu ion focu ed on potential and pitfall of comparative re earch on the family, in regard to comparability of data and basic definition : What i the family? How doe it differ from concept like' the hou ehold?" How i it linked to broader network of kin hip? Attempt to analyze African familie , to evaluate ource of data, and to con truct longitudinal tudie have been fraught with ambiguity becau e of the e que tion . For example, the ideologie employed by head of hou ehold to repre ent the modal form of family tructure may vary with actual practice . There wa orne con en u that certain analytical approache , even if they do not re olve all the relevant definitional que tion , can "travel" acro region to con truct the diachronic evolution of familie , their internal power relation , and their inter ection with global proce e. One uch ITEMsn7

per pective i the life cour e, which examine the interaction between individual life cycle and family trajectorie , taking into account marriage, inheritance, and generational i ue more broadly. Overall, work hop participant aw potential bene-

fit from going beyond a reliance on olely demographic data or only ethnographic/oral hi torical data in recon tructing the hi tory of African familie . Important opportunitie exi t for collaboration between hi torian and demographer de pite differ-

ence in per pective and methodologie . Several participant agreed to write e ay ba ed on the workhop di cu ion, to be ubmitted to the journal The History of the Family, for a pecial i ue on Africa.

A Selection of Council-sponsored Books Published in 1996 and 1997 African Material Culture, edited by Mary Jo Arnoldi, Chri. traud M. Geary, and Kri L. Hardin. Sponored by the Joint Committee on African Studie (1960-96) and the Smith. onian Institution. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Pre s, 1996. xii + 369 pages. Borneo in Transition: People, Forests, Conservatism, and Development, edited by Christine Padoch and Nancy Lee Peluso. Sponored by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia (1976-96). New York: Oxford Univer ity Pre , 1996. xx + 291 page. Constructing Democracy: Human Rights, Citizenship, and Society in Latin America, edited by Elizabeth Jelin and Eric Her hberg. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie (195996). Boulder, Colorado: We tview Pre ,1996. x + 238 pages. Spani h version, Construir La Demoracia: Derechos Humanos. Ciudadanfa y Sociedad en America Latina, publi hed by Editorial Nueva Sociedad, Caracas, 1996. Counterractual Thought Experiments in World Politics: Logical, Methodological, and Psychological Perspectives, edited by Philip E. Tetlock and Aaron Belkin. Sponored by the Committee in International Peace and Security.


Princeton University Pre .. , 1996. x + 344 page. The Culture of ational Security: orms and Identity in World Politics, edited by Peter J. Katzentein. Spon ored by the Committee in International Peace and Security. New York: Columbia Univerity Pre ., 1996. xv + 562 page . Fastasizing the Feminine in Indonesia, edited by Laurie J. Sears. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia 1976-96). Durham, North Carolina: Duke Univer-ity Pre ,1996. xvi + 317 page.


Making Mu lim Space in orth America and Europe, edited by Barbara Daly Metcalf. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie (1985-93). Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre ,1996. xix + 264 page. Margins of Insecurity: Minoriti and International Security, edited by Sam C. Nolut hungu. Spon ored by the Committee on International Peace and Security. Roche ter, New York: University of Roche ter Pre , 1996. xiii + 302 page. Media and Politics in Japan, edited by Su an J. Pharr and Elli S. Krau . Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie

(1967-96). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Pre ., 1996. xv + 389 page .. The Politics of Elections in Southeast Asia, edited by R.H. Taylor. Spon 'ored by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia (1976-96) and the Woodrow Wil on International Center for Scholars. Cambridge: Woodrow Wil on Center Pre and Cambridge University Pre ,1996. xii + 256 page . The State of European Studies, by Peter A. Hall. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe (1975-96) and the Council for European Studie . New York: Social Science Re earch Council, 1996.31 page. State Sovereignty as Social Construct, edited by Thomas J. Bier teker and Cynthia Weber. Spon ored by the Committee in International Peace and Security through the SSRC Comparative and Tran national Program. Cambridge University Pre ,1996. xii + 298 page . Transnational Religion and Fading States, edited by Su anne Hoeber Rudolph and James Piscatori. Spon ored by the Committee on International Peace and Security. Boulder, Colorado: We tview Pre ,1997. viii + 280 page.


51 , NUMBER 4

Awards Offered in 1997 Following are the name , affiliation , and topic of the individual who were offered fellow hip or grant by SSRC committee in the mo t recent annual competition for re earch in the ocial cience and humanitie .* The award for re earch abroad were made by the committee jointly pon ored by the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). In addition to fund provided by the two Council , the e award received core upport from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Additional funding for grant admini tered by pecific committee i provided by the Ford Foundation, the German Mar hall Fund of the United State , the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Additional upport come from the U.S. Department of State through the Re earch and Training for Ea tern Europe and the Independent State of the Former Soviet Union Act of 1983 (Title Vm), and the U.S. Information Agency through the Near and Middle Ea t Re earch and Training Act (NMERTA). Fellow hip in international peace and ecurity are upported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The Ford Foundation upport the joint ACLS/SSRC International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program. The Abe Fellow hip program i funded by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partner hip. Unle It 1 pecifically noted that a program i admini tered by the ACLS, the program Ii ted are admini tered by the SSRC. The Council doe not di criminate on the ba i of race, color, gender, exual orientation, national origin age, religion, di ability, marital or family tatu, or any other characteri tic protected by applicable law .

* Li ting do nOl nece acily indic te final acceptance. DECEMBER 1997

The program change every year, and intere ted cholars hould write to the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual program also pubIi h brochure , with more complete description of their aim and procedure , at variou time during the year. Fellow hip information i al 0 available on the SSRC' web ite: http://www.

Predi ertation and Di ertation Fellowship for Area and Comparative Training and Research International Pred" ertation Fellow hip Program路路 The program committee of the International Predi sertation Fellow hip Program-Denni Hogan (chair), 0 car A. Barbarin III, Julia Clancy-Smith, Daniel Doeppers, Raquel Fernandez, Alma Gottlieb, Alastair lain John ton, A. Douglas Kincaid, David Laitin, and Michael J. Piore-awarded graduate training fellow hip to the following tudent at it meeting on March 20-21, 1997. The committee wa a i ted by a creening panel: Werner Baer, Leonard Berry, John Bowen, David Dollar, Barbara Entwi Ie, Debra Friedman, Barbara Gedde , Mary Gergen, Dru Gladney, Patricia Greenfield, Betty Harri , Kenneth Hill, Aye ha JalaI, George Lovell, Stephen Morri ,Gerardo Munck, Ian Roxborough, Diane Singerman, William Turley, Jeffrey Wa erstrom, Michael Watts, and Mary Wil on. Staff: Ellen Perecman, Li a Angu , and Alexa Dietrich. Erin Augi ,graduate tudent in ociology, Univer ityof Chicago Suzanne Broetje, graduate tudent in ociology, Michigan State University Melani Carnmett, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Berkeley David Carr, graduate tudent in geography, Univer ity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Dawne Curry, graduate tudent in hi tory, Michigan State University Alexander Edmond ,graduate tudent in anthropology, Princeton Univer ity

**Thi program i de igned to prepare tudenlS to conduct re arch in the developing world.


Majid Ezzati, graduate tudent in public and international affairs, Princeton University George Gavrili ,graduate tudent in political cience, Columbia University Jennifer Gaynor, graduate tudent in anthropology and hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Heather Holtzclaw, graduate tudent in ociology, Michigan State University Naoko Kada, graduate tudent at the School of International Relation and Pacific Studie , University of California, San Diego Toko Kato, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Wi on in, Madi on Jana King, graduate tudent in ociology, Columbia University Greta Krippner, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Wi con in, Madi on Michelle Kuenzi, graduate tudent in political cience, Michigan State University Kri tine Latta, graduate tudent in anthropology, Princeton University Alan McPherson, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univer ity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Douglas Miller, graduate tudent in economic, Princeton University Clinton Nichol Ill, graduate tudent in anthropology, Northwe tern University Gabriel Ondetti, graduate tudent in political science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Sara Peracca, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Megan Plyler, graduate tudent in anthropology, Michigan State University Jo hua Skov, graduate tudent in economic , University of California, Berkeley Erik Smith, graduate tudent in demography, University of California, Berkeley William Smith, graduate tudent in anthropology, Stanford University Chri topher Spohr, graduate tudent in economic , Mas achusetts In titute of Technology Danielle Tou aint, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Texas, Au tin Chikako Ueki, graduate tudent in political cience, Mas achu us In titute of Technology Shannon Vance, graduate tudent in hi tory, Michigan State University Meredith Wei ,graduate tudent in political cience, Yale University 80\ITEMS

Robert Wil on, graduate tudent in anthropology, Stanford University Emily Yeh, graduate tudent in energy and re ource , University of California, Berkeley

Eastern Europe The following award were made by the Committee on East European Studie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Valerie J. Bunce (chair), Wendy Bracewell, Jo ef C. Brada, David A. Frick. Victor A. Friedman, Su an Gal, Jan Gro ,Beth Holmgren, Michael D. Kennedy, and Ve na Pu ie-at its meeting on April 18-19, 1997. Staff: Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters. Dissertation Fellow hips

Rawi Eugene Abdelal, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University. Economic nationali m after empire: the recon titution of political economy in po t-Hab burg East Europe and po t-Soviet Eurasia Elizabeth C. Dunn, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, John Hopkin University. Producing flexibility: personhood and privatization in a po t- ociali t enterpri e Ann M. Grzymala-Bu , Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University. The po t-1989 adaptation of communi t partie in East Central Europe Cecile E. Kuznitz, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford University. A hi tory of the YIVO In titute for Jewi h Research, 1925-1960 Andrea D. Lanoux, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature , University of California, Lo Angele . The formation of the Poli h and Ru ian romantic literary canon, 1814-1850 Keila R. Manekin, Ph.D. candidate in Jewi h hi tory, Hebrew University, Jeru a1em. The growth and development of Jewi h Orthodoxy in Galicia: the "Mach ike Hadas" organization, 1878-1917 Andrea Orzoff, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford University. The thinking man' democracy: the Friday Group and the Czecho lovak Republic, 1924-1938 Sarah Stein, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford University. Der Fraynd and El1iempo: debating language choice in Congre Poland and the Ottoman Balkan Daina S. Stukul , Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Tran formation, normalization, and repre entation after the fall: the case of Latvia VOLUME

51, NUMBER 4

Predissertation Travel Grants

The following grants were approved by pecial ubcommittee: Robin S. Brooks, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Forced to flower? Cultural identification, ethnic mobilization, and nationbuilding in po t-communi m Chad Bryant, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. Popular attitude toward authority in a Czech town, 1933- I 948 Tanya K. Dunlap, graduate tudent in hi tory, Rice University. ASTRA (A ociatiunea Tran ilvana pentru Literatura Romana i Cultura Poporului Roman): building the Romanian nation David J. Karjanen, graduate tudent in anthropology, John Hopkin Univer ity. The political economy of motherhood: gender, tate, and health care in po t- ociali t Slovakia Language Training Grants

The East European Language Grant Committee of the Committee on East European Studie (adrnini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Ronelle Alexander, Howard I. Aron on, Chri tina Bethin, Grace E. Fielder, Madeline G. Levine, and Robert A. Roth teinvoted to award ummer language training grants to the following individual at its meeting on April 12, 1997. Staff: Ja on H. Parker and Karen Watt. Stephen R. Bloom, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Lo Angele (Latvian) Michael R. Carpenter, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Berkeley (Czech) Jon E. Fox, graduate tudent in ociology, University of California, Lo Angele (Romanian) Brad A. Gutierrez, in tructor in political cience, United State Air Force Academy (Hungarian) Martha Kuhlman, graduate tudent in comparative literature, New York University (Czech) Chri tine A. Kulke, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley (Poli h) Je ie Labov, graduate tudent in comparative literature, New York University (Poli h) Elizabeth E. Larson, graduate tudent in hi tory, Indiana University, Bloomington (Romanian) Erica Lehrer, graduate tudent in anthropology, University


of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Poli h) Evan Mellander, graduate tudent in Iingui tic ,McGill University, Canada (Czech) Judith Pintar, graduate tudent in ociology, Univer ity of lllinoi , Urbana-Champaign (Serbo-Croatian) Elizabeth Lee Roby, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, Indiana Univer ity, Bloomington (Poli h) Sven Spieker, as i tant profe or in Germanic and Slavic literature, University of California, Santa Barbara (Poli h) Institutional Support Program

The East European Language Grant Committee of the Committee on Ea t European Studie voted to award grants to the following in titution in upport of Ea t European language in truction for ummer 1997: Indiana University, for the teaching of econd-year Czech, econd-year Poli h, first-year Romanian, and first-year Serbian/Croatian, ummer 1997

Eurasia (formerly Soviet Union and Its uccessor States) Note: Paula Michael , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, who received a 1996 di ertation fellow hip, wa the 1997 recipient of the Loui Dupree Prize for Re earch in Central A ia

The following award were made by the Eurasia Program' di ertation election committee-Loui e McReynold (chair), Bruce Grant, Jame Richter, Donna Bahry, Lewi Siegelbaum, and Monica Greenleaf-at its meeting on March 7, 1996. Staff: Sheri Rani and Hazel Boyd. Dissertation Write-up Fellowships

Jonathan Bone, Ph.D. candidate in Ru ian hi tory, University of Chicago. Sociali m in a far country: development and ocioeconomic change in the Soviet Far East Kathryn Brown, Ph.D. candidate in 20th century Ru ian hi tory, University of Washington. Colonial interior : borderland identitie in Ukraine and Beloru ia, 1925-1941 Alexander Cooley, Ph.D. candidate in political cience,


Columbia University. Prince and paupers in the international y tern: tate building and foreign policy in capital-dependent tate Aly a Din ga, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature, University of Wiseon in, Madi on. The deadly muse: problem of gender and selfhood in Marina T vetaeva' Myths of Poetic Geniu Margaret Foley, Ph.D. candidate in Ru ian hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The provincial almanac in Ru ia, 1880-1924 Naomi Galtz, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Dacha: exploring a key private pace of Soviet and po t-Soviet Ru ian life Paul Hagenloh, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Texas, Au tin. Police, crime and public order in Mo ow Andrea Lanoux, Ph.D. candidate in Ru ian literature, University of California, Lo Angele . The formation of the Ru ian and Poli h romantic literary canon , 1814-1850 Elizabeth Pascal, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Intergovernmental bargaining in the Ru ian federation: a tudy of revenue haring 1993-1996 Gabriella Safran, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Princeton University. Narrative of Jewi h acculturation in the Ru ian Empire 1870-1890 Jo hua Sanborn, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago. Warrior nation: con ription and political community in Ru ia. 1905-1926

ear and Middle East The following awards were made by the NMERTA Fellow hip Selection Comminee-Ragui A aad, Be hara Doumani, Re at Ka aba, Julie Peteet, Gershon Shafir, and Robert Vitali -at it meeting on February 7, 1997. Staff: Steven Heydemann and Jennifer Henderson. Predissertation Fellowships

Anne Marie Baylouny, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Syria and Jordan: a comparative analy i of divergent economic and political outcome in an era of economic liberalization Melani Cammen, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Economic liberalization and regional integration: the political economy of Tuni ian and Moroccan participation in the Arab Maghreb union


lIana Feldman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Coloniali m, nationali m, and bureaucracy: the civil ervice in the Gaza Strip, 1922-1967 Geoffrey Porter, Ph.D. candidate in I lamic tudie, New York University. A cure for the poor? Mu lim interpretation of divine providence Di sertation Fellow hips

Ellen Am ter, Ph.D. candidate in North African and French hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. Gender and medicine in French colonial Morocco, 1912-1956 Jennifer Bell, Ph.D. candidate in comparative politic , New York University. Power, politic , and pollution: the political economy of environmentali m in Egypt Ellion Colla. Ph.D. candidate in Arabic literature, University of California, Berkeley. Hooked on Pharaonic : literary appropriation of ancient Egypt Diana Davi , Ph.D. candidate in human! ocial geography, University of California, Berkeley. Overgrazing the range? The political ecology of pastorali ts' ethnoveterinary knowledge and ecological 'rationality' in Morocco Katherine Hoffman, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, Columbia University. Language practice and identity negotiation in Southern Morocco: education, gender and the tran mi ion of culture Sonia Seeman, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomu icology, University of California, Lo Angele . Roman (gyp y) mu ieal expres ion and ocial identity in I tanbul: configuration of a community through mu ical performance South A ia The following awards were made by the NMERTA South A ia Selection Comminee-Sankaran Kri hna, Todd Lewi , Carla Petievich, and Shahnaz Rouse-at its meeting on February 22, 1997. Staff: Itty Abraham and Peter Szanton. Predissertation Fellowships

UTat Ali, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Tulane University. Medical plurali m and ocial tran formation in the Hunza valley of Pili tan Kathryn Be io, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Hawaii, Manoa. Space of erasure: gender, age, and tran cendental interaction in a Karakoram mountain community


51, NUMBER 4

Jame Blumenthal, Ph.D. candidate in South A ian tudie, Univer ity of Wi con in, Madi on. The Tibetan oral comrnentarial tradition of the yogacara- vatantrika-madhyamaka chool of Buddhi m Chri topher Chekuri, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Cultural production of the familial tate in early modem South A ia Deepali Dewan, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of Minne ota. Early art school in colonial South A ia Pamila Gupta, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory and anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. S1. France Xavier: ritual, politic ,and repre entation in Goa Daniel Jasper, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, New School for Social Re earch. Remembering Shivaji for the Hindu nation Chri tian Novetzke, Ph.D. candidate in religion, Columbia Univer ity. Maratha devotional literature Valerie Ritter, Ph.D. candidate in A ian language and culture, Univer ity of Washington. Tran ition in Hindi poetry, 1885-1920 Yvette Ro er, Ph.D. candidate in curriculum and in truction, University of Texa ,Au tin. The civic imperative: influence of the nationali t paradigm on the repre entation of hi tory in ocial tudie cia room and hi tory textbook in South A ia Aditya dev Sood, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian language and civilization , University of Chicago. Exege i in pedagogy: an ethnography of extra-modem intellectual practice in India Deborah Soper, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Wi con in, Madi on. Ethno-archeological approach to the tudy of cooking areas in Pili tan Richard Wei ,Ph.D. candidate in the hi tory of religion , Univer ity of Chicago. Cinar medicine and chari rna Vazira Zamindar, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Divided familie and the making of nationhood in India and Pili tan, 1947-1965

University. Manufacturing women, rna tering change: NGO , gender di course, and ocial change Laura Kunreuther, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. FM radio and youth identity Carole McGranahan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Hi tory and memory in exile: Tibetan refugee comrnunitie in Nepal Parna Sengupta, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Mi ionary education and religiou identity in Bengal Bangladesh Fellowship Program

The following award were made by the Banglade h Fellow hip Selection Committee-Ani uzzaman, Jame Boyce, Shelley Feldman, and Willem van Schendel-at it meeting on February 22, 1997. Staff: Itty Abraham and Peter Szanton. Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Predissertation Fellowship

Riaz Khan, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of Chicago. Democratic practice in contemporary Banglade h: the liberal-national interlude Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Dis ertation Fellowships

Ainoon Naher, Ph.D. candidate in ocial anthropology, University of Su ex. Gender, religion, and development in rural Banglade h Fahimul Quadir, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Dalhou ie University. Civil ociety, democracy, and development in Banglade h: the que t for a new praxi of u tainability, 1971-1997 Parna Sengupta, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Mi ionary education and religiou identity in Bengal

Di ertation Fellowships

Brian Caton, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. Changing local power relation in Punjab: interaction of lineage and tate, 1750-1947 Najeeb Jan, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Genealogie of political and cultural I lam: a hi torical and ociopolitical enquiry into Pili tan' I lamic ocietie, 1947-1997 Lamia Karim, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Rice




Advanced Grants for Area and Comparative Training and Research Eastern Europe The following awards were made by the Committee on East European Studie (adrnini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Valerie J. Bunce (chair),

ITEMs! 3

Wendy Bracewell, Josef C. Brada, David A. Frick, Victor A. Friedman, Su an Gal, Jan Gro ,Beth Holmgren, Michael D. Kennedy, and Ve na Pu ic-at its meeting on April 18-19, 1997. Staff: Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters. Postdoctoral Fellowships

Katherine O. David-Fox, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Ohio State University, Columbu . The 1890 generation: moderni m and national identity in Czech culture, 1890-1900 Katherine R. Jolluck, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Gender, identity and the Poli h experience of war, 1939-1945 Jame R. Palmite a, adjunct as i tant profe or of hi tory, Manhattan College. The citie below the castle: Prague during the early years of Hab burg rule, 1527-1618. Janet Savin, independent scholar in Czech culture. The role of collective identity in mas prote ts, Czecho lovilia, 1989 Katherine Verdery, profe or of anthropology, John Hopkin University. Property, power, and person in Tran ylvania' decollectivization

Eurasia (formerly Soviet Union and Its Successor States) The following award were made by the Eurasia Program' po tdoctoral selection committee-Mark Von Hagen, Linda Cook, Barbara Engel, Alan Lynch, and Eric Naiman-at its meeting on February 15, 1997. Staff: Su an Bron on and Hazel Boyd. Advanced Research Grants

Carol Clark, profe or of economic , Trinity Collge. Po tSoviet labor relation and the tran formation of labor in titution Su an Larsen, profe or of literature, University of California, San Diego. Reading and writing girlhood in Ru ia Michelle Marre e, profe or of hi tory, University of Delaware. Women and the control of property in Ru ia, 1700-1861 Randall Stone, profe or of political cience, University of Roche ter. The IMF and the po t-communi t tran ition: reputation, temptation, and in titutions Paul Werth, profe or of hi tory, University of Michigan, 84\1TEM

Ann Arbor. Orthodox mi ion and imperial governance in the Volga-Kama region, 1825-1881 Curt Wool hiser, profe or of lingui tic , University of Texas, Au tin. Divergent innovation in the Belaru ian dialects of the Poli h-Belaru ian border region: a ociolingui tic perspective Institutional Support Programs

In its thirteenth national competition of grants to American in titute that offer inten ive training in the nonRu ian language of the former Soviet Union, the Eurasia Program, as i ted by a selection panel-Stephanie Sandler (chair), Michael Flier, Victor Friedman, Frank Miller, and A ade-Ay e Rorlich-made the following award at its meeting on March 7, 1997. Staff: Sheri Rani and Deborah Mo . Russian Language Institutes in the United States

Beloit College Bryn Mawr College Indiana University Middlebury College Norwich University University of Iowa University of Pittsburgh Non-Russian Language Institutes in the United States

Arizona State University, Tatar program University of California, Lo Angele, Azeri program Harvard University, Ukrainian program Indiana University, Chechen, Georgian, Kazakh, Turkmen, and Uzbek program University of Washington, Tajik program University of Kan as, Ukrainian program

Japan The following award were made by the Japan Advi ory Board-John C. Campbell, Thomas Rimer, Patricia Steinhoff, and Stephen Via to -at it meeting on April 18, 1997. Staff: Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Rani, and Suzy Kim. Advanced Research Grants (Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission)

Mary C. Brinton, as ociate profe or of ociology, University of Chicago. Harve ting the green hoot: VOLUME

51, NUMBER 4

Japane e employers' recruitment of high school graduate Matthew M. Chew, Ph.D. in ociology, Princeton Univer ity. Academic production under international influence: in titutional and practical ob tacle to the development of philo ophy in modem China and Japan Steven J. Eric on, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Dartmouth College. The Mat ukata financial reform and economic development in modem Japan Joyce Gelb, director of the Women' Studie Program and Center for the Study of Women and Society, The Graduate Center, City University of New York. The equal employment opportunity law in Japan: a decade of change for women? Chri topher A. Ive , as ociate profe or of religion, Univer ity of Puget Sound. Ideological con truction of Buddhi t nationali m Edith L. Sarra, as ociate profe or of East A ian language and culture, Indiana University. Wi hful thinking: gender, genealogy, and fantasy in the later fiction of the Japane e Court Mark Selden, profe or of ociology and hi tory, Binghamton Univer ity. The ri e of East A ia: Japan, China, and East A ia regional development, 1945-2000 Postdoctoral Fellowships, Awarded January 1997 (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Kenneth Mark Anderson, faculty lecturer, literature, McGill University. Shimomura Torataro and the technology of the Japane e body politic There a Au tin, as i tant profe or, education, University of Mas achusetts, Amherst. Academic language in Japanese: ethnographic research on tudent talk in context Mark Blum, as i tant profe or, religion, Florida Atlantic University. Pure land Buddhi m in the Kamakura period Peter Hendriks, as i tant profe or of East A ian language and literature, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Language change in the central and peripheral dialect of Japan Keiko Ikeda, as i tant profe or, A ian and Middle Eastern culture , Bamard College, Columbia University. Conjugal and parent-child relation among Japane e couple of retirement age Hiroko John on, adjunct profe or, art hi tory, California State Univer ity, Long Beach and Pomona. We tern influence on Japane e art during the 18th century: Akita ranga, Dutch- tyle painting




Dajin Peng, as i tant profe or, government and international affairs, University of South Florida. Japan' role in A ia Pacific economic integration and in the product cycle of East A ia Karen Smyers, a i tant profe or, religion, We leyan University. Word of power: Japanese language of magic and the magic of language in Japan Julia A. Thomas, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Reconfiguring nature: Japan' confrontation with modernity Postdoctoral Fellowships, Awarded May 1997 (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Walter E. Grunden, Ph.D. in hi tory, University of California at Santa Barbara. Yuasa To hilm: phy iei t, femini t, and emi ary of science Mizuko Ito, Ph.D. in education, Stanford University. Tran national network : globalllocal relation in the Japane e computer game indu try Paul A. Kowert, as i tant profe or of international relation , Florida International University. A theory of national identity: vi ion of elf and other in 20th-century U.S.-Japan relation Nanako Kurihara, lecturer in theater art , State University of New York. Stony Brook. Relation hip between the body and word in Japanese performing art Keiko Nakamura, Ph.D. in p ychology, University of California, Berkeley. Pragmatic aspect of the acqui ition of Japane e: the development of early ociolingui tic awarene Simon C. Partner, Ph.D. in hi tory, Columbia University. Technology, bu ine ,and the tran formation of the Japane e country ide Julia A. Thomas, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Reconfiguring nature: Japan' confrontation with modernity Daqing Yang, as i tant profe or of hi tory and international affair, George Washington Univer ity. Telecommunication in imperial Japan

Near and Middle East The following award were made by the NMERTA Fellow hip Selection Committee-Ragui A aad, Be hara Doumani, Re at Ka aba, Julie Peteet, Gershon Shafir, and Robert Vitali -at it meeting on February 7, 1997. Staff: Steven Heydemann and Jennifer Henderson.


Postdoctoral Fellowships

Ali Ahmida. as istant profe or of political cience, University of New England. Before the nation- tate in North Africa: rescuing hi tory from coloniali m and nationali m Brian Barber, as ociate profe or of ociology, Brigham Young University. What has become of the children of the tone? A p ychological inve tigation of the Intifada youth in the Gaza Strip Arthur Buehler, as i tant profe or of philo ophy and religion, Colgate Univer ity. Tran mi ion of Sufi authority in Indo-Ottoman revival network Michele Lamprako , adjunct profe or of architectural hi tory, Philadelphia College of Textile and Science. Medieval tructure of trade and commerce: a tudy in East-We t architecture and urbani m Parvaneh Pourshariati, Center for the Study of Human Right, Columbia University. Introducing a folk-epic narrative: the Abu Mu lim Nama, a Turko-Iranian folk tale of a revolution Devin Stewart. a i tant profe or of Near Eastern language and literature, Emory University. The con truction of national character in popular peech: a comparative tudy of Egyptian and Moroccan peech genre Sabra Webber, as ociate profe or of Near Eastern language and culture , Ohio State Univer ity. A ocio tructural tudy of Tuni ian riddle

Other Program Abe Fellow hip Program The following grant were made by the Abe Fellow hip Program Committee-Kuniko Inoguchi, Takato hi Ito, Merit Janow, Take hi Mat uda, Michael Mochizuki, Mieko Ni himizu, Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney, Anne Pebley, Akira Saito, Gary R. Saxonhou e, Hitomi Tonomura, and Noriko T uya-at it meeting on October 11-13, 1996. Staff: Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Rani ,and Tamara Was erman. William Alford, law, Harvard University. The emergence of the legal profe ion in Ea t A ia: globalization and ju tice David Ara e, political cience, Pomona College. The Japan ea initiative: the role of local government in ubregional cooperation


Mary Yoko Brannen, bu ine tudie, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Negotiated culture and tran national flflll : theoretical implication of the effect of globalization on organizational change John Campbell, political cience, Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Conflict in long-term care: health care v . ocial ervice in Japan, the United State, and the Netherland tudie, University of Briti h Mark Fruin, bu ine Columbia. Old dog and new trick : international trategie and global competition on the eve of the 21 t century Yoichi Funabashi, joumali 4 Asahi Shimbun. How to achieve cooperation between the United State , Japan, and China: analyzing dome tic dynamic of trilateral affinity Heidi Gottfried, ociology, Purdue University. Gendering work: neo-Fordi m in Japan, the United State , Sweden, Germany, and Great Britain There a Greaney, economic , Syracuse University. An analy i of Japan' changing import behavior: imilaritie and difference with other developed countrie Takaaki I hikawa, journali t, Mainichi Shimbun. What effective method for biological diversity con ervation can U.S. NGO demon trate? Takehiko Kariya, education, Univer ity of Tokyo. Entry into the labor market from education: a comparative and hi torical ociology of the chool-work tran ition in the United State and Japan Peter Katzen tein, political cience, Cornell Univer ity. Globali m and regionali m: Japan and A ia, Germany and Europe Tat uo Kinugasa, finance, University of Marketing and Di tribution Science . E timation of the technological change on the regulated indu trie and international compari on Robert Kneller, public policy, National In titute of Health. Technology tran fer in Japan and the United State : different path to cientific and economic progres T utomu Kono, political cience, United Nation Univer ity. Epi temic communi tie and UN reform Kazuo Ogawa, economic , 0 aka University. A comparative tudy of the monetary tran mi ion mechani m: Japan and the United State Chieko Kitagawa Ot uru, political cience, National Mu eum of Ethnology. Legitimacy of intervening for democracy Mark We t, law, Paul, Wei ,Rjfkind, Wharton &

VOLUME 51, Nu 1BER 4

Garri on. The role of hareholders'meeting in the United State and Japan ACLSISSRC International Postdoctoral Fellow hips The following award were made by the Central Selection Committee (adrnini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Sugata Bo e, Helen Hardacre, Rita Smith Kipp, Sankaran Kri hna, David Newbury, Randolph D. Pope, Paul J. Smith, and Paul J. Vanderwood-at it meeting on March 23, 1997. Staff: Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters. Ruth Behar, profe or of anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. An Afro-Cuban family living the revolution Devin A. DeWee e, a ociate profe or of Central Eurasian tudie , Indiana University, Bloomington. A hi tory of I lam in Central A ia Mark C. Elliott, a i tant profe or of Chine e hi tory, University of California, Santa Barbara. Manchu imperiali m in Tibet: politic , war, and ethnicity on the Qing frontier Lalitha Gopalan, as i tant profe or of film and cultural tudie , Georgetown University. Genre of violence in contemporary Indian cinema Allen F. I aacman, profe or of hi tory, University of Minne ota, Twin Citie . Slave, oldier, and the contruction of ethnic identity: the Chikunda of SouthCentral Africa, 1650-1920 Nancy J. Jacob, a i tant profe or of African hi tory, Brown University. A ocio-environmental hi tory of Kuruman, South Africa, c.1800-1977 Mindie Lazaro -Black, as ociate profe or of law and ociety re earch, University of IIIinoi ,Chicago. Statecraft: law and modernity in Trinidad William C. Ro eberry, profe or of anthropology, New School for Social Re earch. Liberali m and the contentiou con truction of community: Patzcuaro, Mexico, 1875-1920 Matthew H. Sommer, as i tant profe or of modem Chine e hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. Hu band ca hing in wive : the pro titution and ale of wive in Qing dynasty China Charle F. Walker, as i tant profe or of Latin American hi tory, Univer ity of California, Davi . Race, rabble, and rubble: ocial and political after hock of the Lima, Peru, 1746 earthquake





Peter B. Zinoman, a i tant profe or of Southeast A ian hi tory, Univer ity of Califomia, Berkeley. The colonial Bastille: a ocial hi tory of impri onment in colonial Vietnam, 1862-1945 Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studi The following doctoral di ertation and po tdoctoral re earch fellow hip for a re idential year at the Free University of Berlin, were awarded by the U.S.-German election committee of the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie on April 5, 1997 in Berlin. Member of the American committee are: Charle Maier (chair), Peter Baldwin, Lily Gardner Feldman, Anton Kae , and Herbert Kitschelt. Staff: Kenton W. Worce ter and Ju tin J.W. Powell. Joy Calico, Ph.D. candidate in mu icology, Duke University. The politic of opera in the GDR, 1945-1961 Brian Currid, po tdoctoral re earch fellow hip, mu icology, University of Chicago. No talgia and the German national imaginary: popular mu ic in the two Germanie Julian Dierke ,Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Princeton University. Teaching German and Japane e national identity Todd Ettel on, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The Nazi "new man": power, re i tance, and repre entation of masculinity in Germany, 1930-1945 Marc Howard, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley. Legacie of communi m: political culture, change, and democratic con olidation in East Germany and Ru ia Jennifer Jordan, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, San Diego. Conquering the field : the commodification of land in po t-1989 Berlin Brent Maner, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of llIinoi . A earch for the buried nation: archeology in 19th-century Germany Kimberly Redding, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of North Carolina. "We wanted to be young"-Hitler' youth in po t-war Berlin Corey Ro ,Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity College London. Con tructing ociali m at the gra root: popular opinion and ocial conflict



in the GDR, 1952-61 Judd Stitziel, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, John Hopkin University. The con umer culture of the GDR, 1953-1971: the case of clothing Jeremy Straughn, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Chicago. Social change and the making of political generation : two East Berlin cohorts after 1989

German-American A demic Council Young Scholars' Summer Institut 1996-97: Immigration, Incorporation and Citizen hip in Advanced Indu trial Economie GennaniEuropean Fellows

Gianni 0' Amato, University of Potsdam Heike Diefenbach, Technical University, Chemnitz Raingard Es er, London School of Economic (German national) Sabine Henning, University of Colorado, Boulder (German national) Felicitas Hillmann, Wi enschaftszentrum Berlin fUr Sozialforschung Andreas Em t Jabn, Europakolleg Hamburg Annette Kohlmann, Technical University, Chemnitz Bernhard Santel, University of Munich Mathi Siedhoff, Bunde forschung an talt fUr Lande kunde und Raumordnung, Bonn Dita Vogel, University of Bremen Frank Paul Weber, Humboldt University Berlin (French national) Antje Wiener, University of Su ex (German national) U.S. Fellows

Virginie Guiraudon, Harvard University Dae Young Kim, The Graduate Center, City University of New York Amanda Klekow ki, Georgetown University Rey Ko low ki, Rutgers University, Newark David Kyle, Texas A&M University Gallya Labav, Population Divi ion, United Nation, New York June Marie Nogle, University of Florida, Gaine ville Nedim Oegelman, University of Texas, Au tin Andrea Smith, University of Arizona John Torpey, University of California, Irvine Abel Valenzuela, University of California, Lo Angele Sarah Wayland, University of Toronto


1996-97: The Organization of Behavior in Higher and Lower Animal Gennan/European Fellows

Martin Barth, University of WUrzburg Bertram Gerber, Free University Berlin Martin Giurfa, Free University Berlin Sabine Grue ser, Humboldt University Berlin Han Hofmann, University of Leipzig Annette Kleiser, University of Munich Ulrilch Raub, University of WUnburg Joachim Schachtner, University of Washington, Seattle (German national) Petra Skiebe-Corrette, Free University Berlin Wolfgang Stein, University of Kai erslautern U.S. Fellows

Alejandro Baecker, California In titute of Technology Marlene Barto , University of Penn ylvania Ari Berkowitz, University of California, Lo Angele Elizabeth A. Capaldi, University of Illinoi , UrbanaChampaign Thoma Andrew Cleland, University of California, Santa Cruz Jeffrey A. Dickin on, New York University Heather Louise Ei then, Bo ton University Marine Program, Wood Hole Jim Goodson, Cornell University Frank Gras 0, Bo ton University Marine Program, Wood Hole Jame Nichol , Stanford University 1997-98: The I lamic World and Modernity Gennan/European Fellows

Rainer Broemer, University of Jena Andreas Chri tmann, Oxford University Marku Daechsel, University of London Armando Salvatore, Humboldt University Berlin Birgit Schaebler, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Chri toph Schumann, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Ruediger See emann, University of Bayreuth Guido Steinberg, Free University Berlin Eckart Woertz, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Anja Wuen ch, University of Leipzig U.S. Fellow

Burcu Akan, American University


51, NUMBER 4

Robin Bu h, University of Washington Benjamin Fortna, University of Chicago Michael Ga par, New York University Behrooz Ghammari-Tabrizi, University of California, Santa Cruz Soh ail Hashmi, Mount Holyoke College Petra KuppUnger, New School of Social Re earch Lance Laird, Harvard University Mazyar Lotfalian, Rice University and Mas achusett In titute of Technology Benjamin Soare , Northwe tern University 1997-98: Social and Biological Detenninant of Longevity

International Migration Program The following award were made on March 21-22, 1997 by the International Migration Program based on recommendation from the predoctoral and po tdoctoral awards committees. Members of the predoctoral awards committee are: Donna Gabaccia, Margaret Gib on, Sheri Gra muck, Jame John on, John Mollenkopf, Patricia Pe ar, George Sanchez, Abel Valenzuela. and Morri on Wong. Members of the po tdoctoral award committee are: Thomas E pen hade, Nancy Foner, Manuel Garcia y Griego, Alice O'Connor, Deborah Phillip , and Mary Water . Staff: Jo h Dewind, Sara Pasko, and Chri tian M. Fuersich.

German/European Fellows Katja Bromen, University of E en Amandine Coumil, In titut Euro¢en de Genomutation, France Gabriele Doblhammer-Reiter, University of Vienna Marcu G. Doherr, University of California, Davi (Gennan national) Olga Geling, University of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign (Gennan national) Sabine Henning, University of Colorado, Boulder (Gennan national) Thomas Lampert. Max-Planck-In titut flir Bildung forschung Berlin Heiner C. Maier, Max-Planck-lnstitut flir Bildung forschung Berlin Qihu,a Tan, Ro tock University ZhengJian Wang, Max Planck In titute for Demographic Re earch, Ro tock U.S. Fellows John Cawley, University of Chicago Greg L. Dreven tedt, University of Pennsylvania Patrick Heuveline, University of Penn ylvania Robert A. Hummer, University of Texas, Au tin Caroline R. Jame , University of California, Berkeley Debra S. Judge, Univer ity of California. Davis Becca Levy, Harvard Medical School Valter Longo, University of California, Lo Angele Amy Pienta, Penn ylvania State University, Univer ity Park Blanka Rogina, University of Connecticut Health Center Karen C. Swallen, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Bethany U her, Penn ylvania State, Univer ity Park



Dissertation Fellowships Nancy Carnevale, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Rutgers University. Living in tran lation: language and Italian immigrants in the United State , 1900-1968 llana Gershon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago. Funding Samoan culture: New Zealand and U.S. government aid Henry Goldschmidt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz. Race, religion and biblical culture in the immigrant communitie of Crown Heights Melonie Heron, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Penn ylvania State University. The occupational attainment of Caribbean immigrant in the United State Patrick Joyce, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University. Politic and the development of blackKorean conflicts Dae Young Kim, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Out of the ethnic economy: intergenerational mobility and labor market outcome of econd-generation KoreanAmerican in New York Gaspar Rivera, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Santa Cruz. Comparative analy i of migration and political activi m among Mexican tran national indigenou communi tie Alexandra Stem, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago. Producing and reproducing purity in the name of nationhood: eugenic and evolutioni min U.S.Mexican relation , 1900-1940 Ayumi Takenaka, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Columbia University. Ethnicity-based tran national community and


networks: Japane e-Peruvian in Peru, Japan, and the United State

of California, Berkeley. Membership and morality in U.S. immigration politic

Minority Summer Dissertation Workshop

Postdoctoral Fellowship

Grace Delgado, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele. A ymmetrical development along the far We tern U.S.-Mexican border tate, 1846-1940 Milliann Kang, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University. New York City Korean-owned nail a10n a ite for the microcon tru tion of race and gender in an immigrant ervice niche Oneka LaBennett, Ph.D. candidate in ocial anthropology, Harvard University. Cultural products and migration: con umption, ethnicity, and gender among We t Indian in Brooklyn Lawrence La Fountain-Stoke , Ph.D. candidate in Spani hand Portugue e, Columbia Univer ity. Culture, repre entation, and the Puerto Rican queer dia pora Ana Law, Ph.D. candidate in government, University of Texas, Au tin. Po t-1965 immigration re triction : liberal or illiberal? Eunju Lee, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, State University of New York, Albany. Making it in America: Korean immigrant women and men in mall bu ine Nelon Lim, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Lo Angele . Social and ethnic divi ion of labor, integration of immigrants, and their impact on the labor market Ronald Mize, Ph.D. candidate in ociology. University of Wi con in, Madi on. The invi ible workers: articulation of race and c1as in the testimonios of Bracero Natalia Molina, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan. Birthing with their hands: mamas, comadres, y parteras Regine 0 tine, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Taking ide: a case tudy of Bo ton' Italian immigrants and the racial and ethnic boundarie of identity, 1965-1970 Reuel Rogers, Ph.D. candidate in politic , Princeton University. Somewhere between race and ethnicity Maude Tou aint. Ph.D. candidate in economic , University of Illinoi ,Chicago. Productivity of immigrants from the Caribbean and Africa in the United State and Canada Cara Wong, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University

Kavou Behzadi, re earcher, p ychology, Bo ton College and University of Mas achu etts. Migration, coping, and adaptation: patters of vulnerability and re i1ience among Mu lim immigran in the U.S. Jon Holtzman, as ociated researcher, anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Kin hip and the tate in the tran formation of gender relation among nuer refugee in the Twin Citie area Michael Jones-Correa, as i tant professor, government. Harvard University. Four citi : immigrants, civil di turbance , and political incorporation Jane Junn, as i tant profe or, political cience, Rutgers University. Participation in liberal democracy: the political as irnilation of immigran and ethnic minoritie in the United State Fred Kri man, Rockefeller Scholar at the Center for Comparative American Culture , Washington State University. A comparative tudy of immigrant labor trategie to tap Mexican recruitment: U.S. agribu ine tran national networks Peggy Levitt. as i tant profe or, ociology, Harvard University. What happen to participation? How tran nationali m tran form civic engagement Audrey Singer, vi iting i tant profe or, demography, Georgetown University. Citizen hip acqui ition and community context among Latin American immigran in New York City


Research Planning Grants

Douglas A. Kincaid, ociate profe or, Center for Latin American Studie , University of Florida. SPlMFAX: an international research and training con ortium Yu Zhou, as i tant profe or, geology and geography, Vas ar College. The other half of the "model minority": gendered experience and tran formation of identitie among East A ian immigrants

exuality Research Fellow hip Program The following award were made by the Sexuality Re arch Fellow hip Program Committee-John Gagnon and Anke Ehrhardt (cochairs), John Bancroft, Barbara de Zalduondo, John Fout, Julia Rue Heiman, Gilbert Herdt,


Con tance Nathan on, and Beth Richie-at it meeting on March 6--8, 1997. Staff: Diane di Mauro and Mirja Pitkin. Dissertation Fellowships David Aveline, ociology, Indiana University. Family tranition, personal adju tment, and a ociative tigrna management: being the parent of a gay child. Advisor: Martin Weinberg Je ica Field , ociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Sexuality education and adole cent : community debate and practice. Advisor: Sherryl Kleinman Gloria Gonzalez-Lopez, ociology, University of Southern California. The impact of immigration on the exuality of Mexican women: bringing hetero exual Mexicanas out of the clo et of ilence. Advisor: Con tance Ahron Chad Heap, hi tory, University of Chicago. Slumming: the politic of American urban culture and identity, 1920-1940. Advisor. George Chauncey Shawna Hud on, ociology, Rutgers University. Watching ex on TV: reinterpreting content u ing a ociological gaze. Advisor: Cathy Greenblat Diana McDonnell, population dynamic ,John Hopkin School of Hygiene and Public Health. Partners, prophylactic , and prevention: adding relation hip information to model of health behavior to better predict condom u e and STD . Advisor: Robert Schoen Dawne Moon, ociology, Chicago University. The battle over marriage: or, i ame- ex marriage an oxymoron? Advisor: George Chauncey Katherine Muraw ki, cultural anthropology, Duke University. Intimate labors: exuality, alienation, and objectification in three gentleman' club . Advisor: Anne Alii on Ro emary Power, ociology, University of California, Davi . Who e value ? Sexuality, teacher , and the exual con truction of the econdary chool. Advisor: Carole Joffe Julie Pulerwitz, health and ocial behavior, School of Public Health, Harvard University. Sexual communication and negotiation trategie among Latin : implication for STDIHIV prevention. Advisor: Steven Gortmaker Sharon Ro to ky, educational and coun eling p ychology, University of Tenne ee. Power, ex, and gender in late adole cent dating relation hip . Advi or: Deborah WeI h Shonna Trinch, Hi panic language and literature, University of Pitt burgh. Mexican-American urvivor of rape and abu e: narrating exuality and violence. D ECEMBER 1997

Advisor: Su an Berk-SeJigson Rebecca Young, ociomedical science , Columbia University. The defmition and measurement of masculine and feminine exuality in biological research on human, 1959-1995. Advisor: Carole Vance Postdoctoral Fellowships Katie Gilmartin, American tudie, University of California, Santa Cruz. The very hou e of difference: live of Rocky Mountain Ie bian , 1940-1965. Advisor: E telle Freedman Meredith Reynold , clinical p ychology, The Kin ey In titute, Indiana University. Childhood exual play: its relevance to adult exuality. Advisor: John Bancroft Arlene Stein, ociology, University of Oregon. Beyond the culture war: exual boundarie and the politic of difference in rural Oregon. Advisor: Ken Plummer Theo van der Meer, hi tory, Univer ity of Chicago. Cro cultura1 and hi torical analy i of anti-gay and Ie bian violence. Advisor: Gilbert Herdt David Whittier, ociology, University of Hou ton. Contingencie of gay de ire: a critical ethnography of exual cripting. Advisor: William Simon Mauri Ziff, p ychology, University of California, San Franci co. Sexual aging: profile and pattern of the ex live of older adults. Advisor: Jo eph Catania

SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip on Peace and ecurity in a Changing World The Committee on International Peace and SecurityJack Snyder (chair), Lynn Eden, Steve Smith, Jean Bethke EI htain, Frank Von Hippel, Peter Katzen tein, Phil Tetlock, and Atul Kohli- voted to award the following SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip in Peace and Security in a Changing World at it meeting on March 13- 14, 1997. Staff: Steven Heydemann, Robert Latham, Amy Fro t, and Mark Schoffner. Di ertation Fellowships Ayse Karayazgan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Duke University. National ecurity, identity and military ervice in Turkey Michael McGovern, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Emory University. ldentitie and the negotiation of di placement in Sou thea tern Guinea, We t Africa Chandra Sriram, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, ITEMs/91

Princeton University. Truth, ju tice, and accountability: dealing with past human rights abu e Jae-Jung Suh, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Penn ylvania. Power, intere t, and identity in alliance maintenance, the U.S.-Korea Xiadong Wang, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Cold war in the Chine e Northeast: Sino-Soviet-U.S. relation, 1948-1953

Xiaoyuan Liu, hi tory, State University of New York, Potsdam. Rein of liberation: the cold war, the Chinese civil war, and the ethnopolitical truggle in China' borderland , 1945-1951 Etel Solingen, political science, University of California, Irvine. Emulating peace: East A ian key to Middle East cooperation?

International Peace and Security Postdoctoral Fellowships Karen Barkey, ociology, Columbia University. Divergent path to nationhood in the early twentieth century Anne Fetherston, peace tudie, Kroc In titute, University of Notre Dame. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding: indigenous NGO and the tran formation of violent conflict Suzanne Jone , physic , Princeton University. Nuclear power, energy trategy, and East Asian ecurity Elizabeth Kier, political science, University of California, Berkeley. War and progre : the dome tic consequence of total war



The Committee on International Peace and Security 0 made the following award :

Research Workshops Tarak Barkawi, King' College London and Mark Laffey, Kent State University. Democracy, the u e of force, and global ocial change Chip Gagnon, Cornell University and Darini Rajasingham, International Center for Ethnic Studie , Colombo, Sri Lanka. Doe ethnic conflict exi t? Globalization and proce se of identity and violence





Grants Received by the Council in 1996-97 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1997* Rusin School of the University of Lausanne Project LINK $56,955 Camegi Corporation Comparative tudy of nationali m in Central A ia and the Middle East (Near and Middle East Program)


Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences Conference on culture, mind, and biology (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development) $8, 104 Ford Foundation International field re earch fellow hip and work hop Vietnam project (Indochina Program) Work hop on international migration to the United State Studie on defen e policy and budgeting Sexuality Re earch Fellow hip Program German-American Academic Council Collaborative re earch project William T. Grant Foundation Ethnopediatric : biocultural dimen ion of child health and development (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development) Japan Foundation Di ertation conference (Japan Program)

2,000,000 $124,000 $75,000 $75,000 $2,000,000 $11,366



Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Seminar erie (Japan Program) $70,168 Abe Fellow hip Program $1,968,221 Japan-United States Friendship Comm' ion Grant for advanced research on Japan (Japan Program) $130,000 Alton Jones Foundation Role of the NGO community in promoting fundamental foreign policy change $100,000

• Doe not include "in kind" grants; th t i, upport of travel, hotel, conference, and imilar expen received by Council committee in the form of direct payments by other organization . DECEMBER


John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Biodiversity Project $130,000 Cuba project $50,000 Work hop in Tashkent, Uzbeki tan, on nationali m after coloniali m in the Middle Ea t and Central A ia (Near and Middle East Program) $15,000 Graduate training for tudents in economic and related Ph.D. program (Economic Training Initiative) $2,170,000 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation international Di ertation Field Re earch Fellow hip Program (IDRF)


National Endowment for the Humaniti International po tdoctoral fellow hip


National Science Foundation Continued upport (Committee for Re arch on Global Environmental Change) Christopher Reynold Foundation Cuba project

2,300 $20,000

Rockefeller Foundation Conference on capacity-building in Africa (Human Capital Initiative) Role of art and culture in building and maintaining healthy communitie Study of American nuclear diplomacy with North Korea

$50,000 $50,000 $25,000

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Re earch network on higher education (Higher Education Initiative)


United Nations Project LI K


u. S. Information Agency Near and Middle East Research and Training Act (NMERTA) Predoctoral fellow hip program (South A ia Program) Predoctoral foreign language and area tudie fellow hip (Near and Middle East Program) Wenner-Gren Foundation Project on Indian indu trial labor (South A ia Program)




Total: $12,414,698 lTEMsI93


FAX (212) 377-2727

WEB hllp:/Iwww.

The Council was incorporated in the State of mirwi , December 27, 1924, for the purpo e of advancing re earch in the social science. Nongovernmental and interdi cip/inary in nature, the Council appoint committees of cholon which seek to achieve the Council's purpo e through the generation of new idea and the training of scholan. The activities of the Council are supported primarily by grants from pri~'(Jte foundation and government agencies. Directon, 1997-98: PAUL B. BALTES, Max Planck In tilUle for Human Development and Education (Berlin); ROBERT H. BATES, Harvard Unive ity; IRIs B. BERGER,

State University of New York, Albany; NANCY BIRDSALl., Inter-American Development Bank; ALBERT FISHLOW, Council on Foreign Relation; SUSAN FI ICE, University of M sachusetts, Amherst; BARBARA HEYN ,New York University; SHIRLEY LINDENBAUM, The Graduate Center, City University of New York; CORA B. MARREIT, University of M hu tts; KENNEni PREwm, Social Science Research Council; BURTO H. SINGER, Princeton University; NEIL SMELSER, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science; KENNEni W. WACHTER, University of California, Berkeley; MICHEU.E J. WHITE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.



The Social Science Research Council upports the program of the Commi ion on Pre rvation and Acce and i represented on the National Advisory Council on Pre rvation. The paper used in thi public tion meets the minimum requirements of Ameri an National Standard for Information Science5--Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Material . ANSI Z39.48-1984. The infinity symbol placed in a circle indicate compliance with thi tandard.

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51. NUMBER 4

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