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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 45 / Numbers 2-3 / June-September •

605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158

Museums and Archives in Africa

clude by introducing a new SSRC program directed at African archive and mu eum .

by Tom Lodge*

Current situation

There are more mu eum in Africa than univer itie and every African country upport at lea tone official archive. The e in titution often repre ent the main tarting point for re earcher in Africa, particularly for ocial cienti t and humani t concerned with po t-colonial development, which, of cour e, are not documented in the record and collection accommodated by the former colonial power . African mu eum and archive , though, exi t mainly to erve the cultural and educational need of Mrican ; if they fail to do thi ucce fully then their future i very precariou indeed. They are chiefly dependent on public funding . At a time of general impoveri hment throughout the continent, they have to compete for government re ource with overburdened health ervice ,overcrowded chooling y tern , and worn-out tran port networks; not urpri ingly their need are rarely perceived to be a important. African mu eum and archive , therefore, confront a material crisi . In their effort to ecure relief and upport they al 0 face a deeper exi tential problem. De igned in the image of metropolitan in titution , they were often con tructed and equipped to perform very different function from tho e which they are called upon to undertake today. Thi article examine orne of the problem encountered by African mu eum curator and archivi t . It will di cu orne of the effort to alleviate their difficultie . It con-

There are over two hundred mu eum in ubSaharan Africa. I Many of them date from the colonial period and their characteri tic reflect the particular preoccupation of the re pon ible colonial regime. For example, mu eum e tabli hed in We t African territorie tended to have a trong ethnographic bia , partly reflecting the predi po ition of "indirect rule," • Tom Lodge. a hi torian . i taff to the Joint Committee on African Studie . He will be returning to the University of the Witwatersrand in Johanne burg a sociate profe r of political tudie. effective September I. 1991. I A good Ii ting i Susanne Peters. Dir~ctory of Mu ~ums in Africa. UNESCOIICOM Documentation Centre. Kegan Paul International . New York and London. 1990. No comprehen ive urvey h been undertaken of African Archive ince Philip D. Cunin' "The Archive of Tropi al Africa: A Reconnai sance." Journal of African Hi tory. I. 1960. pp. 129-47.

• CONTENTS OF TillS ISSUE • Museum and Archive in Africa. Tom Lodg~ Shaping the Course of Area Studie • David L. Swnron The IPFP: Re ults of the First Competition. EII~n Pu~cman Council Personnel New Directors nd Officers Staff Change ew taff Appointment Recent Council Publication Current Activitie at the Council Comparative and Tran national Seed Gran

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26 32 34 34 34 3S 39

39

Stan-up Grants for Interim Research Activitie Social Learning in the Management of Global Environmental Ri k Two New Tran national Projects in Peace and Security Council Fellow hip and Grant Program • 1991-92 Grant Received by the Council in 1990-91 Fellow hip and Grants Offered in 1991 A Ponrait of the SSRC

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41

42 44

46 47 64

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government through uppo edly "tribal" authoritie . In Ea t Africa, white enlement left Ie room for the pre ervation of pre-colonial political tructure; here mu eum collection empha ized natural hi tory. In Zimbabwe, the fir t mu eum concentrated on geology in the confident expectation that the colony' future economic de tiny would be tied to goldmining. To be ure, a ub tantial number of African mu eum were e tabli hed hortly after independence, many organized under centralized government bureaucracie . A with the colonial mu eum , they too reflect particular perception of national identity. Out ide Harare, for example, a Shona Village Permanent Exhibition, opened in 1984, eeks to recreate "a way of life in the 19th century," with the tre on "the piritual unity of the village" and "the wealth of idiom and proverb" in Shona culture. 2 Zimbabwean nationali t enthu iasm for ethnographic recon truction hould be understood in a context in which, until 1980, African culture were ignored or di paraged in enler-controlled in titution . In Rhode ian mu eum after the unilateral declaration of independence, ethnographic exhibits were packed away to make room for collection of military uniform , coin , po tage tamp, and Victorian hou ehold artifact . But while Zimbabwean compenate for the effect of 80 year of racial uppre ion through no talgic repre entation of pri tine village communitie , We t African mu eum curators contend with collection which depict African ocietie locked in ahi toric bucolic ethnography. Their effort are increa ingly directed at making mu eum exhibit reflect ocietie which are changing, which are becoming predominantly urban, and which are influenced by tran national culture and imported technology. For example, Niger' National Mu eum organized an exhibition in 1990 depicting the hi tory of the bicycle in Niger, u ing photograph, adverti ement and even the venerable frame of one of the fir t bicycle brought by trader into the country at the beginning of the century, miraculou Iy pre erved in the toreroom of a Niamey compound. Archive may have experienced Ie of a hift in their definition of purpo e and function . E tabli hed with the original task of government record manage-

1 D. K. Mun,lCn. "The Elthiblt or the Popula e: Zimbabwe on the Thre hold." Paper pre nted t "The Poeti and Politic of Repre ntation Conference:' Smithsonian Institution, ew Yorl.. , 26 September 19 8, pp. 27-2 .

22\ITE 1

ment to facilitate efficient admini tration, many African archive repo itorie were reorganized to meet the need of hi torian during the 1960 . Only a few in titution , though, have been able to expand the range of material they tore to include the variety of record employed in African hi toriography. The Zimbabwe National Archive i exceptional for it collection of tape-recorded interview and it oral hi tory program. Gambia maintain an Oral History Divi ion and a ound archive charged with capturing Mandinka mu ic on tape; taff hortage today keep the ound archive clo ed. The uperb Dakar Archive now collect photograph and po tcard , creating a rich re ource for the growing African cholarship concerned with i ue of perception and repre entation acro different culture . In many in tance , though, it i all that archivi t can do to keep up with the routine task of pre erving what i already there. In 1987 a report in West Africa magazine concluded that the Ghanaian National Archive wa "in a wretched tate," its di integrating record uncatalogued and hence vulnerable to theft, and its employee "underqualified, unmotivated and underpaid. "3 The Ghanaian ca e i an extreme one, but there are other case of archives which receive no new material for years at a time, and in which documents imply accumulate without being protected or Ii ted or cared for in any other way. In other ca e ,bureaucrat in mini trie jeni on important material before it reache the archive . Pre erving paper can be e pecially difficult under African climatic and environment condition ; merely keeping record dry and free of in ects u uaJly require prohibitively ex pen ive foreign equipment and material a well a kill which may be locally unavailable. For example, a vi iting international mi ion recommended to the Zimbabwean the recruitment of a chemi t and the in tallation of hypothermograph -action the relatively wealthy Zimbabwean archive could afford to undertake but which would be well beyond the re ource of much more endangered We t African in titution . And while We t African truggle to protect their exi ting holding , they have to pa up the opportunity to collect contemporary material. The Nigerian archive. for example, contain very linle private documentation relating to the 1967-1969 civil war and no Nigerian J

129

Adam Jone • "Neglected Heritage," We t Africa, 6 July 19 7, pp. 1300. VOLUME

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library or archive po e e complete ets of Biafran newspaper publi hed during the war. Lago archivi t in any case have more immediate concern ; a recently publi hed appeal calls for funds to upport the filming of colonial intelligence reports, originally typewritten on paper which i now too brittle to be u ed afely. The archivi t .. thought of photocopying and di covered that it would be very ex pen ive to embark on such an exerci e. "4 Photocopying would be inconceivable at the regional archive in Ki angeni, Zaire, for there i no electricity in the archive nor in the excellent adjoining library, 0 when it rain readers cannot ee.

Three objectives Mu eum and archives in Africa need to realize three ets of different objective if they are to urvive and pro per. Identifying which con tituencie they hould erve i the frrst of the e. Both ets of in titutions have often acquired a research role; in maller countrie especially, they as ume certain of the function performed el ewhere by universities. In Guine-Bi au the National Mu eum in conjunction with the Briti h Mu eum ha been pon oring re earch and collecting mi sion ince 1988 focu ing on material culture, particularly textiles. The Swaziland National Mu eum support an annual archeological program. The Zimbabwean Archive employ three hi torians in its oral hi tory divi ion. Academic peciali t , though, whether local or foreign and however appreciative, are unlikely to repre ent a major intere t group in the perception of government . Many African in titution , therefore, truggle to reach a broader public than vi iting cholars and connois eur . In outhern Senegal in 1988 for example, con truction work began on an "Eco-Mu ee." Situated in a popular tourist region, the mu eum' primary function is developmentalcertainly fee-paying touri t will help to finance the project, but the main audience i intended to be local. A mode t collection of thatched building will helter exhibit concerning the local environment, economy, and culture. It pon or hope that the mu eum-or, to u e the preferred local terminology, cultural center-will playa role in local health care program

• Bull~/in. no . 2. 1991. We t African Museums Project. Dakar. p. 14.

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and other developmental initiative. More generally, by documenting and promoting local cultural activity, it eek to enrich village life and trengthen community con ciou ne . Making condition of rural exi tence more attractive i a high priority for African administration eeking to limit the accelerating growth of citie . In Kenya in 1988, rural mu eum organized exhibition to promote tree planting. An exhibition being planned by the National Mu eum of Kenya will focu on the acacia tortilis, u ing thi mo t common arid land tree to explain eco y tern urvival mea ure and energy and water con ervation. The project' purpo e i to change perception , both among t deci ion makers and the general public. It de igners believe ". . . that the need for eco y tern management and adapted development model i not yet widely understood, both within Africa and among potential donors. . .. A long as sy tern are mi understood to be fragile and di a ter-prone, there may be little effort to promote u tainability." cope in cultivating a Archive perhap have Ie popular audience; neverthele ,the Zimbabwe National Archive mount exhibition and has publi hed a uperb pictorial hi tory, Zimbabwe Epic, .. old at a ub idized rate with the intention of reaching a many Zimbabwean a po ible. "S The econd ta k for the e in titution i broadly conceptual. Curator and archivi t need to develop y tematic interpretation of their holding and organize exhibit and re ource in way which project uch under tandings. For Southern African mu eum in particular, the need to recon truct their collection i e pecially compelling. In Namibia, a booklet on the Windhoek State Mu eum' ethnology hall publi hed in 1985 i fairly typical of official South African depiction of indigenou African ocietie .6 "In time of change," it begin , "the pre ervation of traditional cultural material, and the recording of its u e ,i of the utmo t importance." Change itself hould not be of concern to ethnographer ; in tead, in the Windhoek ethnography hall Damara collect eed , "Bu hmen" manufacture rope from an evieria fibre, Thwa black mith melt iron, and Owambo , P. C. Mazikana and I. J . John tone. Zimbabw~ Epic. National Archive. Harare. 1984. The volume was de igned to "complement" an earlier publication. Rhod~sian Epic (National Archive . 1966). which reflected the then dominant Uler hi toriography. 6 C. G. Coetzee and Antje Otto. Man in his Environm~nt. Staatsmuseum. Windhoek . n.d. ITEMS /23


cultivate millet. The overaJl theme i , of course, "Man in hi Environment," a theme in which culture are interpreted a almo t biological adaptation to ecological circum tance . It i a conception of human experience in which idea and behaviour are generic and uniformly collective; there i little recognition of individual creativity. Mu ical in trument , for in tance, produce" ound " chiefly for "ritual function" and "practical purpo e ." The variou object are di played in diorama etting inhabited by what appear to be tuffed human ; in fact they are carefully painted pia ter ca t of actual people who e appearance happened to conform with South African anthropological ethnic tereotype . In fairne ,many of the e ob ervation could be made with reference to ethnographic collection the world over. In Namibia under South African admini tration, though, uch a di play had a particularly tendentiou dimen ion with it preoccupation with rigid cultural di tinction and timele unchanging cu tom . The reorganization of uch a collection could empha ize the link between the variou communitie depicted, it could tre their hi torical evolution, and it could indicate the complexity of their internal ocial arrangements. But no clue to the e topic are offered in the exi ting arrangement of object and image . Contemporary ethnographic exhibition attempt to u e the material culture of African ocietie to give them a voice-or rather many voice ,a with the recent Zairian "African Reflection " exhibit at the American Mu eum of Natural Hi tory. Here we are hown Mangbetu arti t at the beginning of thi century, producing work for European patron which reflect image of Africa which European vi itors wi hed to ee a well a an ironic commentary on their pre ence. 7 Such a project may require re ource and artifact beyond the cope of African in titution , but the central organizing idea of the Mangbetu exhibit, that ethnicity i often in the eye of the beholder, could certainly be creatively applied in Windhoek. To undertake uch an intellectual reconceptualization ucce fully, however, mu eum curators would need a vi ion of what mu eum are for, which ocial need they erve. Merely changing the more offen ive label -an often

Enid Schildkraul and Cuni A. Keim . African R~fl~cl;on : Art from Unive ily of W hinglon Pre and the American Museum of alUra) Hi lOry. Seaule and ew York. May 1990. 7

orth~as'~m Zair~.

24\ ITEM

nece ary first tratagem in po t-colonial mu eum-keeping-i in ufficient. The third objective of African mu eum and archive i to develop their re ource 0 that they can perform their function effectively and with a greater degree of elf- ufficiency. Shortage of people equipped with appropriate kill will continue to repre ent a major difficulty as long as training ha to be undertaken out ide Africa. The We t African Mu eum Project, pon ored by the Ford Foundation, and ba ed in Dakar, ha conducted a erie of work hop throughout the region focu ed on technique of torage organization, pre ervation of wooden carving and textile con ervation. Such event have the additional function of bringing together mu eum profe ional from different countrie . The creation of inter-African network may enable in titution to hare and exchange kill and material. The UNESCO-backed Pre ervation in the Mu eum of Africa program (PREMA) i al 0 aimed at enhancing local African mu eum training . Intended to focu alternately on one Engli h- peaking and one French- peaking country each year, a erie of con ervation cour e wa launched in 1989 at the Accra National Mu eum. The course was centered on making an inventory of the mu eum' holding, documenting the collection , repairing damaged artifact, and reorganizing the torage pace.

The Council's role Thi year, the SSRC' Africa Program ha launched an African Archive and Mu eum Project with the threefold objective of helping African in titution con erve their holding , develop linkage with other centers within the continent and in the United State , and reorient their activitie and re ource to meet local need . Supported by the Ford Foundation, the project will di tribute mall grant of between $5,000 and $15,000 through an annual competition directed at curator and archivi t in Africa and in tho e American in titution eeking upport for joint undertaking with African . The project' intention i to encourage mu eum and archive to identify e pecially endangered material to con erve or collect, to de ign way to make their holding more acce ible, and to broaden their con tituent and hence their ource of public upport. The grant are available for any kind of VOLUME

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activity which will achieve the e purpo e including cataloging and microfilming, the writing of brochure , recording oral te timony, the organization of training work hop , exhibition planning, and con ervation and re toration. Thi year' deadline i July 31. A competition is cheduled for 1991 and applicant are encouraged to write to the African Program who e taff can help them plan and develop a propo aJ.8 •

The competition i admini tered with the help of an internation I selection committee whose members include: Samuel Njovana. Acting Director. National Archive of Zimbabwe; Mohamed Mbodj. Department of Hi tory. University of Cheikh Anta Diop. Dakar. Senegal; Claude D niel Ardouin. director. We t African Mu urn Project. Dakar. Senegal; John Wembah Raschid . Institute of African Studie • University of Nairobi. Kenya; Doron R • sociate director. Fowler Museum of Cultural Hi tory. University of California. Los Angele ; Chri traud Geary. Photographic Archive. National Mu urn of African An . Washington . D.C .

Support for Research and Development Initiatives in Soviet Studies The Joint Committee on Soviet Studie (JCSS) announce the creation of a program of upport for research and development initiative in Soviet tudie . The new program i de igned to upport meeting • conference • workshop • and pilot projec devoted to initiative and innovation in the theorie • method • and approache applied to the tudy of the Soviet Union. or to pre-Soviet period in a manner which inform the tate of knowledge about the Soviet Union. Thi competition i funded by the SovietEastern European Research and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIII). as admini tered by the Department of State. Awards are contingent on the availability of fund . Propo al from all discipline in the ocial science and humanitie are welcome. Pro pective organizers of meeting • conference • wor hop. and pilot tudie hould ubmit project description of no more than eight page • including pro pective date • location. in titutional or other logi tical upport. and other upport promised or being ought from other ource . Curricula vitae of the organizers hould also be included. Grants will not exceed $7.500; application for matching funds are welcome, but no in titutional overhead will be provided. In con idering propo al , the JCSS will give particular con ideration to propo al containing some or all of the following element . • Interdisciplinary and comparative tudy • Non-traditional disciplinary approache • Training and retraining in methodology • Participation of predoctoral tudents in proposed projects • Collaborative research The JCSS con id rs propo al twice a year, at it fall and pring meeting. The next deadline i September 1, 1991. Approximately four award each year will be funded. All required material hould be sent to:

Research and Development Program Joint Committee on Soviet Studies Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, ew York 10158

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ITEMS / 25


Shaping the Course of Area Studies The dissertation research awards by David L. Szanton* To many cholars , the proce and criteria by which di ertation fellow hip fund are allocated to the Council ' area tudie committee have often eemed omething of a my tery. Likewi e, the di tribution of the award by di cipline, university, country, etc . With new grant of $2.5 million from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and .5 million from the Ford Foundation infu ing new life into the fellow hip program ,thi may be an opportune time to try to di pel orne of the my tery. The fellow hip offered by the II area committee -jointly pon ored with the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS)-have upported the initial major over ea re earch of many of the nation' mo t eminent internationally-oriented ocial cienti t and humani t . Given the continuing internationalization of nearly every domain of contemporary life, the e fellow hip remain a central component of the Council' activitie.

Hi tory The e fellow hip began in 1951 as the Ford Foundation' Foreign Area Fellow hip Program (FAFP). In 1962, Ford a ked SSRC to admini ter the program. Ten year later, in 1972, with continuing Ford Foundation upport, the Council and ACLS ab orbed the FAFP into the field development activitie of their joint area tudie committee . In the early 1980 ,a Ford Foundation funding for the Council' international program wa broadened in cope, funding for the e fellow hip declined initially, and then wa tabilized by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, which provided a large five-year grant-ultimately tretched to even year . In addition, during the mid- and late 1980, everal of the area committee ucceeded in obtaining • David L. Szanton . an anthropologi t, h rved taff to numerou Council committee , including the jOint committ e on South A ia, uthea t A I ,Comparative tudy of Mu lim Socielie , and International Program . He ume the post of executive director of intern tional and area program t the Unive ity of California, Berkeley, in Augu t 1991. 26\ ITEM

committee- pecific fund for their fellow hip program. In con equence, when the Hewlett Foundation grant was exhau ted in 1989, tho e committee were able to continue to provide at lea t orne fellow hip in 1990,1 However, for many committee and world area , including Latin America, the ear and Middle Ea t, South A ia Southea t A ia, and Japan, Council upport for di ertation re earch fellow hip lap ed entirely. With the full program now ree tabli hed with new funding after a one-year hiatu , it may be of orne intere t to provide an account of the allocation proce and the di tribution of the fellow hip . For thi purpo e we will draw on 1983-89, a even-year period when the full program wa in operation, and a total of 509 oversea di ertation projects were upported.

Allocations to the committee Di ertation fellow hip fund generated by particular committee are of course allocated directly within their own pecific program . Di ertation fund generated by the Council, the "core funding" for upport of the area committee y tern a a whole, are allocated to individual area committee them elve compo ed of re earchers from a broad array of di cipline and univer itie -on the ba i of four major criteria: ( I) Minimum fund a committee need to maintain a fellow hip program at all (2) Size of the application pool (3) Availability of di sertation fellow hip fund for the particular committee from other urce (4) Availability of di sertation fellow hip for research on the particular country or region from other urce.

The pecific allocation of core fund for each committee are recalculated every year. From 1983-89 they ranged from zero (one year for Latin America and everal years for Soviet Studie when they had adequate fund from other ource), to $160,092 (in 1986 for the We tern European committee, which had

I 1be committee on African Studie had parate funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and the committee on Eastern Europe and Soviet Studie had major gran from the U.S. Government Title vm programs. The committee on Chine Studie utilized funds from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation, in Taiwan, and the committee on Korean Studie upponed two fellow with monie from the Luce Foundation. 1be committee on We tern Europe also obtained interim uppon for di scnalion fellow hips from the German Marshall Fund of the United State .

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a particularly large number of applicant and few other fund to draw upon). Following the e criteria, and taking into account other fund available to them, during thi period the variou committee were able to make from two to 17 fellow hip per year. In all ca e the award are highly competitive, with a ratio of award to application ranging acro committee from one out of ix, to one out of 15. In part, the inten e competition for the e fellowhip derive from their provi ion of up to 18 month of field re earch, a well a a re earch allowance and often pecialized language or other nece ary training. The long duration of the e fellow hip i particularly important (mo t other program provide at mo tone year of upport), as it enables tudent to have the kind of deep immersion generally e ential for real experti e in another culture.

Awards to non-U.S. Citizens The fellow hip are not limited by citizen hip: they are available to all doctoral candidate in the ocial cience and humanitie , at any university in the United State , working on a di sectation which call for over eas re earch. This has meant that every year 10-15% of the awards have gone to foreign tudent, either for re earch in their home country or in a third country. De pite limited funding, the Council and the committee have maintained thi option for everal reason. Foreign tudents who tudy in the United State are often able to carry out re earch projects which for intellectual, lingui tic, or practical rea on would not be fea ible even for an unu ually well prepared American graduate tudent. In con equence, they are often able to contribute important undertanding of a particular world area otherwi e difficult to obtain. Some of the non-U.S. fellow, of cour e, ultimately remain in thi country for orne or all of their career . But tho e who return home al 0 contribute to the development of the variou field through their re earch, publication, tudent, participation in international meeting (including, ometime, ho ting Council conference ), and collaborative project with re earchers ba ed here. In many in tance , the Council' di ectation program are the only one to which, a foreign tudent, they are eligible to apply for field re earch; thu at later tage in their career they often do whatever they can to reciprocate. U.S. Ju

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citizen who are doing their doctorate in foreign univer itie are al 0 eligible for the e program . Financial flexibility All award are admini tered by the Council, with it profe ional taff-who have normally them elve conducted re earch in the relevant region-alway involved in any ub tantive problem that may ari e. A a re ult, award are flexibly con tructed to meet the pecific need of the fellow , who might, for example, need to work in everal countrie or temporarily u pend their re earch for orne unanticipated activity before returning to their original project. When a fellow al 0 receive a fellow hip from another program, Council award are amended to avoid double payment , but are generally added to the other award to achieve extended period of field re earch at minimal additional co t. Such hared award have improved the di ertation re earch of core of American graduate tudent. And aving incurred in the e hared award are u ed to upport additional fellow . Award have ranged from a little a $3,000 for a very pecific add-on (in a project largely funded by orne other ource), to a much a $25,000 for full coverage of 18 month of re earch and write-up (including travel, individual and family maintenance, and pecialized language training). Mo t award include variable maintenance allowance , ba ed on the co t of living at the pecific re earch ite-which might be a relatively inexpen ive rural community, a more co tly mall city, an expen ive urban center, or orne combination of the e location . Stati tical overview Of the 509 fellow hip awarded over the evenyear period from 1983-89, 54% went to men, 46% to women. Table 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicate the region and countrie tudied, the di cipline and the univer itie repre ented, and broadly, the type of project conducted. Table 1 indicate , by region, the countrie in and on which the fellow carried out their projects. Mo t conducted their re earch in a ingle country, but orne worked in two or more countrie . In tho e ca e , all the countrie are Ii ted. Thu , for example, in the African ca e everal tudent al 0 carried out orne of their re earch in Belgium, France, or the United ITEMS/27


Table 1 Fellow ' Place( ) or tudy, by World Area and H Africa Kenya U.K. South Africa Tanzania Senegal Zimbabwe Ghana Niger Nigeria, Zaire. France Mali. Rwanda. The Sudan Bot wana, Burundi. Cape Verde. Ethiopia. The Gambia. Madagascar. Mozambique. Sierra Leone. Togo. Uganda. Zambia. Zanzibar. Belgium. Ecuador Total China Taiwan Japan China Hong Kong France Singapore. Denmark. Switzerland. U.K .• We t Germany Total Eastern Europe Hungary Poland Yugo lavia E. Europe (general) Czecho lovakia Romania. We t Gennany Au tria, Bulgaria, East Germany, Soviet Union Total

~ Japan Brazil

9 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 9 6

14

13 9 4 4 4 5

--

Latin America and the Caribbean Brazil Peru Argentina Mexico Chile Ecuador Bolivia Dominican Republic, Uruguay, U.K., United State Belize. Colombia. Co ta Rica. Cuba. EI SaIvador, Guatemala. Haiti. Jamaica. Nicaragua. Surinam. Venezuela. Spain Total

(I each)

75

(I each)

Near and Middle East Egypt U.K. France Jordan. Syria. Turkey I rael. Morocco Iraq. We t Bank India. Iran. Tuni ia, Italy. Spain Algeria. Lebanon. Saudi Arabia. Yemen. Paki tan. Belgium, The Netherland Total

39

South Asia Nepal U.K. India Sri Lanka. Tibet Paki tan. Fiji. France, Italy, Portugal

12 8 6 4 3 4

(2 each)

4

(I each)

41

37 I

Total

(3 each) (2 each)

-38

Country, 1983-39

13 2 I

Total

-16

Total Southeast A ia lndone ia Thailand Philippine U.K. Malay ia, Singapore, Vietnam, France The Netherland Burma Cambodia, India, Spain, U.S.

II 9 7 4 8

(2 each)

12

(I each)

-93

14 II 7 15 8 6

10 7

--

Soviet Union Soviet Union

(5 (4 (3 (2

each) each) each) each)

(I each)

78

(2 each) (I each)

31 18 15 8 5 16 3 2 4

(4 each)

(I each)

71 37

We tern Europe France W. Germany U.K. Italy, Spain The Netherlands Ireland Greece, Northern Ireland Au tria. Belgium, Sweden, United State Azore , Brazil, Malta. Portugal, Switzerland, Canada Total

28\ITEMS

10

12 7 3 4 5

Total

Korea Korea Japan China

19 13

VOLUME

31 18 17 20 5 4 6 8 6

(10 each) (3 each) (2 each) (I each)

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2J3


Kingdom. Mo t were examining archival or other hi torical material ,but orne were following migration flow . Such population movement al 0 account for the African award for work in Ecuador, the Japan fellow hip in Brazil, the South A ia award in Fiji, a well a everal of the tudent working in Europe on South A ian, Southea t A ian, and Middle Ea tern topic . More generally, in the multi-country region, project often eem to "pile up" on certain countrie -often the large t, mo t politically important, or mo t readily acce ible. Area committees have often wi hed to encourage re earch on relatively "undertudied" countrie , but there are u ually tructural reason (limited language training, difficulty of obtaining a re earch vi a, minimal literature on which to build a propo al or project, lack of knowledgeable faculty, etc.), why few tudents apply to tudy them. The figure on di ciplinary affiliation in Table 2 are revealing for everal rea on . Hi tory, anthropology, political cience, and to a Ie er degree, language and literature dominate-long the field mo t generative of tudents carrying out inten ive tudie of other part of the world. Sociology and economic (with art hi tory intervening, largely becau e of it prominent place in We tern European tudie ), come next, but the numbers are clearly lower than the Council or the committee would wi h. P ychology i till more of a problem. In

general, doctoral candidate in the e latter field receive little incentive from the di cipline or their advi ors to learn foreign language or immerse them elve in a foreign culture. Indeed, uch effort are often viewed negatively in compari on with inve tment in augmenting one' methodological ophi tication in dealing with traditional di ciplinary data ource . Few young economi t , for example, recognize a profe ional need fot nine month , no Ie 18 month to collect their data. Likewi e, relatively few ociologi ts find the quality of the data available in Third World etting ufficient for the ophi ticated analy e they feel they mu t do to e tabli h themelve in their field . P ychology is all the more problematic. A a di cipline, it tend to be highly univer alizing in its content, yet eem deeply he itant to draw its data from other cultural tradition . The new SSRC/ACLS International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program i an effort to counteract the e tendencie (ee article on page 32). Another noteworthy point evident in Table 2 i that very few fellow hip have gone to tudents obtaining Ph.D.' in "Area Studie " program. When over ea cholarship first began to develop in the United State , "Area Studie "program (e.g., Oriental Studie , Near and Middle Ea t Studie , Soviet Studie , etc.) provided many of the tudents and formal degree. Today, nearly all tudent obtain their

Table 2 rtation FeDow hips by World Area and Discipline 1983-89

Hi tory Anthropology Political science Language and literature Sociology An hi tory Economic Geography Area tudie Mu ic Education Architecture/urban planning P ychology/human development Lingui tic Religion Law Nutrition Total Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1991

Afr.

China

E.E.

17 17 7 3 2 3 4 3

10 6 2 6

13 2 13 6 2

I 2

2 I 2

Japan

6 4 6 6 5 2 I I 2

Kor. 3 4 4 4

LA&C

N&ME

SA

SEA

Sov.

21 24 16 3

15 6 7

6 14

9 17 6 2 3 3

19

7 2

I I 2

2

6 6 I I 3

W.E.

Total

41 18 18

160 112 82 37 31 22 18 10 9 9 4 3 5 3 2

12 II I

I 4

I 2

3

60

29

39

38

15

77

38

27

47

37

102

509 ITEMS129


Table 3 FeUow ' Universities, by World Area 1983-89

Afr. U .C.-Berkeley University of Chicago Cornell Harvard Yale Columbia Stanford U. Mich.-Ann Arbor University of Wiscon in Indiana University Princeton U.C.L.A. M.I.T. U. Texa -Au tin C.U.N.Y. Graduate Center University of Penn ylvania John Hopkin University of W hington Brown Georgetown Duke Rutgers U.C.-San Diego University of lIIinoi University of Virginia Bo ton University N.Y.U. S. U.N. Y.-Binghamton U.C.-Santa Cruz University of Maryland University of Minnesota U.N.C.-Chapel Hill University of Pittsburgh Michigan State University New School for Social Research Northwe tern Temple University of Hawaii Arizona State Catholic University Ohio State Notre Dame Penn. State S.U.N.Y.-Stony Brook Syracuse U.C.-Davi U.C.-Santa Barbara U. F1a.-Gaine ville University of Iowa University of Kan as University of London (U.K.) U Ma .-Amherst U.S.C. University of Utah We leyan Total

3O\lTEM

5 3 4 2 3 I

China

E.E.

Japan

6

5 4

4 5 6 6 2 3 4 3

I I

4 3 4 I I

4 7

7 4 2 2 2 2

Kor.

LA&C

N&ME

SA

SEA

Sov.

3

2 5 3

4 4 22

13 2

2

I I

2

7

I

I I

3

12 II I

3 2

4 2 7 6 2 3 6

I

4

I

3

I

2

6 3

I

I

I

I

4

2

2

I

I

I

3

2

II

34

5 4 2 2 2 7 7

29 22 20 19 15 15 14 12

I I I

2 2

66 47 41 35

3

I

6

Total

14 9 3 5

4 I

2

W.E.

2

I

II

I

5

3

I

I

3

10 10 9

I

8

2

4

7

6 2 2

6

4 3 2 2

I

2 2 2

5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2

I

3 2 3 I I

2

2

2 2 2

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

60

29

39

38

15

77

38

27

47

37

VOLUME

102

45,

509

NUMBERS

213


degree in regular di ciplinary department , meeting the regular di ciplinary tandard and requirement . In addition, they add variou kind of area training, often with the help of an area tudie center or program at their univer ity. It i often a umed , incorrectly. that the joint committee are upporting area tudie degree; the figure in Table 2 how othef\\-i e. Table 3 indicate the univer itie at which the fellow working on the variou world area were obtaining their doctorate . Over the even year , tudent at 55 univer itie have been funded . The top 20 univer itie on the Ii t account for 85% of the fellow hip and are, predictably the locale for the nation' major program for international re earch and training. For the mo t part, the be t graduate tudent gravitate to the be t center, obtain the be t training, \Hite the be t di ertation propo a1 (and then receive the be t fellow hip ). The fact that 35 other univer itie!'> are repre ented with 15% of the fellow hip indicate that the Council' program are neverthele widely known beyond the primary center of international training and re earch. In term of individual univer itie , the overall trength of U.C.-Berkeley and Chicago are particularly triking, a well a the extraordinary role of Cornell in the area of Southea t A ia. Table 4 indicate the time period that wa being examined in the di ertation up ported by the program. differentiated by world area. Altogether, e actly half of the project dealt with current i ue, problem. or phenomena. Slightly more than a quarter were focu ed on ,comparable topic, but earlier in the 20th century, while the remainder tudied till earlier hi torical period . In general, the pattern i quite con i tent acro mo t of the commit-

Jll

FPTF\18ER

1991

Focal Period for Di

Tabl 4 rtation Research Project • by World Contemporary

Africa China Eastern Europe Japan Korea Latin America & the Caribbean ear & Middle Ea. t South Asia Southea!tt Asia Soviet ni n We tern Europe Total Percentage

20thcentury

19thcentury & earlier

rea

Total

40

14

6

60

10

6

13

29

20 19 9

II 8 3

8 II 3

39 38 15

43

17

17

77

I 19 27 12 3

II 5 10 20 32

9 3 10 5 32

38 27 47 37 102

255 50C}

137 27q.

117 23q.

509 lOOq.

tee ,with ome intere ting exception . China. with it long and complex hi tory, ha a larger proportion of project in the earlier period . The arne i true of We tern Europe, where hi torical tudie of the development of our own tradition have long been particularly rich and important. Finally, the heavy empha i on earlier 20th-century tudie in the Soviet field partly reflect difficultie of acce to material and people on the contemporary period, and partly, the great intere t in the developmental dynamic of the Soviet y tem after the Revolution. Coverage of Africa, Latin America, and the re t of A ia tilt more toward the contemporary period. The Council ee the e a deeply important program , con tantly renewing American and international experti e on other part of the world . The role of the Mellon and Ford foundation in upporting the e program i invaluable. •

ITEM 31


The IPFP: Results of the First Competition by Ellen Perecman* The Social Science Re earch Council (SSRC) and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS) recently awarded the flf t fellow hip under the International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program. The IPFP wa e tabli hed with fund from the Ford Foundation to promote linkage between graduate training in the ocial cience and area tudie , and to encourage tudents of the ocial cience , e pecially economic, political cience, and ociology, to focu their attention on the developing world. In providing tudent with 12 month of upport to trengthen language and area tudie kill, the IPFP fellow hip offer graduate tudent an incentive to broaden and enrich their training 0 that they will be prepared to conduct di ertation re earch in a developing country. The program i directed by an interdi ciplinary committee of cholar drawn from univer itie throughout the United State. The IPFP operate a an annual fellow hip competition for full-time tudent in the early tage of a program leading to a Ph.D. in economic, ociology, political cience, p ychology, hi tory, anthropology and geography. The program targets tudent in economic ,political cience and ociology, but tudents in any of the ocial cience di cipline are welcome to apply for fellow hip to tudy Africa, China, Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle Ea t, South A ia, or Southeast A ia. In general, the program eek applicant a early a po ible in their graduate chool career , but nece arily at a point at which they are ufficiently grounded in the di cipline to benefit from the fellow hip and at which faculty mentors can make ound judgment about them. There are no citizen hip requirements, but foreign national are di couraged from applying for fellow hip to tudy their own region. The IPFP eek to encourage a redefinition of graduate training in the ocial cience both at the level of the individual tudent and at the level of the in titution. Since the in titutional impact can be t be • Ellen Perecman, a neurolingui t, i the Council' program director for the Intern tional Predi nation Fellow hip Program. 32 \ ITEM

achieved by clu tering tudents at a mall number of in titution and becau e the program require the clo e collaboration of program taff and individual univer itie ,only tudent at elected univer itie are eligible to apply for fellow hip , In the first year of the program, 19 universitie elected by the Ford Foundation were eligible to ubmit application from their tudent. Program participation ha ince been increa ed to 23 universitie , following a competition initiated with the di tribution of a Reque t for Propo al to the 149 member in titution of the A ociation of American Univer itie and the National A ociation of State Univer itie and Land Grant College . The RFP identified the election criteria u ed in evaluating the propo al , noting that up to ix universitie might be added to the program. The 18 propo al ubmitted in re pon e to the RFP were evaluated by an independent panel of cholars appointed by the Ford Foundation . On the ba i of the panel' recommendation, four additional universitie were invited to participate in the program for the remaining two years of its current funding period. ** The 1991 competition drew 239 application from the 19 participating universitie . Each eligible application was creened by three members of a panel of 29 cholars from a wide range of universitie . Wherever po ible, two of the creeners were of the ame di cipline a the applicant and one had expertise in the region of the applicant' intere t. Three members of the program committee then reviewed each of the 130 application recommended by the creening panel. The ame di ciplinary and regional con ideration were applied in a igning application to program committee members for review. On March 12-13, the program committee met and voted to award 51 fellow hip to tudent at 18 of the 19 univer itie (ee page 60 for li t of fellow) . The proportion of ucce ful application for a given univer ity ranged from 0.0-0.5 (median .14). Award were di tributed by di cipline a follow: •• Unive~ity of California, Berkeley; Unive~ity of California, Lo Angele ; Unive~ity of California, San Diego; Unive~ity of Chic go; Columbia Unive ity; Cornell Unive~ity; Duke Unive~ity; Harvard Unive~ity; Indiana Unive~ity, Bloomington; Unive~ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Unive~ity of Minne ta, Twin Citie Campu ; North\\.e tern Unive~ity; Unive~ity of Penn ylvania; Princeton Unive~ity ; Stanford Unive~ity; Unive~ity of Tex , Austin; Unive~ity of W hington, Unive~ity of Wi min , Madi n; and Yale Unive~ity. AI : Unive Ity of lIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign; M chu tts Institute of Technology; Mi higan State Unive~ity; and Unive~ity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. VOLUME

45 ,

NUMBERS

213


No. of award

% of total submitted in di cipline

19 9 9 5 4 3 2

.25 .26 .25 .17 .22 .43 .22

-Political Science Economic Sociology Anthropology Hi tory P ychology Geography

51

TOTAL

Award were di tributed by geographic region of intere t a follow:

Latin America Africa China ear and Middle Ea t South A ia (India) Southea t A ia (the Philippine )

No. of award -24 8 8 6 4

% of total ubmitted for region .27 . 17 .26 .24 .15 .05

Twenty- ix award were made to econd-year tudents (.25 of tho e ubmitted by econd-year tudent); 13 (.33) to third-year tudents; 10 (.12) to fir t-year tudent; and 2 (.22) to fourth-year tudent . Fellow hip were awarded to 29 (.23) men and 22 (.20) women; 6 (.30) fellow identified them elve a member of an underrepre ented minority group (black American or Hi panic). The IPFP i both new and di tinctive among Council program . In the intere t of attracting a trong pool of uitable applicant for the 1992 competition, the following characterization of the 1991 fellow ugge t orne of the con ideration underlying the committee' deci ion: • A trong academic record and the intellectual background and technical ability to make good u e of the training propo ed • A challenging et of idea driven by a earch for

Ju

ElSEPTEMBER

1991

generalization rather than ideographic categorie and pattern , and providing the framework for a program of tudy informed by theoretical in ight that are central to the re earch concern of the di cipline • Engagement with a topic, not imply an intent to become immersed in another culture. At the ame time the fellows are committed to the tudy of a region, not simply to the local application of a et of di ciplinary tool • A well- tructured training program that i interdi ciplinary in content, imaginative in de ign, and en ible in the equencing of it components • A training program that repre ent a departure from the typical program of tudy pursued by tudent in the di cipline, yet for which the motivation i clear. For example, if the training program i comparative in focu , a clear rationale for the compari on i provided. Inherent difference among ocial cience di cipline prevented the committee from applying election criteria mechanically acro s di cipline . Thus, evidence of a commitment to understanding a region wa more important for economi t than for anthropologi t and hi torian , for whom interdi ciplinary content and imaginative de ign were the critical element, ince a commitment to understanding cultural context i taken for granted within tho e di cipline . Similarly, application from tudents in comparative politic were expected to be particularly explicit about their theoretical focu . The committee wa al 0 concerned that the period of time an applicant propo ed to pend in a given location wa ufficient for the purpo e of the award. In addition, it appeared to the committee that many frr t-year tudent were not ufficiently grounded in the di cipline and would be more likely to benefit from the fellow hip after having acquired another year of di ciplinary training. The record indicate that applicant were mo t likely to learn of the IPFP from their faculty advi ors. It i therefore important that faculty be ufficiently informed about the program 0 that they can offer appropriate guidance a they encourage the brighte t young cienti t to apply for the fellow hip. The hope i that thi account of the first competition will provide orne guidance. •

ITEMS /33


Council Personnel ew Director and Officer At it meeting on June 4. 1991. the Council' bard of director elected three new member ': Lawrence D. Bobo. Uni erity of California. Lo Angele . a repre entative of the American ciological A iati n; Joel herzer. ni erity f Te a . Austin. and David Ward. Uni er ity of Wi c nino Madi on. a director -at-large. They will allerve a three-year term. effective July I. 1991. The C un it' officer for 1991 -92 were al 0 elected or re-elected by the bard. Reelected: C ra B. Marrett. Univer ity of Wi con in. Madi on. chair of the board of director; David L. Featherman. Social Science Re earch Council. pre ident; and Ronald J. Peleck. ial Science Re earch Council. a i tant trea urer. Newly elected officer : R bert M. Coen. orthwe tern Univerity. vice-chair; Emily Martin. The John Hopkin Univer ity. ecretary; and Franci X. Sutton. D bb Ferry. Y. trea urer. Newly-appointed t the C mmittee on Pr blem and Policy (P&P) ~ r a one-year term. effective July I. 1991: Robert H.

4 \ lTE\'

Bate. Duke ni er ity; Lawrence D. Bobo; William M. Cron n. Yale Univer ity; Joel Sherzer; and David Ward.

taff Change M. PRI ILL TO ha been prom ted to the po ition f taff aociate to the J int Committee n African tudie. M. tone joined the Council in 19 a program a ociate to the Africa program and ha been prin ipally re pon ible for taffing the African Agriculture Project. She will replace Tom Lodge who i returning to South Africa t re ume teaching at the Univer ity of the Witwater rand. M. tone received her Ph .D. in anthropology from the Univerity of Arizona in 19 8. The focu of her re earch ha been i ue of agricultural development and gender in We t Africa. Her di ertation wa entitled "Women. Work, and Family: A Re tudy of the Kofyar of Nigeria." M . Stone' current publication examine the cheduling and organization of labor in the context of rapid agricultural change in the We t African avanna.

ew taff Appointment ALICE M. O'Co OR ha joined the Council a taff a ciate to the Committee for Re earch on the Urban Undercla . effective June I, 1991. M,. O'Connor received an M.A. in hi tory in 19 2 and a Ph.D. in May 1991 fr m the John Hopkin Univer ity. Her di ertation wa entitled "From Lower CIa to Undercla : The Poor in American Social Science. 1930-1970." She received her undergraduate training at Trinity College in Hartford . M . O'Connor ha pecialized in 19th-20th century American intellectual hi t ry and in the hi tory of ocial policy. Prior to coming to the Council, M . O'Connor erved for four yean. a a i tant director to the Project on Social Welfare and the American Future, at the Ford F undation She bring t the Council a profound concern with the iues of urban and rural po erty with a particular intere t in the implication of ocial cientific re earch for public policy. She will hare re pon ibility with Martha Gephart ~ rtaff work related to the urban undercla program. along \\'ith other dutie at the Council.

OL ME

45.

\IBER::!

3


Recent Council Publications Brain Maturation and Cognitive Development: Comparative and Cross-Cultural Perspectives, edited by Kathleen R. Gib on and Anne C. Petersen. Ba ed on a conference held in May 1985 and pon ored by the Committee on Bio ocial Per pective on Parent Behavior and Off pring Development. Hawthorne, New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1991. ix + 390 page. Scienti t and laymen alike have long debated i ue pertaining to the development of the human brain and behavior. Hi torically, for in tance, many American have con idered that education i be t given very early. However, thi concept ha alway had it detractor , with recent critic arguing that early chooling i unnece ary and may lead to fru tration and anxiety. Lying at the core of the argument i a ba ic cientific i ue: What are the developmental relation hip between brain and behavior? The article in thi collection attempt to examine neurological and cognitive maturation from the bio ocial cience per pective. Thi perspective ugge t that social and phy ical environment can influence biological development and, in turn, that biological development influence behavior. The volume adopt a multidi ciplinary approach, integrating evolutionary. neurological, genetic. p ychological, lingui tic, and cro -cultural tudie of brain-behavior interaction . Contributors draw upon both clas ic anatomical and modem phy iological and biochemical SEPTEMBER

1991

technique to chart po tnatal brain development a well a comparative primate and human brain and behavior maturation. The re ult i an expan ion of cientific inquiry to areas that neither biology alone, nor ocial cience, ha been able to conceptualize on its own. Kathleen R. Gib on i profeor of anatomical cience at the Univer ity of Texa Health Center, Hou ton, and the Graduate School of Biomedical Science . Anne C. Petersen i profe or of health and human development and women' tudie , and dean of the College of Health and Human Development, Penn ylvania State Univer ity.

The Challenge of Rural Democratization: Perspectives from Latin America and the Philippines. Special I ue of The Journal of Development Studies Vol. 26, No.4, July, 1990, edited by Jonathan Fox. London: Frank Ca & Co., Ltd. Sponored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . The literature on tran ition from authoritariani m to democratic rule in developing countrie ha tended to concentrate on interaction among elite actors and the development of formal mechani m for regulating conflict among group with in titutionalized acce to the tate. Yet the consolidation of democracy require the incorporation of a much broader array of political actor and proce e.

Surpri ingly little con ideration ha been given, however, to the problem of incorporating rural ocial force , particularly the pea antry, into newly e tabli hed political y tern . Publication of thi report repre ent a major tep toward overcoming the neglect of the country ide in tudie of ocietie in which large rural population , often con tituting majoritie , have long been deprived of in titutionalized mean of political participation. Thi collection of e ay i compri ed of a erie of ca e tudie of the continuitie and change in rural politic, both within regime (Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua) and acro regime (Brazil, Bolivia, Nicaragua and the Philippine ). The studie focu on proce e, rather than outcome , in an effort to understand the underlying factor which encourage or con train democratization in rural area . The authors highlight the ob tade to democratizing politic in rural area , where the opportunitie for collective action are fewer than in urban location , where election are more ea ily manipulated, and where the power of public and private ecurity force i often Ie con trained. In virtually all ca e , the degree to which the pea antry i repre ented through the political y tern i found to hinge on the latter' capacity for autonomou organization and the nature of pea ant alliance with other group in civil ociety-union , political partie , and civic a ociation of variou kind . The ITEMS /35


contributors conclude that pea ant intere ts have been ex pre ed more fully in tho e in tance in which rural organization and political movement have been able to operate independently of the tate and of tate-controlled in titution . Rural democratization i linked inextricably to the replacement of clienteli m with form of repre entation grounded in notion of citizen hip; to the articulation of direct and repre entative form of democracy; and to the development of both electoral and non-electoral mechani m for political participation.

Dual City: Restructuring York, edited by John H.

ew

Mollenkopf and Manuel Ca tell . Spon ored by the Committee on New York City. New York: Ru eU Sage Foundation, 1991. xiv + 477 page . New York, a city of great wealth and abject poverty i a paradoxical mix of plendor and decay, note the editors of thi volume, the econd in a projected four-volume erie on the city. However, the complexity of inequality in New York defie imple di tinction . The polarization at work in New York po ition an organized core of largely white male profe ional and manager again t a fragmented and diffu e periphery that range from Chine e women garment workers to native-born black male civil ervice employee to white women clerical workers . A the contributors to the volume reveal, thi diversity invite ubtle que tion about how cia ,race, 36\ITEM

ethnicity, and gender have intersected with the city' economic tran formation to form complicated new pattern of inequality. While growth in corporate ervice frrms produced new labor market opportunitie for ome, the 10 of manufacturing job left many low- killed minority workers unemployed. At the arne time, the labor force itself changed-with expanding black and Latino population , an aging white ethnic community, immigration from the Caribbean and A ia, and changing role within the family. The contributors explore everal i ue which reflect inadequacie in policy and practice and erve to perpetuate polarization in the city. The volume focu e on New York as a paradigm of the po t-indu trial tran formation of the city in the late 20th century. John H . Mollenkopf i as ociate profe or of political cience at The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Manuel Ca tell i profe or of planning at the University of California, Berkeley.

Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America, edited by Abraham F. Lowenthal. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Baltimore: The John Hopkin University Pre , 1991. x + 422 page. The idea that the United State can and hould help Latin America achieve democracy ha been a recurrent theme in U.S. foreign policy throughout the

20th century, and in the 1990 it has become virtually unchallenged doctrine. Yet the abundant literature on the impact of United State policy on Latin American politic overlook the way in which democratization in the region ha actually been influenced by American policy. The 15 e ay in thi volume explore hi torically and comparatively the motive, method and re ults of U.S. efforts to encourage liberal democratic politic in Latin America. The authors focu on four period when uch effort were mo t inten e: the years from World War I to the Great Depre ion, the period immediately following World War II, the 1960 , and the Reagan years. They analyze the changing role played by critical actors in the United State during the e different period . Although the author find that the United State has at time played a ignificant role in upport of democratic opening in Latin America, they emphasize that other foreign policy goal have commonly overshadowed that of promoting democracy. Dome tic or broader international con ideration have dominated in haping U.S . policy toward the region. Thi help to explain the erratic nature of U. S. upport for Latin American democracy, as well a the tendency for prodemocracy effort to concentrate on a number of different nation within the ame period, regardle of whether the e nation are evolving independently toward or away from democratic politic . Yet the authors argue that U.S. policy and other external factors are highly unlikely to overcome deeply entrenched dome tic VOLUME 45, NUMBERS

213


ob tacle to democratic con olidation. Indeed, policie in support of Latin American democracy will mo t often be ucce sful when they coincide with proces e and in titution that are generated within the country in que tion. "Democracy," a Abraham Lowenthal write in his concluding e ay, "i not an export commodity, it cannot simply be hipped from one place to another." Yet de pite this cautionary note, the e es ay ugge t that there are way in which U.S. policymaker can encourage the development of democratic proce e and in titution in Latin America. The e efforts mu t involve cooperation with Latin American nation , rather than the forceful impo ition of U.S. view, and they hould be ba ed fundamentally on upport for human rights and plurali t participation in the political proce . It will take time. however, for democracy to become fully con olidated, and thi volume challenge policymakers to u tain their intere t in Latin American democracy in order to allow ufficient time for uch in titutionalization to take place. Abraham Lowenthal is profe or of international relations at the University of Southern California.

Five Years that Shook the World: Gorbachev's Unfinished Revolution, edited by Harley D. Balzar. Based on a conference held at Georgetown Univer ity, March 8-9, 1990 with upport from the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie . Boulder, ColoJu ElSEPTEMBER 1991

rado: We tview Pre ,1991. xii + 267 pages.

page . $90 cloth (black or red cover).

Thi volume provide a broad perspective on the first five years of pere troika in the USSR (1985-1990). Scholar examine economic, political, and ocial change; nationalitie , health, and environmental i ue; the cultural cene; and the evolving international order. The goal of the volume i to encourage an interdi ciplinary reexamination of re earch trategies concerning the tudy of Soviet politic , culture, and ociety, with particular empha e on comparative approache and ocial cience methodologie , in order to more effectively evaluate ongoing ocietal change in the Soviet Union. Harley D. Balzer i director of the Ru ian Area Studie Program, Georgetown University.

Note: Thi volume wa de cribed in the previou i ue of Items (vol. 45, no. 1, March 1991). Social Science Quotations i available from the Macmillan Publi hing Company, Library Sale Order Dept., Front and Brown Streets, Riverside, NJ 08075. It i not available from the Council.

A Guide to Scholarly Resources on the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union in the ew York Metropolitan Area, compiled by Robert A. Karlowich. Spon ored by the Bibliography, Infonnation Retrieval, and Documentation Subcommittee of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie . Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1990. xxii + 312 page. (Available from M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 80 Bu ine Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504.)

Social Science Quotations. Volume 19 of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Edited by David L. Sill and Robert K. Merton. New York: Macmillan, 1991. 437

Social Science Research Council Publications: 1975-1990. New York: Social Science Re earch Council, 1991. 80 page. Thi bibliography of Councilpon ored book i the continuation of an earlier volume which covered title that appeared between 1929 and 1975. Although the earlier work contained Council- pon ored article a well a book , the newer bibliography Ii t only books and orne pecial journal i ue. Over 400 title are li ted. Entrie are arranged by year of publication and within each year, alphabetically by author. The main li ting al 0 note i ue of Items where review of the book may be found. Three indexe author, title, and pon oring committee- facilitate the ta k of locating pecific title . Re earcher will be able to gauge which topic were of particular concern in a given time period, as well a the output of individual Council committee over the years.

The Urban Underclass, edited by Chri topher Jenck and Paul E. Peterson. Co pon ored by the ITEMs/37


Committee on the Urban Undercia and the Northwe tern Univer ity Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Re earch. Wa hington, D.C.: The Brooking In titution, 1991. 504 page. There i a wide pread belief that the urban undercla in America i a large, rapidly increa ing proportion of the population; that crime, teenage pregnancy, and high chool dropout rate are e calating; and

38\ITEMS

that welfare roll are exploding. The e ay in this volume attempt to eparate truth about poverty, ocial di location, and change in American family life, from the myth that have become part of contemporary folklore. The contributing economi t , political and ocial cienti t , and cholars of urban affair demontrate that the main i ue i not 0 much a growth in the ize of the undercla a it persi tence. They point out that the paradox of

poverty in a wealthy nation will continue until ociety make greater efforts to provide all citizen with improved educational and economic opportunitie ,a well a adequate maintenance in time of need. Chri topher Jenck i profe or of ociology and urban affair at Northwe tern University. Paul E. Peter on i the Henry Lee Shattuck Profe or of Government at Harvard Univer ity.

VOLUME

45,

NUMBERS

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Current Activities at the Council Comparative and Transnational Seed Grants In re pon e to a reque t for propo al i ued in October 1990 through the Council' committee chairs, ix propo al were selected to receive eed grant. An advi ory panel of cholar and the Council' profe ional taff as i ted in the deci ion-making proce . The intent of the e grant i to promote cro -committee collaboration in the initiation of prorni ing new comparative and/or tran national re earch project . The following award were made:

• Comparative Examination of Landed Property Rights: $10,000. Thi project identifie the que tion, "Who ha the right to do what with the land for how long?" a being of central importance to the comparative analy i of environmental consequence of human behavior. Development in the field will need to be guided by an wers to que tion uch a : Are exi ting taxonornie of landed property y tern adequate for comparative regional and global analy i , or do we need to rethink the defining characteri tic of property right in land? I it useful to analyze human territoriality as a trategy for controlling people and thing by controlling area? How do we carry out cro -cultural analy e at varying scale of pace and time? The grant will upport a work hop, which will involve member of the Land-V e Change Re earch Consortium of the Committee for Research on Global EnvironmenJu

FlSEPTEMBER

1991

tal Change, as well a repre entatives from committee concerned with South A ia and Ea tern Europe. Project leader: John F. Richard (Department of Hi tory, Duke Univer ity), Committee for Re earch on Global Environmental Change. Project staff: Richard Rockwell, SSRC; David Szanton, SSRC.

• Development and Social Science: $10,000. Concerned with the gene i and impact of different conception of development, thi project focu e particularly on the way in which theorie of development evolve both in the academic world and in development as i tance agencie . It would begin with a preliminary work hop that would bring together cholar and practitioner with field experience, and draw on re ource of the Africa, Near and Middle Ea t, and Southea t Asia committee , among other . Project leader: Randall Packard (Department of Hi tory, Tuft Univer ity), chair, Joint Committee on African Studie . Project staff: Tom Lodge, SSRC; Pri cilia Stone, SSRC. • Environmentalism of the Poor: $10,000. Thi project inve tigate the relation hip between environmental conflict and the development of popular ocial movement . The central que tion to be explored include: I there an identifiable "environmentali m of the poor" and, if 0, what are it di tinctive characteri tic ? Can analy i of ecological and re ource acce and management con ideration

enhance our understanding of ocial movement ? What condition enable environmental movement of the poor to flouri h and/or ucceed? Have uch movements rai ed the co t of what would otherwi e be profitable but environmentally un ound practice ? The grant upported a planning meeting in March, which wa attended by peciali t on Latin America, Africa, Europe, and South A ia. Project leader: Enrique Mayer (Department of Anthropology, Univer ity of Illinoi ), Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Project staff: Eric Hershberg, SSRC.

• European Identity and its Conceptual Roots: $10,000. Thi project eek to addre the i ue of "Europe" and "European identitie " by examining popular model of ocial incorporation, official and intellectual elaboration of identity that can lead to "tran national con ciou ne , " and the intersection of thi larger con ciou ne with nationaH m, particularly in Ea tern Europe. The grant will fund a preliminary teering committee meeting, a work hop, and a ub equent teering committee meeting. Project leaders: Michael Herzfeld (Department of Anthropology, Univer ity of Indiana), Joint Committee on We tern Europe; Katherine Verdery (Department of Anthropology, The John Hopkin Univer ity), Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe. Project staff: Yasmine Erga , SSRC; Ja on Parker, American Council of Learned Societie . ITEM

/ 39


• The New International Context of Development: $10,000. The focu of thi project i on the implication for Third World countrie of the enonnou change that are taking place in the international political economy. The e include, among others, the relative decline of the United State and the ri e of Japan, the growing integration of We tern Europe, the collap e of the Soviet bloc and end of the Cold War, new role for multilateral agencie , and new type of organization of production. The project aim to gather empirical data that will enable u to better understand how the e change may affect development trategie in the Third World and to explore the con equence of the e change for the utility of variou theorie of development. A work hop, which included cholar from the Latin America, Korea, and Japan committee , took place in June 1991, at SSRC. Project leader: Barbara Stalling (Department of Political Science, Univer ity of Wi con in, Madi on), chair, Joint Committee on Latin America. Project staff: Eric Her hberg, SSRC. • Questions of Modernity: Strategies for Post-Orientalist Scholarship on South Asia and the Middle East: $10,000. Thi project build on recent critique of the di cour e of modernity and the cholarship of Orientali m, to develop trategie for comparative re earch on South A ia and the Middle Ea t. It will include members of the Joint Committee on South A ia, the Near and Middle East, and the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie . The grant will fund two work hop , 4O \ ITEM

which would lead to a larger international conference in 1993 . Project leaders: Timothy Mitchell (Department of Political Science, New York University), Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East; Lila Abu-Lughod (Department of Anthropology, Princeton University), Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie . Project staff: Steven Heydemann, SSRC; Richard Cohen, SSRC.

Start-up Grants for Interim Research Activities Seven tart-up grant have been awarded for interim re earch planning activitie of everal joint area committee , in re pon e to a reque t for propo al i ued in October 1990. A with the comparative and tran national eed grants, deci ion were reached with the help of an advi ory panel of cholar and the Council' profe ional taff. The tart-up grants are intended to provide an interim mechani m to facilitate the initiation of new re earch activitie by committee , pending renewal of major core funding of the Council' international program . The following committee received grants:

• Joint Committee 011 African Studies: $15,000, in upport of it project on "The World the Dia pora Make : Social Science and the Reinvention of Africa." The project eek to combine in ights drawn from .Mrican tudie with perspective developed in African diaspora tudie -e pecially African-American tudie within the United State , but al 0 tudie in the Caribbean, el ewhere in the Americas, and in

Europe. Bringing together re earchers from the e two di tinctive communitie will at once broaden analytic perception of what Africa i , while al 0 increa ing the intere t and participation of U.S. minority cholars in African tudie. The grant will provide partial upport for a planning meeting during the ummer of 1991 and a workshop in the pring of 1992. For further infonnation contact Karen Field , Frederick E. Dougla In titute for African and African-American Studie , University of Roche ter, or Pri cilla Stone, SSRC.

• Joint Committee on Latin American Studies: $14,500, in upport of its project on "Economic Liberalization and the Conolidation of Political Democracy in Latin America." In its first phase, the project will critically examine the logic and as umptions of variou cholarly approache to the relation hip between liberalization and democratization, and will seek to develop a new ynthe i . In a ub equent phase, these ideas will be te ted in a erie of country tudie and thematic enquirie . In a final tage, the project will focu on identifying generalizable pattern and explaining exception to the conventional relation hips between different type of refonn. For further infonnation contact Laurence Whitehead, Nuffield College, Oxford, or Eric Hershberg, SSRC. • Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East: $10,000, in upport of its project on "Bridging the Divide: Comparing North/South Model of State and Society." The project will explore the opportunitie and limit of


tran po ing model of tate and society from one cultural area to another. In it frrst pha e, the project will focu on comparative application of pecific ub tantive re earch que tion in order to better understand methodological problem a ociated with model applied acro cultural areas . The grant will upport a erie of "paired eminar" in which scholars of different cultural areas who have focu ed on imilar ub tantive problem reflect on methodological i ue that they encountered. For further information contact Joel Migdal, Department of Political Science, Univer ity of Wa hington, or Steven Heydemann, SSRC.

• Joi1lt Committee on South Asia: $8,000, in upport of the "South A ian Humanitie Project." The project i de igned to asse critically, over the course of three conference , the role of We tern theory in formulating the que tion we ask of South A ian humani tic practice . The frrst conference will explore the relevance to the South A ian human itie of We tern cultural theory. The cond will addre the contribution or claim of the ocial cience on the South A ian humanitie . And the third will asse the implication of We tern theory and of social- cience and po t-colonial problematic for the teaching of South A ian humanitie in American universitie . For further information, contact Sheldon PoUock, Department of South A ian Language , University of Chicago, or Toby Volkman, SSRC.

• Joi1lt Committee on Southeast Asia: 5,000, in upport of its "Southe t A ian Literature Ju F1

EPTEMBER

1991

Project." The project i de igned to provide a partial remedy for the lack of cholarship and teaching on Southeast A ian humanitie in the United State in the form of a erie of umrner in titute on the Southeast A ian humanitie . The grant provide partial upport for a planning meeting to define and organize the frrst in titute. For further information, contact Karl Hutterer, Burke Museum, University of Washington, or Toby Volkman, SSRC.

• Joint Committee on Soviet Studies: 7,500, in upport of its project on Recon tructing 'Ru ian' Hi tory: Culture and Empire." Thi project i de igned to timulate new research and e pecially new theoretical approache to the prerevolutionary period of imperial Ru ia. The project i de igned as a corrective to trends in existing cholarship, both We tern and Soviet, which was deigned to read the revolution of 1917 back into developments of the 18th and 19th centurie . It i particularly important to provide different perspective on the period at thi time, given the importance of recon tructing the past in contemporary debate about the future hape of the Soviet Union. There i little in Soviet or We tern cholarship to illuminate the imperial Ru ian past in all its contingencie , limitation , and po ibilitie. The field i e pecially devoid of theoretical work. The grant would provide partial upport for a workhop in October 1991, to identify useful theoretical approache and direction for research. For further information, contact Jane Burbank, Department of Hi tory, University of Michigan, or Robert Huber, SSRC.

• Joint Committee on Western Europe: $15,000, in upport of its project on "A New Europe: Rethinking the Con tructs of CoUective Behavior." The project explore the changing context of coUective behavior in the phere of politic, ociety, and the economy in contemporary Europe. Thi involve reevaluating the central relation hip that link European together, from the impact of ocioeconomic change at the individual level to the operation of in titution for collective action at the macro level. A concern for equity focu e attention on the di tribution of power and re ouree which underlie contemporary in titution ; a concern for efficiency focuse attention on the capacity of those in titution to aggregate individual preference into collective deci ion conducive to overall 0cial welfare. For further information, contact Peter A. Hall , Center for European Studie , Harvard University, or Yasmine Ergas, SSRC.

Social Learning in the Management of Global Environmental Risk The Council' Committee for Re earch on Global Environmental Change doe re earch on a variety of human dimen ion of large- cale, long-term environmental change . It organize con ortia of re earchers from everal di cipline and often from everal countrie to collect new data, conduct analy e , and interpret re ult . Members of con ortia jointly plan and execute their re earch; upport i provided by re earch grant , u ually to the home in titution of the leader of the con ortia. ITEM

141


The committee' fir t fullyoperational con ortium was organized by committee member William C. Clark of the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard Univer ity. In addition to Mr. Clark, member include Jill Jager, Stockholm Environmental In titute; Ida Koppen, European Univer ity In titute; Va ily Sokolov, USSR Academy of Science; Jo ee Van Eijndhoven, Utrecht Univer ity; and Brian Wynne, Lanca ter University. Support i provided by a grant of $600,000 from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and from other foundation and agencie . The Council provide admini trative and networking upport, and organize the con ortium' meeting and annual ummer in titute . The con ortium employ the metaphor of " ocial learning" to de cribe it intere t in how ocietie have learned to cope over the pa t 30 year with the ri k of ozone depletion, acid depo ition, and climate change. It eek to determine whether the ocietie in the project-Germany, the Netherland, the Union of Soviet Sociali t Republic , the United Kingdom, the United State , and the European Community a a whole-have gotten better at giving the e problem a uitable amount and kind of attention, appropriately allocated re ource , and effective in titutional re pon e. A dynamic compari on of the e ocietie require the development of mea ure of their learning capacity and the diagno i of ob tacle to better learning. The re earch will lead to the pre cription of action to mitigate uch ob tacle , recognizing that 42\ITEMS

ocletle will be dealing with the e problem for decade into the future. The con ortium i now preparing policy hi torie for each ociety, according to a common re earch protocol developed in a meeting held February ~7, 1991, at the International In titute for Applied Sy tern Analy i (Laxenburg, Au tria). Among the que tion i whether ocietie can learn goal a well a fact about global environmental change. The U.S. admini tration' policy of "no regret "hold that thi country hould not do anything now to avert po ible climate change that would later cau e regrets if climate change doe not occur. However, the policy al 0 hold that the country hould take tep that make en e on other ground and might erve a well to reduce the ri k of climate change. In contra t, the German admini tration hold that in the face of the uncertainty about climate change, that country hould purcha e an "in urance policy" by doing whatever will reduce the ri k. How did the e differing policy goal evolve in the e omewhat imilar ocietie? The con ortium face con iderable conceptual, theoretical, and methodological problem . Mo t of the literature on ocial learning deals with individual learning; to what extent can that conception be tran planted to learning by a ociety or its in titution ? Becau e the con ortium take an interactive view of the policy proce ,it mu t concern itself with many actors, in titution ,and trand of policy development, as well as with change occurring in ix countrie over a period of more than 30 years. It mu t find documentary

evidence of how an environmental ri k was ftrst recognized, how the cience evolved, and how countrie began to deal with it, and then trace that beginning to present regulation , bureaucracie • and treatie . Over the next three years, the con rtium will collect these data, develop a theoretical framework. and publi h books on its re ult . Members hope to add a country in Eastern Europe and one or more developing countrie to those already represented in the project.

Two New Transnational Projects in Peace and Security A part of its field development activitie , the Committee on International Peace and Security has initiated two project • one on "The Security of Marginal Population ." and the other on "Tran national Religiou Regime." The e project reflect the committee' efforts to explore i ue of international peace and ecurity that are not focu ed exclu ively upon the peace and ecurity of tate , but in tead upon phenomena that tran cend tate boundarie . Invitation to participate in the project were extended to other Council committee in keeping with an effort to promote collaboration acro committee.

• The Security of Marginal Populations. Thi project eek to explore a major phenomenon of contemporary life: di tinct groups within individual tate that are economically. politically. or culturally marginal to their ocietie . Thi marginality may threaten their cultural and/or


phy ical urvival. The Kurdi h population in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and the Soviet Union are marginal populations pread acro everal tate . Indigenou population in the America , Au trala ia, and the Pacific , and gyp ie in Ea tern and Southern Europe hare a imilar plight. Labor migrant and their de cendant repre ent another kind of marginality, for example, Korean in Japan and Turk in Gennany who do not enjoy the protection of their tate of origin , but are not able to obtain citizen hip rights within their new tate of re idence. In addition, there are entire population of refugee who e tatu in ho t tate is ambiguou ,a i the ca e of the Pale tinian dia pora within orne of the Arab tate , and refugee population in everal African countrie Finally, there are the Levantine and South A ian communitie in Africa and the We tern Hemi phere which are marginal in cultural and political term , but enjoy a po ition of relative economic prominence in their ho t ocietie . The marginality of the e group i not a con equence of a temporary or contingent inadequacyof tate perfonnance, but rather of long-tenn relative disadvantage within the tate and societie in which they re ide. Their marginality may be the re ult of being a minority within the tate and their lack of integration into the dominant social fabric . Thi doe not imply that all minoritie uffer di advantage ince there are countrie uch as Iraq or Syria where minoritie are the dominant elite . Alternatively. the marginality of pecific group may be defined in legal or Ju ÂŁ1SEPTEMBER 1991

political tenn , but their economic role may be one of privilege which i related to their links to tran national communi tie . The two meeting of the working group have been devoted to identifying the i ue to be tudied and the parameter ~f the project. Given the con iderable variation of context in which marginality occur , and the different con equence of marginality, a central que tion i whether the variety of ituations can be captured within a ingle definition of the concept of marginality. The group i eeking to involve other cholars who may be able to addre the i ue of marginality in the United State and the Soviet Union . I

• Transnational Religious Regimes. Thi project eek to explore the continuing and renewed alience of religion to i ue of international affairs. It i attempting to engage both cholar of religion and ocial cienti t intere ted in the tudy of the growing role of religion a a political force. It i hoped that the collaborative tudy of tran national religiou network will provide a mechani m for a e ing the role of religion in the proce e which have created I Panicipants in the projecl include S m Nolutshungu. University of Roche ter (chair); Anthony A iwaju. National Boundary Commi ion. Nigeria; Jonathan Boyarin . SSRC-MacArthur Fellow. New School for Social Research ; Stephen Bunker. University of Wi on in. Madi n; Alfred Darnell . Vanderbilt Unive ity; Charle Hale. SSRC-MacArthur Fellow. University of W hinglon; David Lailin. University of Chicago; Remy Leveau. Foundation Nationale de Science Politique • Pari ; Jim Scott. Yale University; and Ari Zolberg. ew School for Social Re arch. Cary Fraser of the Council rve as taff.

alternative to the tate or nation for the definition of individual or group identity, and in tho e which have promoted conflict and political change in the international y tern. An integral part of thi effort i the e tabli hment of a conceptual framework and language that would bring religion and the politic of culture into the field of international relation . The area of intere t are the I lamic world, Latin America and Ea tern Europe. The two meeting of the group have helped to define orne theme which later meeting will eek to explore in greater depth. The critical role of migrant and mi ionarie in creating tran national religiou network, and the way in which the network erve the e con tituencie eem to be one u eful area of focu ed compari on. Another theme centers around the truggle within the e networks to define the center versu the periphery, and way in which the periphery may induce doctrinal and operational change at the center. A third theme may be found in the nature of relation between tate and the e network , and how the network may conte t and contrain the exercise of tate authority. Finally, there i the i ue of how collaboration and conflict among the variou network are tructured, and the role that tate may play in tho e proce e. 2

2 Panicipants in the project include Su nne H. Rudolph . University of Chicago (chair); Don Baker. University of Briti h Columbia; Dale Eickelman. Danmouth College; James Kurth. Swarthmore College; Daniel Levine. University of Michigan; Jame Pi atori . University College. Wale : and Larry Sullivan. Center for World Religion . Harvard Univerity. Cary Fraser of the Council serve taff.

ITEMs/ 43


Council Fellowship and Grant Programs 1991-92 Predoctoral and Dissertation Training and Research DFSCRIPTION

PROGRAM

DEADLINES

SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowship on Peace and Security in a Changing World

Two- 'ear di ertation training and re earch fellowhip to fo ter ritical thinking about international pea e and ecurit

December I. 1991

International Predis rtation Fellowship Program

upport for graduate tudents at elected univer itie in the field of e onomi • political cience. ociology. and other ocial ience. de igned to enrich their di ciplinary tudi with area and language kill focu ed on the developing world.

To be announced

Dis rtation Research Fellowships for Area Studie

Africa. Korea. Latin America and the aribbean. ear and Middle Ea t. outh A ia. uthea t A ia. and We tern Europe: upport for doctoral re ear h abroad in the ocial ience and the humanitie

November 1. 1991

Dis rtation Fellowship Studie

upport for the final ear of write-up on di ertalion

January 1. 1992

hina and Ea tern Europe: upport for doctoral re earch in the ocial ience and the humanitie .

December 2. 1991

East European language training grant. and East European travel grants

March 1. 1992

in Japane

Di ertation Research Fellowship for Area Studies administered by the American Council of Learned Societie •

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European studies

upport for doctoral re earch in German ocial cience. hi tory. and cultural tudie

m the

January 15. 1992

Fellow hip for Predis ertation Research in Africa

upport for predi ertation re earch trip to Africa for graduate tudent in the ocial cience and the humanitie

ovember I. 1991

Fellowship for Training and Dissertation Re earch on Agriculture and Health in Africa

upport for natural or technical ience training and di rtation re earch for ocial den e Ph.D. candidate who e re earch topi are related to agriculture or health

December 1. 1991

Fellowship for Di sertation Research in Bangladesh

upport for doctoral re earch in the ocial ience and humanitie focu ing on Banglade h. Comparative re earch involving ~ e t Bengal acceptable; minimum of ix-month ta in Banglade h required. o citizen hip re tri tion .

ovember 1. 1991

Fir t-Year Fellowship in Underrepresented Fields in Soviet Studies

upport for univer itie to offer fellow hip in the first year of graduate tud in the field of ociology and anthropology. with a focu on the application of di ciplinary training to the advanced tud of the viet Union

D cember 1. 19 1

Graduate Training in Soviet Studies

Two ears of upport for 3rd and 4th. or 4th and 5th ear graduate tud

December I. 1991

• For detail and in truclion on how 10 pply for these fellow hips and gran • addre the American Council of Learned Societie • 22 Easl 45th Sum. ew York. NY 10017. For all others. addre the pecific program al the Social Science Research Council. 44\ ITEMS


Council Fellowship and Grant Programs 1991-92 (continued) PROGRAM

DESCRIPTION

Dis rtation Fellowships in Soviet Stud-

DEADLINES

upport for the final year of write-up work on di ertation

De ember 1. 1991

Undergraduate Research Assistantships for Research on the Urban Underclass

upport for undergraduate re earch projects that are conducted in collaboration with faculty members during the ummer or an academic ear

December 10. 1991

Dissertation Fellowships for Research on the Urban Underclas

upport for doctoral re earch on the urban underda ; ummer di ertation work hop for minority tudents

December 10. 1991

ies

Advanced Postdoctoral Training and Research SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships on Peace and Security in a Changing World

Two-year po tdoctoral training and re earch fellowhip to fo ter critical thinking about international peace and ecurity

December 1. 1991

Grants for Area Studies Research

Africa. Japan. Korea. Latin America and the Caribear and Middle Ea t. South A ia. and bean. Southea t A ia: upport for advanced re earch in the ocial cience and the humanitie

December 1. 1991

Grants for Area Studies Research administered by the American Council of Learned Societies.

China and Ea tern Europe: upport for advanced re earch in the ocial science and the humanitie .

December 2. 1991

Ea t European language training grants

March 1. 1992

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies

upport for advanced research in Germany in the social cience. hi tory. and cultural tudie

January 15. 1992

Research Fellowships in Foreign Policy Studies

One to two year of upport for re earch on economic. cultural. political. and ocial influence on the making of V . . foreign policy. Application from non-V .. cholars encouraged

December 1. 1991

Grants for Soviet Studies

upport for three ummer and one erne ter of re earch for untenured holar

December 1. 1991

ummer work hop on tati tical re earch method .

To be announced

Public Policy Research on Contemponry Hispanic Issues Uointly with the Inter-University Program for Latino Research)

• For detail and in !rUction on how to apply for these fellow hips and grants. addre the American Council of Learned Societies. 228 East 45th Street. w York. NY 10017. For all others. addre the pecific program at the Social Science Research Council.

Jv

EiSEPTEMBER

1991

ITEMS/45


Grants Received by the Council in 1990-91 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1991* Aga Khan Trust Support for a conference on Mu lim Population in Europe and America (Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie )

(Committee on International Peace and Security)

11,000

ian Development Bank Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth)

$15,000

100,000

Ford Foundation Preservation of collection and training of taff at African archive and mu eum (Joint Committee on African Studie ) Award for di sertation re arch in Banglade h (Joint Committee on South A ia) Support for a network of researchers addre ing the African agricultural cri i (Joint Committee on African Studie ) Summer work hop on Soviet and East European economic (Joint Committee on Soviet Studie ) Program upport (Committee for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hi panic I ue) Partial upport for di sertation research fellow hip in foreign area tudie

$300,000 $444,2 IO

$200,000

70,000

1,200,000 $500,000

17,000

200,000

55,000

140,493

$20,000

658,200 624.200

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Workshop on Soviet and East European economic (Joint Committee on Soviet Studie )

30.000

Project on neighborhood and family influence on the development of poor children and adole cent (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclas )

200,000

Project on "The Late Bronze Age of Sou thea t A ia and South China" (Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) Support for the participation of a Japanese researcher at meeting of the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia

9.800 7.57

ations

Project LI K (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth)

75.000

Continued program upport (Joint Committee on Soviet Studie )

2,035.661

United States Information Agency 169,000

• Doe not include "in-kind" gran ; that i. uppon of travel . hotel. received by Council committee in the conference. and imilar expen fonn of direct paymen by other org nizati n .

46\ ITEM

2,500

U.S. Department of State

John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Support for Population and Environment Linkage project (Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change) Fellow hip program on International Peace and Security in a Changing World

Multiyear program to mobilize the academic community for interdi iplinary research on the undercl (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclas ) Continued upport for the tudy of the undercla (Committee for Research on the Urban Undercl )

United

Japan-United States Friend hip Commission Support for advanced research on Japan (Joint Committee on Japane e Studie )

$40,000

Toyota Foundation

Japan Foundation Regional eminars on Japan (Joint Committee on Japane e Studie )

Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program grant competition (Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) Work hop on economic refonn in Vietnam (Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) Continuing upport for research on Indochina

mith Richardson Foundation

William T. Grant Foundation Support for research planning in child and youth development

Christopher Reynolds Found tion

RockefeUer Foundation

French-American Foundation 1991 Tocqueville fellow hip award (Joint Committee on We tern Europe)

2,500,000 $20,000

Comparative methodology workshop 55,000

Carnegie Corporation of New York Workshop for young cholars on Soviet dome tic politic (Joint Committee on Soviet Studie )

Oi sertation fellow hip for foreign area research

Pennsylvania tate University

Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth)

$7,620,441

Andrew W. MeUon Foundation

Support for delegation of cultural and educational admini trator and policy makers from the Lao People' Democratic Republic (Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program, Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) Total VOLUME

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Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1991 FOLLOWING are the name , affiliation , and topic of the individual who were offered fellow hip or grants by Council comminee in the mo t recent annual competition for research in the ocial cience and humanitie . The area tudie re earch award were made by the committee jointly pon ored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). They are upported by grant from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Additional funding for individual program i provided by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Cultural Exchange , the Ford Foundation, the French-American Foundation , the German Marshall Fund of the United State , the Japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion, the Henry Luce Foundation, the Chri topher Reynold Foundation , the Rockefeller Foundation , and the .S. Department of State under the Soviet-Ea tern European Re earch and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIII) . Fellow hip in international peace and ecurity are upported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T . MacArthur Foundation. Grants from the Ford Foundation upport fellow hip for foreign policy tudie , and for public policy re earch on contemporary Hi panic i ue . The Ford Foundation al 0 upport the joint ACLS/SSRC International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program. Award for research on the urban underclas are upported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development. Un Ie it i pecifically noted that a program i admini tered by the ACLS , the program Ii ted are admini tered by the Council. The Council doe not di criminate on the b i of age , color, creed, di ability, marital tatu , national origin, or ex. The program change omewhat every year, and intere ted cholars hould write to the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual program al 0 publi h brochure , with more complete de cription of their aim and procedure , at variou time during the year. See al 0 the ummary of all current fellow hip and grant program on page 44-45 .

DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS FOR AREA STUDIES Africa The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Comminee on African Studie - Randall M. Packard (chair), Kwame A. Appiah , Claude A. Ardouin , Charle M. Becker, Frederick Cooper, Franci M. Deng, Gillian Feeley-Hamik, Karen E. Field , Chri traud M. Jt:.

E/SEPTEMBER

1991

Geary, and Lemuel John on-at it meeting on April 5-6, 1991. The committee was as i ted by a creening committee-Alma Gottlieb (chair), Adam A Morth, Katherine Demuth, Margaret Thomp on Drewal, Jeffrey Herb t, Chri tine Jone ,Jame McCann and Parker Shipton-and a selection committee-Karen E. Field (chair), John Higgin on, Edmond J. Keller, Peter Little, and Edri Makward. Tom Lodge, M. Pri cilIa Stone, Marty Baker and Becca Gershen on served as taff for thi program. CHRISTINE CHOI AHMED, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele , for a tudy of gender and labor dynamic in 19th-century outhern Somalia GRETCHEN M. BAUER, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for a tudy of the negotiating proce between the tate, two foreign-owned indu trie , and their re pective labor force in po t-colonial Namibia STEPHEN J. DETRAY, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Wa hington, for a tudy of local-level in titutional re ponse to Tanzanian economic reform DoROTHY L. HODGSON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for a tudyof gender and ocial tran formation among the Maa ai of Tanzania NATALIE J . KREUTZER, Ph.D. candidate in mu ic education, Indiana University, for a tudy of mu ic acqui ition of Shona children in Zimbabwe THOMAS V. McCLENDON, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford University, for research on African conflict and the tate in rural Natal, 1920-1950 HUDITA MUSTAFA , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard University, for research on the ex pan ion of the arti anal tailoring sector in Dakar ince 1950 GARTH A. MYERS , Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Lo Angele , for a tudy of town planning and development in the city of Zanzibar. PAMELA F. SCULLY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, for a tudy of family and ocial conflict in the rural We tern Cape, South Africa, 1830-1870 The following fellow hip for training and di sertation research were al 0 awarded at the committee' meeting on April 5-6, 1991 with the a i tance of a selection committee-Ivan Karp (chair), Margaret Bentley, Frederick L. Dunn , Atieno Odhiambo, Randall M. Packard, Paul Richard , and Patricia L. Ro enfield. SIMON BATTERBURY, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Clark University, for training in tropical agriculture and re ource management and for research on environmental management and local organization in Yatenga, Northern Burkina Faso KAREN M. BOOTH, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Univerity of Wi con in , Madi on, for training in epidemiology ITEMS/ 47


and public health service evaluation and for research on policy-fonnation and the impact of international, national, and local AIDS policie on women in Kenya DENISE M . ROTH, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of IIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for training in midwifery and epidemiology for a tudy of pregnancy and childbirth among Sukuma and Nyamwezi of We t Central Tanzania PHILIP SETEL, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Bo ton University, for training in health education technique , epidemiology and infectiou disease and for research on the local interpretation of AIDS education material in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania CORINNE N. C. WHITAKER, Ph.D. candidate in international public health and ocial cience, The John Hopkin University, for field-based course of tudy on the diagno i and treatment of adult health problem in Tanzania and for research on the impact of women' participation in market activitie on their health and use of health care ervice in Tango Province, Tanzania The following predi sertation fellow hip were aI 0 awarded at the committee' meeting on April ~ , 1991 with the as i tance of the International Doctoral Research Fellow hip for Africa reening committee DAVID A . EATON, JR., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Zaire CARY S. FARLEY, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univerity of Florida, for travel to Uganda ALUSINE JALLOH, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Howard University, for travel to Sierra Leone ANNE F. JELLEMA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for travel to South Africa GERARDO A. LoRENZINO, Ph.D. candidate in lingui tic, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, for travel to Sao Tom~ MBALA NKANGA, Ph.D. candidate in perfonnance tudie , Northwe tern University, for travel to Gabon and Congo ERIC SILLA, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Northwe tern University, for travel to Mali LUCIEN G. TAYLOR, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Southern California, for travel to Mali RAYMOND M . TAYLOR, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of lIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for travel to Mauritania and Mali WENDY M . WALKER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The John Hopkin University, for travel to Madag car

All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Fellow upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. MELISSA J. BROWN, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington, for research in Taiwan on cultural variation on the Tainan Plain MARY ANNE CARTELLI, Ph.D. candidate in East A ian language and culture , Columbia University, for research in Hong Kong on Buddhi t poetic of Dunhuang: an examination of the popular Buddhi tong from the Dunhuang manu ripts ELISSA COHEN , Ph.D. candidate in religiou tudie, Yale University, for research in Japan on Ch'eng-kuan' conception of enlightenment: the culmination of the Hua-yen tradition in China KYLE P. HEIDE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for re earch in Taiwan on Nanguan mu ic as ociation in Taipei: ae thetic and cultural identity in tran fonnation ROBIN B. KORNMAN, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, Princeton University, for re earch in France toward a tran lation of the Ge ar Epic in Pari : bibliographic research and upervi ed tudy of the dialects of Tibetan narrative verse CHI-KONG LAI, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Davi , for research in England, Hong Kong. Taiwan, and Japan on official, merchant and re ource allocation in China' first bu ine corporation, 1872-

1902 CHARLES L. LEARY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for research in France on Zhang Jing heng in France: anarchi m, ae thetic , and sexuality for a Chinese abroad, 1912-21 ANKENEY WEITZ, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory of art, University of Kan ,for re earch in Japan and Taiwan on collecting, connoi seurship, and the return to the p t in early Yuan China: Chou Mi' run-yen kuo-yen lu SUSAN H. WHITING, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for re earch in Hong Kong on power and wealth in the Chinese town hip: the political economy of local entrepreneurhip JIAN YUAN, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for re earch in Hong Kong on private property and ociali t economy: development of private enterprise in China

E tern Europe

China The Joint Committee on Chinese Studie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Deborah Davi (chair), Robert Hyrne, Leo Ou-fan Lee, Kenneth Lieberthal, Su an Mann, Barry Naughton, Willard J . Peterson, P. Steven Sangren, and Pauline R. Yu-at it meeting on March 15-16, 1991, awarded fellow hip to the following individual. J on H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. 48 \ ITEM

The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Madeline G. Levine (chair), Ivo Banac, Ellen T. Comi 0, Michael H. Heim, Andrew C. Jano , George Kolankiewicz, Deborah D. Milenkovitch, Nonnan H. Naimark, David Stark, and Katherine Verdery-at its meeting on March 9-10, and April 13, 1991 voted to award fellow hip to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Water served a taff for thi program. VOLUME

45. Nu

1BER

213


SAMUEL D. ALBERT, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Yale University. The role of nationali m in the architecture of the Au tro-Hungarian Empire WILLIAM LEE BLACKWOOD, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University. Social Democrats and German territorial revi ioni m, 1924-1930 KATHERINE O. DAVID, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University. The 1890 generation: moderni m and national identity in Czech culture, 1890-1905 ERIC HIRSCH , Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley. Migrant workers' ong: mu ic and politic of uneven development in tum-of-the-century Hungary PADRAIC KENNEY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. An inve tigation of the fate of the working clas in Poland, 1945-1949 PAULA FRANKLIN LYTLE, Ph.D. candidate in political ience, Yale University. Symbolic con truction of power: revolutionary mobilization in Yugo lavia WALES R. MACK, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Rolling back the tate and bringing the market back in: price and property rights in Poli h agriculture JASON McDoNALD, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. Changing identitie : elite economi ts as politicians in po twar Hungary MIECZYSLAW ROZBICKI, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University. National democracy and the 1905 Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland ScOTT SPECTOR, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, The John Hopkin University. Inve tigation of the problematic of national identity and culture in Prague in the early 20th century KEELY STAUTER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Rural political organization in 19th-century Galician Poland STEVEN STOLTENBERG, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Berkeley. Poland' dark page: ociety and ocial movement under martial law ANDRZEJ W. TvMOWSKI, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale Univer ity. East European ocial mOvement in the tran it ion period: a hi toricaV ociological analy i of representative movement THEODORE R. WEEKS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerity of California, Berkeley. The nationality policy of Tsari t Ru ia in the Kingdom of Poland and We tern territorie during the reign of Nicholas n (1894-1914) MARC G. WEINSTEIN, Ph.D. candidate in bu ine admini tration, Mas achusett In titute of Technology. An examination of the proce of in titutional emergence among 100 Poli h firm The following graduate training fellow hip were al awarded by the committee.

0

KlISTI S. EVANS. Advanced graduate tudent in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago. Poli h language tudy; archival research on the Poli h labor movement and Solidarity CLAIRE A. ROSENSON . Advanced graduate tudent in political science, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor. Jv ElSEPTEMBEIl 1991

Language training, training in methodological kill , and pecial coursework preparatory to re earch in comparative political culture NANCY A. SINKOFF. Advanced graduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia University. Poli h language training; preparatory research for a tudy of the Haskalah, the Jewi h Enlightenment in Galicia

Eastern Europe-Language Training Grants The East European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Ronelle Alexander, Victor A. Friedman, Michael H. Heim, Madeline G. Levine, Robert A. Roth tein, and Erne t A. Scatton-at it meeting on April 14, 1991 voted to award language training grant to the following individual . Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. loRENE MARIE ALLlO, graduate tudent in political cience, Emory University, for the tudy of Poli h JONATHAN A. BARNES, advanced undergraduate tudent in Slavic language, Columbia University, for the tudy of Hungarian MICHAEL S. BOYD, graduate tudent in Slavic and East European language and literature , Ohio State Univerity, for the tudy of Czech AMy E. BRENNER, independent cholar, for the tudyof Czech MARGARET E. CLOYD, graduate tudent in Ru ian and East European tudie, Indiana University, for the tudy of Czech ALICIA K. COZINE, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Chicago, for the tudy of Czech ERIN DIEHM, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, Ohio State University, for the tudy of Czech GEORGINE L. DIVIRGILIO, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of Chicago, for the tudy of Poli h DAVID S. DoRNISCH, graduate tudent in ociology, Penn ylvania State University, for the tudy of Czech EWA C. DoRNISCH , graduate tudent in lingui tic, Penn ylvania State University, for the tudy of Serbo-Croatian BENJAMIN FROMMER, advanced undergraduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia University, for the tudy of Czech SHIRLEY J. GEDEON, profe or of economic , Univer ity of Vermont, for the tudy of Czech RADMILA J. GoRUP, lecturer in Slavic language and literature , University of California, Berkeley, for the tudy of Slovene ROBERT GREENBERG, graduate tudent in Slavic Studie , Yale University, for the tudy of Macedonian ERIC A. HANLEY, graduate tudent in ociology, University of California, Lo Angele, for the tudy of Poli h FRANCES JUNGHANS, graduate tudent in anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, for the tudy of Hungarian MARK R. LAUERSDORF, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of Kan as, for the tudy of Slovak ITEMS/49


LEE ANNE LIGON, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Virginia, for the tudy of Czech GEORGE LIN, graduate tudent in hi tory, Stanford University, for the tudy of Hungarian JUDITH ANN MABARY, graduate tudent in mu ic, Wa hington Univer ity, for the tudy of Czech MARGO LEE MALLAR, graduate tudent in Soviet and East European tudie, Yale University, for the tudy of Poli h SALLY ANN METZLER, graduate tudent in art and archeology, Princeton University, for the tudy of Czech SUZANNE W. MORRAH, independent cholar, for the tudy of Hungarian RANDAL H. MUNSEN, graduate tudent in ancient tudie , University of Minne ota, for the tudy of Romanian ROBERT NEMES, graduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia University, for the tudy of Hungarian MILENA K. Novy, advanced undergraduate tudent in political cience, Yale University, for the tudy of Czech EMILY V. POWELL, advanced undergraduate tudent in anthropology and German, University of Virginia, for the tudy of Czech ROBERT J. RENDALL, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, University of California, Berkeley, for the tudy of Serbo-Croatian JOHN PAUL RICHARD ON, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, San Diego, for the tudy of Czech KARL W. RYAVEC, profe or of political cience, Univerity of Mas achu ett , Amherst, for the tudy of Slovene KRISTINA M. SCHMITZ, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of Chicago, for the tudy of Czech TIMOTHY G. SCOTT, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of Virginia, for the tudy of Czech ANITA K. SHELTON, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Ea tern Illinoi University, for the tudy of Czech WILLIAM SMIALEK, a ociate profe or of mu ic, Jarvi Chri tian College, for the tudy of Czech KAREN SUE TAUSSIG, graduate tudent in anthropology, The John Hopkin Univer ity, for the tudy of Czech AluiONTO TERZI, graduate tudent in lingui tic, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, for the tudy of Albanian ELIZABETH VANN, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Chicago, for the tudy of Poli h KIP A. WEDEL, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univer ity of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for the tudy of Czech

Japan The following di sertation write-up grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studie -Jame White (chair), William Kelly, Margaret Lock, Hideo Otake, Richard Samuel, Henry Smith, Frank Upham, and Stephen Vlasto -at it meeting on March 8, 1991. Mary McDonnell, Mimi Kim, and Dee Warren served as taff for the program. DEBORAH CORDERO FIEDLER, Ph.D. candidate in cultural 50\ ITEMS

anthropology, Univer ity of Pittsburgh, for research on childbirth in Japan: the practice of Salogaeri and ocial upport network YOSHIHISA TAK MATSUSAKA, Ph.D. candidate in modern Japanese hi tory, Harvard University, for a tudy of the hi tory of the South Manchuria Railway Company and its role in the evolution of the Japanese hegemony in northeast China from 1906 to 1937 LINDA DIANE MUSSELWHITE, Ph.D. candidate in ociocultural anthropology, University of Washington, for research on pattern of ocialization and ocial control in Japane e jumor high school DAISHIRO NOMIYA, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univerity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for a tudy of peasant prote t in 19th-century Japan JAMES EARL ROBERSON, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, University of Hawaii, Manoa, for a tudy of the other Japanese worker: culture, work and life among employee of a mall company in Tokyo STEVEN KENT VOGEL, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley, for a tudy of the politic of deregulation in Japan: the ca e of telecommunication and financial ervice

Korea The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie - Michael Robinon (chair), Alice Am den, Jang-Jip Choi, Carter Eckert, Stephan Haggard, Uchang Kim, Chung-in Moon, and Clark Sorensen-at it February 23-24, 1991 meeting. Raquel Ovryn Rivera, Mimi M. Kim and Jaime Andre Castaneda served a taff to thi program. TIMOTHY SANGHOON LEE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for an analy i of how South Korean revivali m has undergone formal change and the role it ha played in South Korean ociety DENISE LETT, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wa hington, for a tudy of the dynamic of family change and the nature of wider ocial and economic development within Korea' new urban middle clas RONALD RODGERS, Ph.D. candidate in indu trial relation, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for a tudy of "matched et" of American ub idiarie , Japanese ub idiarie , and indigenou Korean firm in laborinten ive and technology indu trie ANDRE SCHMID, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for re earch on the ocial con truction of new Korean national identitie between the SinoJapane e War (1895) and the March Fir t Movement (1919) JOHN SEEL, Ph.D. candidate in Korean hi tory, Harvard University, for an inve tigation of the relation hip between the Bu ine men' A ociation and the policie of the Park Chung Hee government in the early years of Korea' high- peed economic development CAROLYN SO, Ph.D. candidate in Korean literature, University of California, Lo Angele , for a tudy of fiction by women writers VOLUME

45,

NUMBERS

2/3


Latin America and the Caribbean The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie - Barbara Stalling (chair), David Collier, Walnice Nogueira Galvao, Elizabeth Jelfn, Brooke Lar on , Enrique Mayer, Lorenzo Meyer, Stuart Schwartz, and Laurence Whitehead at it meeting on March 31-April 2, 1991. The committee was i ted by a election committee-Michael Conroy, William Clinton Roseberry, Steven Sander on (chair), Irene Silverblatt, Barbara Wein tein, and George Yudice. Eric Hershberg and Nichola Fro t erved a taff for thi program. PATRICIA ALVARENGA , Ph .D. candidate in hi tory, University of Wi con in , Madi on, for re earch in El Salvador on rural violence and political domination, 1880-1930 CARL BAUER, Ph.D. candidate in juri prudence and ocial policy, University of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Chile on water law and policy from 1981 to the present MARIA CECILIA CANGIANO, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, State University of New York, Stony Brook, for research in Argentina on cia -based political movement among automobile factory worker and metalworker MAGDALENA CHOCANO, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, State University of New York, Stony Brook, for research in Mexico on political culture in the eventeenth century MARlSOL DE LA CADENA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for re earch in Peru on regional popular culture and indigenou identity ARIEL DE LA FUENTE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, State University of New York , Stony Brook, for re earch in Argentina on the formation of the Argentine tate, 1853-1880 LAURE DERBY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for re earch in the Dominican Republic on dictatorship and the culture of politic , 1916--1962 MADHAVI KALE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for re earch in Trinidad on outcast labor and the migration of Indian indentured workers RICHARD LESURE, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for re earch in Mexico on re idential difference at Pa 0 de la Amada, Chiapa CECILIA MENDEZ, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, State University of New York, Stony Brook, for research in Peru on the Iquichano peasant and the republican tate, 1825-1845 MARK ROGERS, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Chicago, for research in Ecuador on hamani m and ethnicity DEBRA ROSE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univefliity of Horida, Gaine ville, for re earch in Mexico on the politic of wildlife conservation SUZA SAWYER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford Univer ity, for research in Ecuador on indigenou land management in the Amazon RIcHARD LEE TURlTS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, UniverbE/SEPTE IBER 1991

ity of Chicago, for research in the Dominican Republic on the Trujillo regime, 1930-1961 ERICKA VERBA, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for research in Chile on the common women of Santiago, 1880-1920 PABLO VILA, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Texa , for research in Argentina on popular mu ic and collective identity

Near and Middle East The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t-Roger Owen (chair), Andrew C. He ,Huricihan i lamoglu-inan, Mary Layoun, Joel S. Migdal, Timothy Mitchell, and Ghas an Salame-at it meeting on March 8, 1991. Steven Heydemann and Rachel Rosenbloom served a taff for the program. AVRIEL BUTOVSKY, Ph.D. candidate in Middle Ea tern hi tory, Harvard University, for research in Cairo and London on the politic of the Egyptian family, 18821952 LISA HAJJAR, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, American University, for re earch in I rael and the Occupied Territorie on I raeli military courts in the Occupied Territorie GARAY MENICUCCI, Ph .D . candidate in Middle Eastern hi tory, Georgetown Univer ity, for research in Dama cu on the Ru ian Revolution and popular movements in Syria in the 1920 EVE POWELL, Ph.D. candidate in Middle Eastern hi tory, Harvard University, for research in Cairo, London, and Khartoum on the hi tory of Egyptian perception of the Sudan, 1820-1914 STEPHEN TAMARJ, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Georgetown University, for re earch in England and Cairo on Ahmad Fari al-Shidyaq and the cultural root of the Nahda

Russia and the Soviet Union The following graduate training fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie William Mill Todd III (chair), Jane Burbank, Robert Campbell, Caryl Emerson, Nancy Shield Kollmann, Mary McAuley, Brian Silver, Richard Stite , Michael Swafford, and Reginald Zelnik-at it meeting on April 5-6, 1991. The committee was as i ted by a creening committeeRichard Stite (chair), Edith Clowe , Matthew Evangeli ta, Su an Linz, Daniel Rowland, and John Willerton . Robert T. Huber, Ro e London, and Sarah Tarrow served a taff for thi program. JOSEPHINE ANDREWS, Department of Government, Harvard University, for training in preparation for di sertation research on the emergence of political plurali m in Ru ia ROANN BARRIS, Department of Art Hi tory, University of ITEM /51


llIinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for training in preparation for di rtation research on Ru ian con tructivi t tage de ign JULIE CA IOAY, Department of Slavic Language and Literature, Stanford University, for training in preparation for di sertation research on drama and the how trial in early Soviet Ru ia SHARI COHEN, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di sertation research on the meaning of rule of law in modem-day Soviet Union ALLEN FRANK, Department of Uralic and Altaic Studie , Indiana University, for training in preparation for di sertation research on the Finno-Ugric and Turkic population in the Middle Volga region and their adaptation to Ru ian imperial rule PHILIP GoLDMAN, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di sertation research on the change in Ru ian tate in titution and core-periphery relation ANDREW KAHN, Faculty of Modem and Medieval Language, St. John' College, Oxford University, for training in preparation for di sertation research on the discovery of c1as ical antiquity in Ru ia from the mid-18th century through the age of Pu hkin KIMBERLY NEUHAUSER, Department of Economic , Duke University, for training in preparation for di sertation research on production and exchange in the Soviet Union CHRISTOPHER NEVITT, Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego, for training in preparation for di sertation research on city politic in Moscow STEPHANIE PLATZ, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, for training in preparation for di sertation research on place, hi tory, and ethnic identity in Soviet Armenia JEFFREY ROSSMAN, Department of Hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di sertation re earch on the ociology of discourse during the first decade of Bol hevik power The following di sertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded at the committee' meeting on April 5~, 1991. SUZANNE AMENT, Department of Hi tory, Indiana University, for a di rtation on the role of popular ng in the Soviet Union during the Second World War ROBERT DARST, Department of Political Science, Univerity of California, Berkeley, for a di ertation on the USSR' reapprai al of international interdependence JANE DAWSON, Department of Political Science, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on the dynamic and impact of citizen prote t in late communi t ocietie CORINNE GAUDIN, Department of Hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor for a di sertation on cu tomary law in the Ru ian village, 1906-1914 JOEL HELLMAN, Department of Political Science, Columbia University, for a di sertation on the re tructuring of 52 \ITEMS

the Soviet banking y tern and the political dynamic of marketization JOHN KOTSONIS, Department of Hi tory, Columbia University, for a di sertation on agriCUltural cooperative , 1905-1930 Su AN MORRISSEY, Department of Hi tory, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on tudent culture in revolutionary Ru ia, 1899-1921 SARAH PAINE, Departm nt of Hi tory, Columbia Univerity, for a di rtation on the hi tory of the Sino-Soviet border, 1858-1924 OLENKA PEv Y, In titute of Fine Arts, New York University, for a di sertation on the development of Byzantine tyle and iconography in Kievan Ru ' MARSHALL POE, Department of Hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on the meaning of the tory of Mu covite de poti m in early modem and modem hi torical consciou ne JENIFER PREsTo, Department of Slavic Language and Literature, University of Wiscon in, Madison, for a di rtation on the Zinaida Gippiu and the poetic of androgyny MATTHEW TRAIL, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on Gorbachev and the Communi t Party JUDYTH TwIGG, Department of Political Science, Mas achusett In titute of Technology, for a di sertation on the source of military-technological innovation in the Soviet Union, the United State , and Japan THEODORE WEEKS, Department of Hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on Ru ian policy in Poland and the We tern Province, 1894-1914

South Asia The following di sertation research fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Paul Greenough (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, E. Valentine Daniel, Patricia Jeffery, Atul Kohli, Sheldon Pollock, Regula Qure hi, and V. Narayana Rao-at it meeting on March IS, 1991. Toby Alice Volkman, Richard J. Cohen and Rachel Rosenbloom served as taff for the program. ANNE ELIZABETH SHEERAN, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomuicology, University of Washington, for research in Sri Lanka on commercial mu ic and the con truction of gender in Sri Lanka MADHAVI KALE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Penn ylvania, for re earch in London on the migration of Indian indentured workers to Trinidad, 1840-1920 BRONWEN BLEDSOE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for research in Nepal on four 19th-century Nepali vamsa valis , their relation to the longer tradition of indigenou hi toriography, and their production and u

Southe

ia

The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by VOLUME

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the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia-Karl L. Hutterer (chair), Jane Atkinson, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, Yoneo I hii, Chetana Nagavajara, Renato Ro aldo, Anthony J. S. Reid, Guy Standing, Robert Taylor, Peter S . Xeno -at it meeting on March 21-23, 1991. Toby Alice Volkman and Le lie Gray served as taff for thi program. PATRICIO ABINALES, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in the Philippine on the relation hip between local and national politic on the i land of Mindanao JIEMIN BAO, Ph.D. candidate in A ian tudie, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Thailand on marriage, gender, and ethnic identitie in two generation of Sino-Thai women MARY CALLAHAN, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for re earch in Bunna on military politic from 1945~2 KATHLEEN GILLOGLY, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for re earch in VietnamlLao on the relation hip between economic and ocial change and household tructure SHAWN McHALE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for research in Vietnam on the development of the printing indu try and the parallel growth of a "print culture" in Vietnam between 1920 and 1945. MICHAEL MONTESANO, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for re earch in Thailand on provincial economie from 1946-1985 KIM NINH, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale University, for re earch in Vietnam on intellectual organization in ociali t Vietnam Western Europe The Joint Committee on We tern Europe-Peter A. Hall (chair), Mary Fullbrook, Michael Herzfeld, Peter Lange, Philip Nord and David So kice-at it meeting April 5~, 1991 awarded fellow hip to the following individual . Yasmine Ergas and Elizabeth O'Brien served as taff for thi program. PAUL BETTS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for re earch in Germany on national identity and the politic of German indu trial de ign, 1949-1989 SUJATA BHATT, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, for re earch in Great Britain on travel, di overy, and knowledge: attitude toward curio ity and innovation in Europe and the Perso-I lamic world, 1200-1700 DRUE FERGISON, Ph.D. candidate in mu ic, Duke Univerity, for research in France on changing contexts of reception: a tudy of We tern view of the Ea t in the rhythm of us Noces LYDIA FRAILE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Ma achusetts In titute of Technology, for re earch in Spain and Brazil on union and regime change: the politic of organized labor in Brazil and Spain in the 1970 and the 1980 Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1991

ROBIN GREELEY, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Spain and France on urreali m and the Spani h Civil War TODD OLSON, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, for research in France on Nicolas Pou in, hi French clientele and the ocial con truction of tyle SOFIA PEREZ, Ph.D. candidate in political science, George Washington University, for research in Spain on tate, bank , and the politic of financial liberalization: the case of Spain in comparative perspective SIMONA PIATTONI, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Mas achusett In titute of Technology, for research in Italy on alternative path to development: the experience of the Italian outh in the 1970 and the 1980 DAVID SUTTON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Greece on image of hi tory: the use of the past in modem Greece VICTORIA THOMPSON, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerity of Penn ylvania, for research in France on workingclas women and the public phere in Paris, 1825-1870

ADVANCED RESEARCH GRANTS FOR AREA STUDIES Africa The Joint Committee on African Studie -Randall M. Packard (chair), Kwame A. Appiah, Claude A. Ardouin, Charle M. Becker, Frederick Cooper, Franci M. Deng, Gillian Feeley-Hamik, Karen E. Field , Chri traud M. Geary, and Lemuel John on-awarded the following advanced area research grant at its meeting on April 5~, 1991. Tom Lodge, M. Priscilla Stone, Marty Baker and Becca Gershen on served as taff for the program. JEAN ALLMAN, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Mi ouri, Columbia, for a tudy of the changing dynamic of motherhood in A ante ociety from 1850 to the end of the colonial era MARY Jo ARNOLDI, as ociate curator, Smith onian In titution, for an ethnography of the Malian National Art Competition MARIA GRosz-NGATE, vi iting as i tant profe sor in anthropology, University of Michigan, for a tudy of the recon truction of gender, ocial and household identitie in the context of 0 cillating migration and hifting pattern of con umption among the Bamanan of Central Mali CORINNE KRATZ, research fellow in anthropology, Smith onian In titution, for a tudy of how Okiek in Kenya articulate a cultural identity about individual live and ocial relation through marriage arrangements NORMA KRIGER, associate profe or in political science, The Johns Hopkin University, for a tudy of the demobilization and ocial and political reintegration of revolutionary war veteran in Namibia and Zimbabwe JAMES C. McCANN, as ociate profe sor of hi tory, Bo ton University, for a tudy of the modem hi tory of Ethiopia' ox-plow culture ITEMS/53


RICHARD ROBERTS, a ociate profe or in hi tory, Stanford University, for a tudy of competing legal juri diction in colonial French We t Africa from 1850-1918 through the examination of the court ca e again t Faama Mademba Sy PEARL ROBINSON , as ociate profe or of political cience, Tufts University, for a tudy of the relation hip between tructural change in the economy of Niger and the role of the populace in the polity

African Agriculture: Fellowships and Commissioned Research

The Subcommittee on African Agriculture of the Joint Committee on African Studie -Piers Blaikie (chair), Charle Becker, Hailu Gebre-Mariam, Angelique Haugerud, Mandivamba Rukuni, Abdi Samatar, and Michael Watt -voted at it meeting on April 19-20, 1991 to award fellow hip and commi ioned re earch award to the following individual . M. Pri cilia Stone, Tom Lodge, Marty Baker, and Becca Gershen on served a taff for thi program. ANDREW K. BOMAH, lecturer of geography, Njala University College, Univer ity of Sierra Leone, for a tudy of indigenou farming practice and land degradation in Sierra Leone STEVEN BRANDT, as i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Rorida, and Yohanne Abebe, as i tant research officer in horticulture and agronomy, In titute of Agricultural Re earch, Ethiopia, for a pilot tudy to develop a long-term, multi-di ciplinary, cultureecological project on the evolution of Ensete-based u tainable agricultural y tem in outhwe tern Ethiopia WILLIAM DERMAN, profe or of anthropology, Michigan State University, and MARSHALL MURPHREE, profe or and director, Centre for Applied Social Science, Univer ity of Zimbabwe, for a tudy of conservation, agriculture and natural re ource management and the dilemmas of land-use planning in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe RAFIK HIRJI , enior engineer in water re ource planning, Jame Montgomery Con ulting Engineers, Inc., California, for research on the development of Tanzania' environmental in titution and policie JULIUS IHONVBERE , as ociate profe or of political cience, University of Toronto, for a tudy on community awarene of and re ponse to environmental degradation in Koko, Nigeria DAVID MOORE-SIERAY, head of hi tory department, Moi University, Kenya, for re earch on colonial agricultural conservation ideologie and policy implication in Africa u ing a case tudy of the Rokupr Rice Re earch Station in Sierra Leone, 1934-1960 ADERIGBE OLOMOLA, research fellow in agricultural economic , Nigerian In titute of Social and Economic Re earch, for a tudy of water tenure and traditional re ource management in ome ecologically vulnerable area of South we t igeria 54\ITEM

China The Joint Committee on Chinese Studie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Deborah Davi (chair), Robert Hyme , Leo Ou-fan Lee, Kenneth Lieberthal, Susan Mann, Barry Naughton, Willard J. Peterson, P. Steven Sangren, and Pauline R. Yu-at its meeting on March 15-16. 1991, awarded fellow hip to the following individual. Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters served taff for thi program. All recipient are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Fellow upported fully, or partially where indicated, by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. MYRON L. COHEN, profe or of anthropology, Columbia University, for re earch on family and ociety in rural China: a compari on of three village (with additional funding from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie ) YI-TSI M. FEUERWERKER, as ociate profe or of Chinese language and literature, University of Michigan, for research on the changing representation of the writerl intellectual self and the pea ant other in modem Chine e literature SHIGEHI A KURIYAMA, as i tant profe or of hi tory of cience, Emory University, for re earch on the nature and origin of trangene : conception of the body in clas ical Greek and Chinese medicine (with additional funding from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie ) JAMES Z. LEE, as ociate profe or of hi tory, California In titute of Technology, for re earch on population and ocial tructure of the Qing imperial clan KENNETH L. POMERANZ, a i tant profe or of hi tory, University of California, Irvine, for re earch on tate, gentry, and non-orthodox religion in North China, 1500-1945 (with additional funding from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie) LISA ROFEL , as i tant profe or of anthropology, Mas achusett In titute of Technology, for research on work, gender and identity in the contemporary Chine e ilk indu try (with additional funding from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie ) ERNEST P. YOUNG, profe or of hi tory, University of Michigan, for research on the French religiou protectorate and the Catholic church in China

Eastern Europe The Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Madeline G. Levine (chair), Ivo Banae, Ellen T. Comi 0, Michael H. Heim, Andrew C. Jano , George Kolankiewicz, Deborah D. Milenkoviteh, Norman H. Naimark, David Stark, and Katherine Verdery-at its meeting on Mareh 9-10, 1991 voted to award fellow hip to the following VOLUME

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individual. Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Water

erved a

.1ICH El BECKER fA . A ' ociate profe or of mu ic , Wa. hington niver ity. "The Vixen ' Wedding" and the pastoral tradition in We tern mu ic JOH D. BEll. Profe or of hi tory. ni er ity of \1aryland. Baltimore Count . Bulgaria between two eras Jo EF C. BR 0 . Profe or of economic , Arizona State lJniver ity. Ea t-We t economic relation and the Ea. t European tran ition Jo", Ko fLO . A. iate profe or of hi tory and economIC . . niverity of Pitt burgh . The Indu trial Revolution 10 Bohemia. Mora ia. and ile ia h K BIK . Independent cholar in anthropology. Polish local politic in tran ition: an ethnography of democratization A. J fE McAo M . A i tant profe or of political cien e, Princeton Univer ity. Inter-German relation of a new type-toward a new Germany BE . Sl Y. A i tant profe or of economic. Bate College. Indu trial demonopolization in the SR . Poland and Hungary ERI D. WEITZ . A i tant profe or of hi tory. t. Olaf College. German Communi m-German ociety: the KPD-SED and it place in German hi tory. I 90-1990

reearch on ae thetics a. ocial practice: the popular front cultural movement in 1930s Kyoto PATRICI JE W TZEl. associate profes or of Japanese language. Portland State niversity. for research on power in Japanee language and society Korea The following potd toral grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie~-Michael Robinson (chair). Alice Am"den. Jang-Jip Choi. Carter Eckert. tephan Haggard. chang Kim. Chung-in Moon. and Clark S ren en-at it February 23-24. 1991 meeting . Raquel Ovryn Rivera. Mimi M. Kim and Jaime Andre Ca taneda erved a taff for thi program . Jo ATH W. BE T, profe or of A.,ian art history. We leyan niverity for the translation. annotation. and compo. ition of a four-chapter text on the Paekche Allllais

Hy G Il P I. assi tant profes. r of history. ni\ersity of California. anta Barbara for a comprehensive "tudy on the hi tori cal. political and ideological backgrounds of the archeologi . t and hi torians of northeast Asia during the Japane e Colonial period (1910- 1945) Adl'{l1/ced research gram

The following ad anced reearch grant were awarded the Joint Committee for Japane e tudie -Jame White (~halr). ~ illiam Kelly. Margaret Lock, Hideo Otake. Richard amuels. Henry mith. Frank Upham. and teph n Via. to -at it 路 meeting on March . 1991. Mary IcDonnel1. Mimi Kim. and D e Warren erved as taff

b~

C RI ~ ILLIA 1 BIElFElOT. a iate profe or of religion . tanford niver ity. for re earch on the advent of patriarch . Japan' fir t Zen Buddhit. Joo\. HIDEKO F JI 1 R . a itant professor of iology. Harvard niver ity, to conduct a ociologicaltudy of representation at the interfa e of I al practice and univer al knowledge: the cae of Japanee biomedical cia.,. ification and diagno tic HIGEKO . F KAI. Japan Program director. Center for International Commerce. Auburn niver ity. for re earch on the role of women in changing electoral politic in Japan o \10 L KE HOWEll. a i tant profe or of history. Univer. it} of Te as, Au tin. for re earch on the creation of Japanese homogeneity DoUGLA ROGER Hov LA o. visiting lecturer of history. I 'orthea tern IIIinoi niversity. for research on the creation of a language for ~ esternization in early Meiji Japan LE UE BFTH PI C . assi tant profe or of Ea t sian language.. niver"ity of California. Lo Angele . for Jl f

EPTf\18FR

1991

Eow RO J. CH lTZ. profe or of hi tory. niversityof Hawaii. West Oahu. for planning a colloquium in preparation for translating the Sa/llgllk agi into Engli h 00 Wo P RK. independent cholar. for an examination of modem Korean economic devel pment in a hitorical perspective Latin America and the

aribbean

The Joint Committee on Latin American tudieBarbara tailings (chair). David Collier. Walnice ogueira-Gal\ao. Elizabeth Jelln. Br ke Lar on. Enrique Mayer. Lorenzo Meyer. tuart chwartz. and Laurence Whitehead-at it meeting on March 3 I-April 2, 1991 awarded grants to the following individuab . Eric Her hberg and ichola Frot erved a staff for thi program . Ro A B RRAG . reearcher in hi tory. Anthr pologists of the outh Ande (A R). for re earch in Bolivia on cia and ethnicity. 1750-1 50 JOH FR CH. a si tant profe or of hi tory. Florida International niver ity. for re earch in Brazil on working-clas con ciou nes. organization. and ideology among the metalworker of Greater ao Paolo. 195019 0 C R IE Z G llO. assi tant profe or of ociology. Queen College. City niver ity of New York. for re earch in Colombia and Venezuela on taxation trategies and the autonomy of dependent tate FR CE H GOPI . a i tant profe or of government and ial tudie. Harvard niver ity. for re earch in Chile ITEM

/ 55


and Brazil on the redefinition of political party identitie in Latin America in the po t-authoritarian era LoVELL JARVIS, as ociate profe or of agricultural economic , University of California, Davi , for research in Chile on neo-liberal economic reform and the modernization of the Chilean fruit indu try EUZABETH KUZNESOF, profe or of hi tory, University of Kan as, for research in Mexico and the United State on the family in colonial Latin America SANDRA LAUDERDALE-GRAHAM, lecturer in ociology, University of Tex ,Au tin for research in Brazil on the cause and consequence of the breakdown of familie in 19th-century Brazilian ociety JAMES MATORY, po tdoctoral fellow in anthropology, Princeton University, for research in Brazil on politic, ethnography, and racial di course in an AfricanAmerican ritual y tern LYNN MORGAN, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Mount Holyoke College, for research in Ecuador on the cultural con truction of personhood in the Ecuadoran highland RICARDO SALVATORE, vi iting as i tant profe or of economic, Southern Methodi t University, for research in Argentina on the gaucho in the province of Bueno Aire , 1820-1860

ear and Middle E Postdoctoral award The following advanced research grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastRoger Owen (chair), Andrew C. He ,Huricihan I . lamo~lu-iI'nan, Mary Layoun, Joel S. Migdal, Timothy Mitchell, and Ghas an Salame-at it meeting on March 8, 1991. Steven Heydemann and Rachel Rosenbloom served as taff for the program. SHAUL COHEN, fellow at the Truman Research In titute at the Hebrew University of Jeru alem, for research on the politicization of Pale tinian agriCUlture during the Intifada ELAINE COMBS-SCHILLING, as ociate profe or of anthropology, Columbia University, for research on gender, faith and tran formative change in Moroccan culture BRINKLEY MESSICK, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Brandei University, for re earch on law and political economy in Yemen MICHAEL RaMER, i tant profe or of hi tory, American University in Cairo, for research on the Maghribi community in Cairo and Alexandria in the 19th century ROBERT VITALlS, vi iting as i tant profe or of politic, Princeton University, for research on the role of U.S. private in titution and public agencie in Saudi tate formation in the po t-World War II period DARROW ZEIDENSTEIN, teaching as i tant in the department of anthropology, University of Tex ,Au tin, for a comparative analy i of three Middle Ea tern markets

56 \ITEM

R

ia and the Soviet Union

The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie -William Mill Todd ill (chair), Jane Burbank, Robert Campbell, Caryl Emerson, Nancy Shields Kollmann, Mary McAuley, Brian Silver, Richard Stite , Michael Swafford, and Reginald Zelnik-at its meeting on April ~, 1991. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee-Robert Campbell (chair), William Chase, Donald Kelley, Timothy McDaniel, and Stephanie Sandler. Robert T . Huber, Ro London, and Sarah Tarrow served as taff for thi program. LUCIG DANIELlAN, as i tant profe or of communication, State University of New York, Albany, for research on political participation through the mas media in Armenia STEPHEN FRANK, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of California, Riverside, for research on cultural change among the peasantry of imperial Ru ia, 1861-1971 BRENDAN KIERNAN, po tdoctoral fellow in political science, University of Washington, for research on the development of the Soviet electoral y tern JUDITH KORNBLATT, as i tant profe or of literature, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for re arch on Judai m and the Ru ian Orthodox Renai ance RACHEL MAY, as i tant profe or of literature, State University of New York, Stony Brook, for research on humor in Ru ian literature NANCY RUTTENBERG, as i tant profe or of comparative literature, University of California, Berkeley, for research on Ru ian and American national-cultural invention. DAVID SHEARER, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Delaware, for re earch on indu try, tate, and ociety in Stalini t Ru ia, 1926-1934 BEN SLAY, i tant profe r of economic, Bate College, for re earch on indu trial demonopolization in the USSR, Poland and Hungary KATHRYN WEATHERSBY, i tant profe or of hi tory, Horida State University, for re earch on Soviet policy toward Korea, 1944-1950

Institutional Support Programs In its national competition of grant to American in titute that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian and non-Ru ian language of th Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie , as i ted by a creening committee-Caryl Emerson (chair), Michael Hier, Victor Friedman, A ade-Ayse Rorlich, and Anelya Rugalevamade the following award at it meeting on January 12, 1991. Robert T. Huber and Rose London served as taff for the program. In the Ru ian language competition: Beloit College, Bryn Mawr College, Indiana University, the School of Advanced International Studie at The John Hopkin VOLUME

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University, Middlebury College, the Monterey In titutp. of International Affair, and Norwich University. In the non-Ru ian language competition, award were made to: the Uzbek and Azeri program at the Univer ity of California, Lo Angele; the Ukrainian Program at Harvard University; the Uzbek and Georgian Program at the University of Indiana; the Kazakh, Uzbek, and Tajik Program at the University of Wa hington; and the Kazakh and Kazan Tatar Program at the University of Wiscon in, Madi on. In the national competition under the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie ' program for first-year fellow hip in underrepresented field , the Joint Committee was as i ted by a creening committee-Michael Swafford (chair), Marjorie Balzer, William Bielby, Melvin Croan, and Mike Fi her. Robert T. Huber served as taff for the program. The committee made two award in anthropology: one to the University of Michigan and one to the University of Pittsburgh; and two award in ociology: one to the University of Michigan and one to the University of California, Berkeley.

South

ia

The following advanced re earch grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Paul Greenough (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, E. Valentine Daniel, Patricia Jeffery, Atul Kohli, Sheldon Pollock, Regula Qure hi, and V. Narayana Rao-at it meeting on March 15, 1991. Toby Alice Volkman, Richard J. Cohen and Rachel Rosenbloom erved as taff for the program. STEVEN E. G. KEMPER, profe or of anthropology, Bate College, for re earch in Sri Lanka on the Sri Lankan adverti ing indu try as an in titution linking the local and global, pa t and present, culture and commerce AMJuTA BASU, as ociate profe or of political cience and women' and gender tudie , Amherst College, for research in Pari on popular culture, women' collective identitie ,and ocial change in India ELIZABETH MARY WINONA ENSLIN, Rockefeller fellow, women' tudie, University of Iowa, for research in Nepal on poetic narrative of women of Chitwan Di trict, Nepal a 'life torie'

Southeast Asia VERNE DUSENBERY, a i tant profe or of ociology and anthropology, Carleton College, for re earch on the (re)making of Sikh ocial identity in po t-colonial Southeast A ia DoNALD NONINI, a i tant profe or of anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for re earch on clas and workers' ubjectivitie among Chinese in Malay ia MICHAEL PELETZ, a ociate profe or of anthropology, J ElSEPTEMBER 1991

Colgate University, for re earch on representation of gender and kin hip in a Malay ociety JOHN SCHAFER, profe or of Engli h, California State University, Humboldt, for research on Vietnam' forgotten southern noveli ts and the literary culture of Nam-ky, 1910-1925 JAMES SIEGEL, profe or of anthropology and A ian tudie , Cornell University, for research on the role of Sino-Malay in the development of the Indone ian language MARGARET WIENER, cholar-in-re idence, University of Virginia, for re earch on a Balinese text, the Babad Dalem, in it ocial context

OTHER PROGRAMS Bangladesh FeUow hip Program The following di sertation re earch fellow hip were awarded by the Banglade h Fellow hip Program selection committee-Paul Greenough (chair), Jame Boyce and Shelley Feldman-at it meeting of February I, 1991. KAREN L. CASPER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Lo Angele , for re earch in Banglade h on the relation hip between the "quality of life" approach to development and household ub i tence trategie and well-being SUBRATA SHANKAR DHAR, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Hawaii, for re earch in Banglade h and India on di course of cultural identity in divided Bengal ALI RIAZ, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Hawaii, for research in Banglade h on the tructural relation hip and interaction between the tate and ocial classe , and the intervention of the military in politic DINA M. SIDDIQI, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, university of Michigan, for re earch in Banglade h on work and seclu ion, and women in the garment manufacturing indu try

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies The selection committee for the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie - Peter Katzentein (chair), Ru sell Dalton, Peter Haye , Martin Kohli, Dietrich Rue chemeyer and Jame Sheehan-at its meeting of March 4, 1991 awarded grants to the following individual. Yasmine Erga and Elizabeth O'Brien served as taff for thi program. WILLIAM BLACKWOOD, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University, for re earch in Germany on ocial democrat and German territorial revi ioni m, 1924-1930 CAROL HAGER, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Bryn Mawr ITEMS/57


College. for re earch in German on environmentali m and democra y in the two Germanie H LH E. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, niver ity of Wi con in. Madi n, for re earch in Germany on manufacturing kill: in titutionalizing vocational education and training in the nited tate and Germany, I 70-191 HOPE H RRI 0 • Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard ni er it , for re earch in Germany on Soviet foreign policy and the German quetion, 1953-195 Yo G Ho G. a i tant profes or of hi tory, California tate niver ity. Fullerton, for re earch in Germany on the cri~i~ of modernity and Ih contradiction of the modem tate in Germany, I 90-1930 JEFFREY KOPSTEI . vi iting a i tant profe or of government. Dartmouth College, for re earch in Germany on the politic of economic decline: the role of the ED in ec n mic admini tration 1971-19 9 BE J MI L PP. Ph .D. candidate in hi tory, niver ity of Cali~ mia, Berkele . for reearch in Germany on the politic of the a on Buergertum in the Weimar Republic A DREW LOH 1EIER. Ph .D. candidate in hi tory, orthwe tern niver ity. ~ r reoearch in German on ial c ntent and the con umer market ROB RT ROHR CH EIDER. a.. i. tant profe 'lor of political scien e. niver ity of Kentu kyo for reearch in Germany on democracy and elite p litical value in the united Germany L R TR GARDH, Ph.D. candidate in hi. t ry, niver ity of California. Berkeley. for re~ear h in Germany on the on ept of the people and th constru tion of popular political culture in Germany and weden I 4 -1933 RICH RD WETZELL. Ph.D. candidate in hi t ry. tanford niversity. for reearch in German on criminal law reform and criminology in Germany. I 0-1945 LOR WILDE TH L. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. niver ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. for reoearch in Germany on the ideology of German women'" role in German Africa. I 90-1945 Foreign Policy tudie

The following advanced re<,ear h grant. were awarded b the Committee n F reign Policy tudies-Mile Kahler (chair). W. Lance Bennett. I. M. De. tIer. Barry Eichengreen. John . Ferejohn. Joanne Gowa. Walter W. Powell. and Zara teiner-at it!> meeting on February 22-23, 1991. Robert T. Huber and adine Kibanda erved as taff for the program. L RRY M. B RTEL . a~s iate profe.,.,or of politi al 'I ience. niver"ity of Roche ter. for re.,earch on the nature and impact on public opini n of level of defen e spending in the nited Statesince 1970 J M A. DER DERI ,a .. ociate pr fe., or of political cience. niver ity of Ma. sachu eth. Amher. t. for re!>earch on the role and impact of policy-making imulation on international relation., J 1E M. LI D Y, a., i tant profe.,., r of political .,cience, 5 \ ITE

1

niversity of Iowa, for re earch on how the elite American new media cover international new TEVE L. LIVI G TO ,a i tant profe or of political cience, niversity of tah, for re earch on how the end of the Cold War will produce change in the coverage of international new and reporting on American foreign policy in the United State TIMOTHY J. M KEOW, ociate profe or of political science, niversity of orth Carolina, Chapel Hill, for re arch on .. foreign aid di bur ement ince 1945 LI L. M RTI . a . i tant profe or of political cience, niversit} of California, an Diego, for re earch on the political use of foreign aid in .S. foreign policy H RY L. O'HALLOR ,po tdoctoral lecturer in public policy, Stanford niver ity, for re earch on alternative model for explaining American trade policy JOH R. 0 EAL, a i tant profe or of political cience, niver iry of Alabama, for re earch on dome tic and international influence on the Pre ident' u e of force E ULY S. Ro E BERG, profe or of hi tory, Macale ler College, for re earch on "Dollar Diplomacy" a a political, economic and cultural y tern between 1900 and 1930 K THRY A. IKKI K, a i tant profe or of political ience, niversity of Minne Ola, for re earch on the incorporation of human right a an integral part of .S. foreign policy De\'e!opmem gram

TEDO Z. J P RIDZE, head of divi ion of information and analy i , Mini try of Foreign Affair , Georgian SSR, for re earch on the political, ideological, tructural and p ychological change in the American Pre idency during and after the Cold War L OJ lIR A. SELIE ,enior re earch fellow, In titute of the .. A. and Canada, Academy of Science of the R, for re earch on the .. Congre and foreign poliC} deci ion-making ICKOL Y B. TOPOR I ,re earcher in law, Mo cow State In. titute of International Relation , for comparative reearch on foreign policy making in the United State , th R, Canada, and Autralia Indochina cholarly Exchange Program

The following grant were awarded by the Ind hina cholarly Exchange Program Committee of the Joint Committee for utheast A ia-Karl Hutterer (chair), David Chandler, May Ebihara, Carol Ire on, Hy Van Luong. David Marr, Hue Tam Ho Tai. Keith Taylor, and William TurIe -at it meeting on April 7- , 1991. Mary McD nnell. T b olJ...man. and Dee Warren erved as .,taff for the program . D VID H T. a. . iat profe. or of hi tory and co-direct of the William Joiner Center. niver. ity of Massachuett . . Bo ton. to conduct reoearch on connection. between village life and the ietname. e revoluti n. a. revealed in agrarian feSli\al'> VOLLME

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JUD: L. LEDGERWOOD, library con ervation project dIrector, Cornell University Librarie and the National Library, Phnom Penh , Cambodia, to conduct research on changing Khmer conception of gender in Cambodia today and to teach introductory anthropology at the Univer ity of Fine Art , Phnom Penh WILLIAM D. loBBAN , lecturer in ethnomu icology, University of Fine Art , Phnom Penh , Cambodia, to teach ethnomu icology at the Fine Arts University in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to archive traditional and cla ical Khmer mu ic THERESE M. MAHONEY, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomu icology at the Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for research on traditional mu ic en emble in the Lao People' Democratjc Republic , their pre ervation continuity, and change ' NGUYEN Duc NINH , head of the Research Committee on I land Sou thea t A ia of the Social Science Committee Hanoi , Vietnam , to conduct a urvey of Southeast A i~ tudie in the United State ASHLEY PETTUS , Ph.D. candidate in ociallcultural anthr~pology at the University of California, Berkeley, for VIetnamese language tudy at the Univer ity of Hanoi ALAN POTKlN , planning con ultant, Environmental Foundation, Ltd. , Colombo, Sri Lanka, to conduct research on the contribution from Vietnam to the analy i and rehabilitation of war-damaged eco y tern THAVEEPORN VASAVAKUL, Ph.D. candidate in political cience at Cornell Univer ity, to conduct re earch on the tate of Southeast A ian tudie in Vietnam, it re earch, methodology, and trend BRANTLY WOMACK, profe or of political cience, Northern Illinoi University, to conduct re earch on Vietnam and China after the third Indochina war: an a se ment of the new parameter of normalized Sino-Vietname e relation, including national. ubnational and regional dimen ion

International Peace and Security The Commjttee on International Peace and Security. at its meeting held March 28-30, 1991, voted to award 12 di sertation and nine po tdoctoral SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip on Peace and Security in a Changing World. The committee member are Michel C. Oksenberg (chajr), Gordon Adam, Albert Fi hlow. David J. Holloway, Samuel Clement Nolut hungu. Robert O'Neill, Judith V. Reppy, Su anne Hoeber Rudolph. and Jeremiah D. Sullivan. The committee wa a i ted by a di sertation creening committee (Mr. Sullivan [chair]. John Coat worth, Anne-Marie LeGloannec. Stephen Haggard, Clement Henry, and Gilbert Rozman) and a po tdoctoral creening committee (M . Reppy [chair). Scott Atran, Bart Bern tein, Catherine M. Kelleher. Atul Kohli, and Michael MccGwire}. Richard C. Rockwell. Steven Heydemann , Cary Fra er, Su an Merryman. Ali on J

ElSEPTEMBER 1991

Streit, and Felicia M . Sullivan served a program.

taff for thi

Dissertation Fellowships NADIA L. ABU EL-HAJ (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Duke Univer ity. "I raeli Archeology and the Cultural Politic of Nationali m," 24 month ELIZABETH MALORY COUSENS (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in international relation, Stanford University. "Acting in Self Defense: A Moral Argument for the Use of Force by State in Contemporary World Politic ," 24 month BHAyNA DAV~ (India), Ph.D. candidate in political Clence, Syracu e University. " Emergence of Nationali t and Separati t Politic in Kazakh tan ," 24 month ANJALI KAREN FEDSON (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago. "The Liberation War and the Con truction of Ethnic Identity in Zimbabwe: A Study in Hi torical Con ciou ne , " 24 month MARIA LYNN GREE (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in international relation, American Univer ity. "The Politic of Tran national Influence: The Ri e of Private Indu try and Strategic Alliance in European Community Telecommunication Policy," 24 month LAURA D. KALMA OWIECKI (Argentina) , Ph.D. in ociology, New School for Social Re earch. " Pattern of Policing in Latin America," 24 month JEREMY R. KING (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Columbia University. "Sinking I land: German Town in Non-German Central Europe 1848-1948," 24 month ALFON 0 H. LARA (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in po.li.tical cie~ce, Stanford University. "Citizen hip and Mlhtary ServIce After the Ma Army: Recreatjng the Citizen-Soldier in France and Germany," 24 month VICKI LYNNE NORBERG-BoHM (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in public policy, Harvard University. " International Security, Environment and Development: The Role of Technology Tran fer in Promoting Su tainable Energy Sy tern ," 24 month including 9 month of field work SUZA SAWYER (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, " Indigenou Politic and Struggle Over Land-Use in the Ecuadorian Amazon Frontier," 24 month MIRANDA ALICE SCHREURS (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor. "Specialized Knowledge and Global Environmental Policy in Japan, Germany, the Netherland , and the United State ," 24 month PE NY M. Vo EscHEN (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity. " Black American and Anti-Coloniali m, 1937-1957: The Council on African Affair and the U.S. Re pon e to Pan-Africani m," 24 month

Postdoctoral Fellowships ADAM P. ASH FORTH (United Kingdom and Au tralia) , ITEMS/ 59


political scienti t at Baruch College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York . "Violence, the Youth, and the Politic of Truth in South Africa," 36 month including 12 month of field work DIANA R. CAMMACK (United State ), hi torian, Vi iting Research Fellow at the Refugee Studie Programme, University of Oxford. "Humanitarian A i tance? The Role of International Non-Governmental Organization (NGO ) in Promoting Democratization, Human Rights and Economic Growth among t Refugee ," 24 month ANTHONY G. HYMAN (United Kingdom), hi torian/political scienti t, Vi iting Fellow at the University of Oxford. "Nationali m, National Identity and I lam in the Central A ia Region," 24 month YEVGENY KUZNETSOV (USSR), economi t trained at Mo cow State University. "Demilitarization as a Market-oriented Development Proce ." (Mr. Kuznetsov' award represents an exten ion for 18 month which include 6 month of field work at the po tdoctoral level of hi current one-year di sertation fellowhip) TOMAt MASTNAK (Yugo lavia), ocial cienti t, Slovene Academy of Science and Arts. "I Commercial Humani m Feasible?" 24 month ANNE P. McCLINTOCK (United Kingdom), 19th and 20th century cultural cholar, Columbia University. "Women and Nationali m in South Africa," 24 month TATIANA V . ZIMAKOVA (USSR), ocial policy cholar, USSR Academy of Science, In titute for International Economic and Policy Studie . "Poverty in the USSR and Eastern Europe in the Period of Deep Economic Cri i of the 1980 , and the Development of Antipoverty Policie ," 24 month

International Preel'

rtatiOD FeUow hip Program

The following graduate training fellow hip were awarded by the program committee of the International Predi sertation Fellow hip Program-Albert I. Hermalin (chair), Li a Anderson, Robert H. Bate, Stephen G. Bunker, Steven Feierman, Peter Gourevitch, Stevan Harrell, Dwight H. Perkin, Michael J. Piore, Peter Xeno -at its meeting on March 12-13, 1991. The committee was as i ted by a screening panel-William O . Beeman, Jere Behrman, Thomas J. Biersteker, Paul Co11ier, Jean Comaroff, Jill Cry tal, Jonathan Fox, Howard Gardner, Jonathan Glas man, Charle Hirschman, Patricia John on, David Laitin, David Marr, Laura Nader, Barry Naughton, Ako 0 tor, Li a Peattie, Anne Pebley, Samuel Pre ton, Franci 0 A. Scarano, Mark Selden, Susan Shirk, Dorothy Solinger, Shibley Telhami, Edward Tower, Peter van der Veer, Stephen Vlasto , Andrew G. Walder, M. Crawford Young. Ellen Perecman and Su an Eng served as taff for thi program. DAVID G. ANDERSON, graduate tudent in ociology, 6O\ITEMS

University of Wi con in, Madi on, to tudy ocial and economic change among the nomadic people of Inner A ia CHRISTOPHER B. BARRETT, graduate tudent in agricultural economic, University of Wiscon in, Madi on, to tudy evolution of economie disengaging from central planning in Africa MELISSA BINDER, graduate tudent in economic , Columbia University, to tudy how the proximity of the U.S. influence the development of the Mexican economy and functioning of Mexican labor markets CHARLA D. BRITT, graduate tudent in rura\ ociology, Cornell University, to tudy the changing pattern of resource use that accompany development in mountain region and the effect of cultural intervention on traditional management y tem in India IAN R. CARTER, graduate tudent in political science, Duke University, to tudy the political economy of Chile PAUL S. CICCANTELL, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Wi con in, Madi on, to tudy the role of aluminum indu trie in economic development in Brazil and Venezuela ANNE MARIE CLARK, graduate tudent in political science, University of Minne ota, to tudy the effects of international activity on human rights violation in Argentina, Chile and Guatemala PAUL E. H. DHALLA, graduate tudent in anthropology, Harvard University, to tudy the notion of "ca te" among descendants of 19th-century Indian migrants to East and Southern Africa SUZANNE DURYEA, graduate tudent in economic, University of Michigan, to tudy the relation between fertility decline, women' education and labor upply among women in Brazil HELEN K. ELLSBERG, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univerity of California, Berkeley, to tudy the entry of I lami t partie into parliamentary politic in Turkey and Egypt JOSHUA C. FARLEY, graduate tudent in agriCUltural economic, Cornell University, to tudy policy implication of the interaction between re ource and development economic ANJALI K. FEDSON, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Chicago, to tudy the effect of decolonization on the hi tori cal con ciou ne and ethnic identity of rural African LISA C. FISCHLER, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Wi con in, Madi on, to tudy political culture as a dynamic proce at the local level in China JON B. FULLERTON, graduate tudent in government, Harvard University, to tudy conflict moderating trategie in liberal tate in India DENNIS C. GALVAN, graduate tudent in political ience, University of California, Berkeley, to tudy the working of the French colonial and I lamic hari'a court in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal GUADALUPE GUTIERREZ, graduate tudent in p ychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor to tudy cro cultural and culture pecific aspect of p ychological se ment among Latino DEBORAH L. HARROLD, graduate tudent in political VOLUME

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science, University of Chicago, to tudy Arab form of repre entation in government and tate tructure and their interpretation by the We t SOREN HAUGE, graduate tudent in economic , University of Wi con in, Madi on, to tudy the role of agrarian collective action in Latin American economic development STEPHEN B. HERSCHLER, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Chicago, to tudy contemporary bureaucracy in China LEILA O. HUDSON, graduate tudent in anthropology, university of Michigan, to tudy the con olidation of personal and ocial identitie in the textile indu try of Damascu STEPHEN J. KAY, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Lo Angele, to tudy ocial movement after tran ition to democracy in Latin America OoN-CHYE L. KHoo, graduate tudent in economic , Harvard University, to tudy the role of NGO' in development economic in India JEFFREY T. KILPATRICK, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Chicago, to tudy the appropriation of ymbol from popular culture by the tate in Zimbabwe STEPHEN J. KING, graduate tudent in politic, Princeton University, to tudy rural development in Tuni ia CHARLES H. KLEIN, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor to tudy AIDS and con truction of sexuality in Brazil TIMOTHY M. KOPONEN, graduate tudent in ociology, Northwe tern University, to tudy the interface between indigenou culture and scientific in titution in Zimbabwe ELLEN M. LUST, graduate tudent in political science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor to tudy why Third World nation have failed to experience su tained economic growth and develop efficient tate- ociety relation MONA M. LYNE, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, San Diego, to tudy the role of international force in haping the coalitional base of upport for Brazil' neo-liberal development model STEVE MARQUARDT, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Washington, to tudy the tructure of regional political economie and political change in Co ta Rica MICHAEL J. MCGUINNESS, graduate tudent in anthropology, Harvard University, to tudy the implication of urban health policy for urban poor in Mexico City JENNIFER L. MORGAN, graduate tudent in hi tory, Duke University, to tudy gender in Briti h Caribbean lave societie RA YL YNN OLIVER, graduate tudent in economic , Stanford University, to tudy household fertility deci ion in We t Africa ERIC C. OLSON, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor to tudy the political economy of local level Chinese tructure and proce se and their interaction with international organization and NGO DIANE J. PANSKY, graduate tudent in political science, Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1991

University of Wi con in, Madi on, to tudy the role of women in the new indigenou people's movements in the Ande ALBERT F. PARK, graduate tudent in economics, Stanford University, to tudy agricultural development i ue in China LAWRENCE T . PARK, graduate tudent in p ychology, University of Chicago, to tudy the culture pecific nature of illne and the definition of proper mental functioning RICHARD T. PRIEST, graduate tudent in history, University of Wi con in, Madi on, to tudy the phy ical organizational and financial characteri tic of three major mangane e-producing region in Brazil ELIZABETH J. REMICK, graduate tudent in government, Cornell University, to tudy the legacie of local tate-building in two locale in China JANET L. ROITMAN, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Penn ylvania, to tudy the politic of informal economie in Africa CHARLES P. SCHMITZ, graduate tudent in geography, University of California, Berkeley, to study local re ource use among rural producers in the Middle East ANDREW M. SCHRANK, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Wiscon in, Madison, to tudy plantation political economy in the Caribbean LAURAN R. SCHULTZ, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Wiscon in, Madison, to tudy the normative dimen ion of politics in the Philippine CLARE L. TANNER, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, to study agrarian ocial organization and social movement in South India TwILA Z. TARDIF, graduate student in p ychology, Yale University, to tudy Chinese language acquisition in Beijing and variou countryside location CHARLES VAVRUS, graduate tudent in geography, University of Washington, to study land reform and rural development in Mexico SHAWN M. WADE, graduate tudent in political science, University of California, Lo Angele, to tudy political coalition formation and peasant politics in Mexico JONATHAN F. WARREN, graduate tudent in sociology, University of California, Berkeley, to study Indians in Brazil as compared to Indians in the United States MARGARET E. WEIGERS, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor to study the social and cultural con truction of the "meaning" of childhood cancer among Latin American BRIDGET B. WELSH, graduate student in political science, Columbia University, to tudy relations between political tability, democratic regime and tate power in the Caribbean CHRISTOPHER M. WOODRUFF, graduate student in economics, University of Texas, Au tin to study ociological and anthropological aspect of the informal sector of the economy in Latin America MARGARET M. ZAMUDIO, graduate tudent in ociology, University of California, Los Angeles, to study the development of democracy and the formation of authoritarian regimes in Latin America ITEMS/61


Research on the Urban Undercl

The Fellow hip Selection Committee for Research on the Urban Undercla -Peter Hall (chair), LaRue Allen, Lawrence Bobo, Roberto Fernandez, Jame H. John on, Jr., Jarne P. Smith, and Kenneth Wong-voted at its March 10, 1991 meeting to award fellow hip and grants to the following individual . Martha Gephart, Raquel Ovryn Rivera, Le lie Dwight and Karen Green tein served as taff for thi program. Po tdoctoral Grams

ROBERT J. JAGERS, a i tant profe or of p ychology, University of IIlinoi , Chicago, for re earch to refine and evaluate a family upport program de igned to facilitate ucce ful kindergarten entry in an urban , poor African-American community MARTIN GILENS, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the role of negative perception of black that emerged in the 1960 in accounting for increased oppo ition to welfare on the part of white American PHILIP KASINITZ, as i tant profe or of ociology, William College, for research on the ocial i olation of the underclas in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York ANNA M. SANTIAGO, NICHDIRockefeller Po tdoctoral Research Fellow, Population Studie Center at the University of Michigan, for a comparative tudy of welfare dependency among young Hi panic, black, and white mother MELVI WIL ON, as ociate profe or of clinical p ychology and as i tant dean of the College of Art and Science , University of Virginia, to complete a research monograph on the effect of low income on black family tructure and familial upport network U"dergraduate Research As istant hips

RONALD E. BROWN, as ociate profe or of political cience, and LAURA A. REESE, a ociate profe or of political cience, both at Ea tern Michigan University, to upport re earch by four undergraduate on the unemployment of African American teenagen. in the city of Yp ilanti, Michigan ROBERT J. JAGERS, as i tant profe or of p ychology and African-American tudie, University of IIlinoi , Chicago, to upport research by two undergraduate on a project to refine and evaluate a family upport program de igned to facilitate ucce ful kindergarten entry within an urban, poor African-American community DANIEL M. JOHNSON, profe or of ociology, Virginia Commonwealth University, to upport research by four undergraduate on the relation hip between ocial tructure, public policie and poverty-related problem in an inner-city Richmond neighborhood GRETCHEN E. MACLACHLAN, as i tant profe or of political cience and senior re arch ociate, Southern Center for Studie in Public Policy, Clark Atlanta 62\ ITEM

University, to upport research by four undergraduate on an experimental youth employment program in a di advantaged area near the university LE LIE RICHARDS, as i tant profe or of ociology, and CHARLES WILLIAMS, as ociate profe or of anthropology, both at the Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy, University of the Di trict of Columbia, to upport research by four undergraduate on the effects of family linkage on homele ne among urban women ANNE T. STRAUS, senior re earch faculty, Native American Educational Service College, Chicago, to upport research by one undergraduate tudent on the decline of American Indian population in the uptown community of Chicago MARTHA C. WARD, profe or of anthropology, University of New Orlean , to upport re earch by three undergraduate on the impact of new treet drug and sexually tran mitted disease on the gender relation hip, urvival network , and informal help tructure that affect the women living in a hou ing project in New Orlean MELVIN N. WILSON, as ociate profe or and as i tant dean of the College of Arts and Science , University of Virginia, to upport research by four undergraduate on the influence of the black extended family on familial interaction pattern and on childrearing practice

Di sertation Fellowships

DoNNA P. DoNALD ON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The American University, for research on the effect of ociocultural and lingui tic difference between chool personnel and tudent on the academic failure of African American urban male tudents MELI A R. GILBERT, Ph.D. candidate in urban geography, Clark University, for re earch on the role of personal network in the urvival trategie of low-income women CHRI P. HAFNER-EATO , Ph.D. candidate in public health , Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch on health tatu , health in urance, and the utilization of preventive, acute, and chronic-ilIne rvice DANIEL L. How RD, Ph.D. candidate in public policy, Vanderbilt Univer ity, for research on cardiac care and mortality among African-American, Latino, and white men THOMA F. J CK 0 , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford University, for re earch on the hi tory of racial politic, political debate, and the i ue of urban black poverty from 1960 to 1973 MELIS A R. PARTI , Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of Wi con in, Madi on, for re earch on the effects of racial difference in ocioeconomic tatu and opportunity on infant mortality DEIRDRE A. ROYSTER, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, The John Hopkin University, for research comparing the labor force a pi ration and job training program experience of African American and white male vocational high chool tudent BELINDA E. SIMS, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Loyola University, Chicago, for research that as e e attachVOLUME

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ment fonnation between infant and caregivers within a poverty context ROBERT C. SMITH , Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Columbia University, for re earch that examine the impact of tructural factors on labor market outcome among recent Mexican immigrant PAMELA J. SMOCK, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univerity of Wi con in , Madi on , for research that inve tigate the economic co t of eparation and divorce for young women from the late 1960 through the late 1980 CARlOAD SOUZA, Ph.D. candidate in ethnic tudie , University of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the nature of cro -generation tran ition from work to welfare dependency among young Puerto Rican mothers in the northeastern United State THOMAS G . STEWART, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the effect of incarceration on the political attitude , belief , and behavior of the urban underclas THOMAS J. SUGRUE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University, for re earch on the relation hip among poverty, joble ne ,re idence , and indu trial location in Detroit ince 1940 ABEL VALENZUELA , JR., Ph.D. candidate in urban tudie and planning , Mas achu ett In titute of Technology, for re earch on the function of immigrant group in pecific type of labor market

Summer Dissertation Workshop Participamss YVETTE M. ALEX, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Ohio State University, for re earch on the extent to which political participation on the part of the underclas i enhanced by neighborhood political organization MARISA CASTELLANO, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of California, Berkeley, for re earch evaluating the goal of education for non-main tream adult EDGAR COLON , Ph.D. candidate in ocial work, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, for

Ju

ElSEPTEMBER

1991

re earch on the effects of family tatu on Puerto Rican adole cent ' ri k for elf de tructive and uicidal behavior HECTOR CORDERO-GUZMAN, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Chicago, for research on the detenninant of educational and labor market outcome among majority and minority youth JENNIFER L. EBERHARDT, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Harvard University, for research on how the use of Black Engli h by African-American male and AfricanAmerican female i perceived by the African American community BARBARA C. MEDLEY, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Georgia State Univer ity, for research on the contribution of dy functional ocialization pattern to the academic and ocial alienation of underclas children YOLANDA C. PADILLA, Ph.D. candidate in ocial work and ociology, University of Michigan, for re earch on the effect of geographic mobility on the proce of economic attainment among Hi panic youth MARIA ROSARlO JACKSON , Ph.D. candidate in urban planning, University of California, Lo Angele , for a comparative rudy of locally-based effort to ameliorate the quality of life in economically di advantaged, multi-ethnic communi tie RENEE SMITH-MADDOX, Ph.D. candidate in family and children policy, Brandei University, for research on the relation hip between tudent tracking and the cycle of poverty VENTRESE K. STANFORD, Ph.D. candidate in policy tudie , State University of New York, Buffalo, for re earch on the application of private ector technology to the pread of infonnation about community-based organization in neighborhood of concentrated poverty DARRELL P. WHEELER, Ph.D. candidate in ocial work, University of Pitt burgh, for research on the health seeking behaviors of young African-American men CLA CIE F. WILSON, Ph.D. candidate in educational tudie , Emory Univer ity, for research on the relationhip between parental involvement, ocioeconomic tatu , and academic achievement

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A Portrait of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) Founded in 1923. the SSRC i an autonomou • nongovernmental. not-for-profit organization compo d of social cienti t from allover the world. The Council' primary purpose i to advance the quality. value. and effectivene of social cience re arch. It e' to encourage scholars in parate di ipline -e.g .. anthropologi IS. economi t • hi tori an • political ienti IS. psychologi t • sociologi IS. tali lician • and others-to work together on important topical. onceplual, and methodological i ue that can benefit from interdi ciplinary collaboration. Nalural scienli IS, geographers. lingui IS, and hoi an. in the humanitie al participate in many of the Council' activitie. The Council' work i carried out through a wide variety of workshop and conference , fellow hip and gran • umrner training in litute • re arch consonia. scholarly exchange • and publication . Throughout ilS program, the SSRC mobilize eminent social ienti t from the United State and abro d to identify and explore new intellectual path and to te t their knowledge, theorie , and method again t the challenge of contemporary and hi torical problem. A central emph i of the Council i to expand th empirical, theoretical, and methodological base upon which social science re arch re . Fellow hip and grant program recruit promi ing pre- and po tdoctoral holars and provide uppon for training and development. Other program seek to improve the resource available to nior re archers. and provide opportunilie for advanced training. Because it i an independent organization, free from the con train of policie impo d by government or other in titutions, the Council i free to promote training, attention to re arch opportunitie , and application of promi ing methodological innovation that may not receive adequate attention in university. di iplinary. area tudie , or policy analy i in titution . The ro ter of ocial ienti ts who have contributed their voluntary efforts to the SSRC' undertaking, or who have received what h often been for them cru ial intellectual or financial upport. contain an impre ive number of the world' leading scholars, including Nobel Prize winne .

Governance and Intelledual Direction The SSRC i governed by a board of directors who are typically ocial ienti IS from a broad range of di ipline and in titution . The board elect the Council' pre ident and regularly review and approve its intellectual program. An executive committee of the board i re pon ible for oversight of the financial and operational pec of the Council. and a committee on problem and policy h comparable re pon ibility for it intellectual programs and direction . The Council' work i directed by the pre ident, who i as i ted by a vice pre idenl, a vice pre idenl for finance. and a taff of approximately 40, of whom nearly half are social scienti t themselve .

Council Committ Practically peaking. the Council operate through more than 20 active committee of holan.. many of which have a number of ubcommittee. reening panel , and working group . Scholars are appointed to the committee by the board of directon. upon the recommendation of the SSRC pre ident, and u ually rve for period of three to ven years. They are not paid for their service to the Council and it program. Becau of the Council' international orientation, nearly one-quarter of the committee members are drawn from the facuttie and taff of non-U.S.-b d unive itie and re arch in titution .

80m

tati tics

• Through the committee and their working group , as many as 400 work of the Council.

holars may be engaged at anyone time in the actual

• Seventy to 80 conference , work hop. and training in titute are organized annUally. • Each year. me 2,000 researchers and graduate tudent participate in these and other SSRC activitie and program around the globe. • More than 300 researchen. receive ignificant financial upport from the Council in any given year.

Foundation upport Private philanthropic foundation have been th major urce of funding for the Social Science Research Council ever ince it w founded. Major upporters have included the Ford Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. and the Rockefeller Foundation . Federal gran and contract from the National Endowment for the Humanitie , the National Science Foundation. and the U.S. Department of State con titute an ther gment of upport. Funding i not accepted from any urce that would compromi the independen e of the an open forum of exchange . Council' scholars or it international tature

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Programs of "Mi ion-Oriented" 8 it Research Throughout it hi tory. the SSRC h worked on the frontiers of re arch acro all the ub tantive areas of the social science. many of which have been of pre ing public and national concern . Both basic academic and applied policy-oriented approache have prevailed. Exploring new theoretical and methodological opportunitie for the social science • and their use in the public intere t. are core elements of the SSRC' mandate . Over the years. it broad-ranging program has reflected a tendency toward "mi ionoriented" b ic re arch . During it nearly seven decade . the Council has organized and ponsored project concerned with: • The behavioral tudy of politic • Lingui tic and p ychology • Macroeconomic data and econometric model of growth and change • Race and ethnicity • Genetic and behavior • Life- pan development and aging • International peace and security • Child development in ociocultural context • Policy research on the Hi panic population • Human dimen ion of global environmental change • Confidentiality and data acce • The urban underclas and persi tent poverty • Area tudie on: Africa. China. Eastern Europe . Latin America. Japan. Korea. the Near and Middle East. South A ia. Southeast A ia. the Soviet Union. and We tern Europe. The Council place trong emphasi on collaboration among holars - among those with area and disciplinary expertise. and holars from different region of the world . In selecting topic for inve tigation. the SSRC give priority to scholarly and public policy que tion that addre the fundamental of human behavior and society' in titution ; involve potential contribution of several discipline ; how promise of re ponding to collaborative effort and di u ion; and that might profit from tran national and/or comparative approache .

Fellow hips and Grants SSRC fellow hip and grant program are widely known in social ience commUOllie in the United State and abroad. These pre tigiou and highly competitive award cover graduate training. dissertation work. po tdoctoral training and research. profe ional foreign travel . and in titutional upport. While eligibility requirement vary. many award are open to non-U .S. citizen. An International

etwork and Forum

In a world where powerful tran national and global force hape the live of individual communitie and societie • the Council regularly ponsors numerou international conference and also works a a partner with other national and international interdisciplinary bodie . These include the learned council and advanced tudy centers with which th SSRC h regularly collaborated over the years: e .g . • the American Council of Learned Societie • the American Council on Education. the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science • the Conference Board of A sociated Research Council • and the National Research Council of the National Academy of Science . Joint project have been carried out with the Consortium of Social Science A sociation • the Inter-University Program for Latino Research . the Free University of Berlin. the Council on Library Re urce . and the A sociation of American Universitie . The SSRC also maintains tie to international organization. uch as the European Science Foundation . the International Social Science Council. the United Kingdom' Economic and Social Research Council. the French National Center for Scientific Research . the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. the Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa. and the Latin American Social Science Council.

Continuing Goa In light of contemporary event • the Council remain more committed than ever to developing scholarly knowledge of the language • hi torie • culture • and in titution of all world area . The need continue to grow for social science theorie and method that are grounded within the concrete realitie of culture and place. The SSRC' programs po ition it to explore and advance science by compari n acro geo- and biocultural y tern . Such an approach must be international and fully collegial in a global sense. Science expand the boundarie both of what we know and what we do not know. The Social Science Re arch Council expects to be about the bu ine of expanding both boundarie for many years to come.

JUNE/SEPTEMBER 1991

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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVENUE. NEW YORK. NY 10158

(212)

661~280

FAX (212) 370-7896

The Council was ifICorporated in the State of Illinois. December 27. /924. for the purpo e of advancing research in the social sciences. Nongovernmemal aM interdisciplinary in nature. the CouflCii appoims committees of scholars which seek to achieve the COUfICiI'S purpose through the generation of new ideas aM the training of scholars. The activities of the Council are supported primarily by grants from private foundations and governmem agencies. Directors. 1991-92: CLAUDE AKE. University of Port Harcourt; SUZANNE D. BERGER. Massachusens In titute of Technology; LAWRE CE D. BoBO. University of California. Los Angele ; ROBERT M. COE • Northwe tern University; DAVID L. FEATHEIlMAN. Social Science Research Council; ALBERT FISHLOW. University of California. Berkeley; GARD ER LI DZEY. Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; DAVID MAG USSO • Stockholm University; CoRA B. MARRETT. University of Wiscon in. Madi n; EMILY MARTIN . TIle John Hopkins University; WILLIAM H. SEWELL. JR .• University of Chicago; JOEL SHEItZER. University of Texas. Au tin; BURTo H. St GER. Yale University; FkA CIS X. Surro • Dobbs Ferry. New York; MARTA TIE DA. University of Chicago; DAVID WARD. University of Wiscon in. Madison; ROBERT B. ZAJONC. University of Michigan. Officers and Staff: DAVID L. FEATHEItMAN. President; STA LEY J. HEGI BOTHAM. Vice President; Ro ALD J. PELECK. Vice President for Finance ; GLORIA KtRCHHEIMER. Editor; DoRlE SINOCCHI. Assistam to the Presidem; SUSAN BRO SON. GREG BROOKS. CARY FRA ER. MARTHA A. GEPHART. ERJ HEItSHBERG.

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Items Vol. 45 No. 2-3 (1991)