( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 45/ Number 1 / March 1991
Social Science Quotations Who aid what, when, and where by David L. Sills and Robert K. Merton* We have ju t completed the editing of a new volume of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Science -Social Science Quotations. Publi hed by the Macmillan Publi hing Company in February 1991, it supplement the earlier 18 volume by pre enting a broad election of quotation drawn from the ocial cience and ocial thought generally. I The volume wa prepared to meet an evident need not met in the general reference literature on the ocial cience. Although the Encyclopedia contain orne 800 cholarly biographie (and appended bibliographie ) of ocial cienti t , many do not quote their writing at all while the re t quote only cattered pa age from them. Yet we know from the frequent u e of quotation in cientific as well a literary writing that ummarie and paraphra e typically fail to capture the full force of formulation that have made them memorable. After all, that i why we quote rather than paraphra e. That i why mo t of u would he itate to try improving upon William Jame' imagery of habit a "the enormou fly-wheel of ociety, it mo t preciou con ervative agent" or upon John Maynard Keyne' ob ervation that "practical men, who believe them elve quite exempt from any intellectual influence , are u ually the lave of orne defunct economi t." Clearly, it i not alone their ub tance but al 0 the word in which they are expre ed that lead pa ages uch a the e to endure through repeated quotation . There are, of cour e, many book of quotation but
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none, like thi one, focu ed on the ocial cience, broadly conceived. Thi wide-ranging cope ha meant that the volume could not po ibly include quotation from all the cholar of authority and con equence in both the long hi tori cal pa t of ocial thought and in the va tly expanded pre ent of the ocial cience . It wa not even po ible to include quotation from all 800 or 0 cholars who e â&#x20AC;˘ pavid L. Sills. a sociologi t. i an executive sociate emeritus of the Council; Robert K. Merton. al a sociologi t. i Univelliity Profe r Emeritu at Columbia Univelliity. Thi article i adapted from the "Introdu tion " to Social Scil!ncl! Quotations. I Volume 1-17 of the Encyclopl!dia were publi hed in 1968; Volume 18. a Biographical Suppll!mLnt. in 1979. David L. Sill i the editor of the volume; for thi new volume. he wa able to enli t Robert K. Merton as co-editor. 1lIe Council and the Center for the Social Science at Columbia Univelliity rved organizational ho ts for the project. which received upport from the Eugene Garfield Found tion. the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation. the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. the Ru sell S ge Foundation. the Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Membelli of the editorial board included Elizabeth L. Eisen tein. Univelliity of Mi higan; Clifford Geertz. In tilUte for AdÂˇ vanced Study (Princeton. New Jersey); Vartan Gregorian. Brown Univelliity; Gardner Lindley. Center for Advanced Study in the Behavchu tts ioral Science (Stanford. California); Paul A. Samuel n. M In tilUte of Technology; Judith N. Shklar. Harvard Univelliity; and Stephen M. Stigler. Univelliity of Chicago.
Social Science Quotation . Da~'id L. Sills and ROMrt K. Muton Pre idential Item . David L. Fl!athuman 4 Vietnam Studie : An Uphill Climb. David G. Marr 6 Con em about International Exchange with the Sovi t Union. Brian D. Silvu and Barbara Anduson II
Current Activitie at the Council A Selection of Council Books: 19 8-1990 Recent Council Publications ole
12 13 17 19
biographie appear in the Encyclopedia, let alone from many of the greatly enlarged numbers of contemporary ocial cienti ts of the first rank. Thi limitation hold particularly for tho e tyle of scientific work who e undoubted importance re ts in re earch formulation not readily reformulated in quotable pro e. From the tart, al 0, it was evident that a volume of quotation could in no en e erve as a comprehenive collection of the ba ic ideas and formulations of the variou ocial cience . Thi i emphatically not a one-volume ummary of the Encyclopedia or of the enormou body of new knowledge acquired in the nearly quarter-century ince the Encyclopedia wa first publi hed. Nor, of course, do the quotation erve to ummarize the writing of the authors included in the volume. Thi i typically and con picuously the case where limitation of pace and quotability of contribution have led to very few quotation from even major contributors to their field, but it holds al 0 for tho e eminently quotable figure who, much quoted from generation to generation, are cited in relative detail. The ro ter of uch figures include Malinow ki, Sapir, and Levi-Straus in anthropology; Adam Smith, Jevon , Keyne , and Schumpeter in economic; Ibn Khaldlin, Gibbon, and Macaulay in hi tory; Hobbe , Locke, Machiavelli, and Rou eau in political thought; Freud, Jame , Jung, and G. H. Mead in p ychology; Tocqueville, Durkheim, Simmel, and Max Weber in ociology; and Holme, Pollock and Maitland, and Cardozo in the law. To the e are added uch monumental ocial thinkers as Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Marx, and Pareto, who are enduringly quoted in a variety of di cipline . The notion that one, two, or, for that matter, ten page of quotation could convey the e ential of their thought is, of course, ab urd, but the considerable array of quotations included in the volume do erve to make orne of their mo t memorable formulation ea ily acces ible within their immediate contexts. To provide uch ready access to both quotation and their contexts, we departed from practices prevailing in general book of quotation in two principal re pects. First, to provide orne immediate contexts, we often reproduced fairly exten ive pa age in which the notable uccinct quotation are embedded. And econd, we provided exact cholarly reference to the ource of every quotation, alway indicating the date of the fir t appearance of a quoted 2\ITEMS
pa age and, when in point, the later more acce ible or corrected source from which the quotation was actually drawn. A hort reference giving the precise page or paragraph of it ource i appended to each quotation; the complete reference i provided in the cumulative bibliography. Of obvious u e to readers coming upon quotation new to them, exact reference may al 0 prove u eful for wiftly locating the more familiar quotation. By leading readers back to the ource, uch detailed reference can help them place even extended quotation in their larger contexts. In thi way, a book of quotation can extend an open invitation to the reading or rereading of the original texts. The volume draws chiefly upon writing that con titute the hi tori cal core of the ocial cience and ocial thought, tho e work with taying power often de cribed as the "clas ical text." Mo t of their author wrote well; mo t of them wrote voluminou ly; and their ideas have had a formative impact upon ub equent thinking in their field. A large number of quotation are drawn from the e clas ical texts, not becau e the editors are Marxi ts or Weberians or Jame ian or Freudian or Keyne ian or whatever, but becau e they contain memorable ideas memorably expressed. Both con equential and memorable, the e authors have been quoted over the generation , entering into the collective memory of social cientist and at time diffu ing into popular thought and into the vernacular as well. In electing quotation , we went orne di tance beyond the goal of upplementing the biographical article in the Encyclopedia. There are a good many quotation from cla ical authors-Gibbon and Voltaire, for example-who, during the behavioralscience heyday of the 1960 , were identified as "literary" historian and thu were not included as biographical subjects. We happily reversed the e earlier editorial deci ions and drew upon a much wider range of authors and quotation , generally with the object of highlighting orne ocial cience idea, theme, or general finding. Moreover, ince it i a volume for ready reference, we al 0 included orne quotation from the ocial cience and ocial thought that, though now widely que tioned in ub tance, retain an enduring fame or notoriety. In the effort to enlarge the cope of the volume, we included quotation on ociety and the ocial cience drawn from the writing of poets, noveli t , dramati t , philo opher , political figure , and VOLUME
revolutionarie along with physicists, biologists, and mathematicians. To take a few examples, there are elections from Walt Whitman and W. H. Auden; Jane Au ten and Do toyev ki; Shakespeare and G. B. Shaw; Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Wittgenstein; and from the public peeche of Lincoln, Churchill, and Martin Luther King, Jr. The e departures from the ocial sciences, narrowly defined, occupy only a mall fraction of the volume but, we believe, erve an important reference function. Since it i not a book of general quotation , we allowed our elve only a few quotation of this kind and, perhap more than any other aspect of this volume, their election reflects the ta te and preferences of the editors. The volume both reflects and hopes to contribute to the international literature of the ocial ciences, which i almo t entirely We tern in the ources that it u es and in the authoritie that it cites. A a re ult, practically all the quotations are by authors brought up in the intellectual traditions of the West; only one of the works quoted at length, Ibn Khaldun's The Mugaddimah (1377), wa written in a non-European language. The editors were not at all plea ed with thi concentration upon We tern culture, but found it largely ine capable for the time being. The social science them elve are primarily products of We tern civilization, and Africans, Asians, and other nonWesterners who work in the ocial cience generally u e the theory and methods of the We tern ocial science as their framework. The rea on why the ocial cience fir t emerged out of Western civilization are of cour e both controversial and little understood. Certainly a major challenge for the ocial ciences-if not for all the ciences-i to find ways of incorporating the basic ideas of African, Asian, and other non-Western thought into the We tern paradigm. As editors of a reference work, however, we must find other way of bringing non-Western writings to the world' attention. Some of the quotation in the volume have had such exten ive influence for so long that they have become part of the culture with the identity of their original authors no longer given and, in due cour e, becoming unknown to many making u e of these anonymized quotation . Thi pattern in the tran mission of culture has been de cribed as "Obliteration [of ource] by Incorporation [into common di cour e]" -or OBI for short. Familiar in tance are Francis Bacon' dictum "knowledge is power" MARCH
(1597), Jo eph Glanvill's "climate of opinion" (1661), and John Adams's "government of laws and not of men" (1774). In much the ame fashion, many concepts and phra ings-such a chari rna, stereotype, opportunity co t , significant other , and double-bind-have entered the vernacular with little awarene of their ources in the ocial ciences. A correlative pattern is misattribution. Ockham's Razor ("What can be accounted for by fewer as umptions i explained in vain by more") i generally attributed to William of Ockham, but there is no compelling evidence that it was original with him. "Bad money drives out good money" is generally and mi takenly attributed to Thoma Gre ham, and "the best government i that which governs lea t" has been variou ly attributed to Jefferson, Paine, Thoreau, and the nineteenth-century editor John Loui O'Sullivan. The e and other cases of mi attribution are identified in bibliographical annotation to the quotation in point. Along with the mo t notable quotations with great staying power, other quotation were elected in term of the following guideline : 1. Sub tantive tatements that expre s ba ic contribution which have begun to be much quoted. 2. Statements marking an important event or turning point in the history of ocial thought and the ocial ciences, uch as the emergence of new field or new methodologie . 3. Idea, words, or phra es originating in the ocial ciences that have diffu ed into popular or vernacular u e. 4. Quotations that illuminate the frontiers and interplay between the ocial ciences and the humanitie or the phy ical and biological cience . 5. Notable ob ervation on ocial cience generally or on one of it con tituent di ciplines. As embled over a period of everal year , with the aid of many adviser , the quotation are drawn from a wide variety of ources: primarily books and journals, but also newspaper and magazines, collections of corre pondence, diaries, epigraphs for books, and, on occa ion, previously unpubIi hed writing . In at lea t three case (Thoma Jeffer on, Karl Marx, and Johann Heinrich von ThUnen) the quotations are engraved on their authors' tomb tones. â&#x20AC;˘ ITEMS/3
Pre .dential The National Science Foundation appear to be moving toward a major re tructuring which may dra tically alter the conduct of the ocial cience in the next decade. A eparate directorate for the ocial and behavioral cience, one that would ever their pre ent connection to the biological cience within the exi ting directorate, ha been recommended by an NSF ta k force. The argument for uch a re tructuring are valid and cogent: e.g., a eparate directorate hould be created out of the current configuration of the biological, behavioral, and ocial cience (BBS) 0 that greater re ource might flow to upport di cipline-based re earch project , e pecially in the ocial and economic cience; the e cience need a directorate-level voice in the politic of re ource allocation within the NSF; another high-level ocial cienti t in Wa hington, who articulate the many contribution of the e field , will benefit national cience planning; directorate tatu will timulate the ocial cience to organize plan for data re ource and other future re ource need more effectively. A uming that a eparate directorate will eventually be approved, * how hould it be tructured internally? What kind of cience hould it endeavor to promote in the 21 t century? I believe the key i ue i how to overcome the limitation of trictly di ciplinary cience and to promote innovation, paradigm challenge , and interdi ciplinary re earch. The internal tructure of NSF, whatever that will be in the future, hould be et to enhance thi latter agenda; at lea t, it hould not handicap it. It i becoming clear that cience in the 21 t century will increa ingly challenge the ufficiency of di ciplinary boundarie ; indeed, it will tend to be even more interdi ciplinary and multidi ciplinary than in the pa t. A review of major advance in the ocial cience ince 1900, publi hed in Science in 1971, concluded that one-half to two-third of them emerged from interdi ciplinary work. Over the next decade, the more vexing ocial, political, and economic problem -global environmental change, â&#x20AC;˘ Following a final repon in April . the decl ion to create a new direct rate will re t with the incoming SF director. Walter M y. wh ppointment i e peeted to be confirmed by the U .S . Sen te . Suppon for the deci ion by the National Science Board and approval by the Office of Management and Budget will al be reqUired. well as the ble 109 of the NSF ove ight commlllee in W hington . 4 \ ITEM
u tainable economic development, persi tent urban poverty-will defy the limit of knowledge of any ingle di cipline. In addition, if one look at the mo t exciting edge of today' ba ic re earch, there too one ee the e ential interdependency of participating di cipline -in cognitive cience a well as in biochemi try, behavioral genetic, or gerontology. Were NSF to become more narrowly tructured along di ciplinary line , it could send a me age to cholar that NSF i not prepared to adapt it tructure to changing cience-rather, that cience i expected to adapt to the di ciplinary organization of the foundation. Thi would tend to place di ciplinary re earch, di ciplinary priori tie , and perhap even di ciplinary politic front and center. Whatever gain a eparate directorate might have promi ed for ocial and behavioral cience can readily be 10 t if individual di cipline are encouraged to act in elf-intere t. A narrowly recon tructed NSF could be Ie conducive to nurturing new fields or di cipline , and Ie ho pitable to interdi ciplinary projects, making it more difficult to elicit uch projects from an alerted academic community. If a eparate directorate doe become a reality, I would hope that it can be a fully comprehen ive one intellectually. The ocial and behavioral cience are not all contained within the pre ent directorate of the ocial and economic cience . No reorganization hould increa e the di tance between ociology and anthropology or economic and p ychology, for example. And it certainly hould not widen the intradi ciplinary gap , where they exi t, by lodging different parts of one di cipline in different directorate . Here the reasoning i not connected to the goal of interdi ciplinary dialogue per se. Rather, I refer to the heterogeneity of methodology and of theoretical range within the ocial cience di cipline , e.g., p ychology, anthropology, political cience, and ociology. Thi intradi ciplinary diversity i no Ie real or important for the conduct of inquiry within eacb of the e di cipline than it i for biology (i .e., molecular biology a contrasted to behavioral genetic ). The key point, again, i the limiting logic of cientific di cipline a the optimal principle upon which to organize and prepare the NSF for the next century. The task force could con ider realignments of di cipline into newly-formed divi ion that might, VOLUME 45 , NUMBER 1
for example, retain the behaviorally-oriented biological re earch within the behavioral! ocial cience directorate while excluding other kind of biological re earch. Were a eparate biological directorate recon tituted, perhap the phy ical anthropological re earch might be placed there, but the cultural anthropological work might be retained in behavioral cience. However, the e hypothetical realignment by affinitie of method and range of theoretical focu could undermine the intellectual coherence that i intrin ic to any cientific progre . Thu , I wonder if the apparent advantage of reorganizing orne portion of the ocial and behavioral cience into their own directorate may not be oft: et by the intellectual di advantage of fracturing the social and behavioral ciences into two or more different directorate .
What i important i that any reorganization, including the creation of a eparate directorate , hould not be overcommitted to a model of di cipline-ba ed re earch, hould not make interdi ciplinary re earch any Ie likely, and hould not reinforce the already exi ting balkanization within the ocial and behavioral ciences. Careful attention hould be given to how the internal tructure of NSF can maximize and c1u ter re earch approache by affinitie of method and range of theory, irrespective of di cipline, while optimizing the cro -fertilization of the ocial and behavioral cience in the decades ahead. â&#x20AC;˘ - David L. Featherman Note: 1bese reflections are based upon written and oral Ie timony prepared for the NSFIBBS task force hearings. November 29-30. 1990. on "Looking to the Twenty-first Century."
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Vietnam Studies: An Uphill Climb by David G. Marr* In June 1990, a work hop wa held in Hanoi on economic reform in Vietnam. Jointly spon ored by the Council's Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program (ISEP)** and Vietnam's National Center for the Social Science (NCSS), the work hop brought together a unique group of cholar and economic planners: among the 19 participant from North America, Australia, and Vietnam, were economi ts, political cientist, anthropologi t , hi torian , ociologi ts, economic planners, and development pecialists. One con equence of uch a diver e di ciplinary, theoretical, and lingui tic mix wa that orne of the mo t intere ting in ights to emerge were Ie about the proce se of economic reform than about the dilemma of tran lation: of terms, of concept, of organizing metaphors. From it inception, the ISEP ha been concerned to addre i ues of critical and mutual intere t to cholars in the region and abroad. The que tion of ociali t tran formation, by 1990, had become even more charged than when Vietnam' ocial cienti t propo ed uch a workshop everal years earlier. In the month before the work hop, unfolding event in Ea tern Europe heightened Vietname e government anxietie about the nature and de irability of fundamental ocial and economic change. The opening of the work hop wa con equently filled with uncertainty as well. In pite of thi , within hours it became clear that while certain word might be delicately avoided ("plurali m," "multi-party ystem"), the di cu ion moved openly and critically over a wide range of i ue. By the end of the work hop, the atmo phere was 0 relaxed that even a couple of • David G . Marr i a senior fellow 8t the Australian National Univerity pecializing in the modem hi tory of Vietnam. •• Members of the ISEP ubcommillee of the Joint Commillee on Southea t A ia include: Harl Hutterer. University of W hington. CHAII; David Chandler. Moo h University; May Ebihara. 1lIe Graduate Center. City University of New York ; Carol Ire n. Wilamelle University; Hy Van Luong. 1lIe John Hopkin University; David G. Marr. 1lIe Au trahan National University; Hue-Tam Ho Tai. Harvard University: Keith Taylor. Cornell University; and William Turley. University of Southern llIinoi . Staff Associatrs: Toby Alice Volkman and Mary Byrne McDonnell; Program Assistant: Dee Warren . ISEP i funded by the Henry Luce upported by the Chri topher Foundation . 1lIe June 1990 workshop w Reynold Foundation. 6\ITEM
self-con ciou guardian of Communi t Party orthodoxy were miling, wapping anecdote , and di cu ing ub tantive i ue over lunch. The Vietname e cholar u ed the work hop to explain their idea of ociali t reform. For them, thi was partly an opportunity, through scholarly contact, to make their y tern better known to the United State , a country with which they anticipate having ignificant trade, inve tment, and cultural relation in the future. The work hop thu provided American cholars a rare opportunity to learn about the thinking behind Vietnam' policie. It al 0 confronted the Vietname e with new perspective on uch i ue a the functioning of markets, free market pricing, decentralized admini tration, popular participation and deci ion making, repre entative in titution , rna communication and the implication of reform for education, gender relation, urban growth and development, population control and di tribution, income equalitie , and ethnic minority integration . The work hop rai ed uch que tion a: What ectors could be handled by the tate and which hould be privatized? How doe education fit in? What about infra tructural development? Formal paper by Vietnamese participant remained heavy on general policy formulation and light on de cription and analy i of what actually was happening in ociety. In informal di cu ion, however, they could be quite pecific about Vietnam' current dilemma. At one point an inten e debate broke out about whether the government had brought rampant inflation under control or not. To orne degree the work hop repre ented a convenient forum for Vietname e peciali t to argue with each other about policy option , with foreigner being encouraged to take ide. Papers by North American participants were a mixture of empirical tudie and more theoretical formulation . Several cholar drew upon their intimate knowledge of China to make com pari on with Vietnam. Others contributed in ights on development trategie and aid admini tration in Third World market economie ,in orne way more relevant to Vietnam than model from China, the USSR or Ea tern Europe. Particularly intere ting was how well the area peciali ts and the di cipline peciali t complemented each other. Together they were able to contribute far more to the Vietname e debate than either group could separately. VOLUME
Contrasts Thinking back to my fir t encounter with North Vietname e ocial cienti t in 1974, I could not help but notice how much had changed. In tho e day , no one below a government mini ter dared to depart from long-winded monologue de igned to impart the party line on everything from the value of tate farms to the unique glory of the bronze age in Vietnam. Indeed, few individual ventured to talk with a foreigner unle it wa part of their job pecification to do o. In the country ide, manager of cooperative automatically called me "comrade," as uming I wa from a fraternal party, while more ophi ticated urban functionarie styled me "friend" (there i no word for "you" in Vietname e). Sub equent vi its in 1978 and 1980 revealed that the e re trictive pattern had extended to the entire country, except that a few individual in the outh had the temerity to approach me in the treet to complain about poverty and to a k for help in getting over ea . By 1980 it wa clear too that establi hed ocial cienti ts had 10 t much of their mugne ,due to the tring of economic and foreign policy reversal , yet none of them were prepared to explore alternative to Lenini t-Stalini tMaoi t orthodoxy. By 1984, condition had altered ignificantly. A an hi torian, I was particularly impre ed by the willingne of older communist leader and intellectual to talk about their pa t frankly and to admit they understood very little about economic . AI 0, Vietname e colleague were far more inclined to locate rare or banned publications for me, to elucidate debate which had never been made public, even to point out case where party ideologue had doctored key hi torical texts. While deep down they till didn't believe that foreign cholar could make any sub tantive contribution to "their" hi tory, it wa a ource of pride for them that we took Vietnam eriou ly. They Ii tened keenly to de cription of library and archival collection on Vietnam located in Pari, Aix-enProvence, London, Wa hington and Ithaca, hoping that omeday it might be po ible to conduct research in uch place . In September 1985, sen ing that opportunitie for eriou re earch on contemporary Vietnam were improving, the Joint Committee on S utheast A ia pon ored a path-breaking conference on "Po twar Vietnam: Ideology and Action." In order to heighten interaction with relevant European peciali ts and MARCH
Vietname e cholars re ident in France, we met at the In titute of Development Studie (Su ex, England). Arrangement were made for two peciali t to come from Vietnam, but at the la t moment they conveyed their apologie , almo t urely the victim of party or Mini try of Interior u picions about our intention . Some of the mo t intere ting conference "interventions" (to u e the French expre ion, inee proceeding often moved into that language) came from two Ea tern European participant , Anna Petrasovits of Hungary and Tere a Halik of Poland. We could not imagine how event would move in tho e countries, nor fore ee that Dr. Petra ovit would become a prominent political leader in the new Hungary.
Economic cri is By mid-1988, when Chri tine P. White and I wrote the introduction to the conference volume (1), the Vietname e economy was nearing collap e. Inflation had oared to 1000 percent per annum, many farmers had 10 t intere t in maximizing production, and city folk de paired of making end meet. Matter came to a head when the pectre of famine gripped inhabitants of several northern province . Instead of admitting the northern hortfall and appealing publicly for southern rice donation on humanitarian ground , party leaders roamed the Mekong delta exhorting local cadre to extract urplu e . When this failed to overcome the cri i , Hanoi di patched me age over ea requesting emergency a i tance and thi new wa broadca t back to Vietnam on the BBC and the Voice of America. Vietname e journali ts, angry at having been muzzled during the e events, now publi hed interview and gra root de cription deeply embarras ing to the authoritie . Although the pre generally ca t it critici m in tenns of inept leadership, between the line one could read ever greater doubt about hallowed party in titution and ideological a umption. Not having the foggie t idea of what to do, and perhap beginning to panic, the party politbureau accepted a weeping refonn package from the profe ional economi t , to include a harp reduction in the rate of money supply expan ion, attractive official intere t rates, the pegging of government foreign exchange rate to the open market, ub tantial reduction in tate ub idie , and relaxation of both dome tic and foreign trade re trictions. Within ITEMSI7
month the inflation rate had dropped dramatically, people were relea ing h arded gold, dollars, and bicycle part into the y tern, the market were bu tling, and farmers had tepped up production to be able to have omething to exchange for imported con umer good . In 1989, Vietnam became a ub tantial exporter of rice for the first time in many decade .
Scholarly interchange At the end of 1989, Vietname e and foreign economi ts gathered in Hanoi for a remarkable four-day ympo ium pon ored by the Swedi h International Development Authority (SIDA). If the ympo ium proceeding pub Ii hed five month later are an accurate reflection, the rather pede trian paper were more than com pen ated for by the trenchant remark of pre- elected commentator and the lively di cu ion that followed-all nicely ummarized in language understandable to non-economi t (2). Some of the Vietname e participant eemed carried away by the undoubted economic ucce e of late 1988-1989. The Swedi h editors were wept up too, claiming that Hanoi' ucce in reducing inflation wa "nothing hort of taggering" (3), and that Vietnam ' provided valuable Ie on for other centrally planned economie triving to replace admini trative allocation with market relation ." On the other hand, Dr. Ruben Yev tigneyev of the Mo cow In titute of Economie of the World Sociali t Sy tern warned that political democracy-to include introduction of a multi-party y tern-needed to accompany current economic refonn . Alec Nove of Gla gow Univer ity ugge ted that long-tenn inve tment would be di couraged if orne Vietname e leaders continued to believe that the exi ting refonn trategy repre ented only a temporary retreat from real ociali m. Dr. Nove and everal other foreign participants al 0 rai ed que tion about the deleteriou effect of refonn policie on ocial ervice, e pecially health and education. In between the SIDA- pon ored ympo ium and the NCSS-SSRC work hop of late June 1990, the Communi t Party central committee had announced a policy of re tricting political fennent in the intere ts of table economic growth. Thi did not prevent anyone at the June work hop from talking about en itive problem of renewed inflation, low productivity, unemployment, budget deficits, ectoral di paritie , or the ad decline in ocial ervices. Nor
did Vietnam' Foreign Mini ter, Nguyen Co Thatch feel con trained from attending the last se ion to field que tions of an overtly political character. We all left rea onably ati fied with the level of intellectual interaction (4). In September 1990, the Re earch School of Pacific Studie of the Au tralian National University pon ored the mo t ambitiou conference yet, titled "Doi Moi: Vietnam' Economic Renovation-Policy and Perfonnance." Originally conceived a involving only about 30 people, it wa apparent by mid-year that intere t in the meeting was preading, yet we were till not quite ready for more than 150 conference regi trant . Au tralia' foreign mini ter, Senator Gareth Evan , gave a carefully prepared policy tatement emphasizing the Cambodia i ue and growing bu ine opportunitie. Graham Alliband, Au tralia' ambas ador to Hanoi, offered a thoughtful e timate of Vietnam' future direction . Academically the mo t ub tantial paper wa provided by Adam Fforde, taking advantage of hi several years of field experience in Vietnam a con ulting economi t for SIDA. It was titled "The Succe ful Commercialization of a Neo-Stalini t Economic Sy tern-Vietnam 1979-89," but the content was not quite 0 affmnative. Although we had ecured funding ufficient to invite 10 participant from Vietnam to the ANU conference, at the la t moment three (including Pham Nhu Cuong, pre ident of the NCSS) could not obtain exit pennits from the Hanoi authoritie . That left even lively, well-infonned economi ts, sociologi t , and demographers, headed by Le Dang Doanh of the Central In titute of Economic Management who had taken part in the December 1989 and June 1990 meeting a well. Dr. Doanh rai ed no que tion about what might or might not be di cu ed, and eemed unruffled by our last-minute addition of a panel titled "Critical Perspective on Vietnam," which included a repre entative from Amne ty International who condemned Vietnam' human rights record. Since every conference e ion wa attended by five to 10 anti-government Vietname emigrants, we naturally fretted about the po sibility of an acrimoniou and protracted confrontation, yet throughout the proceeding both ide observed the unwritten rule of the game, even to the extent of occasionally exchanging pleasantrie at tea-time. Two or three years earlier that would have been inconceivable. VOLUME
Establishing the context With each ucceeding conference it ha become more apparent that deliberations about contemporary Vietnam need to be brought into the main tream di cour e about economic and political upheaval in other parts of the former ociali t world. This i certainly not to ay that cau ation i identical. or that event will proceed in the arne direction. but even a cur ory review of exi ting literature acro regional boundarie (Ea tern Europe. USSR . China. Vietnam) reveal fertile ground for compari on. At the ANU we have gone one tep further. e tabli hing a "Tran formation in Communi t Sy tern " project de igned to bring relevant country peciali t into regular contact with each other. In March 1990. for example. a one-day ympo ium wa held on the concept of "civil ociety"; from an examination of the different meaning came better under tanding of the variou political culture (5). Economi t and political cienti t worldwide are well into a fruitful debate over what happen to a Marxi t-Lenini t command or mono-organizational y tern when it i di mantled. Why i the collap e of political legitimacy more rapid in orne tate ociali t regime than in other ? How are manager for the new market-oriented enterpri e elected? Who benefit from privatization and who 10 e ? What happen to the trade union ? In tho e place where the "leading role" of the Communi t Party i renounced. what i the impact within the military and ecurity ervice? A cholar gain acce to unprecedented quantitie of data about the recent pa t. old paradigm are being helved. new one te ted. However. it i foolhearty to believe that we can render future outcome in the real world Ie urpri ing. more predictable. when ju t keeping up with the pace of change i heavy exerci e in it elf. Returning to Vietnam tudie in particular. there i a fair amount of information available on the informal. unplanned or econd economy-which per i ted even at the height of Communi t Party effort to imitate Stalin and Mao T e-tung. Longitudinal tudie of Vietnam' unplanned ector might help tho e working on the USSR or Eastern Europe to identify and analyze imilar if Ie overt economic activitie . On the other hand. the abundance of tudie dealing with ocial hi tory and popular culture in Ea tern Europe and the USSR can a i t Vietnam peciali t to fathom the fluctuating relation hip MARCH
between official and unofficial culture in Hanoi. Hue. and Hochiminh City. and the sources of ocietal upport for both market reform and welfare- tyle ocial program . It i already apparent that we cannot dichotomize intellectual into "party hacks" on one ide and "di ident" on the other. Some of the mo t effective critic of the y tern remain within the Communi t Party. drawing attention to corruption. intimidation. neglect of the individual. hi torical fal ification • and general ideological bankruptcy. Meanwhile. orne non-communi t intellectual remain profoundly u piciou of capitali m. in tead upholding a democratic ociali m concerned with dignity. ju tice and tolerance.
Vietnam tudies today For all the cholarly activity implied above. we have to tep back for a moment and admit that Vietnam tudie have never been e pecially trong in the we t. Until 1954. the French colonial authoritie pon ored re earch in elected area • and a lively alternative chool per i ted into the early 1970 • but the low decline in France ince then has been depre ing for the entire field. During the 1960 • a a direct con equence of the war, hundred of American acquired language capability. relevant field experience and di ciplinary training. yet by 1975 the bottom had fallen out of the Vietnam academic market. with only a handful of peciali t holding down tenured po ition . Today there exi t perhap 60 internationally acknowledged Vietnam peciali t • three-fifth of them located in the United State or France. The bulk are hi torian and political cienti t • with a mattering of economi ts. lingui ts. archeologi ts and anthropologi t • and few if any ociologi t • demographer or geographers. Ominou Iy. at lea t 80 percent of the e men and women are over 50 years of age. To avoid a debacle in 10 or 15 year. we need an early increa e in the number of Ph.D. graduate acquiring meaningful employment. In the context of Southeast A ian tudie. the tudy of Vietnam. like the tudy of Lao and Cambodia. i at lea t 15 years behind imilar effort relating to Thailand. Indone ia. Malay ia. or the Philippine . When it come to basic infrastructure. for example advanced cour ework. library holding • utilization of archival collection. fieldwork acce ibility. or u tained interaction with colleague in the country being tudied. Vietnam cholar have a hard time ITEMS/9
concealing their envy. Taking linguistic as a di ciplinary example, it is notable that not one of the nine Ph.D. di ertation li ted under "Vietnam" in the 1990 University Microfilms International Catalogue for Oriental Languages and Literature reflect any fieldwork in Vietnam (eight focused on Vietname e refugee , one on hi torical employment of Chine e character in Vietnam). High priority ought to be allocated, in my opinion, to the microfilming of manu cripts, archival material , and rare publications, not only becau e there i o much of value to be re earched, but becau e many of the e materials are in danger of phy ical decay and de truction due to the tropical climate and poor storage facilities. In the process of sorting and microfilming, attention can al 0 be given to cataloguing and the development of finding aid . From the point of view of international cooperation, we have as potential model the Vietname e Union Catalogue (VUC) project, initiated in 1983 and a recent recipient of vital foundation a i tance. Although there i no quick-fix olution, the Council' ISEP ha helped to ree tablish the study of Vietnam a important to both Southeast Asian studies broadly and within a number of di ciplines. Following the initial delegations, exchange of cholars, and work hop , it i becoming po ible to fo ter extended field re earch, library development, methodological training, cultural documentation and analy is. Further workshop are anticipated; indeed, one follow-up to the June 1990 Hanoi meeting is now being planned by William Turley, who al 0 helped organize the first
work hop. Thi econd workshop would focus on economic cooperation throughout Southeast A ia, with a clo e look at relation among the 10 nations that compri e an area which i remarkably diverse not ju t in cultural term but in its political economies a well. Recent intere t in Vietnam stu die give cau e for hope. As omeone who has witne sed both euphoric urge and demoralizing collap e in the field, however, I retain a hint of anxiety. What is needed is not another roller-coaster ride, but cool-headed apprai al of de ired goal and measured tep to achieve them. • Re(erenc:a I. Marr. David G .• and DiI~mmas
in Socialist Asia Program. 19 8.
tine P. White. editors. Postwar Vi~lnam : Jlhac.. NY: Cornell Southeast
2. Ronn • Per. and Orjan S~berg. editors. Dai Moi: Economic R~/orms and D~v~/op~nt Polici~s in Vi~tnam . Stockholm: SIDA. 1990. 3. Ibid .• p. xiii. 4. Some of the workshop papers. uitably revised and updated. are being edited by William Turley for public.tion in late 1991. S. The re ults of this ympo ium are appearing as Robert Miller. editor. Th~ £m~rg~nu o/Civil Soci~ty in Socialist Stat~s . Sydney: Allen and Unwin. 1991.
Correction: A footnote in the last i ue of Items Ii ted the members of the Joint Committee on South A ia but mi identified the committee as the "Joint Committee on Southeast A ia." We apologize for the error.
45. NUMBER 1
Concerns about International Exchanges with the Soviet Union by Brian D. Silver and Barbara Anderson* The Joint Committee on Soviet Studie ha expre ed its concern about the effects of the political situation in the USSR on exchange agreement between American scientific and profe ional a ociation and all-USSR in titution . Of particular relevance i the ability and willingne of all-USSR in titution to act on behalf of cholar and in titution within the non-Ru ian republic . Although all-USSR bodie , such a in titute within the USSR Academy of Sciences and profe ional as ociation (uch a the Soviet Sociological A ociation) appear to peak for the intere t of all region of the USSR, the broader conflict between political authoritie in Mo cow and the republic is cau ing problem . Sometime exchange , rather than being with the USSR, become, for all practical purpo e , only with the Ru ian Republic (RSFSR). In one recent ca e, an American re earcher who was cho en by the SSRC to participate in a Young Sociologi t Exchange, wa denied an appointment by the USSR Academy of Science and the Soviet Sociological A ociation (SSA) becau e the cholar wi hed to work in the city of Tallinn, E tonia. The explanation given by the official in Mo cow wa that the E tonian Sociological A ociation had eparated itself from the Soviet Sociological A ociation. A a re ult, de pite the fact that the negotiated exchange agreement and the program announcement had explicitly mentioned Tallinn a a ite to which young American cholars might be appointed, the all-union as ociation in Mo cow refu ed to pon or the re earcher. This kind of problem could recur in other exchange in which American institution negotiate agreements with Soviet in titution . Official in republic-level academie of cience have been eeking greater independence from Mo cow. In the past, mo t • Brian D. Silver i chair of the Department of Political Science at Michigan State University and a member of the Joint Comminee on Soviet Studie (JCSS). Barbara Anderson is profe $Or of sociology at the University of Michigan and a member of the JCSS Subcomminee on Sociology. They are both cum:ntly fellows at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science (Stanford . California). MARCH
of the republic-level budgets for cience also came from Mo cow. In the current climate, in which republic academie are eeking greater autonomy and the Academy of Science in Mo cow has experienced eriou budgetary con traints, the central academy authoritie have greatly reduced their budgetary commitments to the republic academie . The re ulting train in relation between center and periphery can affect agreements between American and Soviet national cientific in titution and as ociation . In part becau e they think that they do not receive adequate repre entation by official in Mo cow, many republic-level cientific officials have expre ed an intere t in negotiating eparate, direct agreement with American in titution and re earchers. Some regional cientific officials think that only by providing pecific quotas for participation by cienti t in the non-Ru ian republic can exchange agreement negotiated through Mo cow a sure acce by cienti t out ide the RSFSR. American profe ional as ociation are inclined to as ume good faith by their counterpart as ociation in the USSR and not to meddle into the internal operation of tho e a ociation. In the current ituation, however, it i important that American profe ional association and cientific in titution that are negotiating or participating in exchange agreements with eemingly all-USSR in titution in Mo cow take precaution to as ure acce and repre entation by cienti t in the non-Ru ian republic . Thi i an acute i ue now, in part because Soviet graduate tudents have begun to enter Ph.D. program in the United State in political cience, ociology, and economic . Eligibility to apply for the requi ite ORE and TOEFL examinations i determined by all-USSR profe ional as ociation in Moscow. Vi as granting permi ion to travel abroad mu t come from all-USSR authoritie . But ba ed on recent experience, there i increasing ri k that preference will be given to applicant from the RSFSR. Among the afeguard that American in titution might con ider to a ure participation of cholar from all region of the USSR in cientific and academic exchange are the following: • Spelling out in detail the criteria for eligibility. including place of re idence and nationality. • Providing quota for participation or eligibility. • Negotiating direct agreement with republic-level scientific and profe ional association rather than negotiating only through • Mo ow . ITEMSIII
Current Activities at the Council Mellon Foundation Grant The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation ha awarded the Council a $2.5 million grant to support dis ertation re earch fellowships in area studie over the next four year . During 1989-90, a number of dis ertation research fellowships were suspended due to a crisis in funding for foreign area committee . Most directly affected were programs on Japan, Korea, Latin America, the Near and Middle East, South A ia, and Southea t Asia. Thank to the new Mellon award, implementation of the current fellow hip cycle can now proceed. Additional monies for di ertation fellow hip are available from other ource , including tho e earmarked for specific area program ; however the Mellon award will constitute the large t portion of the core fund available. The Mellon Foundation grant affirms the Council' commitment
to developing scholarly knowledge of the language , historie , cultures, and contemporary institutions of foreign area .
Newsletter for International Peace and Security Program Two year ago, a small group of SSRC-MacArthur Fellows in International Peace and Security expres ed an intere t in tarting a newsletter to maintain and build upon the community of cholars brought together by the SSRCMacArthur fellow hip program, which ha been in existence since 1985. On December 20, 1990, the ftf t is ue of the long-awaited new letter was distributed to the entire re earch community upported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation' Program on Peace and International Cooperation, which include the SSRC-MacArthur fellow . Funding for the newsletter was provided by the founda-
tion in its November 1990 grant which renewed support for the Council's program. The first is ue wa edited by former fellow Tad Homer-Dixon, coordinator of the Peace and Conflict Studie Program at the University of Toronto. Felicia M. Sullivan of the SSRC staff wa re pon ible for production of the newsletter, which features article on the tatu of the SSRC International Peace and Security program, the academic and employment outlook for SSRCMacArthur fellows, the RushBagot Agreement of 1817, and the 1990 fellow conference held in Budape t. Future i ue will explore the re earch and cholarly intere ts of current fellows, award and publications of current and former fellow , commentary on trend and developments in the field of peace and ecurity studie , and other topic of interest to members of the "MacArthur Community. "
A Selection of Council Books: 1988-1990 Agrarian Transformations: Local Processes and the State in Southeast Asia, edited by Gillian Hart, Andrew Turton, and Benjamin White, with Brian Fegan and Lim Teck Ghee. A publication of the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia. Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre , 1989. xv + 341 page .
American Families and Households, by Jame A. Sweet and Larry L. Bumpa . A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation , 1988. xxxii + 416 page.
American Indians: The First of This Land, by C. Matthew Snipp. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation , 1989. xxvii + 408 page .
American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation, by Michael J. White. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 1988. xx + 327 page .
Biotechnology in China, by Dean H. Hamer and Shain-dow MARCH
Kung. A publication of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China. Wa hington, D.C.: National Academy Pre , 1989.
Child Development in Life-Span Perspective, edited by E. Mavi Hetherington, Richard M. Lerner, and Marion Perlmutter. Papers based on a conference held in June 1986, pon ored by the Committee on Life-Course Per pective on Human Development. Hill dale, New Jer ey: Lawrence Erlbaum A ociate , 1988.
Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, edited by Jo eph W. E herick and Mary Backu Rankin. Studie on China II. Ba ed on a conference held in Banff, Canada, in Augu t of 1987 and pon ored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie . Berkeley: University of California Pre , 1990. xvii + 450 page .
Chinese Students in America: Policies, Issues, and Numbers, by Leo A. Orlean . A publication of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China. Wa hington , D.C. : National Academy Pre , 1988.
Las ciudade en contlicto: Una perspectiva latinoamericana [Citie in Conflict: A Latin American Per pective), edited by
Mario Lombardi and Danilo Veiga. Papers ba ed on a 1988 eminar pon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Montevideo: Centro de Infonnacione y E tudio del UruguaylEdicione de la Banda Oriental, 1989. 307 page .
Clean Coal: Pretreatment and Methanol Conversion, edited by Jane Jernow, Jo eph Leonard, and Terry Price. A publication of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. Wa hington, D.C. : National Academy Pre , 1988.
Conversations between Economists and Anthropologists: Methodological Issues in Measuring Economic Change in Rural India, edited by Pranab Bardhan. Paper from a conference held in Bangalore, India in 1985. A publication of the Joint Committee on South A ia. Delhi: Oxford University Pre ,1989.
Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China, edited by Jame L. Watson and Evelyn S. Raw ki. Studie on China 8. Papers from a 1985 conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie . Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre , 1988. xv + 334 page .
Democracy Under Siege: New Military Power in Latin ITEM
America, edited by Augu to Vara . Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. New York: Greenwood Pre ,1989. 224 page .
Number 2 of the Map and Geography Roundtable of the American Library A ociation. Chicago: Speculum Orbi Pre , 1988.
Eastern Europe and Communist Rule, by J. F. Brown. A publication of the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Pre ,1988. xii + 562 page.
A Guide to Scholarly Resources on the Ru ian Empire and the Soviet Union in the New York Metropolitan Area compiled by Robert A. Karlowich. Foreword by Edward Ka inec. New York: Social Science Re earch Council, 1990. 328 page.
Economic Adjustment and Reform in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: Essays in Honor of Franklyn D. Holzman, edited by Jo ef C. Brada, Ed A. Hewett, and Thoma A. Wolf. Duke Pre s Policy Studie . Ba ed on paper pre ented at a conference held at the Kennan Institute for Advanced Ru ian Studie in October 1984 and co pon ored by the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Pre 1988. xii + 428 page .
From Many Strand : Ethnic and Racial Groups in Contemporary America, by Stanley Lieber on and Mary C. Water . A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 1988. xx + 294 page.
Guide to Hi torical Map Resources for Greater ew York, by Jeffrey Kroe ler. Spon ored by the Committee on New York City. Monograph 14\ITEM
The Hispanic Population of the United States, by Frank D. Bean and Marta Tienda. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 1988. xvii + 457 page .
Housing America in the 1980s, by John S. Adam . A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 198 . xviii + 328 page.
India through Hindu Categories, edited by McKim Marriott. An indexed, cloth edition of the journal Contributions to Indian Sociology, 23(1), 1989. Sponored by the Joint Committee on South A ia. Delhi: Sage Publication 1990.
International Directory of Librarians and Library
Speciali ts in the Slavic and East European Field, 3rd ed., prepared by Robert Karlowich, under the au pice of the Subcommittee on Bibliography Infonnation Retrieval and Documentation of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie . New York: Social Science Re earch Council, 1990.
The Japanese Informal Empire in China, 1895-1937, edited by Peter Duu , Ramon H. Myer , and Mark R. Peattie. Ba ed on a 1985 conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Pre ,1989. xxix + 454 page .
Longitudinal Retirement Hi tory Survey Workshop Final Report, by Thoma B. Jabine and Robert W. Pear on. A publication of the Committee on Confidentiality and Data Acce . Wa hington, D.C .: Committee on National Stati tic, 1988.
Managing Indu trial Enterprise: Cases from Japan's Prewar Experience, edited by William D. Wray. Papers ba ed on a conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . Harvard Ea t A ian Monograph , 142. Cambridge, Ma achu ett : Council on Ea t A ian Studie , Harvard Univer ity, 1989. 450 page.
Migration and Residential Mobility in the United State , by Larry Long . A publication in the erie "The Population of the VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1
United State in the 1980 . Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen us. New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation. 1988. xviii + 397 page . It
Models of Disequilibrium and Shortage in Centrally Planned Economies, edited by Christopher Davi and Wojciech Charemza. Economic Studie in Economic Modelling. Paper ba ed on a conference held in 1987 and pon ored by the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe. London: Chapman and Hall . 1989. xv + 50] page.
Muerte y Resurrecci6n: los partidos politico en el authoritarismo y las tran iciones del Cono Sur [Death and Re urrection: Political Parties under Authoritariani m and the Tran ition in the Southern Cone] . edited by Marcelo Cavarozzi and Manuel Antonio Garret6n. Publication re ulting from work hop held between 1982 and 1985 . pon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Santiago: FLACSO . 1989. 520 page .
Mujeres latinoamericanas: Diez ensayos y una historia colectiva [Latin American Women: Ten E ay and a Collective Hi tory] . Publication re ulting from conference held in Mexico City in September 1983 and in Lima in July 1985. pon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie and the Ford Foundation. Lima: Flora Tri tan . Centro de la Mujer Peruana. 1988. 309 page . MAR H
Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination, edited by Dale F. Eickelman and Jame Pi catori. Sponsored by the Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie . London: Routledge. 1990. xxii + 281 page . Publi hed imultaneou ly by University of California Pre • Berkeley (Comparative Studie in Mu lim Societie • Volume 9).
Neo-Confucian Education: The Formative Stage, edited by William Theodore de Bary and John W. Chaffee. Studie on China 9. Papers from a 1984 conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie . Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre • 1989. xiii + 593 page .
The New Chosen People: Immigrants in the United States, by Guillermina Ja 0 and Mark R. Ro enzweig. A publication in the erie 'The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Censu . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation. 1990. 480 page.
Oral Epics in India, edited by Stuart H. Blackburn. Peter J. Claus. Joyce B. Flueckiger. and Su an S. Wadley. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia. Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre • 1989. 290 page .
The Origins of Backwardnes in Eastern Europe: Economics &
Politics from the Middle Ages until the Early Twentieth Century, edited by Daniel Chirot. Paper from a conference held in 1985 and pon ored by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe. Berkeley: University of California Pre • 1989. ix + 260 page.
The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations, edited by Peter A. Hall. Spon ored by the Committee on State and Social Structure . Princeton: Princeton Univer ity Pre s. 1989. 406 page. Postwar Vietnam: Dilemmas in Sociali t Development, edited by David G. Marr and Chri tine P. White. Papers ba ed on a conference held in September 1985 in Su ex (England) and pon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t Asia. Southea t A ia Program Monographs No.3 . Ithaca. New York: Cornell Univer ity. Southea t Asia Program. 1988. 264 page . Power, Culture, and Place: Essays on New York City, edited by John Hull Mollenkopf. Spon ored by the Committee on New York City. New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation. 1988 . xxi + 319 page. Proceedings of the May 1988 Conference and Work hop on African Material Culture, edited by Mary Jo Arnoldi . Chri traud M. Geary. and Kri L. Hardin. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on African Studie . New York: ITEMsII S
Social Science Re earch Council, 1990. 135 page. Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States, by William H. Frey and Alden Speare, Jr. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen us. New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 1988. xxxii + 564 pages.
Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe since World War D, by Jo eph Roth child. A publication of the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe, with special funding from the Ford Foundation. New York: Oxford University Pre ,1989. xii + 257 pages. Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution: Rural Social Conflict in Mexico, edited by Friedrich Katz. Publication re wting from two conferences, one held in Ixtapa, Mexico, in February 1981, and the other in New York City in April 1982, ponsored by the
Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Princeton: Princeton University Pre ,1988. 594 page.
Rural and Small Town America, by Glenn V. Fuguitt, David L. Brown, and Calvin L. Beale. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United States in the 1980 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Research on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 1989. xxvii + 471 pages.
Research Council, 1989. 71 page. Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes, edited by T. J. Pempel. Based on a erie of conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie , the Joint Committee on We tern Europe, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Pre ,1990. xi + 371 page.
Shari'at and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam, edited by Katherine P. Ewing. Papers from a 1981 conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia. Berkeley: University of California Pre ,1988. xv + 321 pages.
The United States and Japan in the Postwar World, edited by Akira lriye and Warren I. Cohen. Papers based on a conference spon oeed by the Japane e Society for the Promotion of Science and the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . Lexington, Kentucky: Univer ity Pres of Kentucky, 1989. 237 page.
Survey of Programs for Undergraduate Study in Japan, prepared by Su an Laughlin . A report spon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studies at the reque t of the Japan Foundation. New York: Social Science
Writing on the Tongue, edited by A. L. Becker. Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asian Studie , Number 33. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Pre s, 1989. 320 page .
45, NUMBER 1
Recent Council Publications Conversations between Economists and Anthropologists: Methodological Issues in Measuring Economic Change in Rural India, edited by Pranab Bardhan. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia. Delhi: Oxford Univer ity Pre ,1989. 288 page. Thi book i premi ed on the idea that economi ts and anthropologi ts, e pecially tho e who tudy rural folk, have developed re earch trategie and method which operate on completely different level of analy i and de cription. Economi ts find their an wers in collecting and proce ing number , while pending little or no time in the field with the people from whom the numbers are derived. On the other hand, anthropologi t feel more at home understanding the urn of human behavior and rarely look for meaning in the villager ' material life. Both group have their own way of taking the mea ure of their ubject. In Augu t 1985, Bardhan invited economi t, tati tician and anthropologi t to a work hop pon ored by the Council and the Indian Stati tical In titute in Bangalore, India. According to the book' introduction, "The main purpo e of the work hop was to bring together orne member of different group of ocial ob erver , primarily anthropologi t , economi t and tati tician working on rural South A ia, to thra h out their e ential methodological difference in an atmo phere of cholarly give-and-take, and to 1ARCH
explore way of learning from one another' kit of tool , conceptual categorie and method of inquiry. " An important concern of the work hop was the relative merits of the macro and micro urvey in measuring the re pon e of rural ociety to development initiative . In order to reveal the complexitie and pitfall of the two approache , discu ion concentrated on economic change that i measurable in orne well-defined en e. The volume contain contribution by Pranab Bardhan, A. Vaidyanathan, N. Bhattacharya, M. Chattopadhyay, Su an S. Wadley, Bruce W. Derr, Jan Breman, John Harri , N. S. Jodha, Sure h D. Tendulkar, A hok Rudra, T. N. Sriniva an, and Arjun Appadurai . In urn, the volume reveal the consequence of the methodological choice of anthroplogi t and economi t ,and hould be useful to cholars intere ted in both philo ophical and methodological i ue, a well a tudent of peasant tudie and rural change.
Power and Difference: Gender in Island Southeast Asia, edited by Jane Monnig Atkin on and Shelly Errington . Based on a conference held in December 1983 in Princeton, New Jer ey and pon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia. Stanford: Stanford Univer ity Pre ,1990. xvii + 498 page . Cloth and paperback. Although the ocietie of i land Southeast A ia (Malay ia, Indone ia and the Philippine , plu Brunei and Singapore) are known
for their egalitarian relations between men and women, ubtle difference in power and tatu do exi t. The e difference are often difficult to conceptualize, and, con equently, the theoretical i ue po ed by uch relatively egalitarian gender y tern have been largely unexamined in We tern cholarship, even though the e i ue 路are of great importance to femini ts and other intere ted in culture and power. Thi book i about difference and power a they relate to men and women in i land Southeast A ia. It examine how difference between "male" and "female" (as gendered concepts of the person) and between men and women (as living being engaged in activities) are con tituted, both in a umption and through practice , and how power i envi ioned and di tributed among men and women. The volume begin with a ub tantial theoretical es ay on gender, power, and the body, which i followed by 11 tudie of a peet of gender in variou part of i land Sou thea t A ia. Through the intertwined per peetive of anthropological and femini t tudie , the work reca ts old analytic puzzle in innovative way ,advance recognition of new puzzle , and contribute to a multidi ciplinary understanding of the ociocultural dimen ion of gender and related y tern of "per on cia ification." Jane Monnig Atkin on i as ociate profe sor of anthropology at Lewi and Clark College; Shelly Errington i a ociate profe or of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. ITEMS/17
Program for Participation of American Scholar in Soviet Sociological Research Projects The Joint Committee on oviet Studie (JCSS) of the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS) and the Social Science Research Council join with the International Research & Exchange Board (IREX) in announcing a pilot program for a mall number of graduate tudent and junior scholars to participate in research project in the Soviet Union for a period of up to ix month during 1992.
Purpose of the Pilot Program -To help develop sociological tudie of the Soviet Union by U.S. holars -To fo ter collaborative research on sociological topic by Soviet and U.S. social ienti -To provide U.S. scholars with opportunitie for first-hand participation in Soviet sociological research projects
Award The award will include tran portation to and from the United State and living expense in the Soviet Union. Admini trative arrangements will be made by the International Research & Exchange Board.
of the applicant, including academic record, research kill , previous training and
holarly work related to propo d project -Language proficiency adequate for the proposed project, e pecially in the ca of junior scholars -Demon trated knowledge of the Soviet and American literature pertinent to the project -The intellectual value of the proposed project to ociological research -The identification of potential Soviet co- ponsors, evidence of their willingne to cooperate in their proposed project, and arrangement for reception of participant
Selection Procedur Award will be made by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie on the b i of evaluation and recommendation of its Subcommittee on Sociology. Final participation and funding i contingent on acceptance by Soviet co- pon rs.
Application Deadline: Announcement of Awards: Earliest Starting Date:
April IS, 1991 June I, 1991 January I, 1992
For further infonnation and application material , contact:
Joint Committee on Soviet tudi Sociology ubcommittee Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue ew York, NY 10158
VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1
Notes Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES) 199~93 Grant Competitions (I) Fulbright Scholar Awards for U.S. Faculty and Proti ionaIs The Fulbright Scholar Program for 1992- 93 include some 1,000 grants for research, combined research and lecturing, or university lecturing. Opportunitie range from two month to a full academic year; many as ignments are flexible to the needs of the grantee . Nearly one-third of Fulbright grants are targeted for research and many lecturing award offer research opportunitie . There are opening in over 100 countrie and, in many region , multicountry research i po ible . Virtually all discipline and ubfield participate. Specific opening exi t in almo t every area of the humanitie , social science , phy ical science , the art , and applied field uch a bu ine ,journali m, and law. Manyoffering throughout the program allow scholars to propo their own lecturing or research projects. Scholars in all academic ranks are eligible to apply, from junior faculty to profe or emeriti . Applications are also encouraged from profe ionals out ide academe and from independent scholars. Fulbright seeks good teachers as well as active researchers. The ba ic eligibility requirements for a Fulbright award are U.S. citizen hip and Ph .D. or comparable profe ional qualification ; for certain field uch as the fine arts or TESOL, the terminal degree in the field may be ufficient . For lecturing award , university or college leaching experience i expected. Language kill are needed for some countrie , but mo t lecturing as ignment are in Engli h . There i no limit on the number of Fulbright grants a scholar can hold, and former grantee may reapply.
Deadlin : June 15, 1991 for Au tralasia, South A ia, most of Latin America, and the USSR; and Augu t I, 1991 for Africa, A ia, Europe, the Middle East, Canada, and lecturing award in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Venezuela. Other deadline are in place for special programs. Application material are available beginning March I, 1991. For further information and application , call or write the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden Street, N.W., Suite 5M, Box NEWS, Washington, DC 20008-3009. Telephone: 202/686-7817 .
(2) Advanced Research FeUowsbips in India The Indo-U.S. Subcommi ion on Education and Culture i offering twelve long-term (6-10 month) and nine hort-term (2-3 month) awards for 1992-93 research in India. These grants will be available in all academic discipline , except clinical medicine. Applicant mu t be U.S. citizen and hold the Ph.D. or comparable profe ional qualification . The fellow hip program seeks to open new channel of communication between academic and profe ional group in the United State and India and to encourage a wider range of research activity between the two countrie than now exi ts. Scholars and profe ional with limited or no prior experience in India are e pecially encouraged to apply. The program i ponsored by the Indo-U.S. Subcommi ion on Education and Culture and i funded by the United States Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian In titution , and the Government of India. Application d adline路 June IS, 1991. Application forms and further information are available from the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Attn: Indo-American Fellow hip Program, 3007 Tilden Street, N.W., Suite 5M , Washington, DC 20008-3009. Telephone: 202/686-4017 .
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVENUE, (212) 661-02 0
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The Council was incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, /924, for the purpo e of advancing research in the ocial science. ongo~路t'rnmental and interdisciplinary in nature, the Council appoint committt!t!s of cholars which uk to achieve the Council's purpo e through the generation of nell' idea and the training of scholars. The activities of the Council are upponed primarily by grant from private foundations and go,ernmt!nt agencies. Directors, 1990-91 : CLAUDE AKE, Univen.ity of Port Harcourt; S zED. BERGER, Mas achu t In titute of Technology; RI HARD A BERK, Univel"ilty of California, Lo Angele; ROBERT M. COE ,North\\, tern University; ROBERT D R TO. , Princeton University; KAI T. ERiKSO. , Y Ie Unive ity; DAVID L. FE THERM N, Social Scien eRe arch Council; ALBERT FI HLOW, University of California, Berkeley; G RD. ER LI DZEY, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral cien e ; BEVI Lo G TRETH, Debevoi & Plimpt n; D VID M G U ., Stockholm University; COR B. MARRETT, University of Wi on in; EMILY MARTI ,The John Hopkin University; WILLI MH. SEWELL, JR., University of Michigan; BURTO. H. SI GER, Yal University; FRA . I X. SUTTON , Dobb Ferry, ew York; M RT TIENDA, University of Chi ago; ROBERT B. ZAJo.路 , University of Mi higan. Officer and Staff: DAVID L. FEATHERltAN, Pre ident; STA LEY J. HEGI BOTHA I, Vice President; Ro. ALD J. PELECK. Vice President for Finance; GLORIA KIRCHHEIMER, Editor; DoRtE I OCCHI, Assistant to the President; RI HARD COHE ,Y \It E ERGAS, C RV FRA ER, M RTH A. GEPHART, ERI HERSHBERG, STEVE HEYDEMA , ROBERT T. HUBER, MIMI KtM. TOM loDGE, M RV BVR E McDo. ELL, RAQUEL OVRYN RIVERA, ELLE PERECM S, StLVI RAW (on leave), RI HARD C. ROCKWELL , M. PRI ILLA STO E, DAVID L. SZANTO , TOBY ALICE VOLKMA .
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