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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 43 • NUMBER 2 • JUNE 1989 605 THIRD AVENUE. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158

David L. Featherman Named President of the Social Science Research Council THE COUNCIL'S BOARD OF DIRECTORs-acting on the recommendation of the Executive Committee-has selected David L. Featherman, professor of sociology and director of the Institute on Aging and Adult Life at the University of Wisconsin, as president of the Council, effective September 1, 1989. Mr. Featherman will succeed Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr., who has served as president since July 1986. Mr. Wakeman, one of the nation's foremost historians of modern China, will resume teaching and research at the University of California, Berkeley. The Council's new chief executive officer, who is 46 years old, is a graduate of Franklin and Marshall College and was trained as a sociologist at the University of Michigan where he received a Ph.D. in Social Psychology in 1969. He has taught at the University of Wisconsin since 1970, and was appointed John Bascom Professor of Sociology at the University in 1982. Mr. Featherman is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the advisory board of the Max Planck Institute in Berlin, and a recent recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship. His association with the Council is not new. As chairman of the Council's Committee on Comparative Stratification Research from 1981-1987 he worked closely with scholars from Brazil, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Norway, and the United Kingdom, and also acquired a working familiarity with the Council's structure and objectives. In making the announcement of Mr. Featherman's

For contents of this issue, see the box on page 22

David L. Featherman

selection, Francis X. Sutton, chairman of the Council's board of directors, stated, "The search committee was strongly impressed by Mr. Featherman's interests in interdisciplinary and comparative research, his conception of the Council's mission, and his realistic understanding of the responsibilities and demands that fall upon the Council's president." The new president's initial research interests were 21


cogmtlve and the social factors which lead to successful adaptation to aging and the postretirement period. In addition to his distinguished 21 David L. Featherman Named President of the Social Science Research Council accomplishments, it is this continued and expanding 23 Economy. Culture. Public Policy. and the Urban evolution of his interests that impressed the board, Underc1ass according to Mr. Sutton. 30 The African Diaspora in African Studies Mr. Featherman's writings reflect the range of his 32 Current Activities at the Council interests. He has published numerous journal articles - Workshop on Political Control of the Soviet Economy (page 32) and has been the co-author or co-editor of several -Child Development in Sociocultural Context books. In the 1970s, he published extensively with (page 32) Robert M. Hauser, and since 1986 he has been -Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues (page 33) editing the annual, Life-Span Development and Behav34 Council Personnel ior, with Paul B. Baltes and Richard M. Lerner. 35 Dissertation Workshop on Gender and Social Discussing his hopes for the future of the Council, Transformation Mr. Featherman said, "I believe the Council must 36 Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1989 49 Council Fellowship and Grant Programs continue to test the frontiers of disciplinary knowl52 Recent Council Publications edge about human behavior and institutions across the global community. It is often at the fuzzy boundaries between disciplines that new perspectives are achieved. One key to the achievement of new understandings lies in a new alliance with our colleagues in the physical and natural sciences as well focused on the interaction of psychological and social as the humanities." Affirming the Council's longfactors in socioeconomic and occupational mobility. standing international interests, Mr. Featherman During the 1970s, he published extensively on the stressed the importance of continuing to foster a effects of race, ethnicity, education, and family widening internationalization of American social struct.ure on mobility patterns, as well as on the science. "American scholars can ill afford to be methodological assumptions underlying this field of parochial," Mr. Featherman noted. "They need to research. This work led to a growing interest in have a sophisticated understanding of the subtle cross national comparative questions, and to personal ways in which cultural values and local concerns research and publications on these processes in channel the course of research." Germany, Israel, and Norway, as well as in the In accepting the presidency, Mr. Featherman United States. expressed a desire to enlarge the Council's scholarly In the early 1980s, Mr. Featherman returned to networks and encourage greater .participation on the some of his earlier social psychological concerns with part of minority researchers in Council activities. The new head of the Council was selected from individual life-span development. In recent years, as director of the Institute on Aging and Adult Life at over 100 nominations. Speaking for the presidential the University of Wisconsin, and with support from search committee and the members of the board of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Founda- directors, Mr. Sutton said of Mr. Featherman, "He tion, he has focused on the development of both the will lead the Council with vigor and distinction." CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE

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Economy, Culture, Public Policy, and the Urban Underclass A discussion of research on processes and mechanisms that create, maintain, or overcome urban poverty by Robert W. Pearson* RESEARCH ON THE URBAN UNDERCLASS is beginning to focus on the ways in which changes in the economy, culture, and public policy-and the responses to these changes by private agencies, families, and individuals-affect persistent and concentrated urban poverty in the United States. The processes by which these conditions are created or maintained (or by which they are prevented or overcome) are a matter of considerable uncertainty and contention. Social scientists often confront the task of understanding these processes with inadequate data and concepts, as well as rudimentary and untested theories. We remain largely ignorant of the processes that link changes at the more macro levels of the economy, culture, or polity to the formation, maintenance, or prevention and remediation of the problems that fall within the conceptual umbrella of the urban underclass. 1 On September 21-23, 1988, the Council's Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass convened a planning meeting to discuss our current understanding of these processes. 2 This article attempts to

* Robert W. Pearson, a political scientist, is staff associate at the Council. With Martha A. Gephart, he serves as staff to the Council's Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass. This article summarizes the results of one of several planning meetings recently sponsored by the committee. 1 Many current conceptualizations of the urban underclass center around the conjunction of three factors: (1) the spatial concentration of disadvantage (e.g., income poverty, low laborforce participation rates); (2) persistent poverty-often associated with extended welfare dependency and the intergenerational transmission of poverty; and/or (3) non-normative behaviors (e.g., crime, drug abuse, out-of-wedlock birth, participation in an "unrecorded" or "illicit economy"). For an illustrative review of research underlying the program of the Council's Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass, see Gephart and Pearson (1988). 2 Participants at this meeting included: Paul Peterson, Harvard University (chair); Edward Blakely, University of California, Berkeley; Barry Bluestone, University of Massachusetts, Boston; Christopher Brooks, O.E.C.D. (Paris); Gordon Clark, Carnegie Mellon University; Sheldon Danziger, University of Michigan; Harry Holzer, Michigan State University; Martha A. Gephart, Social Science Research Council (SSRC); Christopher Jencks, Northwestern University; John D. Kasarda, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Michael Katz, University of Pennsylvania; JUNE

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summarize that discussion and the suggestions that arose from it for new research.

Clarifying processes and mechanisms The meeting was organized around a central question: What are the processes and mechanisms that create, maintain, or overcome the conditions and consequences of persistent and concentrated urban poverty? The meeting did not conclude with a clear answer; indeed, the purpose of the discussion was as much to reformulate the question as it was to answer it, and to suggest ways for the Council to facilitate further research, reVIew, synthesis, and discussion. This state of uncertainty is to be expected. The research community has only recently begun to investigate the processes and mechanisms that may playa role in the emergence of an urban underclass in the United States. A variety of alternative, competing, and complementary interpretations are emerging, along with major points of contention around which data and research may be organized.

Historically proximate and distant factors The processes by which changing economies, culture, and policy affect urban poverty vary, in part, according to how temporally proximate or distant they are. Discussions about the emergence of an urban underclass often move back and forth between these factors, or focus nearly exclusively on the post-World War II period. Largely because of the availability of geographically detailed public use files of the U.S. Censuses of Population from 1970 and 1980, many of the empirical estimates and controversies surrounding

Ronald Mincy, The Urban Institute; John Mollenkopf, The Graduate Center, City University of New York; Paul Ong, University of California, Los Angeles; Raquel Ovryn Rivera, SSRC; Robert Pearson, SSRC; Saskia Sassen, Columbia University; Eric Sheppard, University of Minnesota; Michael Storper, University of California, Los Angeles; and LOlc Wacquant, University of Chicago.

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the definition and measurement of an urban underclass in the United States have been limited to studies of the 1970s (see, for example, Ricketts and Sawhill 1988; Ricketts and Mincy 1987; Reischauer 1987; Danziger and Gottschalk 1987; Massey and Eggers 1989). The choice of a starting point is especially important, however, because it affects the interpretations placed on more contemporary change and helps identify processes or conditions that may be more or less amenable to policy intervention. g In some hypotheses that focus on the recent past, for example, much is made of declining productivity and real wages and increasing income inequality. But these changes take on a considerably different interpretation when contrasted to more lengthy periods. Indeed, the relatively high wages in manufacturing during the 1950s may be the result of the domination of the United States in a world economy whose industrial capacity was severely, if only temporarily, crippled by World War II. Labor unions during this period could effectively raise real wages because firms, particularly capital-intensive 'smokestack' industries, could pass them along through higher prices. Contrasting the current period only to the 1950sas if this latter period represented a norm-may be misleading. Few public policies may be able to direcdy change the distribution of earnings in the currendy competitive international economy, while the projected labor shortage of the coming decade may drive up wages and lead to increased investments in capital and firm-provided specific onthe-job training (Danziger 1988).

Factors affecting the emergence of an urban underclass As yet, there is no integrated theory of the processes that have helped create or maintain the conditions and consequences of urban poverty. Instead, a patchwork of interpretations, hypotheses, More distant or longstanding social changes, although less amenable to change through laws or regulations, are as important to understand as more recent ones. Attempts to rebuild blue-collar employment bases in central cities through enterprise zones, for example, may be ineffective if they fail to understand the efficiencies in production and transportation that are made available by changing technologies (often to the advantage of suburban locations), or if they fail to capitalize on information-processing and other advanced service sector industries, each of which represents longstanding changes in the way in which production is organized in the 20th century. 3

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and theories is emerging to explain the increasing concentration of disadvantage, the increasing persistence and transmission of poverty, and the rise of social dislocation in many cities in the United States during the last several decades. These factors include: • Increasingly competitive international economies • Changes in the nature of jobs, e.g., declining real wages, the creation of a large number of jobs (at least in the United States), and increasing wage inequality • Changes in the location of jobs and people • Organization of work into more "contingent" forms of labor (from the perspective of workers) and more "flexible" production methods (from the perspective of employers) • Movement from industrially-based (or durable goods-producing) local or regional economies to service (or information-processing) ones • Alternative economic opportunities presented by informal and illicit economies, often involved in drugs and sometimes associated with increasingly violent crime • Migration of labor across and within national boundaries or local labor markets • Public policies in housing, transportation, social welfare, health, education, and several other areas • "Culture," which enters many of these interpretations in a variety of ways • Continued racial discrimination in jobs and housing • "Mismatch" between the skills of an increasing segment of minority inner-city youth (served principally by inadequate public education) and the requirements of an economy increasingly oriented toward information processing. There is considerable disagreement about the roles these and other factors play. But a partial explanation of these processes might read as follows:

An increasingly competitive international economy drives industrial and occupational change The economies of advanced countries are increasingly competitive and integrated. Countries, states, regions, cities, organizations, families, and individuals have sought to respond to these changes within the constraints that culture, law, societies, and their own varying capacities have imposed on them. Some argue that these processes have exacerbated the longVOLUME

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standing problems of urban poverty by contributing to the creation of increasingly persistent and concentrated urban poverty in some locations as well as a set of social pathologies by which some define the urban underclass. Consider the following changes in industry and occupation that have characterized major urban areas during recent years. New York City lost a net 172,000 blue-collar jobs between 1970 and 1980; Chicago lost 119,000; Philadelphia 75,000 (Kasarda 1989). Between 1979 and 1983 alone, the U.S. steel industry lost 400,000 employees, the U.S. automotive industry lost nearly 500,000, while U.S. industry as a whole lost 12 million jobs (Clark 1988; Quinn 1988; Cyert and Mowery 1987). During the same period that the large northern cities were losing blue-collar jobs (as well as sales and clerical positions), they gained in managerial, professional, technical, and administrative support positions. For example, New York added a net 264,000 of these jobs; Chicago added 120,000; and Philadelphia added 58,000 (Kasarda). Income inequality increased between 1973 and 1987 while the United States experienced a remarkable growth in the number of jobs, many of which paid poorly or very well (Harrison and Bluestone 1988). These numbers represent a variety of fundamental changes-many of which are longstanding-in the ways in which the United States organizes its productive capacities and provides for the livelihood of its people. Private industry or business plays a prominent role in several interpretations of how changes in industry and occupations have helped contribute to the emergence of increasingly isolated and disadvantaged sectors of many urban landscapes. Although the implicit villain in some accounts, business is cast as a rational actor in others, responding to a set of circumstances by relocating or restructuring the type of employment provided .. The spatial shift of older mass production industries through suburbanization, interregional movements of capital and employment, and internationalization of production is argued to have led to a decline in the types of jobs in older central cities that have heretofore provided employment to the poorly skilled. The movement of employment has been preceded and followed by a continued suburbanization of middle-class white populations in the United States-which is itself facilitated by substantial public investments in roads and highways and tax subsidies for home ownership. These changes may have led to reductions in spillover effects in direct employment and the reduction of employment in local commercial activity serving JUNE

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the residential (but largely rental) sector of older urban economies, where housing remains largely segregated by race (Massey and Eggers 1989). Particular areas within urban economies have been denuded of local commercial activities (e.g., the small "Mom and Pop" stores) that formerly provided entry-level jobs to youth (increasingly minority youth in these cities). These jobs, now gone from inner-city ghettos of the major cities of the Midwest and Northeast, provided a first-if low paying and temporary-step on an occupation ladder within the mainstream of the economy (Wacquant and Wilson 1988). Some argue that the persistent decentralization and mobility of jobs and population in the contemporary city in the United States transforms the economies of the largest metropolitan regions (in which much persistent poverty is found) into perpetually loose labor markets (Scott and Storper 1986). To many urban economists, these are efficient systems because they have high levels of resource mobility. Unfortunately, this system may also contribute to increasing income inequalities, welfare dependency, and the rise of social isolation among minority urban poor who come to live in increasingly disintegrating urban ghettos. It was also suggested at the committee's September meeting that old patterns of migration that helped provide for a close match of jobs and people may have broken down for the first time in U.S. history. Other periods of industrial restructuring-which were accompanied by migration, worker displacement, and return migration-took place in the context of a growing American economy in a "looser" international economy than exists today. The most disadvantaged indigenous populations in the central cores of previously industrial centers may be "stuck."4

Changes in labor supply and demand have ignored segments of the population, or have made alternatives to participation in the formal economy more attractive The purported "(mis)match" of jobs and workers that is arguably at issue in the formation of an urban underclass involves both the supply and demand of labor. That is to say, it is concerned with the characteristics of the disadvantaged and the nature of opportunities available to these people for securing a means for their subsistence, if not livelihood. Polit4 Gary Sandefur. in a personal communication. reports a recent decline in the extent of outmigration from census tracts in which unemployment is high.

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ical discourse on these issues, however, tends to focus on one or the other side of this match. "Supply side" explanations for low rates of employment make several claims: (1) Chronic joblessness results from deficient skills, not a shortage of work. This problem arises either from poor people's skills falling further behind the rising demands of an ever more technically complex economy or from an actual deterioration of the skills now possessed by younger cohorts of the poor. (2) The wages that are required by the poor before they will accept a job have risen, either among youth in general or among unskilled, nonimmigrant, minority youth in particular. (3) Joblessness has increased among inner-city blacks in particular because of growing competition from recent Latino and Asian immigrants and from the recent influx of women into the labor force. This latter argument holds that the overall supply of unskilled and semiskilled workers has outstripped the demand for such labor (Jencks 1988b). Clearly, there is considerable contention over these explanations. One asks, for example, how important skills are if Spa,nish-speaking immigrants (often not literate in Spanish) are preferred by employers over English-speaking inner-city black males. One questions whether social welfaf"e benefits, which have declined in real value during the last 15 years or so, can explain persistent or increasing rates of joblessness among welfare recipients. "Demand side" arguments focus on changes in the composition of economic activity and in the organization and geographical distribution of production which have led to changes in labor demand in specific places. These changes have led to increases in some areas in both the relative and absolute demand for unskilled labor, to reductions in semiskilled positions, and to increases in part-time schedules and temporary contracts, often referred to as contingent work. The increasing size of an "unrecorded" or "illicit" economy (built increasingly around the provision of crack, cocaine, or other drugs) also provides alternatives to jobs that are low wage, low benefit, and unattractive to many workers.

States. For example, although six cities include 50 percent of the urban poor who live in areas of concentrated poverty (New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Houston), over a third of the poor in New York and Chicago live in these concentrated pockets of poverty, while only about 10 percent of the poor in Los Angeles and Houston do. In the 50 largest cities in the United States, poverty grew more concentrated between 1970 and 1980 in 31 cities (increasing substantially in 13), and declined or remained constant in 19 (Bane and Jargowsky 1987). This variety of patterns has several implications for future research. On the one hand, it suggests that research on single cities must be made within a larger theoretical framework. On the other hand, this variation recommends specific and detailed study of those places that represent exemplary conditions. This point is suggested in studies of such cities as Boston, whose booming economy provides a partial test case for examining Wilson's (1987) argument that the absence of full employment is a major problem contributing to a declining male marriageable pool and to social pathologies. In many cities, poverty seems to have been exacerbated by current economic transformations. The economy is now generating large numbers of low paying unskilled jobs, but a significant proportion of the minority population (especially males) is being bypassed in favor of Third World immigrants and nonblack women. A spatial dimension seems to be operating at the microlevel: on the one hand, many minority ghettos have suffered even further loss of jobs since the 1960s; on the other hand, jobs in many cities in intermediate product industries are being created en masse just on the fringes of minority ghettos. Minorities are living rather close to these jobs in many cities but are generally not getting them. Why? Although local economic conditions are seldom stable over extended periods of time, detailed examinations of specific cities and acutely poor communities and neighborhoods within them, together with comparisons with "less poor" cities and neighborhoods, will help answer these questions.

Responses to economic, cultural, and political changes vary

Public policies contribute to the formation of an urban underclass 5

Different cities appear to have different capacities, resources, conditions, and political acumen in responding to these global and national changes. Survey- and census-based research has recently highlighted the variety of patterns in concentrated and persistent urban poverty that characterize major cities in the United

Some social scientists assign the welfare system a leading role in the understanding of welfare dependency and the transmission of poverty across

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5 This section draws heavily on a forthcoming book by Michael Katz.

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generations (Murray 1984). Other research examines the roles played by transfer payments in reducing poverty (see especially Danziger and Weinberg 1986). Recent analyses of longitudinal surveys have reexamined the transmission of welfare use across generations. However, the observed correlation of welfare use between mothers in the Aid for Dependent Children (AFDC) program and their children does not tell us whether "tastes" for welfare or disadvantaged economic conditions are being transmitted across generations. The need is apparent for research that begins to test more directly theories of the underlying processes that produce this transmission (Gottschalk 1988). Often missing from the studies of the role of social welfare policies is a sense of how other public policies in such areas as transportation, urban development, and housing have served to create persistent and concentrated urban poverty. One finds attention to these issues in the work of some political economists or urban geographers, for example, who argue that the locational choices of firms and consumers of residential space are a product of constraints and opportunities which are heavily influenced by public policies. Some of these policies provide subsidies and support the continual decentralization of production and residency in the United States that has tended to further disadvantage those in the inner city who lack social capital (i.e., networks of employed friends who know of available jobs), human capital (i.e., education and training), and resources (i.e., a car to reach newly created or relocated jobs that public transportation does not). Transportation policies, for example, have served the longstanding impulse for suburbanization which has characterized much of American history, but which was held in check by the Great Depression and World War II. The 1956 Highway Act, the Federal Housing Administration's guarantees of suburban mortgages and its racial restrictions on mortgages until the 1960s, and the proliferation of local zoning ordinances which constrained development in many areas to include only single-family housing must also playa role. At times, these policies appear to have been explicitly designed to concentrate disadvantaged populations, given the results of urban redevelopment and the construction of highways and expressways through America's cities during the 1950s and 1960s. Federal housing policy plays a direct and visible role as well. Alan Wolfe writes that the Housing Act of 1949 "financed the destruction of America's cities, while sustaining a rebuilding machine that united JUNE

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politicians, bankers, and developers into a powerful coalition that took over the Democratic party" (1981, p. 88). The urban renewal of the postwar period may have helped revitalize downtowns while simultaneously redistributing the most disadvantaged urban populations into areas of even greater blight. Public policies toward housing have tended to provide poor minorities with access to housing only in neighborhoods where other residents are poor (Mincy, p. 4). Here again, research of this kind does not capture change in all cities in the United States during this era; but rather more adequately describe processes operating in older industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest, whose structure-a legacy of the technologies prevalent at the time of their greatest growth (e.g., large rental populations, public transportation, high land costs)-made it difficult for these cities to take advantage of the resources being allocated through such policies in ways that would have distributed poverty and its attendant consequences differently.

The contentious character of culture A considerable amount of scholarship and public discourse on the urban underclass appears to play itself out within the framework of economic structure vs. culture. These largely divergent interpretations are fueled in part by: (1) the media's intuitively plausible (but largely unsubstantiated) explanation of the formation of an urban underclass in largely "cultural" terms and (2) the ideological divide between conservative analysts who emphasize the transmission of values, attitudes, tastes-often loosely collapsed within the rubric of culture-and more liberal analysts who focus on structures of educational, housing, or employment opportunities. Culture appears in some contexts to be interpreted as a key word for attributing blame for the conditions of an urban underclass to the persons within that category. These positions are difficult to reconcile because of the passion with which they are held. The difficulty is compounded by the variety of meanings evoked by the concept of culture itself. These meanings range from widely shared norms, attitudes, and values to a dimension of everyday relationships that help organize perceptions and behavior (Wacquant 1988). Several participants at the September meeting suggested that the perceived antithesis of structure and culture was unfounded. Economic events (e.g., the rise and decline of industries and occupations, or the loss of a job, divorce, or out-of-wedlock birth) may tend to push someone or a group of people into particular geographic and economic positions, which ITEMS/27


create the hothouse for establishing a local culture, which in turn serves to reinforce (perhaps, protect or insulate) that status within the larger social structure. Jencks (1988a), for example, suggests that broader cultural changes-here, in terms of changing attitudes toward sex, marriage, divorce, and parenthood during the last 30 years or so-are responded to differently, depending on the resources and capacities of groups or individuals. In this instance, changing norms and attitudes may have improved the lives of the educated elite, while posing serious problems for the less advantaged: . . . Now that the mass media, the schools, and even the churches have begun to treat single parenthood as a regrettable but inescapable part of modern life, we can hardly expect the respectable poor to carry on the struggle against illegitimacy and desertion with their old fervor. They still deplore such behavior, but they cannot make it morally taboo. Once the two-parent norm loses its moral sanctity, the selfish considerations that always pulled poor parents apart often become overwhelming. (Jencks 1988a, p. 30)

Conclusion Large economic, cultural, and political changes are taking place that have differentially affected the capacity and incentives of people and institutions to participate in what many call the "mainstream" of American society. Many of these processes have been set in motion by or are in response to long-term social changes, broadly construed. Others appear to be in response to the more recent changes of the last 30 years. The form and shape of these responses in the United States is influenced by public policies and a dominant public ideology that give considerable latitude to decentralized, private (familial and individual, as well as institutional) action. As a consequence, some people, places, and organizations appear to have been placed at a disadvantage (or their disadvantages may be exacerbated). Alternatively, others have benefited from these changes (e.g., the black working and middle class whom Wilson [1987] argues fled the inner-city ghettos of northeastern and midwestern cities during the last 20 years). The increasing persistence and concentration of urban poverty and its attendant problems of social isolation, physical danger, mortality, morbidity, drug abuse, and crime appear to be the products of these structures and processes. There is much, however, that remains unclear about these mechanisms, especially as they cross or link different levels of analysis. The Council's Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass-based on the discussion of the September planning meeting-has initiated several projects to improve that understanding: 28\!TEMS

First, it has commissioned the assembly of extant data about the United States' largest 100 cities in order to better trace changes in urban poverty and responses to it. The work has been commissioned in part as a stage in the development of more intensive studies of several cities, selected on the basis of this information, within a framework of theoretical propositions about urban poverty. These data will also be useful in providing a comparative framework for the several studies and assessments of local interventions that have been recently initiated by several foundations, community organizations, and scholars in such cities as Boston, Cleveland, Denver, Memphis, Oakland, Philadelphia, San Antonio, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere. This "chartbook" of data is to be prepared under the supervision of John Kasarda, University of North Carolina. The committee has also recently commissioned several integrative and synthetic reviews of existing research on issues relevant to those discussed at the September meeting as well as research papers that will report ongoing empirical work. These include: • A review of existing research on the alternative opportunity structures provided by informal, underground, or illicit economies. This review will compare the decisions and behavior of individuals at different points in their life course, within neighborhoods with different social ecologies. This review will be prepared by Mercer Sullivan, Vera Institute of Justice (New York). • A review of the evidence bearing on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, which tries to assess the competing claims of Kain, Ellwood, Kasarda, and others regarding the relationship between employment, the proximity of jobs or access to them, and the residential location of blacks. This paper is being prepared by Harry Holzer, Michigan State University. • A review of the evidence concerning "demand side" theories that purport to account for rising joblessness and lagging wages among urban blacks and Hispanics. This paper will also summarize what is known about reasons for the deteriorating earnings of the young versus their elders, and the deteriorating earnings of the poorly educated, relative to the better educated. This paper is being prepared by Richard Freeman, Harvard University. • A paper that considers how a cultural approachone that emphasizes dimensions of meaning and interpretation in everyday life-would complement the thrust of Wilson's analysis (1987). VOLUME

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Employment: Innovation and Growth in the U.S. Economy. Drawing on recent developments in cultural Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987. anthropology, this paper will examine the extent Danziger, Sheldon G. Untitled memorandum prepared for the to which social constructions of meaning may September 21-23 meeting, Social Science Research Council, New York, 1988. define perceptions of available economic or Danziger, Sheldon G., and P. Gottschalk. "Earnings Inequality, occupational options among members of an the Spatial Concentration of Poverty, and the Underclass." The underclass. This study is being prepared by American Economic Review, 77:211-215, 1987. Katherine Newman, Columbia University. Danziger, Sheldon G., and Daniel E. Weinberg, editors. Fighting Poverty: What Works and What Doesn't. Cambridge, Mass.: • A paper that examines discontinuities in job Harvard University Press, 1986. histories by comparing data from the recently Gephart, Martha A., and Robert W. Pearson. "Contemporary completed National Opinion Research Center Research on the Urban Underclass." Items 42:1-10, 1988. (NORC) survey of the Urban Family Life Project Gottschalk, Peter. "Correlations Between Mothers' and Daughters' Welfare Experiences." Unpublished report, Boston in Chicago with a national representative sample, College, 1988. such as the Family Household Survey. The paper Harrison, Bennett, and Barry Bluestone. The Great U-Turn: Corporate Restructuring and the Polarization of America. New will consider to what extent job discontinuities York: Basic Books, 1988. are chronic, and whether and how periods or job jencks, Christopher. "Deadly Neighborhoods." The New Republic, instability translate into non-work. This report is (june 13):23-32, 1988a. being prepared by Marta Tienda, Population jencks, Christopher. Untitled memorandum prepared for the September 21-23 meeting, Social Science Research Council, Research Center, University of Chicago. New York, 1988b. • A paper that analyzes a large survey co.n ducted in Kasarda, john D. "Urban Industrial Transition and the Boston. The survey has recently collected data on Underclass," The Annal!- of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. (january): 26-47, 1989. poor people and a comparison group of the nonMichael. The Undeserving Poor: Ideas .about Urban Poverty in poor. The paper will examine such topics as em- Katz, America from the Age of Kennedy to Reagan. Forthcoming. ployment patterns and employment barriers, qual- Massey, Douglas S., and Mitchell L. Eggers. "The Ecology of Inequality: Minorities and the Concentration of Poverty ity of life, social connectedness, and access to 1970-1980." Unpublished report, Population Research Censervices. This paper is being prepared by Paul Oster, University of Chicago, january 1989. terman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mincy, Ronald. "Industrial Restructuring, Dynamic Events, and • A paper that presents empirical results from the the Racial Composition of Concentrated Poverty." Paper prepared for the September 21-23 meeting, Social Science employers' survey of the Urban Family Life Project, Research Council, New York, 1988. which is based on a sample of firms in Cook County, Murray, Charles. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950Illinois. The .pa per will describe the firms and their 1980. New York: Basic Books, 1984. workforces, hiring practices and turnover, busi- Quinn, D. P. Restructuring the Automobile Industry: A Study of Firms and States in Modern Capitalism. New York: Columbia University ness climate and relocation issues, and perceptions Press, 1988. of business owners about issues facing inner-city Reischauer, Robert D. "The Size and Characteristics of the Underclass." Paper presented at the APPAM Research businesses. This report is being prepared by Joleen Conference. Bethesda, Maryland, October 29-31, 1987. Kirschenman, University of Chicago.

The Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass will also appoint a working group on industrial and occupational restructuring, local political economies, and neighborhoods and communities which will oversee and extend the work initiated by the September 1988 planning meeting.

References Bane, Mary jo, and Paul A. jargowsky. "Urban Poverty Areas: Basic Questions Concerning Prevalence, Growth, and Dynamics." Unpublished mimeo, Harvard University, 1987. Clark, Gordon L. "Corporate Restructuring in the U.S. Steel Industry." G. Sternlieb and j. Hughes, editors, America's New Market Geography. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, 1988. Cyert, Richard, and Mowery, David, editors. Technology and

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Ricketts, Erol R., and Isabel V. Sawhill. "Defining and Measuring the Underclass." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. October 1988. Ricketts, Erol R., and Ronald Mincy. "Growth of the Underclass: 1970-1980." Paper presented at the APPAM Research Conference, Bethesda, Maryland. October 29-31, 1987. Scott, Allen, and Michael Storper, editors. Production, Work Territory: The Geographical Anatomy of Industrial Capitalism. London: Allen and Unwin, 1986. Wacquant, Lolc J.D. Personal communication, letter dated November 29, 1988. Wacquant, Loic J.D., and William J. Wilson. "Beyond Welfare Reform: Poverty, joblessness, and the Social Transformation of the Inner City." Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation Conference on Welfare Reform. Williamsburg, Virginia, February 1988. Wilson, William J. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, The Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Wolfe, Alan. America's Impasse: The Rise and Fall of the Politics of Growth. Boston: South End Press, 1981.

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The African Diaspora in African Studies by Tom Lodge* THE JOINT COMMITTEE on African Studies is currently investigating ways to integrate into the mainstream of African studies the research of scholars working on and in the African diaspora, both in the United States and in other parts of the Americas. In March, the committee held its spring meeting in Trinidad which enabled it to host a discussion with scholars at the University of the West Indies at St. Augustine. Two topics were discussed: the particular problems for West Indian and ~?ecifically Trinidad scholars who are working in African and African diaspora studies and issues which suggest a "symmetry of needs" between Caribbean and North American Africanists. Despite notable contributions to the historical study of slavery and the sociology of race relations, as well as a rich literary tradition, Caribbean historians, literary critics and social scientists are still discovering and constituting an "internal voice." It is difficult, though, for West Indian scholars to initiate research projects without a comprehensive knowledge of the scholarship concerning the Caribbean being undertaken in African and African-American studies centers in the United States. Their isolation from U.S. scholarship has been accentuated by falling exchange rates in recent years. More generally, Caribbean scholarship of the diaspora would be enriched and illuminated by a fuller sense of the overall fashion in which the African experience has shaped the New World. This is difficult to obtain at the moment from the attenuated library resources and limited international contacts available to West Indian scholars. An additional difficulty in Trinidad is that there is no institutional umbrella for African studies despite considerable interest within the academic community. Indeed, the historian Fitzroy Baptiste is the only designated Africanist on the St. Augustine campus of the University of the West Indies. The committee's invitation to this meeting helped to prompt people with a commitment to African or African diaspora studies to come together as a group. There now exists at St. Augustine a working committee on African and diaspora studies. Apart from institutional difficulties, political considerations have affected scholarly emphasis on African cultural and historical identity. The 1970 labor unrest featured communal violence between

* Torn Lodge, a historian, is a staff associate at the Council. He serves as staff to the Joint Committee on African Studies. 30\!TEMS

people of African and East Indian descent. This damaged the development of African studies in Trinidad; for several years afterwards, intellectual interest in questions concerning ethnic identity was officially discouraged. The political environment may be more relaxed today, but given government concern to balance the needs and interests of the two predominant communities, research which draws attention to the islanders' African antecedents will continue to be politically sensitive. Even with a more conducive political milieu, research on African diaspora in Trinidad is hampered by the absence of certain skills. In particular there is an acute shortage of cultural anthropologists-such people would be vital if a serious academic teaching and research program of African diaspora studies were to be launched. In the postcolonial period, there has been a considerable scholarly aversion towards anthropology because of its perceived historical association with colonial policy, especially in Africa. Now, though, the need for anthropological work is widely recognized. The government of India is currently supporting an anthropologist conducting research on Indians in Trinidad, but no such patronage is presently available for anthropological research in other communities. A visiting anthropologist willing to work in Trinidad for two or three years could have a substantial intellectual impact. Notwithstanding the shortages of resources and the political difficulties detailed by the Trinidad scholars, it became clear in the meeting that the intellectual gains which could accumulate between a closer relationship between North American Africanists and West Indian scholars would flow both ways. In the field of slavery studies, for example, Caribbean researchers are highly conscious of the historical analyses of North American slavery; their research, however, points to a number of important differentiations not so evident in U.S. studies which, they believe, treat the Caribbean slave experience cursorily. Clearly, there is scope for dialogue and exchange of information. Trinidad and other West Indian scholars have developed a sophisticated analysis around the concept of "internal colonialism" which may be useful for political theorists of Black America as well as, more obviously, the analysis of settler societies in Southern Africa. African political economists might find useful models in the economic trajectory of West Indian islands with their relative VOLUME

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prosperity compared with structurally similar African economies. North Americans and West Indians would be enriched by the development of a diaspora history which does not reaffirm "victimhood," and which, without being sentimental, could in some senses be celebratory. These concerns helped to initiate the conception of three panels which the committee hopes to sponsor at the November 1989 meeting of the African Studies Association. The first of these will be a roundtable discussion which will bring together Africanists and Diaspora scholars to debate the implications of reconceptualizing African studies through the incorporation of analysis of the history, culture, and political economy of the African diaspora in the Americas and elsewhere. Two other panels will be directed at demonstrating the intellectual gains which could accumulate from such a project. In one of these, participants will compare the survival of constitutional and democratic governments in postcolonial Africa and the British West Indies. Most West Indian states have retained the political and constitutional arrangements established during their decolonization, whereas very few African countries change their governments through the electoral systems which were originally established at independence. Deploying a comparative analysis, and with reference to the historical, social, and cultural experiences of colonialism in both contexts, panelists will discuss the reasons for the relative resilience or fragility of political institutions in the West Indies and Africa. Such an analysis might suggest the framework for a future political economy which emphasizes the variable opportunities of politics rather than the common constraints of dependent economies. The final panel will undertake a comparative analysis of intellectual movements in Africa and its diaspora in which writers, artists and scholars, educated in European modes of thought and expression, sought to create a cultural discourse around the exploration and use of the "folk" or the "people" as an artistic resource. The Harlem Renaissance, the lusophone (Portugese-speaking) "Mensagem" group, West African and Carribean negritude, and the "Africanists" in South Africa are examples of such movements. Questions for the panel might include: Were there comparable historical factors which prompted their emergence? Did they situate themselves similarly within nationalist movements and ideologies? Were they sociologically alike? Did they have common cultural or artistic preoccupaJUNE

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tions? What ingredients informed their respective visions of folk culture? In developing this project, the committee is seeking a broader definition of African studies to emphasize those cultural and historical linkages and continuities between the communities on the African continent and their diasporas. This effort is motivated by the conviction that investigation of the history, culture, and political economy of Africa, together with its diaspora, will bring analytical insights which would be unattainable if the conceptualization of what is African is confined to the continent alone. There are historical, cultural, social, and political processes affecting communities of both the diaspora and the continent which can be more richly understood when they are studied in unison: Ethiopianism, jazz, Garveyism, negritude, millennial Christianity, and, of course, slavery are the more obvious of these. Apart from new contributions to disciplinary questions, such a redefinition of African studies would bring closer integration between the work of Africanists, AfricanAmerican studies, and Caribbean studies scholars. If African studies in the Americas is to flourish, it must broaden its constituency by embracing concerns which help Americans understand their own societies as well as those of others.

Participants Joint Committee on Mrican Studies Randall M. Packard, (chair) Tufts University Anthony Appiah, Cornell University Charles Becker, University of Colorado Frederick Cooper, University of Michigan Francis Deng, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.) Karen E. Fields, University of Rochester Christraud M. Geary, Boston University Lemuel Johnson, University of Michigan Ivan Karp, The Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.) David Laitin, University of Chicago Tom Lodge, Social Science Research Council

Trinidad scholars Fitzroy Baptiste, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Ralph Henry, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Khafra Kambon, biographer and political activist Helen Pyne-Timothy, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Winston Rennie, Government of Trinidad and Tobago Gordon Rohler, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Ena Thomas, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Gwendoline Williams, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

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Current Activities at the Council Workshop on Political Control of the Soviet Economy

Joel Hellman, Columbia University "Soviet Neo-Liberals? Developments in Economic Discourse Before Perestroika"

A workshop on the evolving relationship between Judith Thornton, University of Washington domestic politics and the functioning of the Soviet econ- "Power, Property Rights, and Perestroika: Toward a Socialist Ad omy, cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Soviet Hocracy" Commentators: Joseph S. Berliner. Brandeis University. and Studies and the National Council for Soviet and East Ronald Rogowski, University of California, Los Angeles European Research, was held at Yale University, from March 16-19, 1989. The workshop was organized by Speaker: S. Frederick Starr, President of Oberlin College Peter Hauslohner and David R. Cameron, both of the "The New Organization of Soviet Society" department of political science at Yale University. The workshop was funded by grants from the Soviet and Child Development in Sociocultural Context East European Research and Training Act of 1983 Recent changes in approaches to the study oflearn(Title VIII). ing and cognitive development have led to an increasThe following papers were presented: ing awareness of the importance of the sociocultural context in psychological and social processes. George W. Breslauer, University of California, Berkeley "The Economy and the Power Struggle" In recognition of the potential of an approach that seeks to understand developmental processes in ways Linda J. Cook, Brown University that reflect their cultural, historical, and institutional "The Soviet Economic System and Political Legitimation" specificity, the Committee on Problems and Policy Commentators: David R. Cameron, Yale University, and approved the appointment of a working group (P&P) Timothy J. Colton, University of Toronto and Harvard on Development in Sociocultural Context at its University December 1988 meeting. The goals of the working Peter Rutland, Wesleyan University group will be to formulate a program that (1) "Party Control of Economic Management in the USSR" advances our understanding of learning and cognitive development, (2) addresses the relation between Don Van Atta, Hamilton College and the Hoover Institution and the social sciences, and (3) fosters greater culture "The Political Economy of Agrarian Perestroika" Commentators: Thane Gustafson, Georgetown University, international collaborative research. and David Zweig, Fletcher School, Tufts University Initial discussions for this activity took place at an ad hoc meeting in June 1988. Participants repreRichard E. Ericson. Columbia University sented at least three different strands of research: "Soviet Central Planning Before and After Reform" cultural psychology, sociolinguistics, and comparative Vladimir Kontorovich, Haverford College educational performance. Each shared a sense that "Centrally-Directed Technological Change" approaches that focus on the individual are too Commentators: Ellen Comisso. University of California. San limiting and that a broader framework is needed to Diego. and Herbert S. Levine. University of Pennsylvania understand better the variations that exist within as well as outside of a cultural system. Participants Peter Hauslohner. Yale University "The Incapable State: The Curious Case of the Soviet Labor included Barbara Rogoff, chair, University of Utah; Ministry" Robert LeVine, Harvard University; Elinor Ochs, University of Southern California; Bambi Schieffelin, Peter Maggs. University of Illinois New York University; Lonnie Sherrod, New School "Law. Property Rights. Entitlements. and the Economy" for Social Research; Richard Shweder, University of Commentators: Donna Bahry. New York University. and Peter Chicago; James Stigler, University of Chicago; and Lange. Duke University Stefan Tanaka, Social Science Research Council. Stuart S. Brown, Georgetown University The emphasis on a sociocultural approach pre"The Decline of Soviet Protectionism" sumes that the individual is not separable from the social world; at root, neither the individual nor the Boris Z. Rumer. Russian Research Center. Harvard University or cultural context is an independent variable. social "Multinationalism and the Territorial Economy" is focused on socially organized activity in Attention Commentators: Evelyn Davidheiser, Rutgers University. and Susan L. Woodward. Yale University which individual action and thinking is supported 32\!TEMS

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and constrained by social interaction, societal tools, and institutional practices. The latter are also fluid in that they are created and constituted by individual action in the context of activity. The working group plans to formulate a program of multi-cultural projects that foster the study of learning activities in both informal and formal situations. The two related lines of research that the working group has identified are: • Development in social interaction - This line of research examines prelinguistic, linguistic and nonverbal communication between children and their caregivers and peers as a way of investigating how cultural skills and values are acquired in shared activities. • Development of skill with cultural toolsCultural technologies, such as numerical systems, abacuses, writing systems, genres of literacy, genres of argumentation, and mnemonic devices, are inseparable from the cultural goals they serve and their institutional context. This line of research examines the practices and contexts in which people develop skill in the use of these technologies and tools. With support from the Spencer Foundation, the Council will convene a meeting in the fall to formulate a program that combines this sociocultural approach with other research directions in developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, anthropology, sociology, and linguistics.

Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues In order to assess the state of current research on specific public policy concerns, identify areas that are not being adequately addressed, and formulate a plan for strengthening research in these areas, the Joint Committee for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues* has allocated funds for three focused working groups, two of which have already been established.

* Joint with the Inter-University Program for Latino Research.

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The first, a working group on Latino families, was formed after a review of the literature on migration patterns, family structures, occupational distribution of family members, and changing life roles indicated a need to stimulate further research on Latino families. In the past, many researchers have studied the relationships between institutions and families, but relatively few have included Latinos in their analysis. While research on Latino families has focused predominandy on the poor, the working group will address issues of importance to a broader range of Latino families. A meeting was held on March 17, 1989 at the Chicano Studies Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, which brought together representatives from several community organizations working with Latino families in southern California. Culture, education, employment, empowerment, health services and substance abuse, immigration, and sexuality were identified as the most urgent policy issues facing Latino families. Papers devoted to these issues will be presented at a conference on September 22-23, 1989 at the Stanford Center for the Study of Family, Youth and Children. The working group is staffed by Harriet Romo, Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas, Austin. The second multidisciplinary working group was formed in response to the paucity of information on Hispanic participation in social welfare and income transfer programs. The committee commissioned Gary Sandefur, University of Wisconsin, Madison, to write a background' paper which discusses the utilization of social welfare and income transfer programs by racial and ethnic minorities, assesses the effectiveness of these programs in reducing poverty, and recommends topics for future research. That paper will serve as the working document for the group's first meeting, to be held in the fall of 1989, which will focus on Hispanic utilization and underutilization of social welfare and income transfer programs and the processes that contribute to creating and maintaining dependence upon public assistance. Policy analysts and scholars from a range of disciplines with relevant expertise will be invited to join the working group which is staffed by Raquel Ovryn Rivera.

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Council Personnel Since 1978, Mr. Huber has served as Staff Consultant for the U.S. House of Representatives Blair A. Ruble, who served as staff associate for the on Foreign Affairs. His responsibilities Committee Joint Committee on Soviet Studies since 1985, has resigned from the Council to assume the post of included the formulation of legislative recommendaSecretary of the Kennan Institute for Advanced tions, oversight hearings, Committee reports, and Russian Studies of the Woodrow Wilson Center in advice to members of Congress on U.S.-Soviet relations, U.S.-Eastern European relations, arms Washington, D.C. and negotiations, and foreign military sales control During his tenure at the Council, Mr. Ruble and assistance. He also provided the principal staff secured grants from numerous foundations and from the U.S. Department of State under the Soviet support for the creation of the Soviet and East and East European Research and Training Act (Title European Research and Training Act (Title VIII), as VIII) for the funding of fellowsh.i p programs, well as for numerous Congressional programs. research projects, workshops, and conferences on In addition, Mr. Huber participated in comprehentopics in the field of Soviet studies. sive studies carried out in cooperation with the His book, Leningrad: The Shaping of a Soviet City, Congressional Research Service of the Library of will be published in the fall of 1989 by the University Congress on Soviet negotiating behavior and Soviet of California Press. policy in the Third World. Mr. Ruble has been succeeded by Robert T. Concurrently with his duties as Congressional Huber, who joined the Council on May 3 as staff for consultant, Mr. Huber was an adjunct professor at the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies. the School of International Service at the American Mr. Huber received a B.A. in political science from University and at Georgetown University; he was also the University of Wisconsin in 1977; he received an the co-coordinator of the Washington Intern ProM.A. in international affairs in 1981 and a Ph.D. in gram in Foreign Policy for Marquette University. Mr. international relations in 1987 from the American Huber has been a frequent guest lecturer at a University. His dissertation, Soviet Perceptions of the number of institutions, including the Kennan InstiU.S. Congress: Impact on Super-Power Relations, was tute, the Harriman Institute, and Pennsylvania State published this year by Westview Press. University.

Staff change on Soviet Studies committee

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Joint Committees on African Studies and Southeast Asia Dissertation Workshop on Gender and Social Transformation A pplications are invited for a dissertation workshop on gender and social transformation in Africa and Southeast Asia. The workshop will bring together 12-15 doctoral students in various disciplines working on the study of gender and social change in either' of these regions of the world. Purpose: This workshop will provide a forum for students to discuss their dissertation projects in relation to common theoretical and methodological issues. Specifically, the workshop will focus on (1) how gender, as a principle of social differentiation and a system of cultural difference, structures social processes in ways similar to, and in interaction with, those of class, race, ethnicity, rank, and caste; (2) how a researcher can combine intensive study in a few locales with analysis of larger regional, national, or international forces. A key objective of the workshop is to elucidate the comparative and cross-disciplinary issues that these questions entail, while recognizing specific concerns peculiar to particular disciplines. Emphasis will be on reciprocal and constructive criticism, with the dual aim of improving individual projects and furthering the incorporation of gender into social theories and methodologies. Eligibility: The workshop is open to graduate students at U.S. universities who are currently preparing for their field work or who have just returned from the field and are writing up their research. Support will not be available to

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bring students directly from the field. Eligibility is not confined only to recipients of Council fellowships or applicants for Council fellowships. Those who wish to participate should send the following to the Social Science Research Council, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158: • A copy of their dissertation research proposal (not exceeding 10 double-spaced pages) or • A four- to six-page outline or abstract of the project if field research is already completed • A curriculum vitae • An indication (if known) of the funding source for the field work

Deadlines: To be considered, these materials must reach the Africa or Southeast Asia programs at the Council not later than December 1, 1989. Applicants will be notified by early April 1990 whether or not they have been selected. Several faculty from different disciplines will participate in the workshop, which is scheduled to take place at the end of May 1990. The Council will cover the basic travel and maintenance costs during the workshop. The Council also hopes to encourage continuing communication among participants after the workshop. Questions should be addressed to Tom Lodge (Africa program) or Toby Volkman (Southeast Asia program) at the Council.

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Fellowships and Grants Offered in 19a9 CONTENTS 36 DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS FOR AREA STUDIES Africa, China, Eastern Europe, Japan, Korea, lAtin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Soviet Union, Western Europe 40 GRANTS FOR AREA STUDIES RESEARCH Africa, China, Eastern Europe, Japan, Korea, lAtin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Sou/heast Asia, the Soviet Union, Indochina Studies 44 INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY STUDIES Dissertation fellowships Postdoctural fellowships 46 FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES 46 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MUSLIM SOCIETIES 46 PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH ON CONTEMPO路 RARY HISPANIC ISSUES 47 RESEARCH ON THE URBAN UNDERCLASS Postdoctural grants Dissertation fellowships Urukrgraduate research assistantships 49 COUNCIL FELLOWSHIP AND GRANT PROGRAMS, 1989-90

THESE PAGES list the names, affiliations. and topics of the individuals who were offered fellowships or grants by Council committees in the most recent annual competitions for research in the social sciences and humanities. The area studies research awards were made by committees jointly sponsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). They are supported by grants from the Ford Foundation. the National Endowment for the Humanities. and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for individual programs is provided by the Ford Foundation. the French-American Foundation, the Japan':United States Friendship Commission. the Henry Luce Foundation. the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. the Rockefeller Foundation. and the U.S. Department of State under the Soviet and East European Research and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIII). Fellowships in international peace and security are supported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Fellowships for the comparative study of Muslim societies and for foreign policy studies are supported by grants from the Ford Foundation. Fellowships for public policy research on contemporary Hispanic issues are supported by the Ford Foundation. Awards for research on the urban underclass are supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS. the programs listed are administered by the Council. The Council does not 36\!TEMS

discriminate on the basis of age. color, creed. disability. marital status, national origin. or sex. The programs change somewhat every year. and interested scholars should write to the Council for a copy of the new general brochure. available in August. Individual programs also publish brochures. with more complete descriptions of their aims and procedures. at various times during the year. See also the summary of all current fellowship and grant programs on pages 49-51 below. DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS FOR AREA STUDIES AFRICA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Randall M. Packard (chair). Kwame Anthony Appiah. Claude D. Ardouin. Charles M. Becker, Frederick Cooper. Francis M. Deng. Karen E. Fields. Christraud M. Geary. Lemuel Johnson. Ivan Karp. and David D. Laitin-at its meeting on March 10-12. 1989. The committee was assisted by a screening committee-Dennis D. Cordell. Katherine A. Demuth. Margaret Thompson Drewal. Alma Gottlieb. Christine Jones. Peter D. Little. and Ronald Weitzer-and a selection committee-David W. Cohen (chair). Sandra T. Barnes. Karen E. Fields. Daniel P. Kunene. and Pearl T. Robinson. Tom Lodge. M. Priscilla Stone. Jack Levinson, and Evalyn Tennant served as staff for this program. CRAIG R. CHARNEY. Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University. for research on the black consciousness movement in South Africa between 1966 and 1977 PAUL J. GOLDSMITH. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Universitl of Florida. for research on the commercialization 0 agriculture and production across ecological zones in the Meru District of Kenya RONALD KASSIMIR. Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research on the Catholic Church during state collapse in Western Uganda between 1955 and 1985 MICHAEL KEVANE. Ph.D. candidate in economics. University of California. Berkeley. for research on the nature and importance of dynamic and interlinked contracts in Sudan SIYABONGA NDABEZITHA. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. State University of New York, Binghamton. for research on the development of a segmented labor market in the South African chemical manufacturing industry from the 1930s to the 1970s RODERICK P. NEUMANN. Ph.D. candidate in geography. University of California. Berkeley, for research on the origins and meaning of land use conflict in Arusha National Park in Tanzania TEKALIGN W. MARIAM, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University. for research on food production and agrarian change in Northwestern Shoat Ethiopia. between 1886 and 1960 VOLUME 43. NUMBER 2


JONATHAN SADOWSKY, Ph.D. candidate in history, The Johns Hopkins University, for research on asylums and the confined in colonial Yorubaland PAULINE WYNTER, Ph.D. candidate in forestry and resource management at the University of California, Berkeley, for research on local fisheries management in Mozambique The following predissertation fellowships were also awarded at the committee's meeting on March 10-12, 1989. KATHLEEN BICKFORD, Ph.D. candidate in fine arts, Indiana University, for travel to Cote d'Ivoire CHRISTOPHER GRAY, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for travel to Gabon COLLEEN KRIGER, Ph.D. candidate in history, York University (Ontario), for travel to Zaire SHERYL MCCURDY, Ph.D. candidate in sociomedical SCIences and African history, Columbia University, for travel to Tanzania MARy-KAy MILLER, Ph.D. candidate in French, Yale University, for travel to Senegal JAMES D. PROCTOR, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Swaziland CARTER A. ROEBER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Northwestern University, for travel to Zambia ALPHONSE RUBAGUMYA, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Louisiana State University, for travel to Rwanda LYNETTE SCHUMAKER, Ph.D. candidate in the history and sociology of science, University of Pennsylvania, for travel to Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe PHILIP W. SETEL, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Boston University, for travel to Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire CHINA The Grants Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Lloyd E. Eastman (chair), Stevan Harrell, John Hay, Robert Hymes, Shuen-fu Lin, Elizabeth J. Perry, Willard J. Peterson, Peter Schran, and Vivienne B. Shue-at its meeting on February 17-18, 1989 awarded fellowships to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program. AVRON A. BORETZ, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Taiwan for an ethnological and historical culture study of the "martial" or "military" (wu) as a structuring concept in Chinese religion and popular culture ARI N. BORRELL, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, for research in Taiwan and Japan on eclecticism in 12th-century Sung China: Cha'an and Neo-Confucian thought and practice among the Southern Sung literati (1127-1279) MERCEDES DUJUNCO, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, University of Washington, for research in Hong Kong and Singapore on the Chaozhou Zheng music tradition JEOU YI AILEEN YANG, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Taiwan and Japan on the JUNE 1989

social and folitical history of salt smuggling in North and Centra China, 1644-1949 In a program supported by funds from the Henry Luce Foundation, the following were awarded one-year fellowships for beginning doctoral study in China area studies. LOUISA COAN, for enrollment in the Department of Political Science, University of Michigan JOHN DIDIER, for enrollment in the Department of East Asian Studies, Princeton University MARIS GILLETTE, for enrollment in the Department of Regional Studies, Harvard University LILA QUiNTILIANI, for enrollment in the Department of History/Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Los Angeles BROOK ZIPORYN, for enrollment in the Department of East Asian Studies, University of Michigan EASTERN EUROPE The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Gale Stokes (chair), Ivo Banac, Ellen T. Comisso, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Michael H. Heim, Keith A. Hitchins, George Kolankiewicz, Madeline G. Levine, Deborah D. Milenkovitch, Ivan SZelenyi, and Katherine Verdery-at its meetings on March 11-12 and April 15-16, 1989 voted to award dissertation fellowships to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program. DAVID L. BARTLETT, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, San Diego, for research on the political economy of financial reform in Hungary WANDA BUBRISKI, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Yale University, for research on the resort or clinic: taking the waters at the Bohemian spa, 1870-1914 DEBORAH S. CORNELIUS, Ph.D. candidate in history, Rutgers University, for research on youth movements, populism and educational reform in Hungary, 19251945 JEFFREY S. KOPSTEIN, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research on communism and legality CAROL S. LILLY, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research on ideological trends in Yugoslavia, 1944-1948 ANNAMARIA SELENY, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on the Hungarian second economy and its political significance The following graduate training fellowships were also awarded by the committee. ERIC HIRSCH, graduate student in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the national and economic transformation of Hungary at the turn of the century JEREMY R.N. KING, graduate student in history, Columbia University, for research on the cultural and political ITEMS/37


history of the Hapsburg Empire in the 19th and 20th centuries PAMELA B. ROTHSTEIN, graduate student in history, Yale University, for research on Serbs and the Ilyrianist Movement, 1831-1848: national ideologies among the South Slavs ANDRZEJ W. TYMOWSKI, graduate student in political science, Yale University, for research for a comparison of opposition movements within Poland, Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic JAPAN Under a program for the completion of doctoral dissertations, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on FellowshipsRichard Samuels (chair), Norma Field, David Flath, and Anne Walthall-voted at its meeting on February 18, 1989 to make awards to the following individuals. Blair A. Ruble and Monique Carroll served as staff for this program. YOSHIKO MIYAKE, Ph.D. candidate in the history of consciousness, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research on women's labor in Japanese society, 18681990 KATHRYN RAGSDALE, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Chica~o, for research on popular texts and social contexts: senalized newspaper novels in Meiji Japan ROBERT URIU, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Columbia University, for research on troubled industries in Japan and the politics of economic adjustment KOREA The Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Roger Janelli (chair), Jang-Jip Choi, Carter Eckert, Stephen Haggard, Uchang Kim, B.C. Koh, Lawrence Krause, Chung-In Moon, and Michael Robinson-voted at its meeting on February 24, 1989 to award fellowships to the following individuals. Blair A. Ruble and Monique Carroll served as staff for this program.

TERESA P. CALDEIRA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Brazil on collective experiences and representations of violence and fear LUIS C. CERDA, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on the impact of Porfirian monetary policies in the development and crisis of the export economy, 1890-1910 SARAH C. CHAMBERS, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Peru on urban culture and society in Arequipa, 1780-1854 FRANCES M. HAYASHIDA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in Peru on the dynamics of imperial control in the Lambayeque region ROBIN A. KING, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Texas, for research in Mexico on the political economy of international debt renegotiation ALDO A. LAURIA-SANTIAGO, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in El Salvador on coffee, agrarian society, and the origins of authoritarianism, 1880 to 1940 BRENT H. MILLIKAN, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Brazil on the dynamics of land degradation and colonist attrition in the Amazon basin ZITA C. NUNES, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Brazil on race and the construction of a national identity MARK W. THURNER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wisconsin, for research in Peru on Andean peasant politics, regional society, and the nation-state, 1854-1920 NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastE. Roger Owen (chair), Talal Asad, Andrew C. Hess, Huricihan islamoglu-inan, Jean Leca, Joel S. Migdal, Timothy Mitchell, and Ghassan Salame-at its meeting on March 4, 1989. It was assisted by Mary Layoun. Stefan Tanaka and Dara Shapiro served as staff for the program.

MICHAEL R. FISCHBACH, Ph.D. candidate in history, Georgetown University, for research in Jordan and the United Kingdom on land tenure and social structure in JEANNE PAIK KAUFMAN, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese Ottoman Transjordan literature, Cornell University, for research on Korean JAMES L. GELVIN, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard writers in Japan University, for research in France, Egypt, Syria, and the BERNARD OLIVER, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of United Kingdom on Muhibb ad-Din ai-Khatib and the Southern California, for research on the history of the evolution of the Salafiyya movement Koreans of China, 1949-1988 MARTINA E. RIEKER, Ph.D. candidate in history, Temple University, for research in Egypt, Israel, and the United Kingdom on a comparative historical study of peasant LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN culture in Asyut, Egypt and Nablus, Palestine, 1860The following fellowships were awarded by the Interna1920 tional Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean - Lars Schoultz SOUTH ASIA (chair), Michael Conroy, Florencia Mallon, William Roseberry, Steven Sanderson, and George Yudice-at its The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by meeting on February 25-26, 1989. Silvia Raw, Hope the Joint Committee on South Asia-Bernard S. Cohn Hamashige, Manley Williams, and Laura Grathwohl (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, Jan C. Breman, E. served as staff for this program Valentine Daniel, Paul Greenough, Ronald J. Herring, 38\ITEMS

VOLUME 43, NUMBER 2


Regula Qureshi, V. Narayana Rao-at its meeting on March 13-14, 1989. Toby Alice Volkman, May Ebihara, and Scot Brannon served as staff for this program.

Barrow, and Kathryn Becker served as staff for this program.

JENNIFER GURAHIAN, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, for training in rreparation for dissertation research on the dynamics 0 power between national minorities and the state SHOSHANA KELLER, Department of History, Indiana University, for training in preparation for dissertation research on Central Asian history BENJAMIN NATHANS, Department of History, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for dissertation research on Russian-Jewish relations SARAH REYNOLDS, Department of Law, Emory University, SOUTHEAST ASIA for training in preparation for dissertation research on Soviet law and legal regulation The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by MATTHEW TRAIL, Department of Political Science, Univerthe Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Karl L. Hutterer sity of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation (chair), Jane Atkinson, Gillian Hart, Yoneo Ishii, David G. for dissertation research on political roles and norms of Marr, Renato Rosaldo, Anthony J. S. Reid, Robert Taylor, behavior at high levels in the Soviet and other Leninist Peter S. Xenos-at its meeting on March 20-22, 1989. regimes Toby Alice Volkman, May Ebihara, and Scot Brannon JUDYTH TWIGG, Department of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for training in preparaserved as staff for this program. tion for dissertation research on Soviet weapons acquisition process and its relation to military reform KAREN FROJEN, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York for The following dissertation fellowships were also awarded research in Indonesia on the rhetorical construction of historical knowledge and cultural identity in Tidore, at the committee's meeting on April 21-22, 1989. Indonesia PATRICIA HORVATICH, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, ROBERT ARGENBRIGHT, Department of Geography, UniverStanford University, for research in the Philippmes on sity of California, Berkeley, for a dissertation on the the meaning and practice of Islam in the Phihppines Russian railroad system and the formation of the Soviet MOHD ANIS MD NOR, Ph.D. candidate in Asian Studies, Union, October 1917-1922 University of Michigan, for research in Malaysia and MAURICIO BORRERO, Department of History, Indiana Singapore on the Zapin dance tradition of Johor University, for a dissertation on urban life in civil war MARY BETH MILLS, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Moscow, 1918-1920 University of California, Berkeley, for research in STEPHEN HANSON, Department of Political Science, UniverThailand on female labor migration and household sity of California, Berkeley, for a dissertation on time transformation in northeast Thailand and industrialization in the USSR and the West PATRICIA PELLEY, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell SUSAN MAY, Department of Slavic Languages and LiteraUniversity, for research in Vietnam on the New History tures, Stanford University, for a dissertation on a in post-resistance Vietnam discourse analysis approach of Soviet village prose JlRAPORN WITAYASAKPAN, Ph.D. candidate in theater, ERIC NAIMAN, Department of Literature, University of Cornell University, for research in Thailand on nationCalifornia, Berkeley, for a dissertation on the debate in alism and the transformation of aesthetic concepts in the Soviet Union in the 1920s on sexuality Thai theater during the Phibun l?eriod EUGENE SWIFT, Department of History, University of LlREN ZHENG, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell UniverCalifornia, Berkeley, for a dissertation on theater, sity, for research in the United Kingdom, Singapore, politics, and society in Russia, 1897-1917 and the Netherlands on overseas Chinese nationalism in RICHARD THORPE, Department of History, Princeton Malaya and Indonesia from 1898 to 1941 University, for a dissertation on the management of culture in revolutionary Russia as a case study in the social history of the Soviet intelligentsia SOVIET UNION KIMBERLY ZISK, Department of Political Science, Stanford University, for a dissertation on the Soviet responses to The following graduate trammg fellowships were NATO strategy shifts. awarded by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies-Loren Graham (chair), Jeffrey P. Brooks, Jane Burbank, Robert Campbell, Timothy J. Colton, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Nancy WESTERN EUROPE Shields Kollmann, Mary McAuley, Brian Silver, Michael The following dissertation research fellowships were Swafford, and William Mills Todd III-at its meeting on April 21-22, 1989. The committee was assisted by a awarded by the Joint Committee on Western Europescreening committee-Nancy Shields Kollmann (chair), Peter A. Gourevitch (chair), Victoria de Grazia, Helga M. Mark Beissinger, Stuart Brown, Robert Edelman, Monica Hernes, Victor Perez-Diaz, Charles F. Sabel, Fritz W. Frankel, and Rajan Menon. Blair A. Ruble, Sandra Scharpf, and David Soskice-at its meeting on March 31 ARJUN GUNERATNE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Nepal and the United Kingdom to study cultural variation and ethnic identity among the Tharus of the Nepal Tarai INtS ZUPANOV, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Italy and Portugal on Jesuit writing and missionary activity in 17th century South India

I

JUNE 1989

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and April I, 1989. It was assiste? by the Screeni~g Committee-Leora Auslander, Carohne B. Brettell, Chnstina Crosby, Robert M. Fishman, Ellen Immergut, Elizabeth Anne McCauley, Kathleen Thelen, and Stewart Weaver. Yasmine Ergas and Coralynn Davis served as staff for this program.

Appiah, Claude D. Ardouin, Charles M. Becker, Frederick Cooper, Francis M. Deng, Karen E. Fields, Christraud M. Geary, Lemuel Johnson, Ivan Karp, and David D. Laitin-at its meeting on March 10-12, 1989. Tom Lodge, M. Priscilla Stone, Jack Levinson, and Evalyn Tennant served as staff for this program.

JANIS BERGMAN-CARTON, Ph.D. candid~te in art history, CAMELLIA N. BARRETT KEACH, associate professor of University of Texas, .for researc~ In "F.rance on the En~lish, Temple Univ~rsity, for re~~arch on the syntax representation of the woman of Ideas In French art, of Inalienable possession In Swahlh and other Bantu 1830-1848 languages DONALD CARTER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer- JAMES FERGUSON, assistant professor of an~ropology, sity of Chicago, for research !n It~ly on ~ontemporary Harvard University, for research on the socloecono~lc conceptions of class and new Immigrants In a northern foundations of cultural localism on the Zambian metropolitan industrial center in Turin Copperbelt LISA GRAHAM, Ph.D. candidate in history, The Johns MIRIAM GOHEEN, assistant professor of anthropology, Hopkins University, fo~ re~earch. i~ France o~ P?pular Amherst College, for research on land concentration, perceptions of authonty In Panslan mauvazs dzscours, women's work, and the problem of food self-sufficiency 1748-1788 in Cameroon DAVID HERRMANN,Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale Univer- EUGENIA W. HERBERT, professor of history, Mount sity, for research on the land armaments race among the Holyoke College, for a study of indigenous metalworkEuropean powers, 1904-1914 ing in the Lopanzo region of Zaire JULIE HUNTER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology,. Indi~na LIDWIEN KAPTEIJNS, assistant professor of history, WellesUniversity, for research in Greece on the way In which ley College,. for research. on class for~ation and gender the efforts of Greek feminist organizations are perin precolomal and colomal Somah society ceived and experienced by women and men in rural BARBARA J. MICHAEL, assistant visiting professor of Greece anthropology, University of North Dakota, for research JANET LAMBERTZ, Ph.D. candidate in history, Rutgers on pastoral nomadic economics in western Sudan University, for research in West Germany on. compensa- CHRISTINE S. OBBO, associate professor of anthropology, tion policies and citizenship in the making of the Wayne State University, for a study of women's Federal Republic of Germany, 1945-1960 autonomy, children, and stress in Uganda .. JEANNE LAWRENCE, Ph.D. candidate in American Studies, MAXWELL Owusu, professor of anthrorology, Umversl~y Yale University, for research in Scotland on the of Michigan, for research on rura development In significance of the department store as an urban Ghana institution in Britain and America AHMAD SIKAINGA, assistant professor of history, The JONAH LEVY, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Mass~足 College of Staten Island, for a study of southern chusetts Institute for Technology, for research In Sudanese communities in Khartoum France on regional politics and the creation of dynamic MICHAEL WATTS, professor of geography, U~iversit~ .of small-scale enterprise California, Berkeley, for a study of production politiCS SUZANNE MARCHAND, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univeramong Mandinka peasants in central Gambia sity of Chicago, for research in West Germany and Austria on the origins of the 20th century "ethn.ographic sensibility" in German ethnography and prehiStorical archeology Project on African Agriculture DAVID NIRENBERG, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Spain on issues of .group ~nd The Subcommittee on African Agriculture of the Joint individual identity formation and the role of interaction Committee on African Studies-Piers M. Blaikie (cochair), between Muslims and Jews in the Crown of Aragon, Shem E. Migot-Adholla (cochair), Nicholas O. J. Abel, 1336-1391 KATHLEEN STUART, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale Hailu Gebre-Mariam, Goran Hyden, Christine Okali, University, for research in West Germany on the Randall M. Packard, and Michael J. Watts-voted at its phenomenon of Unehrlichkeit or. "dishonor," a form of meeting on October 14-15, 1989 to make fellowship marginality peculiar to late medieval and early modern awards to the following individuals. Tom Lodge, M. Germany Priscilla Stone, Jack Levinson, and Evalyn Tennant served as staff for this program. GRANTS FOR AREA STUDIES RESEARCH

AFRICA

The following grants for advanced international research were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Randall M. Packard (chair), Kwame Anthony 40\ ITEMS

MUHAMMED A. ILIYA, head of the Geography Department, University of Sokoto (Nigeria), ~nd I,{ENNET}~ S~INDELL, senior lecturer, geography, Umverslty of Birmingham, for research on the role of non-farm incomes and agrarian change in Sokoto State, northwest Nigeria ALEMAYEHU LIRENSO, research fellow, Institute of Development Research, Addis Ababa University, for research VOLUME 43, NUMBER 2


on socioeconomic constraints to the production of "belg" crops in Ethiopia PHILIP WOODHOUSE, research fellow, development policy and practice research group, faculty of technology, Open University (Milton Keynes), and IBRAHIMA NDIAYE, an economist with the African Network for Integrated Development (Dakar), for research on irrigated food farmmg in the Senegal River Valley ZERBO KASSOUM, Centre Ivoirien de Recherches Economiques et Sociales, Universite d'Abidjan, for research on agricultural mechanization and cotton production in southwest Burkina Faso

CHINA The Grants Selection Committee of the joint Committee on Chinese Studies (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Lloyd E. Eastman (chair), Stevan Harrell, john Hay, Robert Hymes, Shuen-fu Lin, Elizabeth J. Perry, Willard J. Peterson, Peter Schran, and Vivienne B. Shue-at its meeting on February 17-18, 1989 awarded fellowships to the following individuals. jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program.

The following awards were made by ad hoc selection committees of the joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Mellon Program for Summer Language Training at the Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Studies (Taipei)

STEPHEN C. AVERILL, assistant professor of history, Michigan State University PRASENJIT DUARA, assistant professor of history, George Mason University ROBERT j. ENO, assistant professor of East Asian languages and cultures, Indiana University BARBARA N. SANDS, assistant professor of economics, University of Arizona, Tucson Mellon Program in Chinese Studies China Conference Travel Grants

To attend an international conference on ancient bronze drums and bronze cultures in Southern and Southeast Asia, Kunming, October 9-17, 1988 ELIZABETH CHILDS-JOHNSON, Ph.D. Chinese art history and archeology, New York City KATHERYN M. LINDUFF, professor of Asian art and archeology, University of Pittsburgh

JULIA F. ANDREWS, assistant professor of art history, Ohio State University, for research on art and the academy: To attend the second symposium on the history of how Chinese art was reformed to suit government Chinese political organizations (or secret societies), Shangstandards October 20-23, 1988 hai, BERNARD GALLIN, professor of anthropology, Michigan State University, for research on rural-urban migration in Taiwan: the role of migrants and implications for DIAN H. MURRAY, associate professor of Chinese history, rural village development University of Notre Dame GAIL B. HERSHATTER, assistant professor of history, Williams College, for research on prostitution in To attend the first international conference of the Shanghai, 1880-1958 Chinese Association for the Study of Sino-japanese RICHARD C. KRAUS, associate professor of political science, University of Oregon, for research on "brushes with Relations, Beijing, October 25-29, 1988 power": modern politics and the Chinese art of calligraphy JOSHUA A. FOGEL, associate professor of Chinese history, NICHOLAS R. LARDY, professor of economics, University of Harvard University Washington, for research on foreign trade and economic reform in China To attend an international academic conference on the Tsu-LIN MEl, professor of Chinese literature, Cornell history and culture of the ancient state of Ch'u, Wuhan, University, for research on Chinese historical grammar November 11-19, 1988 PETER C. PERDUE, associate professor of history, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on grain markets and the Qing State in northwest China, MELVIN P. THATCHER, Ph.D. candidate (history), University of Washington 1700-1900 EVELYN S. RAWSKI, professor of history, University of To attend the fourth biannual scholarly conference on Pittsburgh, for research for a social history of the Qing im perial family Mao Dun studies, on the theme "Mao Dun and Chinese/ HoYT C. TILLMAN, professor of history, Arizona State Foreign Literatures," Xiamen, November 21-27, 1988 University, for research on the making of a hero: Zhuge Liang in Chinese historical consciousness KAREN TURNER-GOTTSCHANG, assistant professor of his- YU-SHIH CHEN, assistant professor of Chinese, University of Alberta (Canada) tory, Holy Cross Colle~e, for research on rulers hip and the law in early Impenal China To attend the second annual meeting of Dongfang PEI-YI Wu, associate professor of Chinese, Queens College, City University of New York, for research on Yinyue Xuehui (Oriental Music Association), Shanghai, the Chinese woman warrior: fact and fiction january 5-8, 1989 JUNE 1989

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BELL YUNG, associate professor of music, University of JOHN DOWER, frofessor of history and Japanese studies, University 0 California, San Diego, for research on the Pittsburgh remaking of Japan, 1945-1955 JAMES A. FUJII, assistant professor of modern Japanese literature, University of California, Santa Barbara, for EASTERN EUROPE research on the narrative and subjectivity in early 20th The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered century literature by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Gale JOYCE GELB, professor of political science, City University Stokes (chair), Ivo Banac, Ellen T. Comisso, Zvi Y. of New York, for research on law and change in contemporary Japan: a study of the Equal Employment Gitelman, Michael H. Heim, Keith A. Hitchins, George Opportunity Act Kolankiewicz, Madeline G. Levine, Deborah D. Milenkovitch, Ivan Szelenyi, and Katherine Verdery-at its SUMIE J ONES, associate professor of comparative literature and East Asian languages and cultures, Indiana Univermeeting on March 11-12, 1989 voted to award fellowships sity, for research on the dynamics of Ga and Zoku in the to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth bourgeois culture of the Tokugawa period Waters served as staff for this program. OSAMU KAMADA, assistant professor of East Asian language and literature, Umversity of Iowa, for research BETTE DENICH, research fellow in Slavic studies, Boston on reported speech in Japanese as a second language University, for research on revolutionary leadership and MARK PEATTIE, professor of history, University of Massagrassroots culture in Yugoslavia chusetts, for research on japan's expansion into REBECCA A. GATES, reference librarian in East European Southeast Asia, 1890-1941 studies, Library of Congress, for research on the DAVID POLLACK, associate professor of Japanese and Esterhazy princes and their landed estates, 1760-1790 Chinese literature, UniverSity of Rochester, for research BARBARA KIRSHENBLATT-GIMBLETT, professor of perforon the modern Japanese novel mance studies, New York University, for research on GILBERT ROZMAN, professor of sociology, Princeton UniAshkenaz: an intellectual history of Jewish folkloristics versity, for research on the Japanese debate about the GAIL KLIGMAN, associate professor of anthropology and Soviet Union, 1988-1990 sociology, University of Texas, Austin, for research on JOHN RUSSELL, teaching assistant in anthropology, Harthe "new socialist person": policy, gender, and the body vard University, for research on race and representation: politic in Romania images of blacks in contemporary Japan ANDREW LASS, assistant professor of anthropology, Mount MIRIAM SILVERBERG, assistant professor of history, HamilHolyoke College, for research on the voice of tradition: ton College, for research on Japanese class, gender, and modern Czech scholars and their medieval folk culture between the two world wars KATIA MCCLAIN, visiting assistant professor of Slavic languages, University of Pittsburgh, for the preparation of a Bulgarian language textbook incorporating ele- KOREA ments of contemporary culture The Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Roger Janelli JANET L. MITCHELL, assistant professor of economics, University of Southern California, for research on the (chair), Jang Jip Choi, Carter Eckert, Stephen Haggard, economics of bankruptcy in reforming socialist econo- Uchang Kim, B.C. Koh, Lawrence Krause, Chungmies In-Moon, and Michael Robinson-voted at its meeting on DAVID STARK, assistant professor of sociology, University February 24, 1989 to award a grant to the following of Wisconsin, for research on politics at work in a individual. Blair A. Ruble and Monique Carroll served as socialist mixed economy PETER STEINER, associate professor of Slavic language and staff for this program. literature, University of Pennsylvania, for research on modern Czech fiction in its social context LARRY BURMEISTER, assistant professor of sociology, THOMAS G. WINNER, professor emeritus of Slavic language University of Kentucky, for research on agricultural and literature, Brown University, for research on the cooperatives and Korean development Czech interwar avant-garde in the European context LARRY WOLFF, assistant professor of history, Boston College, for research on the cultural construction of LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Eastern Europe: locating the borders of European civilization in the mind of the Enlightenment The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies-John Coatsworth (chair), Lourdes Arizpe, David Collier, Edmond Valpy Knox Fitzgerald, Walnice Nogueira Galvao, JAPAN Elizabeth Jelfn, Jose Antonio Ocampo, Alejandro Portes, Under a program sponsored by the Joint Committee on and Frank Salomon-at its meeting on March 17-19, 1989 Japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for awarded grants to the following individuals. Silvia Raw, Research-Richard Samuels (chair), Norma Field, David Hope Hamashige, Manley Williams, and Laura Grathwohl Flath, and Anne Walthall-voted at its meeting on served as staff for this program. February 18, 1989 to award grants to the following individuals. Blair A. Ruble and Monique Carroll served as EDUARDO BAUMEISTER, research associate, Universidad Centroamericana, Nicaragua, for research on agrarian staff for this program. 42\ITEMS

VOLUME 43, NUMBER 2


structure, social forces and rural transformation under LILA ABU-LuGHOD, Mellon Fellow in the Humanities, department of anthropol0/P" University of Pennsylvathe Sandinistas nia, for research on publIc culture in contemporary DEBORAH A. CARO, assistant professor of anthropology, Egypt George Washington University, for research on the role of hand-woven textiles in defining ethnic identity and LOIS BECK, associate professor of anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, for research on the impact of socioeconomic and political relations in 19th and 20th Reza Shah's reign on tribal groups in Fars century Bolivia SANDRA M. DEUTSCH, associate professor of history, ARNOLD H. GREEN, professor of hIstory, Brigham Young University, for research on the elite families of University of Texas, EI Paso, for research on the Jerusalem, 1790-1914 Argentine, Brazilian, and Chilean Right, 1900-1940 CARMEN ESCALANTE, research associate, Centro E.R.A. ENID D. HILL, professor of political science, American University in Cairo, for research on Egypt's indepenBartolome de las Casas, Peru, for research on the world dent judiciary view of Quechua-speaking peoples as depicted in their MICHAEL C. HILLMANN, professor of Persian, Oriental, life histories and myths and African languages and literatures, University of WILLIAM R. FOWLER, assistant professor of anthropology, Texas, for research for a cultural biography of Jalal Al-e Vanderbilt University, for research on the social Ahmad historical archeology of the Pipil of Central America DAVID Guss, visiting assistant professor of anthropology, DINA R. KHOURY, professorial lecturer of history, Georgetown University, for research on trade in 16th and 17th Vassar College, for research on traditional festivals and century Iraq the creation of a new populist identity in Venezuela JORGE HEINE, associate professor of history, University of Y. TZVI LANGERMAN, researcher, Jewish National and University Library (jerusalem), for research on the Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, for a biography of Salvador contributIon of Midrashic literature to the intellectual Allende, as a case study of political leadership history of the Jews in Yemen RICHARD G. PARKER, independent researcher, for a study of the cultural and social dimensions of the AIDS ERIKA LOEFFLER FRIEDL, professor of anthropology, Western Michigan UniversIty, for research on childhood epidemic in Brazil in an Iranian village HECTOR PEREZ-BRIGNOLI, professor of history, Universidad de Costa Rica, for research on regional economic NANCY MICKLEWRIGHT, visiting assistant professor of the history of art, University of Michigan, for research on structure of Guatemala and Honduras in the 19th early photography in the Middle East century JUAN PABLO PiREZ-SAINZ, researcher, Facultad Latinoamer- SABRI SAYARI, resident consultant, RAND Corporation (Santa Monica, California), for research on political icana de Ciencias Sociales, Guatemala, for research on parties and redemocratization in Turkey the urban informal sector and popular identity in Guatemala City LETICIA REINA, reseacher, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico, for research on electoral SOUTH ASIA conflict in the Mexican countryside, 1885-1910 The following advanced research grants were awarded PRISCILLA RIVAS-PEREZ, research associate, University of by the Joint Committee on South Asia-Bernard S. Cohn Iowa, for research on the state, class, and women's participation in the transformation of primary health (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, Jan C. Breman, E. Valentine Daniel, Paul Greenough, Ronald J. Herring, care in Cuba MARIANNE SCHMINK, associate professor of anthropology, Regula Qureshi, V. Narayana Rao-at its meeting on University of Florida, for research on urbanization and March 13-14, 1989. Toby Alice Volkman, May Ebihara, ecodemographic change in Amazonia and Scot Brannon served as staff for this program. ROSE J. SPALDING, assocIate professor of political science, DePaul University, for research on state-private sector JAMES BROW, associate professor of anthropology, Univerrelations in revolutionary Nicaragua sity of Texas, for research in the United Kingdom and EDUARDO TgEIRA DAVIS, professor of architecture, U niSri Lanka on images of the village community in the versity of Panama, for research on the cities of Central construction of Sinhalese nationalism America and the quest for modernity, 1800-1930 BARBARA BROWER, assistant professor of geography, University of Texas, for research in the United Kingdom and Sri Lanka on variations in causes and NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST effects of changing pastoral production among different The following advanced research grants were awarded Sherpa groups in the northeast Himalaya by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-E. VINAY DHARWADKER, assistant professor of literature, University of Georgia, for research in the United States Roger Owen (chair), Talal Asad, Andrew C. Hess, on Dalit poetry in Marathi from 1960 to 1985 Huricihan islamoglu-inan, Jean Leca, Joel S. Migdal, JOAN ERDMAN, professor of anthropology, Columbia Timothy Mitchell, and Ghassan Salame-at its meeting on College (Chicago), for research in France, Germany, March 4, 1989. It was assisted by Mary Layoun. Stefan Italy, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, on Indian Tanaka and Dara Shapiro served as staff for the program. culture in Europe from 1920 to 1938 DANE KENNEDY, associate professor of history, University of Nebraska, for research in the United Kingdom on the ERVAND ABRAHAMIAN, professor of history, Baruch Colhill stations in British India lege, City University of New York, for research on STEPHEN MIKESELL, Madison, Wisconsin, for research in Marxists in the Iranian revolution JUNE 1989

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Nepal on the development of the state and market hegemony in west-central Nepal SATYA MOHANTY, assistant professor of English, Cornell University, for research in the United Kingdom on the ideology of "the imperial subject" in British colonial literature THEODORE RICCARDI, professor of Indic Studies, Columbia University, for research in the United Kingdom and Nepal on the Muluki Ain legal and social code of Nepal SUSAN WADLEY, professor of anthropology, Syracuse University, for analysis of research on villagers of Karimpur, India from 1925 to 1984 SOUTHEAST ASIA The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Karl L. Hutterer (chair), Jane Atkinson, Gillian Hart, Yoneo Ishii, David G. Marr, Renato Rosaldo, Anthony J. S. Reid, Robert Taylor, Peter S. Xenos-at its meeting on March 20-22, 1989. Toby Alice Volkman, May Ebihara, and Scot Brannon served as staff for this program

LAURIE BERNSTEIN, assistant professor of history, Vassar College, and lecturer, Swarthmore Colle~e, for research on the system of regulation of prostitution in Imperial Russia MICHAEL KHODARKOVSKY, assistant professor of history, Kalamazoo College, for research on a thousand years of history of Russia's southern frontier CATHARINE NEPOMNYASHCHY, assistant professor of Russian literature, Barnard College, for research on the writings of Abram Tertz ANDREW WACHTEL, assistant professor of literature, Stanford University, for research on an analysis of the major works by Karamzin, Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Merezhkovskl' Solzhenitsyn, Andric, and Mickewicz in the context 0 contemporary historiographical debates INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY STUDIES

The Fellowship Selection Committee of the Program in International Peace and Security, at its meeting on February 17, 1989, awarded training and research fellowBENEDICT ANDERSON, professor of international studies, ships to nine advanced graduate students and nine Cornell University, for research in the Philippines on postdoctoral scholars. The committee was composed of Philippine nationalism and its transformations Catherine M. Kelleher (chair), McGeorge Bundy, John JAMES BOYCE, associate professor of economics, University Lewis Gaddis, David J. Holloway, Uwe Nerlich, Michel C. of Massachusetts, for research in the Philippines and the United States on economic development in the Philip- Oksenberg, Robert O'Neill, Judith V. Reppy, Gene Sharp, Jeremiah D. Sullivan, and Herbert F. York. The commitpines from 1962 to 1986 KIRK ENDICOTT, associate professor of anthropology, tee was assisted by a screening committee composed of Dartmouth College, for research in the United States, Gordon Adams, Barton J. Bernstein, Lewis F. Carter, Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Malaysia Stephen P. Cohen, Carol Cohn, Karen Dawisha, Jack on social change among the Batek Goldstone, Steven Kull, Deborah Larson, Ferenc MiszlieGLENN MAY, associate professor of history, University of vetz, Benoit P. Morel, and Ban Semo. Richard H. Moss, Oregon, for research in the Philippines and Australia Richard C. Rockwell, Michael B. Gross, Shelley Crandall, on the Philippine revolution of 1896 and Felicia Sullivan served as staff for this program. LAWRENCE REID, researcher in linguistics, Social Science Institute, University of Hawaii, for research in the Philippines on Negrito languages DIANE WOLF, assistant professor of sociology, University of Dissertation fellowships Washington, for research in Indonesia on women, work, and family in rural Java CECILIA ALBIN (Sweden), Ph.D. candidate in international relations, The Johns Hopkins University. Ms. Albin will do research aimed at developing a process for negotiatSOVIET UNION ing an equitable resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict over Jerusalem. She will analyze historical cases of The following advanced research grants were awarded conflict over seemingly non-negotiable issues; draw by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies-Loren Graham upon social psychological concepts to explore ways to (chair), Jeffrey P. Books, Jane Burbank, Robert Campbell, overcome conflict through "integrative negotiation"; Timothy J. Colton, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Nancy Shields and develop a theoretical approach for a mutually Kollmann, Mary McAuley, Brian Silver, Michael Swafford, satisfactory resolution to the Jerusalem issue. Her and William Mills Todd III-at its meeting on April research will include study in Jerusalem. 21-22, 1989. The committee was assisted by a screening THOMAS CHRISTENSEN (United States), Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University. He will study the committee-Brian Silver (chair), Robert Campbell, Jocircumstances under which political leaders in China hanna Nichols, William Rosenburg, William Chase, and and the United States involve their nations in conflicts Irene Masing-Delic. Blair A. Ruble, Sandra Barrow, and or adopt noncooperative trade and monetary policies in Kathryn Becker served as staff for this program. order to limit domestic division. His research will analyze cases in which foreign policy initiatives were DANIEL BERKOWITZ, assistant professor of economics, undertaken at the expense of economic or military University of Wisconsin, for research on a theory of the resources. transition from a labor surplus to a full employment NETA CRAWFORD (United States), Ph.D. candidate in economy as it applies to the Soviet Union political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 44\ ITEMS

VOLUME 43, NUMBER 2


will study the domestic causes of highly militarized and at the New School for Social Research. He will study the conflicting historical accounts and cultural sources that aggressive behavior among mo?ern s.t~tes. Her re~ear~h will analyze cases of aggressive mlhtary behavior m both Israelis and Palestinians have used to claim land in Germany, Israel, the Soviet Union, and South Africa the Middle East. He will compare Israeli and Palestinian during the 20th century. ..,. historical constructions and self-conceptions and deROBERT DARST (United States), Ph.D. candidate m pohucal velop a historical account which can contribute to the science, University of California, Berkeley. Mr. Darst mutual recognition of both people's rights. to exist. He will study the e~fects of sh~ring scientific and .technologwill do field work in the Middle East for mne months. ical knowledge m promotmg stable U .S.-Sovlet cooper- LAURIE BRAND (United States), political scientist trained at ation. His research will analyze the political role of U.S. Columbia University. A specialist in Palestinian political and Soviet scientists in efforts to cooperate in the fields issues, Ms. Brand will study the implications of Jordan's of nuclear weapons testing, atomic re~ctor safety, ,,:nd semi-rentier economy for its domestic stability and for protection of the atmosphere. H~ wdl ,,:lso exa!llme regional security in the Middle East. She will explore attemr.ts by policy makers to ~ampu~ate mt~rnatlOnal how changes in the semi-rentier structure might lead to scienufic contacts to further their foreign pohcy goals. either increased domestic repression or greater liberalSTEPHEN DIAMOND (Ireland and the United States), Ph.D. ization. She will do six months of field work in jordan. candidate in political science, University of London, is specializing in labor movements an~ development HELEN FEIN (United States), sociologist trained at Columbia University. Ms. Fein will study the relationship studies in the Thi~d Worl~, with a ~artlcular focus on between the causes of genocide and interstate war since Nicaragua. He wdl examme the links between the 1945 and ways to prevent such violence. Her research establishment of pluralist institutions and the peaceful will explore how group conflict and political inequality resolution of conflict in Central America. HUGH GUSTERSON (United Kingdom), Ph.D. candidate in promote intrastate and interstate warfare; analyze the anthropology, Stanford University, will do ethnographic conditions under which war is most likely to instigate research on the cultural values and beliefs underlying genocide or mass political killings; and investigate the debate about nuclear weapons and nation.al secu~ity nonviolent strategies to deter genocide and war. policy. He will investi~ate the role of gende.r Ideo~ogtes, MARK GOODMAN (United States), physicist trained at religious values, and mdividual personal history m ~he Princeton University. Mr. Goodman will explore the debate for and against nuclear weapon~, and exam me political and technical feasibility of U.S.-Soviet regulahow conflicting cultural values underbe the debates tion of military space facilities, identify possible agreeabout national security policy. ments which would contribute to the demilitarization of FADZAI GWARADZIMBA (ZIMBABWE), Ph.D. candidate in space, and investigate prospects for the establish.ment of international relations, The johns Hopkins University. an International Space Agency which would venfy arms Ms. Gwaradzimba will do research on the level of control agreements and monitor civilian activities in economic independence from South Africa that the space. South African Development Coordination Conference CHARLES HALE (United States), anthropologist trained at (SADCC) has achieved for its member states. She will Stanford University. Mr. Hale will study the barriers to explore the domestic and external factors which shape cooperation be~ween .Indian ,,:nd underclass M~~tizo the policy decisions in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, ethnic groups m Latm Amenca and the conditIOns and Zimbabwe towards SADCC. under which such barriers have been overcome. His STEFAN ROSSBACH (West Germany), Ph.D. candidate ~n research, which includes four months of field work, will mathematics, University of Bonn. Mr. Rossbach wdl analyze political initiatives in Bolivia that have successstudy the political effects of military power i,n Europe fully combined both concern for Indian rights and during the post-World War II penod. He wdl analyze concern for Mestizo socioeconomic change; explore the the extent to which the arms race-both as a system and political ideas and practices that emerge from such as an intentionally chosen .p.oliti~al instrument.- has egalitarian programs; and assess their potential f<?r explained the postwar cond.ltlOn m Euro1?e .. HIS reproducing political models for equitable multi-ethmc search will also analyze how dlffe~~nt co~~tnes m,:~lved societies. in Europe have assessed the pobtlcal utility of mlbtary DONATA HEUSER (West Germany and the United States), power in Europe. historian trained at the University of Oxford. She will jIANWEI WANG (People's Republic of China), Ph.D. do research on connections between the perceptions of candidate in political science, University of M~chiga!1' elite and public opinion groups in France, Great Britain, will do research on the change of perceptIOns m and West Germany towards U.S. foreign policy and the Sino-American relations since the rapprochement in the attitudes of these groups towards nuclear weapons. Her 1970s. He will explore the economic and political. factors research will analyze how different perceptions of the in China and the United States that lead to different role of the United States in Europe by policy makers modes of perception between their peoples, and and the public have influenced nuclear weapons policy examine how international organizations may gradually in Europe. change and standardize the perceptions of Chinese and JACK KLOPPENBURG (United States), sociologist trained at Americans. Cornell University. Mr. Kloppenburg will study t~e economic conflict over the exchange of plant geneuc resources between poor but "germ plasm-rich" Third Postdoctoral fellowships World countries and wealthy but "germplasm-poor" developed countries. He will analyze the specific JONATHAN BOYARIN (United States), anthropologist trained economic, political, and ecological factors that shape the JUNE 1989

ITEMS/45


genetic resource and exchange policies of the United States, Mexico, and Nicaragua. DANIEL LITTLE (United States), philosopher trained at Harvard University. Mr. Little will study the causal relationships between food security, a~ricultural development, and international conflict. Usmg both international relations theory and development economics, he will develop a framework for understanding the causal relationship between the processes of slow and uneven agricultural development and domestic disorder and international conflict. SUNDAY OCHOCHE (Nigeria), who received his training in peace studies at the University of Bradford, will study the relationship between military expenditures and economic development in Nigeria and Zimbabwe. He will analyze the military policies of the two countries and the capacity of their domestic economies to support their respective policies. Mr. Ochoche will use these cases to explore ways to develop defense policies that allow economic growth and promote greater security in the African continent.

domestic and international economic forces that facilitate the avoidance of conflict among states THOMAS M. RISSE-KApPEN, visiting assistant professor of government, Cornell University, for research on the impact of the West European allies on U.S. decision making during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Limited Test Ban Treatl negotiations, the Yom Kippur Crisis, and the shift 0 U.S. policy towards the Soviet Union after the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan JOHN H. STANFIELD II, professor of American studies and sociology, The College of William and Mary, for a comparison of the British government's involvement in the formation of Sierra Leone and the U.S. government's role in the founding of Liberia to explore the role of philanthropic interest groups in shaping foreign policy DANIEL VERDIER, assistant professor of political science, University of Chicago, for research on how interest groups, political parties, the legislatures, and the executives in France, Britain, and the United States contributed to the formulation of trade policy in these states from 1840 to 1980

FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MUSLIM SOCIETIES

The following postdoctoral fellowships were awarded by the Committee on Foreign Policy Studies-Miles Kahler (chair), Philip E. Converse, I.M. Destler, John A. Ferejohn, Ernest R. May, Guillermo A. O'Donnell, Walter W. Powell-at its meeting on February 18-19, 1989. Richard H. Moss and Nancy Lustgarten served as staff for this program.

The Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies- William Roff (chair), Lila Abu-Lughod, Richard Bulliet, Christian Decobert, Ali Dessouki, William Graham, M. Khalid Masud, Barbara D. Metcalf, James Piscatori and M. Nazif Shahrani-voted at its meeting on March 2-5, 1989 to award advanced research grants to the following individuals. David L. Szanton and Susan Rubino served as staff for this program.

FRANCINE R. FRANKEL, professor of political science and South Asia regional studies, University of Pennsylvania, for research on how cultural, organizational, and cognitive processes led U.S. and Indian foreign policy leaders to develop different interpretations of the nature of the communist threat in Asia and thus to adopt opposing policies for dealing with this threat AARON A. FRIEDBERG, assistant professor of politics and international affairs, Princeton University, for research on how economic considerations have influenced the formulation and execution of American military and diplomatic strategy and to what extent strategic considerations have shaped national economic policy HE DI, Research Fellow at the Institute of American Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, for a reexamination of cases of Sino-American conflicts such as the Korean War, the Taiwan Straits Crisis, and the Vietnam War to study the impact of different U.S. and Chinese understandings of crisis management and foreign policy behavior BRUCE W. JENTLESON, associate director of the Cornellin-Washington Program and visiting associate professor of government, Cornell University, for an exploration of the domestic institutional and political reasons for U.S. reliance on two basic strategies towards the Third World: global containment and liberal reformist internationalism HELEN V. MILNER, assistant professor of political science, Columbia University, for research on the links between 46\ITEMS

RAFIUDDIN AHMED, visiting professor, Department of South Asian Languages and Civilization, University of Chicago, for research on Islamic "fundamentalism" in Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh MARK WOODWARD, assistant professor of religion, Arizona State University, for research on the relationships between the local Islams of the Malabar coast of South India and Central Java

PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH ON CONTEMPORARY HISPANIC ISSUES The Joint Committee for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues* awarded 13 research grants to 20 scholars at its meeting on March 31-April 2, 1989. The committee is composed of Rodolfo de la Garza (chair), Maxine Baca Zinn, Albert Camarillo, Leobardo Estrada, Douglas Massey, Lisandro Perez, Janice Petrovich, and Saskia Sassen. Proposals were also reviewed by a pre-selection panel composed of Bruce Cain, Michael Munger, Raquel Ovryn Rivera, Patricia Pessar, Avelardo Valdez, and Carlos Velez Ibanez. Harriett Romo and Rose

* Joint with the Inter-University Program for Latino Research. VOLUME 43, NUMBER 2


Turner, University of Texas, Austin; and Raquel Ovryn Rivera and Larry Goldman, at the Council, served as staff for the program.

DAVID TORRES, assistant professor, University of Arizona, and JOHN GARCIA, acting head, Department of Political Science, University of Arizona, for research on the relationship between immigration, employment status and economic returns

Advanced research grants SUSAN GONZALES BAKER, research associate, Population Studies Center, Urban Institute, for research on RESEARCH ON THE URBAN UNDERCLASS persistent poverty among working Mexican American In the first year of competition, the Committee for females Research on the Urban Underclass-Paul Peterson (chair), RINA BENMAYOR, higher education associate, PEDRO PEDRAZA, research director, and ROSA TORRUELAS, J. Lawrence Aber, Barry Bluestone, Sheldon Danziger, research assistant, all at the Centro de Estudios Felton Earls, Christopher Jencks, John Kasarda, John Puertorriquenos, Hunter College, for research on the Ogbu, Marta Tienda, and William Julius Wilsonempowerment process of participants in the EI Barrio awarded the following fellowships and grants at its Popular Education Program meeting held on March 16-17, 1989. Martha A. Gephart, PHILIPPE I. BOURGOIS, assistant professor of anthropology, Robert W. Pearson, Cathy Bendor, and Heather E. San Francisco State University, for ethnographic re- Sandner served as staff for this program. search on Puerto Ricans and the drug-based underground economy in Spanish Harlem, New York. (J oindy sponsored with the Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass) ROBERT BRISCHETTO, executive director, Southwest Voter Postdoctoral grants Research Institute, for research on early voting as a PHILIPPE I. BOURGOIS, assistant professor of anthropology, strategy in Latino political mobilization San Francisco State University, for ethnographic reJORGE CHAPA, assistant professor, University of Texas, search on Puerto Ricans and the drug-based underAustin, for research on the trends, causes, and ground economy in Spanish Harlem, New York. consequences in the educational, occupational, and (J oindy sponsored with the Committee for Public Policy economic attainment of Mexican-Americans from 1940Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues) 1987 ANGELO FALC6N, president, Institute for Puerto Rican JAMES H. JOHNSON JR., associate professor of geography, and MELVIN L. OLIVER, associate professor of sociology, Policy, and JOSEPH PEREIRA, associate director, Office of both of the University of California, Los Angeles, for Program Research, Hunter College, for research on the research to determine how specific causal agents spatial and longitudinal dimensions of Puerto Rican influence underclass behavior and why and how some poverty in New York City from 1977-1987 individuals in poverty stricken communities manage to LUIS FALCON, assistant professor of sociology, Northeasteschew this behavior ern University, and DOUGLAS GURAK, associate professor of sociology, Cornell University, for research on factors affecting female headship of Puerto Rican and Dominican families AIDA GIACHELLO, assistant professor of management and Dissertation Fellowships policy, University of Illinois, Chicago, for research on health and access to medical care among Hispanic LAURA I. LUSTER, Ph.D. candidate in education, Stanford University, for research on the effects of learner children in Chicago attitudes toward education upon the setting and ROBERT GREENSTEIN, executive director, and ISAAC SHAattainment of educational goals PIRO, senior research analyst, both at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, for research on selected RAMON BORGES-MENDEZ, Ph.D. candidate in urban studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on federal and state policy initiatives designed to improve the relationship between urban economic restructuring the income of currendy and previously employed and the formation of Puerto Rican "barrios" in three low-income Latinos small Massachusetts cities MARTHA MONTRO-SIEBURTH, assistant professor, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, for research LAUREN M. RICH, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for an investi~ation of factors on the interrelationship of educational and sociocontributing to a decline in the participation of young cultural factors that affect "at-risk" Hispanic students black males in the labor force RENATO ROSALDO, professor, Stanford University, and BIANCA SILVESTRINI, visiting professor, Stanford University Law School, for research on changing modes of multi-ethnic composition and emergent forms of culUndergraduate Research Assistantships t\~ral affirmation among Hispanics in San Jose, Califorma CARLOS SANTIAGO, associate professor, State University of ROBINSON G. HOLLISTER, JR., professor of economics, New York, Albany, for research on the dynamics of Swarthmore College, and RONALD B. MINCY, assistant minimum wage policy, wage growth, and Puerto Rican professor of economics, University of Delaware, and migration research associate in economics, The Urban Institute, to JUNE 1989

ITEMS/47


support research by four undergraduate students on students on trends over the past three decades in the raciaVethnic composition of the underclass and on "pathological" behaviors associated with the underclass barriers to the employment of low-income women in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Buffalo, New York JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., associate professor of geography, JAMES DIEGO VIGIL, associate professor of anthropology, and MELVIN L. OLIVER, associate professor of sociology, University of Wisconsin, to fund a comparative study by both of the University of California, Los Angeles, to four undergraduate students on the relationship besupport research by five undergraduate students to tween failings in traditional social control networks and refine and test a causal model of underclass behavior gang participation DANIEL M. JOHNSON, professor of sociology, Virginia Commonwealth University, to support a case study by MELVIN N. WILSON, associate professor of clinical psychology and assistant dean of the College of Arts and four undergraduate students on the characteristics of Sciences, University of Virginia, to support an examinaurban poverty in one southern black inner-city neightion by two undergraduate students of the influence of borhood the extended family structure on interaction patterns JOHN MODELL, professor of history, Carnegie Mellon within black families University, to support research by four undergraduate

48\ITEMS

VOLUME 43, NUMBER 2


Council Fellowship and Grant Programs,

1989-90 Predoctoral and Dissertation Training and Research PROGRAM

DESCRIPTION

1989 DEADLINES

SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Peace and Security

Two-year dissertation training and research fellowships to foster critical thinking about international peace and security

November 1

Doctoral Research Fellowships for Area Studies

Africa, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Western Europe: support for doctoral research abroad in the social sciences and the humanities

November 1

Doctoral Research Fellowships for Area Studies Administered by the American Council of Learned Societies路

China and Eastern Europe: support for doctoral research in the social sciences and the humanities

November 15

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European studies

Support for doctoral research in Germany in the social sciences, history, and cultural studies

To be announced

Fellowships for Predissertation Research in Africa

Support for predissertation research trips to Africa for graduate students in the social sciences and the humanities

December 1

Fellowships for Training and Dissertation Research on Agriculture and Health in Africa

Support for natural or technical science training and dissertation research for social science Ph.D. candidates whose research topics are related to agriculture or health

To be announced

Graduate Training in Soviet Studies

Two years of support for 3rd and 4th, or 4th and 5th year graduate study

December 1

Dissertation Fellowships in Soviet and Japanese Studies

Support for the final year write-up work on dissertations

December 1

Undergraduate Research Assistantships for Research on the Urban Underclass

Support for undergraduate research projects that are conducted in collaboration with faculty members during the summer or an academic year

January 10 (1990)

Doctoral Fellowships for Research on the Urban Underclass

Support for doctoral research on the urban underc1ass

January 10 (1990)

* For details and instructions on how to apply for these fellowships and grants, address the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East 45th Street, New York, New York 10017. For all others, address the specific program at the Social Science Research Council. JUNE

1989

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Council Fellowship and Grant Programs 1989-90 (continued) Advanced Postdoctoral Training and Research PROGRAM

DESCRIPTION

1989 DEADLINES

SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Peace and Security

Two-year postdoctoral training and research fellowships to foster critical thinking about international peace and security

November I

Grants for Area Studies Research

Africa, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near and Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia: support for advanced research in the social sciences and the humanities

December 1

Grants for Area Studies Research Administered by the American Council of Learned Societies路

China and Eastern Europe: support for advanced research in the social sciences and the humanities

November 15

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies

Support for advanced research in Germany in the social sciences, history, and cultural studies

To be announced

Research Fellowships in Foreign Policy Studies

One to two years of support for research on economic, cultural, political, and social influences on the making of U.S. foreign policy. Applications from non-U.S. scholars encouraged

December I

Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program

Support for social sciences and humanities research in or on Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea normally conducted in cooperation with a counterpart in the country of research. Support also available for visiting scholars

December 1

Grants for the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies

Support for advanced training and research

December I

Grants for the Study of African Agriculture

Training and research fellowships for individual Africans or teams of Africans and nonAfricans for interdisciplinary research on the agricultural crisis

December 29

* For details and instructions on how to apply for these fellowships and grants, address the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East 45th Street, New York, New York 10017. For all others, address the specific program at the Social Science Research Council. 50\ITEMS

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Council Fellowship and Grant Programs 1989-90 (continued) Advanced Postdoctoral Training and Research DESCRIPTION

PROGRAM

1989 DEADLINES

Grants for Soviet Studies

Support for three summers and one semester of research for scholars who received their Ph.D. no earlier than 1984

December 1

International Fellowship Program for the Development of Soviet Studies

Support for social scientists who are citizens of the countries of Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, South and Southeast Asia, and other countries where Soviet studies are particularly underdeveloped for training and/or research at a university-based Russian and Soviet studies center

May I (1990)

Fellowships for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues (jointly with the InterUniversity Program for Latino Research)

Support for 18 to 24 months of research and writing at any of the IUP research centers or selected public policy institutions; statistical research training seminar for Hispanic scholars

To be announced

Research Grants for Research on the Urban Underclass

One year of research support

January 10 (1990)

Note: All programs are subject to funding.

JUNE

1989

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Recent Council Publications Agrarian Transformations: Local Processes and the State in Southeast Asia, edited by Gillian Hart, Andrew Turton, and Benjamin White, with Brian Fegan and Lim Teck Ghee. A publication of the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. xv + 341 pages. Cloth, $35.00. This collection of fourteen essays presents a comparative analysis of agrarian change in the main rice-growing regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Its central theme is the interplay between agrarian relations and wider political-economic systems. By drawing on historical materials as well as intensive field research, the contributors show how local-level mechanisms of labor control and accumulation both reflect and alter larger political and economic forces. The key to understanding these connections lies in the structure and exercise of power at different levels of society. The approach developed in this volume grows out of a set of detailed local-level studies in regions that have experienced rapid technological change and commercialization. This comparative focus calls into question widely held views of technology and the growth of markets as the chief sources of agrarian change. By relating local-level processes to variations in the structure of state power, the history of agrarian resistance, and the particular forms of capitalist development, the authors suggest an alternative approach to the analysis of agrarian change. In addition to maps, tables, and an introduction, the contents of the volume include: Part One: Analyzing Agrarian Change: Issues and Problems Benjamin White, Institute of Social Studies, "Problems in the Empirical Analysis of Agrarian Differentiation" Gillian Hart, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, "Agrarian Change in the Context of State Patronage" Part Two: Thailand Andrew Turton, University of London, "Thailand: Agrarian Bases of State Power" Andrew Turton, "Local Powers and Rural Differentiation" Anan Ganjanapan, "Chiangmai University, "Conflicts over the Deployment and Control of Labor in a Northern Thai Village" Part Three: The Philippines Brian Fegan, Macquarie University, "The Philippines: Agrarian Stagnation Under a Decaying Regime" 52\ITEMS

Cynthia Banzon-Bautista, University of the Philippines, "The Saudi Connection: Agrarian Change in a Pampangan Village,

1977-1984" Brian Fegan, "Accumulation on the Basis of an Unprofitable Crop" Part Four: Malaysia Lim Teck Ghee, University of Malaya, and Muhammad Ikmal Said, Universiti Sains Malaysia, "Malaysia: Rice Peasants and Political Priorities in an Economy Undergoing Restructuring" Lim Teck Ghee, "Reconstituting the Peasantry: Changes in Landholding Structure in the Muda Irrigation Scheme" Muhammad Ikmal Said, "Large-Farmer Strategies in an Undiversified Economy" Part Five: Indonesia Frans Hiisken, University of Amsterdam, and Benjamin White, "Java: Social Differentiation, Food Production, and Agrarian Control" Benjamin White, and Gunawan Wiradi, Agro Economic Survey Foundation, "Agrarian and Nonagrarian Bases of Inequality in Nine Javanese Villages" Frans Hiisken, "Cycles of Commercialization and Accumulation in a Central Javanese Village"

Postwar Vietnam: Dilemmas in Socialist Development, edited by David G. Marr and Christine P. White. Papers based on a conference held in September 1985 in Sussex (England) and sponsored by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia Program Monographs No.3. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program, 1988. 264 pages. Paper, $12.00. Vietnam, the first of the nations divided by the Cold War to be reunified, is in the midst of far-reaching economic and political reforms. Doi moi (renovation) is the Vietnamese equivalent of perestroika and glasnost. This collection of articles provides the background to a range of ongoing policy debates in Vietnam, including the role of plan and market in socialist economic policy and new attitudes to "capitalist" forms of economic organization. Vietnam's development dilemmas explored in this volume include the obstacles posed by traditional social forces to the implementation of new initiatives for population control and a more practical educational curriculum; resistance to the reform of entrenched "socialist" institutions and practices; and the reluctance of industrialized European socialist VOLUME

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countries to expand their trade relations with a poorer economic partner. In addition to an introduction by the editors, the contents of the volume include:

These are the second and third volumes in a series of special issues reflecting recent developments in Soviet literature and cultures. The second volume contains translations of some of the critical reaction in the Soviet literary world to four works published Part One: Knowledge and Society in 1986 and 1987 (Victor Astafyev , "A Sad Detective David G. Marr, Australian National University, "Tertiary Story," brought out in the journal October, 1986, 1; Education, Research, and the Information Sciences in Viet- Aleksandr Bek, "The New Appointment," which nam" came out in the journal, Banner, 1986, 10-11; Susanne Rubin, education specialist, "Learning for Life? Glimpses Vladimir Dudintsev, "White Robes," which appeared from a Vietnamese School" in Neva, 1987, 1-4; and Daniil Granin, "Aurochs," a Nguyen Huyen Chau, independent researcher, "Women and novella published in New World in 1987, 1-2.) Family Planning Policies in Postwar Vietnam" The third volume is a collection of critical essays on Part Two: Economic Policy and Reforms works of Soviet prose published in 1987-1988. Igor Vo Nhan Tri, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, "Party Dedkov assesses several of the major transformations Policies and Economic Performance: The Second and Third in Soviet literature and culture during 1987. Anatolii Five-Year Plans Examined" Bocharov and Aleksandr Aronov each review AnaSuzy Paine, Cambridge University, "The Limits of Planning and tolii Rybakov's, Children of the Arbat. From a chapter the Case for Economic Reform" of her book on Valentin Rasputin, Svedana SemenMelanie Beresford, University of Wollongong, "Issues in ova discusses the author's novel The Fire, an example Economic Unification: Overcoming the Legacy of Separation" Max Spoor, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Nicaragua/Free of recent writing that exemplifies growing russoUniversity of Amsterdam, "State Finance in the Socialist philic tendencies in the Soviet Union. Sergei ChupriRepublic of Vietnam: The Difficult Transition from 'State nin writes of some new philosophical currents in Bureaucratic Finance' to 'Socialist Economic Accounting' " contemporary Soviet short prose fiction. Finally, a Christine Pelzer White, Cornell University, "Alternative Approaches to the Socialist Transformation of Agriculture in roundtable discussion led by Svedana Selivanova of the Literary Gazette addresses the historical role of Postwar Vietnam" Jayne Werner, Long Island University and Columbia University, Andrei Platonov in Soviet literature. "The Problem of the District in Vietnam's Development The Spring and Summer issues of 1989 will Policy" contain articles on contemporary Soviet sociology Ngo Vinh Long, University of Maine, Orono, "Some Aspects of of literature selected by William Mills Todd III of Cooperativization in the Mekong Delta" Harvard University. Subsequent issues will contain essays on the prose fiction published by a younger Part Three: Institutional Change Carlyle A. Thayer, University of N.S.W. (Canberra), "The generation of writers, and essays to commemorate Regularization of Politics: Continuity and Change in the the centenary of the birth of Boris Pasternak, written Party's Central Committee, 1951-1986" by his cousin Olga Freidenberg. Finally, as a part of William S. Turley, Southern Illinois University, "The Military this project sponsored by the Joint Committee, M. E. Construction of Socialism: Postwar Roles of the People's Army Sharpe will also publish a series of anthologies of Vietnam" intended for college courses in Soviet studies which will include extended introductions by specialists in Part Four: Trends in Aid and Trade the field, additional translated materials, and an Anna Petrasovits, Karl Marx University of Economics, "Results and Limits in CMEA-Vietnamese Trade Relations, 1975- appropriate bibliography. These collections are intended to bring recent developments in Soviet 1985" Karl H. Englund, former United Nations official, "External criticism to the attention of an English-language Assistance in the Context of Vietnam's Development Effort" audience. Copies of the journal are available from M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, New Recently Published Soviet Prose: A Critical Re- York 10504. sponse, guest editors Nancy Condee and Vladimir Padunov. Special Issues of Soviet Studies in Literature, Volume 24, Number 4, Fall 1988, 99 pages; Volume 25, Number 1, Winter 1988-89, 105 pages. Pub- Shari'at and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam, edited lished in cooperation with the Joint Committee on by Katherine P. Ewing. Papers from a 1981 Soviet Studies. conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on JUNE

1989

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South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. xv + 321 pages. Cloth, $37.50. One of the concerns of the Joint Committee on South Asia has been an examination of moral values and sources of authority in South Asian Islam. An earlier conference and volume focused on the concept of adab, the ideal or exemplification of the harmonious life among South Asian (and other) Muslims. This volume, based on a second conference held at the Pendle Hill Conference Center, Pennsylvania, May 22-24, 1981, looks at local and historical diversities and processes in Muslim experiences in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Pakistan. Particular attention is paid to tensions and conflicts between sharz'at, religious law based on the Islamic tradition, and alternative values and traditions existing in particular places and times. The papers consider various dimensions of this tension, including the strategies that people use to live with ambiguity and manage diversity, as well as the ways in which cultural concepts are used rhetorically in times of crisis, conflict, and accommodation. Contents include:

ous Public Arenas and Coherent Personal Practice: Kanpur Muslims 1913-1931" Stephen L. Pastner, University of Vermont, "Sardiir, Hakom, Pir: Leadership Patterns among the Pakistani Baluch" Akbar S. Ahmed, Baluchistan, "The Mulla of Waziristan: Leadership and Islam in a Pakistani District" Part Three: Negotiating Community Boundaries and Codes of Personal Behavior Warren Fusfeld, Philadelphia, "The Boundaries of Islam and Infidelity" Richard Kurin, Smithsonian Institution, "The Culture of Ethnicity in Pakistan" Carroll McC. Pastner, University of Vermont, "A Case of Honor among the Oasis Baluch of Makran: Controversy and Accommodation" Carol Prindle, Chicago, "Occupation and Orthopraxy in Bengali Muslim Rank" Judy F. Pugh, Michigan State University, "Divination and Ideology in the Banaras Muslim Community"

Studies in Comparative Communism, An International Interdisciplinary Journal, edited by David T. Cattell with an introduction by Katerina Clark, Yale University. Volume XXI, Numbers 3/4. Autumn! Winter 1988,401 pages.

Introduction

This journal consists of a collection of essays which originated as papers presented at the "Summer Seminar on Soviet Literature and Film in the Eighties," sponsored by the Joint Committee on Part One: Shari'at, Custom, and Legal Change: Debates over Soviet Studies, and held at Yale University in July the Institutionalization of Islamic Principles 1987. 1 The essays closely examine a number of William R. Roff, Columbia University, "Whence Cometh the literary works and films produced not only since Law? Dog Saliva in Kelantan, 1937" Gorbachev came to power in 1985, but throughout David Gilmartin, North Carolina State University, "Customary the 1980s. Taken together these essays try to Law and Sharr'at in British Punjab" Azim Nanji, Oklahoma State University, "Shari'at and Haqiqat: understand the nature of the thaw both in relation to Continuity and Synthesis in the Nizari Isma'ili Muslim the preceding period as well as in the context of the Tradition" thaw as a recurring structure inherent to centralized governments. Some general topics include the Part Two: Changing Idioms of Political Discourse: Religious author, Chingiz Aitmatov, the Stalin period, ethnicity Legitimacy, Leadership, and Popular Mobilization" and nationalism, the ecology and the loss of the past, Catherine B. Asher, University of Minnesota and Carleton and the revival of the Petersburg theme. College, "Legacy and Legitimacy: Sher Shah's Patronage of Copies of the journal are available from ButterImperial Mausolea" 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham, MA 02180. worths, David Lelyveld, Columbia University, "Eloquence and Authority Katherine P. Ewing, Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, "Ambiguity and Sharr'at-A Perspective on the Problem of Moral Principles in Tension"

in Urdu: Poetry, Oratory, and Film" Rafiuddin Ahmed, University of Chittagong, "Conflict and Contradictions in Bengali Islam: Problems of Change and Adjustment" Sandria B. Freitag, University of California, Berkeley, "Ambigu-

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1 The exception in this collection is the article on Astafyev by Edward J. Brown who directed the previous summer seminar at Stanford in 1986.

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