SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 40 . NUMBERS 3/4 â&#x20AC;˘ DECEMBER 1986 605 THIRD AVENUE . NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158
The History of Social Scientific Inquiry A report on an Interdisciplinary summer Institute by George W. Stocking, Jr. and David E. Leary* THE LA T SEVERAL DECADES have witne sed a remarkable development in the history of the social cience : the emergence, among both profes ional hi torian and ocial cientific practitioners, of a erious scholarly intere t in disciplinary hi tory. An important moment in this proce s was the Con terence on the Hi tory of Anthropology ponsored by the Council in April 1962, which brought together a number of leading anthropologists with hi torical intere ts, along with ociologists and hi torians of science. Since then, the reaction against the positivistic models long dominant in the social ciences ha timulated a continuing hi torical intere t among ocial cienti ts, which has been reinforced by hi torians moving beyond traditional intellectual hi tory and the hi tory of cience. In July and August 1986, a summer institute on the History of Social Scientific Inquiry: Di ciplinary and Interdi ciplinary Per pective wa held at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, California). The institute was cospon ored by the Center and the Council, with funds provided to the Center by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. T he particular ignificance of this institute is â&#x20AC;˘ Mr. tocking. profe or of anthropology and director of the Fi hbein Center for the Hi tory of Science and Medicine. University of Chicago. ha been active in the hi tory of anthropology ince attending a Council conference on the uhj ct in 1962. Mr. Leary. chairman of the Department of P ychology. Univer ity of New Hamp hire. i a leading hi torian of p ychology. They organized and codirected the ummer in titute described in thi article.
captured both by its subtitle and it co pon or . Characteristically, the hi torical work produced over the last everal decade has had a di ciplinary focu . There are now journal for the History of Anthropology and the History of Sociology; even the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Science, which ha ince 1965 been the major ingle outlet for hi torical re earch, has been oriented largely toward the hi tory of p ychology and p ychiatry. Thi in titute initially reflected this disciplinary focu a well, ina much a its organizer -the author of thi article-are each
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 53 The History of Social ientifi Inquiry -Gtorgt W. Slociung. Jr. and DaVId E. uary 57 New York ity: Note on the Formation of a Re earch Planning Commiuee-lra Kall.ntlson 62 Grants Received b th un il 64 Labor and Development trategy in th Ea t A ian NIC -Hagtn Koo, Itphan Haggard. and FmiLTlc lRyo 68 Clivitie of the Joint Commiuee on viet tudie 72 Other urrent Activitie at the un il - ew directors and orr. ers (page 72) -CO luncheon honoring Frederi Wakeman (pag 72) -Social indicators library now at niver ity of Maryland (page 73) - The development of individual moral re pon ibility (page 73) - Pia ticity in aging ( page 74) -Child development in life- pan per pective ( page 74) - hool and intellectual development (page 75) 77 Recent Coun il Publication
1986 Summer Institute on the History of Social Scientific Inquiry Participants Jeff Biddle, economi Kevin Breault, sociology JoAnne Brown, hi tory Jame Farr, political science John ( hank) Gilke on, American civilization Gail A. Horn tein, p chology Walter A. Jackson , hi tory Antoine Jo eph, American civilization Andrew Kirby, geography David E. Leary , p ychology (codirector) Ru~n Martinez, ociology Jill Moraw ki, p ychology Robert Proctor, hi tory of science Robert Richard , hi tory of science Margaret haba , philo ophy Kurt hie inger, p ychology (auditor) Raymond Seidelman, political scien e Alan ica, ociology u an Leigh tar, ociology of science George W. tocking, Jr., anthropology (codirector) Arnold Thackray, hi tory of science (con ultant) David K. van Keuren, hi tory of science hirley Washington, political science Michael D. Woodard, sociology
Michigan State University University of Cincinnati Smithsonian In titution (Washington, D.C.) Univer ity of Wi on in Middlebury College Mount Holyoke College North Carolina tate Universit University of Penn ylvania University of Colorado University of New Hamp hire University of Colorado, Colorado Spring We leyan University New School for Social Research Univer ity of Chicago University of Colorado University of Colorado arah Lawrence College University of Kansa Tremont Re earch In titute (San Franci 0) University of Chicago University of Penn ylvania University of Penn ylvania Wheaton College ( orton, Massachusetts) University of Mi un
as ociated with the history of specific di cipline . But placing recent developments in their disciplines in a the institute was also a first attempt (1) to treat in a broader historical context, but who had had no prior relatively y tematic fashion the variety of sub tan- experience in the history of the social sciences. In tive, conceptual, and methodological i ue cros cut- between, there was a group of social cienti ts with ting the body of work that ha emerged in the la t seriou historiographical interests in the develope eral decade on the hi tory of the individual social ment of their own discipline, and a group of cience di ciplines and (2) to consider the pos ibilities professional historians of particular social cientific of a more general interdi ciplinary hi tory of ocial di ciplines, many of who e publications are part of cientific inquiry. The fact that it was spon ored by the growing literature on the history of the social and held at the leading "think tank" in the behavioral science, or who e ongoing re earch will soon sciences, and was cosponsored by the Council, contribute to it. (The participants are listed in the recognize the importance placed on the history of box above.) the social sciences by the e institutions. Given this diver ity of prior experience and The 20 younger scholars who were cho en (from approach, the fir t problem of the institute was to over 175 applicants) for the institute repre ent a provide a common grounding for discus ion. To this cro s section of the ocial cientific discipline and the end, the syllabus of the institute attempted to define various impulses toward their history. Their prior a eries of cross-cutting themes that would serve to participation in the intellectual hi torical movement organize the considerable literature that now exists, out of which the in titute grew varied considerably. and provide a serie of systematically-related topics At one extreme, there was a professional historian for di cu sion. (The syllabus i reproduced in the box interested in the impact of the social sciences on on page 55.) American culture but with no formal training in the As a general orienting device for participants who ocial sciences. At the other, there were several came from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, we practicing ocial scientists whose research had an began by considering the possibility that social historical dimension, and who were interested in science disciplines may differ in their fundamental 54
1986 Summer Institute on the History of Social Scientific Inquiry· Syllabus I. Founding Myth and Methodological Values in the Social Sciences • The origin myth(s) and methodological value of cultural anthropology (Stocking); p ychoanalysi (Horn tein); economics (Biddle & Schaba ); p ychology (Leary); myth and method : the problem of interdi iplinary variation (Breault, Martinez, & van Keuren) II. Historiographical Styles and Methodological Considerations • The hi torian of di ipline a di iplinary hi torian: "pre enti m" and "hi torici m" (Stocking) • The pre enti t-hi torici t controversy (Proctor, Sica, & Wa hington) • U ing evolutionary principle to under tand the hi tory of ience (Richard ) • Attending to hi torical material and texts a literary artifacts (Brown) • U ing ociological method to understand the production of scientific knowledge (Star) III. Mapping Historically the Domain of the Social Sciences • The Scientific Revolution and the human domain (Proctor) • The moral science in the 18th century (Farr) • Encompa ing rubri and ba ic orientation in the hi ton' of the human science (Stocking) • Orienting oppo ition in the knowing of the human: the masculine-feminine di tinction (Moraw ki) • Subjects, objects, and other in the con titution of the ocial science : the tudy and understanding of racial group (jack on, Wa hington, & Woodard) • Quantification a a basic methodological value in the social cience: economi (Schaba); p ychology (Horn tein) IV. The Differentiation, Institutionalization, and Professionalization of the Social Sciences • Disciplinary differentiation and national tradition (Stocking) • The language of profe ionalization (Brown & Gilkeson) • The proce and problem of in titutionalization (Moraw ki, tar, & van Keuren) V. The Changing Boundaries and Interrelationships of the Social Sciences • Bounding the arenas of ocial scientific discourse: economics-sociology (Biddle & Breault); political science-p ychology (Seidelman); geography (Kirby)
• Tran cending di ciplinary boundarie : the In titute of Human Relations-a ca e tudy (Moraw ki) • Tran cending domain boundarie : the interface of culture and biology (Proctor & Richard) • The agency- tructure debate (jo eph & Kirby) • Commentary (Sica) VI. The Social Sciences and the Larger World • Conceptualizing the relation hip ( eidelman & tar) • The patronage, personnel, and politi of the ocial ience ( tocking) • Metaphor and knowledge in ociety and ience (Brown & Leary) • The relative in ulation of ocial ience di cipline (Stocking & Biddle) • Application, legitimation, and cultural critique: borrowing culture (Gilke on); harne ing culture and personality for the war effort ( tocking); marketing theorie (Horn tein & tar) • Race and ociety: German phy ical anthropology (Proctor); "rever e di crimination" ince the mid1960 (Woodard); the Myrdal tud (jack on) VII. The Recent History of the Social Sciences • The Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral ience and the ocial cience ince World War II (Thackray) • Cri e , revolution , and tran ition in the hi tor of the social science : anthropology ( tocking); political science (Farr); hi tory (jack on) • Cri e , revolution , and tran ition in the hi tory of the social cience: ociology (Breault & Martinez); economics (Schaba ) • From po itivi m to interpretation ( ica) • The hi toricization of the ocial science (jo eph) VIII. The Future of Social Science and Its History • The normalization of cri i : p ychology (Lear ) • The future of ocial ientific inquiry (Nelon W. Pol by, Univer ity of California, Berkeley) • Perspective on the in titute and its implication for future hi torical inquiry from four viewpoints: a cultural hi torian (Gilke on); a behavioral cienti t (Schle inger); a keptical hi torian of the ocial ience (Breault); a critical hi torian of the ocial science (Horn tein)
• For reason of pace, the yllabu of the in titute ha been edited and omewhat condensed for thi pre entation. In particular, the exten ive bibliographie that constituted the reading a ignments for each day have been omitted. The name in parenthese indicate the person who made the pre entation.
"methodological value" -their underlying a ump- We then shifted the perspective from "input" to tion about the ubject matter and method of "output," discu ing various attempts to apply the inquiry which help to define different di ciplinary ocial ciences to ocial problems, and their u e as "culture" and which (extending the cultural anal- mean of legitimation and of cultural critique (with ogy) may be u tained by "founding myth " regardpecial focus on problem of race theory and race ing the origin of each di cipline. Starting from the relation ). ca e of Malinow ki' Trobriand I land experience a After four weeks discu ing a range of cro a founding myth of anthropological field work, we cutting i ues from the Scientific Revolution to con idered the ca e of p ychoanaly i , economic , World War II, the in titute focu ed during the final and p ychology-and the po ibility that methodolog- fortnight on the last 30 year of the ocial science . ical value and mythic ju tification might be matter With the help of the hi torian of cience Arnold of con iderable intradi ciplinary and cros -di cipli- Thackray, who is currently working on a history of nar variation. On the a umption that a critical line the Center, and David L. Sills, of the Council' taff, of uch orientational differentiation might be that we con idered the founding of the Center for between historian and practitioner of other social Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in the cience a tudents of the ocial cientific past, we early 1950 as a ca e study in the recurrent then con ide red certain general hi toriographical movement toward interdisciplinary conceptual intematter -including "pre enti m" ver u "hi torici m" gration. -and a variety of methodological orientations Moving forward from thi po twar moment of general ocial scientific optimism, the institute went (evolutionary, textual, ociological, etc.). After thu familiarizing our elve with each other's on to compare the varying di ciplinary experience di ciplinary a umption, we then proceeded in a of crisis in the 1960 and 1970s, and the range of roughly chronological manner, starting with at- re pon es to the challenges they po ed. On the one tempt in the 18th century to carry the Scientific hand, we di cu ed ign of a general "paradigm hift" (toward hermeneutic and hi tory); on the Revolution from the natural to the moral world. Moving forward, we con idered the proce es by other hand, of a "normalization" of di cour e, in which di tinct di cipline emerged in the 19th which more radically critical tendencies have been century from an undifferentiated ocial cience-cum- "dome ticated" within discipline till dominated by moral philo ophy, their relation hip to broader positivi tic modes-a manife ted in recent projecdi cursive tradition , the proce of their institution- tion of the future of ocial cientific inquiry. alization within an emerging univer ity y tern, and The final ses ion were devoted to a recon iderathe validation of their claim to privileged profe - tion of the problems of ocial cience historiography ional competence. Having thought about the way in and the po ibilities of a general hi tory of ocial which boundarie came to be e tabli hed between cientific inquiry from the perspectives of different di cipline , we then focu ed on the variou ways in categories of in titute participants (profe ional which uch boundarie were to become hi torically hi torians, di ciplinary hi torians, critical di ciplinarian, etc.) problematic. Drawing on the example of economic and ociology, political cience and p ychology, and Within (and to orne extent again t) this structure, the peculiar marginality of geography to the re t of the succe of the in titute temmed largely from the the cial cience, we con idered change that have fact that its member were an extremely capable and taken place in di ciplinary boundarie over time, a talented group, who brought to the institute a wide well a the changing tatu of certain tran di ciplin- range of relevant competence and a con iderable ar problem (e.g., the relation of biology to culture) body of prior research, 0 that the tructure given in in different hi torical moment, and the variou the yllabu was constantly being elaborated and attempt at interdi ciplinary cooperation (focu ing enriched: bibliographically, ub tantively, and concepon the Yale In titute of Human Relation a a ca e tually. The member quickly developed a high tudy). degree of ocial olidarity and collective intellectual Turning from the internal boundarie of the ocial commitment, and their varying historiographical, cience to their boundarie with the "larger world," theoretical, and critical orientation produced unu uwe con idered problem of patronage and recruit- ally lively di cu ion. There were harply tated ment, the role of ideology and metaphor in defining differences on many i sue (the utility of the concept di iplinary di cour e, and the relative "in ulation" of of "methodological values," the value of quantificadifferent di cipline from uch "external" influence . tion and other" cientizing" approache , the heuri tic 56
value of a di tinction between "internal" and "external" factors, etc.), and ometimes a tendency for these to coale ce into a division between ardent critics and not-so-ardent defenders of po itivistic social cience. However, the lineup on mo t issues varied, and even the most strongly-held positions were sharpened, modified, and enriched in re ponse to the continuou ly re-elaborated presentation of opposing Vlew. The history of the social sciences no doubt will (and indeed should) always remain a contentiou field, and it eems both unlikely (as well as unde irable) that a uniform research program will emerge. Neither does it eem likely that the history of pecific di cipline will be abandoned in favor of an integrated history of the ocial ciences-if only becau e one of the most clearly-evident generalized proce e in their hi tory has been the great inertial trength of institutionalized di ciplinary formations, which ha been manifest even within the recurring movements toward interdi ciplinarity. On the other hand, the institute made it abundantly clear that
underlying and overarching the disciplinary diver ity of social cientific inquiry there are many historical i ue that a purely disciplinary inquiry can never adequately treat, and it helped to identify a group of younger cholar in the hi tory of particular di cipline who are now sensitive to such i ue, and who are developing plan for pur uing them, individually and collaboratively. While the pecific ocial cience discipline will no doubt continue to be a major focus of future hi torical inquiry, both by di ciplinarian and historians, the trajectory of the in titute sugge ts fruitful po ibilities for more comparative and encompa ing hi torical studie . The more systematic pur uit of the e po sibilities will no doubt involve per onnel and re ource beyond tho e mobilized at this institute-per onnel and re ource which the Council may perhap participate in organizing. But at a moment when the future of ocial science inquiry itself remains (after almo t two decades of critical di cussion) still unre olved, thi generalizing hi torical impul e will surely be of continuing intere t to the organized interdi ciplinary ocial cience community.
New York City: Notes on the Formation of a Research Planning Committee lJy Ira Katznelson* A YEAR AND A HALF ha pa ed since the Council appointed a Committee on New York City. This step wa neither obvious nor taken without some controver y. Why not a committee on urbani m, or on comparative urban studies? In what en e doe New York provide an appropriate focu for a Council re earch planning committee? Would such a group not tend to antiquarianism and parochiali m? The committee is still in it formative stage. Yet it is not too early to report how it defines its ta ks and how it ee it relationship to hi tory, the ocial ciences, and urban tudies. In part, the e orienta-
tions remain pro pective, but there ha been enough of a start to the committee' activitie to demon trate how it ha begun to put them into practice.
New York City a the committee' geographical focu immediately rai e questions about any city a a unit of analy is and of the choice of this city in particular. It i a commonplace to ay that the field of urban tudie, and the subfield of urban politics, urban history, urban economic, urban sociology, etc., are in di array. Thi i the ca e, in part, becau e â&#x20AC;˘ Mr. KalZnel on i Henry A. and Loui e Loeb profe or of urbanists have sought to con titute citie as autonopolitical and social science at the Graduate Faculty of the ew mou objects of analy i . This committee has begun, hool for Social Re earch. The pre ent article borrow liberally in tead, with a rejection of Fernand Braudel' from variou documents prepared collectively by member of the injunction to tudy the "town itself, outside the Council' Committee on New York City. These include the economy or civilization containing it" (a po ition propo aI ubmitted to the Council by Thoma Bender, Ira by the claim that "all town have certain justified KalZnelson, and John Mollenkopf in May 19 5 and ub equent common characteristics and that uch characteri tics ubmi ion to the Ru ell age and Spencer foundations. DE E 18ER
more or less persist from one period to another"I); and by affirming Philip Abrams' proposal that we should study the cultural, political, and economic relationships concentrated spatially in cities "in relation to our understanding of the system in which they occur and not as exemplars of an autonomous urban reality."2 From this broad orienting position, citie are not thing in them elves, but vantage points from which to study uch matters as patterns of state building and public policy, the making and remaking of culture, and economic change. The central aim of the committee is to draw on 200 years of New York City'S history to under tand how culture, politic , and economics interact in a shared spatial context. Thi goal complements the microanalysis of individual population and the macroanalysis of ocieties, state , and clas and group formations. The former tend to mis how contexts shape individual action, while the latter often overlooks the local roots of large-scale trends. The committee is using a ingle, very complicated, city to explore how the diverse components of a ociety are bound together, how the relations between them change over time, and how a compact spatial arena effects the construction of the ociety it contains. Geographer have long pres ed for greater considerations of space and place but relatively few American ocial cienti t and historian have made the interaction of economic, political, and cultural dimensions in a particular place central to their re earch. Studie have often been made of populations as a whole, with little regard to crucial variations from place to place, or to how the urban container, to use an image of Lewis Mumford, shapes its contents. Our focus on the historical development of a particularly complex and significant place will bring these ordinarily separate objects of cholarly discourse together. The usual omission of the spatial dimension is not trivial. Social constructions of culture, politics, and economics-and the interactions among them-are inevitably bounded in space and informed by place,
I Fernand Braude!. Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800. New York: Harper and Row. 1973. page 373.
2 Philip Abram. "Town and Economic Growth: Some Theorie and Problem ." In Philip Abram and E. A. Wrigley. editor. Towns in Societies: Essays in Economic History and Historical Sociology. Cambridge. England: Cambridge University Pre â&#x20AC;˘ 1978, page 30.
giving society its texture and dynamics. A historical focus on a particular place forces the analyst to confront long-term interactions that might not otherwise seem worth exploring. If, as a group, we share contextual and spatial points of departure, we also agree on a developmental approach to urban tudies that is disrespectful of traditional boundaries between history, ocial science, and policy analysis. Urban studies have been artificially segregated in this way, as even a cur ory bibliographical urvey would reveal. We are not studying just any place, of cour e. New York City stands at the intersection of two system . More than any other city in the United States, New York is a "world city." It is the globe's premier capital market, a major port, a key node in the world art market, a center of international politics. As such, New York is one of a handful of cities connecting a global system of relation hips: it stand between that system and the interior of the United States. New York al 0 stand at the apex of the North American system of cities. It concentrate features found in mo t other American citie, including problems of postindustrialism, ethnic conflict, and race relations; issues of governance central to democratic theory; and the juxtapo ition of wealth and poverty. Other cities find New York both a denser and more magnified version of themselve and an important part of their environment. New York is certainly not representative of other cities or American ociety in general. Nevertheless, because it has long been a central nodal point in the historical interplay of cultural, political, and economic forces in American society, "local knowledge" of New York, in the broad tradition of space-specific work such as that of Carl Schorske on Vienna, Clifford Geertz on Bali, and Morris Janowitz on Chicago, can provide one valuable way to study many current issues in the social sciences. It may be objected that it is impossible to generalize from one case, especially one as unusual as New York City. Obviously, no general proposition can be proven on the basis of a sample of one. Our concern, however, is not so much to prove hypotheses as to generate new ones. A place as rich and complex as New York provides a good vantage point from which to explore interactions that might be missed on a larger scale. A focus on a single place forces consideration of the interaction within a shared space of causal dimensions that are usually analyzed separately. The compression of ocial processes in the city may also expose latent interac-
tions to more direct view. The city enable us to look at the e interactions at different points in time, or with re pect to different issue, and a k what account for different outcomes. The re ults of such efforts can help to improve the quality of both largerscale comparative tudie and policy analy i . Like policy analy ts more generally, students of urban public policy often display only in trumental, hort-term, i ue-specific horizon . Improved policy making depend Ie on more refined application of exi ting techniques than on a better under tanding of ba ic ocial proce e. We think the kind of re earch we wi h to encourage on ew York City can provide a richer, more multidimen ional under tanding of the force haping ocial problem. By contra ting periods of time and pha es of development, we will be able to ee how problems developed, what the long-term con equences of the re pon es have been, and how they in turn generated new kinds of problems. Current cholar hip on New York i extremely uneven. A large and growing monographic literature examine the city's hi tory, ocial group, institution, cultural and intellectual life, architecture, economic , and politics and government. Younger cholar have produced much of this work. Yet it i fragmented, lacking a common theoretical agenda or a clear relationship to broader analy es of cultural, political, and economic proce es. The complexity of the city ha di armed its tudents. Institutional and di ciplinary barrier thwart dialogue among them. A a result, little coherent, synthetic work on the city exi ts. The last integrated history of New York wa written in the 1860s. The last large-scale collaborative effort to make sense of New York, the New York Metropolitan Region Study, is now a quarter of a century old. Coverage of basic facets of the city's development is incomplete and haphazard; even the re ource available for studying the city are poorly cataloged and suffer from curatorial neglect. The committee, nonetheless, is optimistic about the quality of current cholarly intere t in New York. The city's prominence makes it attractive to a large scholarly community. Many scholars who are not specifically studying New York are facing theoretical and sub tantive problem similar to those we have identified. Pro peets for comparative work are inviting. In practical terms, the committee is attempting to bring together, and invigorate, a community of scholar. Its early activitie , and the warm intere t they have elicited, testify to this possibility.
Committee organization and activities The committee is pre ently compo ed of nine cholars: Thomas Bender (history, New York University); Manuel Ca tells (urban planning, University of California, Berkeley, and Univer ity of Madrid); Michael Conzen (geography, University of Chicago); Ira Katznel on, chair (political science, New School for Social Research); Diane Lindstrom (economic history, Univer ity of Wiscon in); John Mollenkopf (political cience, Graduate Center, City University of New York); Elizabeth Roistacher (economics, Queen College, City University of New York); Mary Ryan (hi tory, Univer ity of California, Davis); and Martin Shefter (government, Cornell Univer ity). David L. Szanton, an anthropologist, serves as staff to the committee. As a group, we are not the fir t to complain that students of culture, politics, and economics rarely communicate with each other, or fail to take space seriously. What we have begun to do in our early activities i to spell out what a specific urban focu can contribute to the inter ection of the e domains. Some early activitie of the committee are worthy of note: an initial volume edited by John Mollenkopf, "Power, Culture, and Place: E ays on New York City"; the early work of three working group ; and a hi torical map project. "Power, Culture, and Place," to be published in late 1987, is based on papers given at a series of conferences that led up to the founding of the committee. The essay examine three themescultural hegemony, political transformation, and economic restructuring-at three moments of largescale transformation in the city's history (the mercantile, industrial, and po tindustrial periods). How, in the midst of endemic economic inequality and social heterogeneity is public consent achieved? New York City pre ents this issue in an intensified microcosm-more unequal, more culturally diverse, yet till stable. In the context of dramatic inequalitie , culture can both legitimate and undermine political authority. Several papers in the volume illustrate the different ways both consent and dissent have been constructed through collective spectacles, public spaces, and popular culture. Peter G. Buckley, New York Institute for the Humanities, portrays the rise of a popular culture distinct from upper-class .. ociety" before the Civil War. Multiclass participation in newly-invented forms like political clubs or P.T. Barnum's amusements helped moderate the symbolism and rhetoric of class differences. Yet in 59
the A tor Place Riot, the e mechani ms were unavailing. William R. Taylor, State Univer ity of New York, Stony Brook, argues that a revolution of cale and complexity took place in rna culture at the end of the 19th century, and that its element (like yellow journalism or Tin Pan Alley ong) were acce ible to, if not quite shared by, a cro -cia s, cross-ethnic, cros -sex public. William Kornblum and Jame Be her, both Graduate Center, City Univer ity of ew York, de cribe the contemporary flight from common space to which different group attach their own meaning in the (re)creation of white, middle-cIa ,ethnic enclave on the periphery of the city. By patterning our power and political mobilization, political in titution have hi torically contained the tension between economic inequality and political democracy. The order of uch a political order i not a given. It mu t be explained. The rich literature on the American party y tern, a ociated with uch cholar a V.O. Key and Walter Dean Burnham, that trace change in the rule and practice of politic at moments of breakdown and cri i , rarely examine the urban r ots of the national political order. And yet, after the Indu trial Revolution, urban, or, more properly, metropolitan location have been the mo t potent ource of national power. Amy Bridges, Harvard Univer ity, argue that preindu trial ew York contributed both the oldest continually existing political organization, the ew York County Democrac , and helped to hape the ba ic nature of national party competition. The e political forms al 0 influenced the formation of a di tinctively American working cia . For Shefter, a for Bridges, national politic i directly related to local politic. Accordingly, he argue that reform effort in ew York picked up great momentum from their nationalization of its major precepts, and that, in turn, national policy haped local political development, hifting the method by which local intere t reached accommodation between the ew orman I. Fainstein, ew Deal and the 1950. hool for ocial Re earch, and u an S. Fainstein, Rutger Univer ity, in complementary way, show how federal tool enabled local actors to remake New York' phy ical and ocial terrain. The paper on economic re tructuring in the book al 0 demon trate the u efulne of hi torical and interdi iplinar approache. Lindstrom how how it came to be that ew York City emerged a the fir t, large t, den e t concentration of in titution driving American economic tran formation, and he
demonstrates the rna ive inequalitie thi early proce produced. Emmanuel Tobier, ew York Univer ity, demon trate how the rna ive phy ical change of the late 19th and early 20th century city, including the changing cope and form of the central busines di trict, reflected national and international trend, and how alteration to the built form influenced uch local matter as the creation of new middle-cia living tandards. Mollenkopf tie together various trand of the recent restructuring of the American economy, their impact, often deva tating, on the mature indu trie of New York, and the emergence of the office and telecommunication a the key ymbol of the urban economy. What distingui he the e various e says, a well a the ynthetic conclu ions by Bender ("Reflection on a Private World in a Public Culture"); Katznel on ("Reflections on Politics and Space"); and Mollenkopf ("Reflections on the Political Economy of Development"), is their refu al to live neatly within the bound of culture, politic, or economics. The arne kind of cro -di ciplinary orientation also characterize the committee' initial working group , each of which ha begun to meet and to work toward a volume in the committee erie. The topics of the three working group -The Built Environment, The Dual City, and Metropolitan Dominance-were elected becau e they rai e i ue central to understanding how cultural, economic, and political force interact to hape ew York City and contemporary ociety; becau e they have been continuous and important focal points for debate and action in the city during the 19th and 20th centuries; and becau e they have been the ubject of ufficient, if di parate, cholarship to allow for confrontation, integration, and synthe i . The working group on the Built Environment, chaired by Bender, i a king how variou large- cale ocial proce e have produced physical change in New York, which in turn contain and give texture to the e proce e. Thi working group ha begun to examine how culturally diver e group, government intervention, and the marketplace have carved ew York into its complex, ever-changing pattern of land u e, ocial function, and ocial grouping. It i inquiring about what civic ideals and material interest imply for particular urban forms, and what technique, whether cientific, market-based, educational, or governmental, were used to carry them out. It i focu ing particular attention on how practice redefine intention a variou group attach private or group meaning to ph ical place and plan and
contend for power to make their meaning the public definition. In this way, the working group is concerned with interpretation as well as with the making of the built-form itself. It seeks the meaning of patial change for the evolving cultural, political, and economic ordering of the city's life. The working group on the Dual City, chaired by Ca tells, is also concerned with inequality, space, and meaning a it confronts the massive restructuring now under way in New York. Dualism has long been a metaphor u ed to characterize the complicated process in which immigrant streams have inter ected with the city's changing lattice of industries and occupations. As groups concentrate in economic niches, by choice or by necessity, a cultural division of labor has been produced. At moments of restructuring, the division of labor breaks apart and a new one i created. An intrametropolitan dualism i now emerging in New York, characterized by sharp contrasts between the affluent and the de titute. New managerial and profe sional strata associated with the advanced corporate sector are growing rapidly; but so are new, low-skilled, service occupations filled more often than not by women and recent immigrant from the Caribbean, Asia, and other Third World areas. A middle class largely built upon the generational upward mobility of econd and third generation de cendants of earlier immigrant communitie has evolved between the pole of wealth and poverty. The current wave of gentrification amidst austerity may well be making middle-class status more precariou , prompting the drawing of hard, often bitter, line between the city'S middle-class white ethnic and its poorer minority groups. New York emerged as America's leading metropoIi early in the 19th century. Although the city has
retained its paramount pOSitIOn, this achievement, the subject of the working grou p on Metropolitan Dominance, chaired by Shefter, cannot be explained imply by early preeminence plus the benefits of inertia. New York's elite have had to adjust to changes in the broader economic, political, and cultural system within which the city is enmeshed. The near collap e of the city's economy and its brush with bankruptcy in the 1970 indicate that the success of such adjustments cannot be guaranteed. In examining the innovations needed to make the e adjustments, the working group will examine New York' "exports" and "foreign relation ." It will ask how New York has gained and reinforced its position relative to other cities in the realms of culture, economics, and politics; how thi dominance affected, and ha been affected by, national and international developments; and how New York's position in one domain ha influenced its po ition in the others. In addition to its working groups, the committee has initiated a historical map project. In an initial stage, Jeffrey Kroe ler, Graduate Center, City University of New York, i preparing a much needed guide to the map resource of greater New York which will both de cribe private and public collection and eros -index map re ource by decade and by type, thus giving the reader an idea of temporal and areal variability in topical coverage. One possible, very ambitious, goal of the project would be the creation of a synthetic and interpretive hi torical atlas of New York City, who e conceptualization, coverage, organization, and materials would grow out of the committee's re earch. The committee's work has been launched with the generous support of the Ru ell Sage and Spencer foundations. We are very grateful for thi a si tance.
Grants Received by the Council A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1986* Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Project LINK Grants for monetary research (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) Carnegie Corporation of New York Program evaluation (Committee on International Peace and Security Studies) Exxon Education Foundation General upport of the Council Ford Foundation Fellowship support, for five years (Committee on Foreign Policy Studie ) Program support, for three years (joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societies) Awards and re earch planning by area committees Indochina Studies Program, for three years (joint Committee on Southeast Asia) Interdisciplinary analy i of the African agricultural crisi , for two year (joint Committee on African Studies) Second annual ummer workshop on Soviet and East European economics (joint Committee on Soviet Studies) Workshop on rural economic change (joint Committee on South Asia) Project on tate formation and nation building in Arab oil-producing countries Uoint Committee on the Near and Middle East)
â&#x20AC;˘ Does not include "in-kind" grants; that i , upport of travel, hotel, conference, and similar expenses received by Council committees in the form of direct payments by other organizations. t Represents thi year' allocation of revenue from a multipleyear grant.
Admini tration of re earch grants (Committee on Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hi panic lues) French-American Foundation Tocqueville predoctoral fellowship (joint Committee on We tern Europe) German Marshall Fund of the United States Fellowship admini tration, for three years (Committee on the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies) William T. Grant Foundation Preparation of a book on chool-age pregnancy and parenthood (Committee on Biosocial Per pective on Parent Behavior and Offspring Development) William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Predoctoral fellow hips for foreign area research Japan Foundation Regional seminar , for two years (joint Committee on Japane e Studie) Japan-United States Friendship Commission Study of media and politics in Japan Postdoctoral grants (joint Committee on Japane e Studie ) Henry Luce Foundation Indochina studie program, for three year (joint Committee on Southeast Asia) John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship upport (Committee on International Peace and Security Studies) Research planning (Committee on International Peace and Security Studies)
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Program upport, for three year Uoint Committee on Latin American Studie ) Preparation and publication expen e of Richard D. Lambert's Points of lLverage Milbank Memorial Fund Program upport (Committee on Cognition and Survey Research) National Archives and Records Commission Preparation of a propo aI for the improvement of the Council' archive National Endowment for the Humanities Grants and re earch planning for foreign area research Indochina tudie program Uoint Committee on Southeast Asia) National Science Foundation Program upport, for two years (Committee on Cognition and Survey Re earch) Conference on re earchers' access to publicly-collected data (Committee on the Survey of Income and Program Participation)
2,965 898,919t 90,000t
Rockefeller Foundation Interdisciplinary analy is of the African agricultural cri i , for two year Uoint Committee on African Studie) International fellow hip program for the development of Soviet studie Uoint Committee on oviet Studie ) Preparation and publication expen es of Richard D. Lambert's Points of lLverage Russell Sage Foundation Program upport, for three year (Committee on New York City) United Nations Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) U.S. Department of Labor Planning for a Quality of Employment Survey U.S. Department of State Fellowship and grants, for four year Uoint Committee on Soviet Studie ) Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Workshop on agricultural terminology Uoint Committee on South Asia)
25,547 9,000 180,000 45,000 36,161 855,630
Labor and Development Strategy in the East Asian NICs by Hagen Koo, Stephan Haggard, and Frederic Deyo* THE RAPID GROWTH of the Ea t Asian newlyindu trializing countrie (NIC )-South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and ingapore- has pawned a new literature eeking the ource of their economic succe . While neocla ical economi ts focus on the pur uit of export-led industrialization and marketoriented policie that "got the price right," political economi t tre the extent of tate intervention, particularly in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. Some ob erver point to a common Confucian culture in Ea t A ia, while others argue for the importance of geopolitics and the clo e economic integration of the Northea t Asian regional economy. Only cattered attention has been given to the crucial role of labor in Ea t A ian development, despite frequent ob ervation that the main comparative advantage of the e "four little tiger" lie preci ely in their low-wage but killed and indu triou workforces. All four countries have weak labor movements and have maintained a remarkably high level of industrial peace amidst rapid indu trial transformation (Deyo 1984). Undoubtedly, these labor factor have played a ignificant role in the indu trialization of the four countrie . What hi torical factors account for the continuous weaknes of organized labor in the A ian NIC ? How ha the nature of labor affected the development strategie of the four countrie , and vice ver a? In what way has the state interacted with labor and capital, and what tructural con traints have the demands of the world market placed on labor regimes? How have indu trial worker fared in the â&#x20AC;˘ Mr. Koo i a ociate profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Hawaii and chair of the Joint Commillee on Korean tudie ; Mr. Haggard i as i tant profe or of government at Harvard Univer ity; and Mr. Deyo i a ociate profe or of ociology at the tate University of New York, Brockport. Thi paper i an outgrowth of the re earch planning meeting on "The Political Economy of Ea t A ian Development," held in November 19 4, with upport from the joint committee on Korean and Japane e tudie . Other participant were Ali e Amsden, Harvard Univerity; Bruce Cuming, Univer ity of Wa hington; Peter Evan, Brown University; Gary Gereffi, Duke Univer ity; Thomas Gold, Univer ity of California, Berkeley; H in-Huang Michael H iao, Academia inica (Taipei); and T.J. Pempel, Cornell University. The author thank Linda Lim for helpful comments on an earlier draft.
distribution proces ? To what extent has the working clas become a political force? The e questions are of great intere t from a comparative per pective, ince the Ea t Asian indu trialization pattern diverge ignificantly from that of other developing area , e pecially Latin America. Here we consider some of the e questions and uggest tentative generalization and hypothe e .
Historical development The weakness of organized labor in the East Asian NICs has historical roots. Although the empha is on harmony and hierarchy in Confucian culture may have an influence on East Asian workers' orientation toward interest group activities, political events that took place in the po twar period had a more immediate impact. The basic pattern of labor weaknes wa et in the late 1920 in Hong Kong, in the late 1940s in South Korea and Taiwan, and in the early 1960 in Singapore. Labor union movements in China and Korea appeared during the Japane e colonial period. In fact, lefti t labor movements were quite active in South Korea and Hong Kong. But labor unions in the colonial period assumed a more political than economic character, functioning as part of the anticolonial truggles. Militant lefti t union in Hong Kong cru hed in the late 1920 by the Kuomintang were gradually replaced by weak, fragmented labor union (Turner 1980; England and Rear 1981). In the other three counties, demobilization of labor was closely tied to anticommunist state building in the postwar years. After Korea was liberated from Japanese rule, communist forces emerged trong from the underground to lead violent labor movements (Cuming 1981). But conservative forces, with the backing of the American military occupation forces, succeeded in destroying the ocialist labor movement; sociali t unions were outlawed in 1946; and hundred of union leaders were killed or imprisoned. Sub equently, Syngman Rhee established firm control of weak, rightwing unions and turned them into an arm of his Liberal Party (Choi 1983). VOLUME 40, N MBERS 3/4
The cattered leftist forces in Taiwan were imilarly liquidated when KMT forces moved to the island in 1947-1949. The KMT government then encouraged the formation of unions at plant, county, and national levels, but only under the leadership of the KMT party cadre (Djang 1977). In Singapore, communi ts remained erious contender for political power throughout the 1950 . Political event in the early 1960, especially the left' re i tance to merger with Malaysia, allowed Lee Kwan Yew to outmaneuver the left and to establish one-party dominance and corporatist control over labor (Deyo 19 1). Both the timing and the geopolitical context of the e political development are crucial. In all four countrie , demobilization of labor and/or corporati t tate control of labor were e tablished prior to rapid indu trialization. It was preemptive control that wa politically motivated rather than dictated by economic imperative . Northeast A ian geopolitic in the po twar period played a crucial role in thi proce . Anticommuni m provided a legitimating formula for authoritarian rule and has exerted a continuou influence on the ub equent development of labor movements.
Development strategy An important debate in the development literature centers on the relation hip between development trategy and labor control. Guillermo O'Donnell launched this debate with the thesis that a direct relationship existed between a transition to the pha e of indu trial "deepening" and labor exclusion in Latin America (O'Donnell 1973). Peter Evan argued that labor exclusion i a neces ary condition for "dependent development" in which multinational came to play a central role (Evan 1979). The link between development strategy and labor control is a umed to be especially clo e in the ca e of world-market oriented, labor-inten ive indu trialization (Kreye 1980). Both foreign and local inve tor in labor-inten ive export industries have a trong intere t in low wage and labor docility, and governments eeking to attract foreign inve tment into labor-inten ive indu tries naturally eek to maintain such conditions. Can we e tabli h a cau al relation hip between the trategy of export-oriented indu trialization (EOI) and labor repre ion in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore? The relation hip eems rather complex (Haggard 1986). On the one hand, we notice the sequence of labor exclusion followed by a shift to the DE EMBER
EOI trategy. This equence i particularly clear in Singapore but hold true in South Korea and Taiwan as well. On the other hand, the demobilization of labor occurred far in advance of a trategy hift toward export-led indu trialization, and occurred primarily for political rather than for economic reasons. Since labor had been excluded from politic , no particular change wa nece itated by the adoption of a new trategy. But what about the impact of pur uing the EOI trategy on labor movements since the 1960 ? Ha it inten ified labor control and repre ion already establi hed? There i orne evidence ugge ting thi relationship in South Korea, where labor control has become increasingly more repre ive and penetrating a the Korean economy moved along the export-led path of indu trialization (Choi 1983; Launiu 19 4). However, no imilar evidence i apparent in the other countrie . In Hong Kong, a fairly permi ive labor union environment ha prevailed, albeit encouraging fragmentation of unions along a left-right plit and blue-collar ver u white-collar unioni m. The government of Taiwan and Singapore have kept a tight grip on union activitie but do not appear to have introduced new re trictive mea ure in respon e of the demand of exportoriented indu trialization. Thus, it eem that no imple repre sion the i applie equally to all of the Ea t A ian NIC . A critical variable i labor activi m it elf. Where labor ha been continuou ly pa ive and docile, a in Taiwan and Hong Kong, there wa no particular rea on to re tructure labor regime. Where indu trial labor wa capable of becoming a political force, a in South Korea and Singapore, the government impo ed evere re tnctlon on union actlvltle to maintain favorable labor condition for exportoriented growth. In any event, a definite relationship i vi ible between weak organized labor and EOI succe in all four countrie . Even though the EOI trategy did not cau e labor weakne ,its early succe s depended, to a great extent, on labor docility and indu trial peace. The relation hip between export-oriented indu trialization and labor control eems to be changing a the four A ian economie eek to upgrade their indu trial tructure. No longer doe cheap, docile labor erve a their chief comparative advantage; in tead, their economie now require a more highly killed and motivated workforce. In re ponse to thi changing need, all four tate have been introducing more welfare-oriented labor policie , combined with an increa ed inve tment in higher education and 65
technical training. The e change are most likely to re ult in greater variation among the four countrie .
Forms of labor control Form of labor control vary acros the four East Asian NIC. In broad terms, South Korea and Singapore repre ent "exclu ionary state corporati m," wherea Taiwan and Hong Kong might be called "enterpri e corporati t." State intervention in labor relations has been much deeper and more frequent in South Korea and Singapore. In Hong Kong and Taiwan, more decentralized firm-level control ha worked ucce fully, in part becau e the tate ha functioned to bol ter managerial power through welfare program . The contra t between Taiwan and South Korea i e pecially intere ting. While the two countries have followed the ame path of development, state-labor relation have evolved in quite different directions. In Taiwan, the ba ic labor law which the KMT laid down in 1947 have remained intact with only minor modifications. The original laws were sufficiently repre ive and the KMT's penetration of union ufficiently extensive to preempt independent union activitie until the pre ent. Over the years, everal welfare-oriented labor law have been introduced, the mo t important of which was enacted in 1984 de pite trenuous criticism from industriali ts. By and large, labor control ha been atisfactorily maintained through state supervi ion of enterpri elevel unions. In contra t, South Korean labor laws have gone through uccessive change, becoming ever more oppre ive. Simultaneou ly, tate intervention in labor relations has intensified and labor conflict has become increasingly politicized. Korean labor law in the 1960 were relatively liberal compared to what followed. The fir t ignificant change occurred in 1969 when new provi ional law prohibited trike in foreign-inve ted firm. More repre ive mea ure were in tailed in 1972 under the dictatorial Yushin (new vitalization) regime, in part in reaction to increasing labor unrest and challenges from the political oppo ition. From the middle of the 1970s, with the drive for heavy-chemical industrialization, the tate launched an ideological campaign through the o-called SaemauL (new community) Factory Movement. The state ought to extend its ideological and organizational control down to the shop-floor level, organizing antiunion work group linked directly to the central tate control system (Choi 1983). In 1980, with the emergence of the Chun 66
regime, the previou ly centralized labor union tructure wa broken down to decentralized company union , while new laws prohibited the involvement of a third party, precluding assi tance by upper-level union leader hip, church groups, or students. Several factor account for such cro s-national variation. Probably the most important may be the history of labor mobilization and the potency of threats from organized labor. Korea experienced a trong leftist labor movement during and after the colonial period, and the Korean intelligentsia ha carried on a strong anticapitalist tradition. In Taiwan, by contrast, a relatively feeble labor movement was cru hed by the KMT military forces in the late 1940 and thenceforth Taiwane e labor and the intellectual community have been depoliticized and inactive (Djang 1977; Gold 1986). Another important factor eem to be the indu trial structure. Decentralized, rural-ba ed indu trie in Taiwan with a predominance of small- cale firms are a sharp contrast to the top-heavy, urban-ba ed industries in South Korea. This difference influences the nature of working clas commumtle, ocial mobility, and management-labor relations. Additionally, the Taiwan government has given more attention to economic stability and social welfare, whereas the South Korean leadership took a big-push approach to accelerated economic growth. Consequently, Korean worker have suffered greater relative deprivation than have Taiwane e worker . Thus, we can see that both historical conditions and current development patterns have created interesting variation in the labor regimes of the four countries. While the imilarities among them have been noted frequently, their divergences tend to be overlooked.
Income distribution Evidence clearly indicate that economic growth in the Ea t Asian NIC ha been a highly equitable proce s. Income inequalities in the four countrie are low by world tandards, and have not increased noticeably despite rapid economic growth. Income inequality has fallen in Taiwan and Singapore, and has remained stable in Hong Kong; only in South Korea ha it increa ed omewhat in the 1970 , but it did 0 only after a ignificant reduction of inequality in the 1960s (Fei et al. 1979; Fields 1982; Cheng 1982; Koo 1984). By and large, all four countries have avoided the high and rising levels of economic inequality that characterize capitalist growth in most other developing economies. VOL ME
Data on wage income al 0 indicate sub tantial improvement of income situation among East A ian worker over the past two decade . Real wages ro e by 190 per cent in South Korea from 1966 to 1980, by 300 per cent in Taiwan from 1954 to 1979, and by 150 per cent in Hong Kong from 1960 to 1980. In Singapore, real wages stagnated until 1975 and then grew ub tantially afterward (Fields 1982). In general, the rates of real wage inc rea e have been imilar to the rate of GNP increa e. It eems somewhat ironic that in the East A ian IC, weak and repre ed working cla e have enjoyed a relatively equitable share of the benefits of economic growth, while politically stronger labor movements in Latin America have not. To neocla ical economists, however, there is no irony at all in thi relationship. Their explanation is that laborinten ive indu trialization had a beneficial effect on employment, leading to a sub tantial reduction in unemployment and even a labor shortage in some sector , which over time ha increased workers' labor market power. The lack of interference of powerful labor unions, they argue, has promoted a favorable inve tment climate, thereby contributing to the market power of worker (Fields 1982; Lim 1986). As labor markets tightened and industrial productivity increa ed, employer were forced to pay higher wage even without much pressure from labor organization . But there are other important structural factor that must be taken into consideration to explain more adequately the relative equity of income di tribution in the four countries. Of critical importance i the fact that the e countrie had relatively egalitarian ocial structures, especially in the di tribution of land and a et, prior to the pha e of rapid economic growth. In Taiwan and South Korea, the e egalitarian conditions were primarily due to ucce ful land reforms carried out in the late 1940 and early 1950. The e reforms destroyed landlord cIa e and put low ceilings on land owner hip. Additionally, heavy educational inve tments made in the po twar period created a relatively egalitarian di tribution of educational assets and contributed to a high rate of ocial mobility. Another important factor was the exi tence in Taiwan and South Korea of relatively productive agricultural sector, minimizing the income gap between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. In Taiwan, decentralization of mall-scale indu trie to rural areas provided significant nonfarm income opportunitie to rural hou eholds. In the city state of Hong Kong and Singapore, of cour e, the DECEMBER
farm-nonfarm sectoral ource of income inequality that accounts for a large proportion of income inequality in other developing ocietie wa ab ent. Although available evidence clearly supports the "growth with equity" the is of the Ea t A ian development model, it must be noted that thi aggregate picture conceal some important dimenions of inequality in the e ocietie . We pre ent but a few examples here. Fir t, manufacturing- ector wage are below the average wage in each of the four countrie; they are much lower than in other commercial and indu trial ector and only lightl higher than in the agricultural ector. Gar Field (1982:14) ob erve that in the four A ian NIC, manufacturing wage were only about 120 per cent of agricultural wage ,wherea the were about 200 per cent of uch wage in other developing countrie . econd, although real wage have increa ed more rapidly in South Korea than in ingapore or Hong Kong during the 1970s, a fairly large proportion of Korean workers are receiving wage below the ub i tence level; official urvey data indicate that in 1983 about 12.6 per cent of manufacturing worker received a monthl income of U.S. 125, and 35.7 per cent received Ie s than 175 (the average monthly expenditure of urban hou ehold wa about 357 in 1983.) Third, women worker in laborinten ive export indu trie tend to receive the lowe t wage as a con equence of both ex inequality and low average wage of the indu trie in which they are disproportionately repre ented. Such consideration ugge t caution in our acceptance of the the i that labor docility, through it climate and labor beneficial effect on bu ine markets, ha encouraged an equitable income hare for the working population.
Conclusion Thi article ha touched only a few is ue concerning the political economy of labor and export-oriented indu trialization in the Ea t A ian NICs. Many other i ue are worthy of clo er study uch a the role of women in export-oriented industrialization, the role of labor in politic , and the working cia formation. Unfortunately, empirical tudies in thi area are widely cattered in numerous area study journal and books, and many valuable source of information are not available in English. There i a deeper problem of neglect, however. Students of East Asian development have given too much attention, we believe, to state policie and bu ine activities while overlooking the vital role of 67
ordinar worker and their experiences in rapid indu trialization. The comparative analysis of Ea t A ian labor movement and tate-labor relation 0 provide a fertile area for future re earch.
References heng, Tong Yung. The Economy of Hong Kong. Revi ed edition. Hong Kong: Far Ea t Publication , 19 2. hoi, Jang Jip. "Intere t onflict and Political Control in South Korea: A tudy of the Labor nion in Manufacturing Indu trie , 1961-19 0." Unpubli hed Ph.D. di ertation, political i nce, Univer ity of Chicago, 19 3. uming, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War. Princeton University Pre ,19 1. o yo, Frederic. Dependent Development and Industrial Order. New York: Pra ger, 19 1. _ _ . "Export Manufacturing and Labor: The A ian Case." In Labor in the Capitalist World-Economy, edited by Charle Berqui t. Beverl Hill, California: age, 19 4. Djang, T.K. Industry and Labor in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: In titute of Economi ,Academia inica, 1977. England, Joe, and John Rear. Indwtrial Relations and Law in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford Univer ity Pre ,19 1. Evan , Peter. Dependent Development: The Alliance of Multinational, tate, and Local Capital in Braz.il. Princeton University Pre , 1979.
Fei, John C.H., Gu tav Rani , and Shirley W.Y. Kuo. Growth and Equity: The Taiwan Case. ew York: Oxford University Pre , 1979. Field , Gary. The Labor Marlcet and Export-led Growth in Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. eoul: Korea Development In titute, 19 2. Gold, Thoma. State and Society in the Taiwan Miracle. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 19 6. Haggard, tephan. "The Newly Indu trializing Countries in the International Sy tern." World Politics, 38: 393-370, 19 6. Koo, Hagen. "The Political Economy of Income Di tribution in South Korea: The Impact of the State' Indu trialization Policie ." World Development, 12: 1029-37, 19 4. Kreye, Otto. "World Market-Oriented Indu trialization and Labor." In The New International Division of Labor, edited by F. Froebel, J. Heinrich, and O. Kreye. London: Cambridge Univer ity Pre ,19 O. Launiu , Michael. "The State and Indu trial Labor in South Korea." Bulletin ofConcemed Asian Scholars, 16: 1-21, 19 4. Lim, Linda. "Export-oriented Indu trialization and A ian Labor: Myth and Confu ion ." Paper presented at the Conference on Origin and Consequence of National Development trategie : Latin America and East A ia Compared, Duke Universit , 19 6. O'Donnell, Guillermo. Modernization and Bureaucratic Atdhoritarianism. Berkeley, California: In titute for International Studie , 1973. Turner, H.A. et al. The Last Colony: But Whose' Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univer ity Pre ,1980.
Activities of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies A report on recent seminars and workshops JOINT COMMITTEE ON SOVIET STUDIE wa appointed by the Council and the American Council of Learned ocietie in 19 3. Since that time, the committee ha e tabli hed even ub tantive ubcommittee who e member hip total over 40 cholar from North America and Europe. he committee' program are upported b the Ford Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanitie , the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of tate through the oviet and Ea t European Re earch and Training Act of 19 3 ("Title VIII"). Four recent activitie of the committee and it ubcommittee are de ribed below. The 1986- 7 member of the committee are Loren Graham. Mas achu etts In titute of Technology, chairman; jo eph Berliner, Ru ian Re earch Center, Harvard Univer ity; jeffrey P. Brook, THE
Univer ity of Chicago; Timothy L. Colton, Univer ity of Toronto; Sheila Fitzpatrick, Univer ity of Texa ; Edward L. Keenan, Harvard University; Gail Warshof: ky Lapidu , University of Cal ifomia, Berkeley; Robert Legvold, Columbia Univer ity; Herbert Levine, Univer ity of Pennsylvania; William Mill Todd, III, Stanford Univer ity; and Heinrich Vogel, Federal In titute for cientific Studies of the Ea t (Cologne). Blair A. Ruble erve a staff.
New Economic Policy (NEP) conference The fourth National eminar on the Social Hi tory of Ru ia in the Twentieth Century wa convened on October 2-5, 19 6, at Indiana Univer ity, under the committee's pon or hip. Its principal aim wa to explore the e ential analytical i ue of Ru ian ocial hi tory during the New Economic Policy VOL
(instituted by Lenin in 1921), in order to clarify current re earch problems. Thirty-eight scholars participated in the eminar. Primary funding was provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the ational Endowment for the Humanities, and the Ford Foundation. The seminar was initially organized in the fall of 1979 at the initiative of Mo he Lewin and Alfred J. Rieber, both of the Univer ity of Pennsylvania. Its objective has been to bnng together on a regular ba i a small number of scholars with an active re earch interest in modern Russian and Soviet social hi tory. Pre enter have either been re earchers on the topic under review or analysts of relevant hi toriographical and theoretical issues. All participants have shared the presenters' research interests in orne way, and all have assumed by their participation the obligation to read each paper carefully in advance and to contribute eriously to the di cu sion. Initial essions focused on ways in which the ocial history of Ru sian and Soviet society might be better understood and advanced, on key re earch issue , and on conceptual dimensions of Ru ian and Soviet social history more broadly. Sub equent seminars brought together individuals actively studying the peasantry, the bureaucracy, and the Civil War period (1917-1920). The 1986 seminar, "Society under the NEP," focu ed on five major theme: (1) the NEP period as a tran itional one fraught with unre olved conflict and ten ion; (2) issues of continuity and change with previous periods in Russian hi tory; (3) urban-rural interaction; (4) migration and displacement; and (5) the relationship between culture and ociety. An introductory analysis of the NEP and its relationship to the broader context of social history was pre ented by Sheila Fitzpatrick, University of Texa. A summary pre entation was given by William Rosenberg, University of Michigan, in a se ion chaired by Loren Graham, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology. In addition to the introductory and concluding se ions, the eminar's program included the following paper and discussions: (I) The working class family and byt'
Chair: David Ransel, Indiana Univer ity tructure of the Moscow Working-Clas Family," Robert John on, University of Toronto WWorking-Clas Women and the 'Withering Away' of the Family: Popular Reaction to Family Policy," Wendy Goldman, University of Penn ylvania Comments: Barbara Engel, Univer ity of Colorado; Laura Engle tein, Princeton Univer ity DF.CE 1BER
(2) Urban social groups
Chair: Reginald Zelnik, Univer ity of California, Berkeley "Workers' arteli," Hiroaki Kuromiya, Ru ian Re earch Center, Harvard Univer ity "Private Trade and Trader During NEP," Alan Ball, Marquette University "Social Studie of the Working CIa in the 1920 ," William Chase, University of Pittsburgh "Armenian Arti an and Trader in Mo ow," Ron Suny, University of Michigan Comments: Lynn Viola, State University of ew York, Binghamton (5) Urban-rural interaction
Chair: Roberta Manning, Bo ton College "The Red Army and the Peasantry, 1918-1930," Mark von Hagen, Columbia Univer ity "Sellwr: The Reporter from the Village," William Burge , Georgetown Univer ity "CIa and Consciou ne in a Sociali t Society: Worker in the Printing Trade during NEP," Diane Koenker, Univer ity of lUinoi "Razmychlw? Urban Unemployment and Pea ant In-migration a . Source of Social Conflict in NEP Ru ia," Dougla Weiner, Indiana Univer ity Comments: John Bu hnell, Northwe tern Univer ity; Allan Wildman, Ohio State Univer ity (4) Rural society
Chair: Daniel Orlov ky, Southern Methodi t Univer ity "In oluble Conflicts. Life in the Tver Village between Revolution and Collectivization," Helmut Altrichter, University of Augsburg "Policing the NEP Country ide: Continuity and Change," Neil Weisman, Dickin on College Comments: Dorothy Atkin on, Stanford Univer ity (5) Culture in a rural setting
Chair: Ronald Suny, University of Michigan "Peasants and Movies," Peter Kenez, Univer ity of California, Santa Cruz "Peasants a Reader," Regine Robin, Univer ity of Quebec Comments: Ben Eklof, Indiana Univer ity (6) Urban culture: city as cultural center and symbol
Chair: Mary McAuley, Univer ity of Oxford "The Cultural Intelligent ia of Leningrad," Katerina Clark, Yale Univer ity "Urban Song and Society," Robert Roth tein, Univer ity of Ma achusetts (Summary pre ented by Suzanne Ament, Indiana Univer ity) "Ru ia's American Dream: Popular Conception of America in the Print Media, 1904-28," Jeffrey Brook , Univer ity of Chicago Comments: "A Semiotic Per pective," Henry Baran, State Univer ity of New York, Albany (7) Urban culture: urban ritual and spectacle
Chair: Richard Wortman, Princeton Univer ity "Festival of Revolution," Jame von Geldern, Brown University
"Community and Family Ritual in Early Bol hevi m," Richard Stite , Georgetown University Comments: Chri tel Lane, University of Aston
Blair A. Ruble and Regina Smyth erved a staff.
Summer seminar on Soviet literature and society The committee ponsored a eminar on Soviet literature and ociety at Stanford University on July 7-19, 1986. The eminar was initiated by the Subcommittee on Soviet Literature and Popular Culture and chaired by Jeffrey Brooks, University of Chicago. Edward J. Brown, Stanford University, served as eminar director. Primary funding was provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Ford Foundation, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The eminar brought together 10 doctoral candidates and 11 junior faculty from the fields of Slavic literature, history, political science, and anthropology to participate in a series of intensive es ions intended to increase the participants' familiarity with the work currendy being done in the tudy of contemporary Soviet literature and society. In addition to presentations based on current re earch by each participant, the eminar featured invited lecturers who spoke on topics oriented around the seminar's common syllabu and reading list. Among the major areas discus ed were "sociali t realism," cen orship, village literature, the scientific-technological revolution and literature, and the relationship of current Ru sian emigre literature to its Soviet counterpart. Mr. Brown was joined on the faculty by Katerina Clark, Yale University; and Vera S. Dunham, Columbia University. Serving as guest lecturer were John Dunlop, Stanford Univer ity; Alexander A. Gershkovich, Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies (Wa hington, D.C.); Gregory Freidin, Stanford Univer ity; Lazar Fleishman, Stanford University; Maurice Friedberg, Univer ity of Illinois; Regine Robin, University of Quebec in Montreal; Andrei Sinyavskii, University of Paris; and Michael E. Urban, Auburn University. The participants in the eminar were: Faina Broude Nancy P. Condee Frederick S. Choate Brook Horowitz Marcu C. Levitt Gordon D. Livermore
Brandei University Wheaton College (Nonon, Mas achu etts) Stanford University Harvard University University of Southern California Current Digest of the Sovut Press (New York)
Michael L. Makin Sigrid Mclaughlin Eric
Laura Olson Vladimir Padunov Kathleen F. Parthe Nadia L. Peterson Timothy Pogacar Sandra Rosengrant Mark A. Saroyan Linda Scatton Margaret Stolee Rosemary S. Tarlton Elizabeth A. Tucker David A. Wilson
University of Michigan University of California, Santa Cruz University of California, Berkeley Indiana University In titute for Current World Affairs (Hanover, New Hamp hire) Cornell University Bowdoin College Bowling Green State University Portland State University University of California, Berkeley tate University of ew York, Albany State University of New York, College at Gene eo Univer ity of Chicago The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.) University of Kansas
Kristin Antelman served as staff.
Summer workshop on Soviet and East European economics The committee sponsored its Second Annual Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European Economics in Champaign-Urbana, Illinoi on July 6-16, 1986. The program was conducted with the cooperation of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe as well a the Rus ian and East European Center of the University of Illinois. Primary funding was provided by the Ford Foundation. The workshop brought together 18 doctoral candidates and junior faculty members to participate in a eries of intensive seminars intended to increa e the participants' familiarity with the work of leading scholars in the field as well as with each other's re earch. Designed by the committee's Subcommittee on Economics, the program sought both to sustain high quality re earch on the economies of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and to encourage the work of younger scholars engaged in thi research. In addition to seminar sessions organized around the work of each participant, the workshop offered lecture and discussion periods with the faculty as well as invited peakers. Among the major topics of discus ion were questions of trade, productivity, managerial incentives, economic reform, and technological innovation. Herbert S. Levine, Univer ity of Pennsylvania, directed the workshop. He was joined on the faculty by Richard Eric on, Columbia University; Ed A. VOL ME
40, NUMBERS 3/4
Hewitt, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.); Fyodor Kushnirsky, Temple University; and Laura D'Andrea Tyson, University of California, Berkeley. Abram Bergson, Harvard University, and Thane Gustafson, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, as well as Paul Ericson, Central Intelligence Agency, were invited as visiting speakers. The participants at the workshop were: Jeanine D. Braithwaite Stuart S. Brown John Burkett hirley]. Gedeon anci Hubbell Vladimir Kontorovich
Gary ]. Krueger Jonathan E. Leightner Han on Leung usan]. Linz John Litwack Janet L. Mitchell Michael A. Murphy Perry L. Patterson Randi Ryterman-Taccardi Mark E. Schaffer Michael Spagat Janu z M. Szyrmer
Duke University Smith College Univer ity of Rhode I land Univer ity of Vermont Tufts Univer ity Command Economie Re earch, Inc. (Princeton, New Jersey) University of Wiscon in Univer ity of North Carolina University of Toronto University of California. Irvine University of Penn ylvania Northwe tern University Northwe tern University Wake Forest University Univer ity of Maryland Stanford Univer ity Harvard University University of Pennsylvania
Kimberly Cox, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University; Zhang Yuian, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; and Zhu Jiaming, Institute of Soviet and East European Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, observed the workshop proceedings. Blair A. Ruble served as staff.
Summer seminar for Slavic librarians The committee sponsored a seminar for beginning Slavic librarians on July 21-25, 1986 at the University of Illinois. The seminar was held within the Summer Research Laboratory on Russia and Eastern Europe held annually in Urbana. Primary funding was provided by the U.S. government under the Soviet and East European Research and Training Act of 1983 ("Title VIII") and the University of Illinois. The seminar was aimed at those who wish to begin a career in Slavic librarianship or are in their first years in the field. Library school students with a trong interest in the field and knowledge of Russian or another language of the area were also encouraged to attend. The seminar program included DECEMBER
discussions on acqUISItiOnS and collection development, exchange programs with Soviet and East European libraries, cataloging and classification in the light of automated networks, reference and service within Slavic librarianship, and areas of research in the field of Slavic librarianship. Robert Karlowich, Pratt Institute, directed the seminar in cooperation with Marianna Tax Choldin, University of Illinois. The participants in the seminar were: Gordon Anderson Helen Anderson Sandra L. Batalden Arevig Carielian Mary Anne Coffey
Janet Irene Crayne Edward Davi Irina Faynzilberg Gregory Ference Serge Gleboff Tatiana Goerner Gretchen Holton Carl Horne Priscilla Persis Howe Chri tina Jaremko Kristin M. Johnson Hugh J. Kelly Joseph A. Kiegel Pat Kolb Kevin Michael Malone Janet R. Mo ely
Hubert Padiou Alan P. Pollard Andrea Rolich Ellen Scaruffi Leena Siegelbaum Maciej Siekierski Helen Smirenski Christina Sokol Karen Spak Dale Swen on Klawa N. Thre her Donald E. Todaro Allan Urbanic Wanda Wawro Anne Wendler Martha Zebrow ki Geoffrey Hu ic Margaret Olson Helen Sullivan
Univer ity of Kan a McGill University Tempe. Arizona Rego Park. New York In titute of Soviet and East European Studie (Wheaton. Illinois) Jamaica Plain. Massachusetts Chapel Hill, North Carolina University of Illinoi Bloomington, Indiana New York City New York City Minneapoli , Minne ota Indiana Univer ity New York City University of California, Lo Angele Widener Library, Harvard University Nanuet. New York Seattle, Washington New York City Hayden Library, Arizona State University In titute of Soviet and East European Studie (Wheaton. Illinois) Nanterre. France Princeton. New Jersey Middleton. Wiscon in New York City Ea t Lansing. Michigan The Hoover In titution (Stanford. California) Schenectady. New York Trinity University Alliance College Brigham Young University Madison. Wiscon in Madison. Wiscon in University of California. Berkeley Charlottesville. Virginia University of lIlinoi Edinboro. Penn ylvania University of Illinoi Urbana. Illinoi University of Illinoi
Regina Smyth served as staff. 71
Other Current Activities at the Council New directors and officers The Council's board of directors, at its meeting on June 10, 1986, elected or re-elected six directors. Newly-elected to board membership for three-year terms were William H. Sewell, Jr., Univer ity of Michigan, from the American Historical As ociation, and Suzanne D. Berger, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology, from the American Political Science As ociation. Newly-elected to three-year terms as directors-at-Iarge were Bevis Longstreth, Debevoise and Plimpton (New York), and Condoleezza Rice, Stanford University. Re-elected as directors-at-Iarge for three-year terms were Gardner Lindzey, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, California), and Francis X. Sutton, Dobbs Ferry, New York. The board al 0 elected the Council's officers for 1986-87. Hugh T. Patrick, Columbia University, was re-elected chairman; Richard A. Berk, University of California, Santa Barbara, wa elected vice-chairman; Ms. Berger wa elected ecretary; and Howard Gardner, Harvard Univer ity, was re-elected treasurer. Ronald J. Peleck, the Council's controller, wa re-elected a istant treasurer. Joseph A. Pechman, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.), was elected chairman of the Executive Committee and Mr. Sutton wa elected chairman of the Committee on Problem and Policy (P&P). The election of Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr., Univerity of California, Berkeley, a pre ident of the Council, was ratified by the board. Mr. Wakeman replace Kenneth Prewitt, who had resigned the presidency in 1985 to become vice president for program of the Rockefeller Foundation. Mr. Sutton had served as acting pre ident of the Council from October I, 1985 through June 30, 1986. A brief biography of Mr. Wakeman wa published in the March 19 6 issue of Items, page 1-2.
community. David Jenne welcomed the participants and introduced David L. Sills, who introduced Frederic Wakeman. The participants at the luncheon were: Robert T. Aangeenbrug Mar ha Wice Adler Barbara A. Bailar
John W. Chandler William V. D'Antonio Richard Ekman
Samuel R. Gammon Leonard D. Good tein John H. Hammer T. Brett Hammond
Stephen Hitchner John D. Holmfeld
David Jenne David T. King bury
Fred C. Leone Alan Le hner
COSSA luncheon honoring Frederic Wakeman On October 21, 1986, the Con ortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA) spon ored a luncheon at the University Club in Wa hington, D.C. to honor Frederic Wakeman, the Council's new president, and to introduce him to the Washington social cience 72
Thomas E. Mann
Executive Director, A octatton of American Geographers Executive Director, National Humanitie Alliance A ociate Director for Stati tical Standard and Methodology, U.S. Bureau of the Censu Chief, Demographic and Behavioral Science Branch, Center for Population, National In titute of Child Health and Human Development Pre ident, A ociation of American College Executive Officer, American Sociological A ociation Director, Divi ion of Re earch Program, National Endowment for the Humanitie Executive Director, American Hi torical A ociation Executive Officer, American P ychological A ociation Executive As ociate, CO SA A ociate Executive Director, Commi sion on Behavioral and Social Science and Education, National Re earch Council Senior Vice Pre ident, The Urban In titute Ta k Force on Science Policy, U.S. Hou e of Repre entative Executive Director, CO A A i tant Director for Biological, Behavioral, and Social Science, National Science Foundation Executive Director, American Stati tical A ociation Executive Officer, Directorate for Biological, Behavioral, and Social Sciences, National Science Foundation Director of Government and A ociation Relation , Council of Graduate School Executive Director, American Political Science A ociation VOL ME
Page Putnam Miller
Roberta Bal tad Miller
Janet L. Norwood Frank Pre Susan Quarle Laurence Ratier-Coutrot Margaret W. Reynold Millard H. Ruud teven R. chle inger David L. Sill Howard J. Silver
Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr.
Director, National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of Hi tory Director, Divi ion of ocial and Economic ience, National Science Foundation Commi ioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor tati tic Pre ident, National Academy of Science Executive A ociate, CO A Social ience Attache, Emba y of France A ociate Secretary-Trea urer, Lingui tic ociety of America Executive Director, A ociation of American Law School Director, U. . Bureau of Ju tice tati tics Executive A ociate, Social Science Re earch Council A ociate Director for Government Relation , CO A Executive Director, Council of Profe ional A ociation on Federal tati tics Pre ident, Social ience Re earch Council
Three prominent member of the Washington ocial cience community were out-of-town on thi day and thus unable to attend: Robert McC. Adam, Secretary, The Smith on ian In titution; David A. Go lin, Executive Director, Commi ion on Behavioral and Social cience and Education, National Re earch Council; and Paul McCracken, Pre ident, American Enterpri e In titute for Public Policy Studie .
Social indicators library now at University of Maryland When the Council's Center for Coordination of Re earch on ocial Indicator , located in Wa hington, D.C., clo ed in December 1983, it had developed an extensive library of social reports and other material related to social indicators-probably the fine t uch collection in the world. Thi library wa donated to the Bureau of Social Science Re earch in Wa hington, which obtained a grant from the ational cience Foundation to as ist it in integrating the collection with its own and in increa ing its usefulne . In July 1986, the Bureau of Social Science Re earch itself clo ed, and its director, Albert H. Cantril, found a willing recipient of the library at the Univer ity of Maryland. The materials may now be DECEMBER
consulted at the McKeldrin Library; Lucy Duff, formerly the librarian of the Bureau, ha been hired by the McKeldrin Library to a ist in the proce of integrating the materials into it regular collection. She may be reached at the McKeldrin Library, Room 4105, Univer ity of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (301-454-6327). Developed over the 10-year life of the Center, and improved during its two year at the Bureau, the library' collection con i ts of 1,500 catalogued book and report; ome 1,200 publication from both the U.S. Cen u and the U.N. World Fertility Survey; pecialized article , paper, and periodical ; over 600 ocial reports of foreign, tate, and local governments; and variou tati tical compendia.
The development of individual moral responsibility In it efforts to examine imilaritie and difference in exceptional ability and performance acro variou domain, the Committee on Development, Giftedne ,and the Learning Proce ha con idered whether moral re pon ibility hould be viewed a an appropriate domain in which to examine giftedne . A part of thi focus on the development of extraordinary moral re pon ibility, the committee ha funded ome exploratory work by Anne Colby, Henry A. Murray Re earch Center, Radcliffe College, and William Damon, Clark Univer ity, on the u efulne of the ca e tudy approach for tudying the live of morally exemplary individual. The committee' contribution to thi work ha allowed M . Colby and Mr. Damon to develop a procedure for identifying and selecting contemporary ca e for inten ive analy i and provided for a work hop to examine the preliminary re ult of thi nomination proce . The work hop wa held on October 1-2, 1986, in Cambridge, Mas achu ett ; it objective wa to review this work on the live of moral exemplar in the context of other ongoing re earch on moral development. The work hop con i ted of di cu ions of a variety of i sue . The results of the procedure for nominating persons who have led morally exemplary live led to a number of intere ting que tion . Do "experts" in the moral field (philo opher, theologian, civic leaders) agree on the definition of a moral exemplar and i there con ensu on a Ii t of ca e ? What objective criteria can be u ed to elect a mall number of ca es of moral exemplar for inten ive tudy? What design issues arise regarding the inten ive study of a small number of cases? What combination of measure can be most effectively employed: 73
interview , retro pective reports, biographical information, p ychological in truments? What balance hould be truck between ca e-specific material versu generalizations acro s ca es and what are the implications for trategies of analy is of data material ? The committee' previous work, consisting of a workshop on the definition and u efulne s of moral exemplar as a conceptual category and a conference on the u e of case study methods for examining moral development, provided a foundation for the di cu sion. The meeting will prove helpful to the investigators as they plan the next pha e of the re earch: the election of a small number of ca es for intensive analysis. Participant in the meeting were: Anne Colby William Damon David Feldman Howard Gardner William McKinley Runyan Lonnie R. herrod Elliot Turie1 Helen Weinreich-Ha te
Henry A. Murray Research Center, Radcliffe College Clark University Tufts Univer ity Harvard Univer ity University of California, Berkeley Social Science Re earch Council University of California, Santa Cruz University of Bath
Plasticity in aging The aim of the program of the Committee on Life-Cour e Perspectives on Human Development ha been the attainment of a deeper understanding of aging proce e -aging defined in life-span per pective and not limited to old age. Whereas during the last few year the primary empha is has been on the implications of a life-span perspective for re earch on child development, the committee ha also continued to explore new directions for re earch on adulthood and old age. During the past year, the e activities focu ed on two major themes: (1) ocial structures and aging proces es and (2) pia ticity in aging. The meeting on pia ticity in aging proces e wa the third in a eries, funded by the Charle A. Dana Foundation and organized to formulate new directions for re earch on the later year of life. Overall, the e meetings have addressed the que tion: To what extent, and through what mechani m and proces es, do social tructure , them elves undergoing change, influence proce se of biological, p ychological, and ocial aging over the lives of adult men and women? As a re ult of two meetings held during 1985, the committee has identified the need for further life-course research on gender differences in aging,
on cro s-cultural com pari ons, and on the early life-course impact of recent increases in longevity. The third meeting in thi series was an attempt to examine explicitly, in light of current research findings in several disciplines, one of the central propositions of a life-course perspective: the lifelong plasticity of aging processes. This meeting was held in New York on April 21-22, 1986. Presentations at the meeting covered: Biological aspects of plasticity-plasticity in the nervous system throughout life and the genetic basis of continued plasticity across the life span (George M. Martin); plasticity and constraints on cognitive development in old age (Paul B. Baltes); alternative approaches to the study of selfhood and the differential implications for plasticity (M. Brewster Smith); criteria for successful aging (Orville G. Brim, Jr.); the balance of dependence and independence during old age (Aage B. S0rensen); comparative perspectives on aging, particularly on the impact of historical and individual critical life events (Glen H. Elder, Jr.); child development in life-span perspective (Lonnie R. Sherrod); and the relation of social structures to the life course (Matilda W. Riley). The meeting concluded with a discussion of future directions for research and research planning; one theme which was identified for further effort was peak performance across the life span. How does the timing of peak performance throughout life vary by domain, and how are constraints established by biology, ocial institutions, and individual aspirations? What is the relationship between peak performance and successful aging? What is the relationship between experti e and wisdom, and how does this relationship vary by sector of life, such as work and family? Participants in the meeting were: Paul B. Balte
Orville G. Brim, Jr.
Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) Ru ell Sage Foundation (1985-86)
Glen H. Elder, Jr. George M. Martin Matilda White Riley Lonnie R. Sherrod M. Brewster Smith Aage B. Sftren en
Univer ity of North Carolina University of Washington National In titute on Aging Social Science Re earch Council Univer ity of California, Santa Cruz Harvard University
Child development in life-span perspective A conference to summarize and formulate the results of the six-year program (since 1981) of the VOL ME
Subcommittee on Child Development in Life-Span Per pective (of the Committee on Life-Course Perspectives on Human Development) was held on June 19-24, 1986 at the conference center of the National Academy of Sciences, Woods Hole, Mas achusetts. The aim of the subcommittee's program has been to examine the mutual implications of life-span developmental research and theory and child developmental research findings and methodology. This conference, which will formally conclude the program, was organized by committee members E. Mavis Hetherington, Richard M. Lerner, and Marion Perlmutter to a ses what has been learned during the program in several specific topical areas. The program covered theoretical comparisons and contrasts across child and adult developmental re earch; the implications of life-span theory and re earch for policies relevant to children; personality and social development; cognitive development and schooling; and social structural and institutional aspects of development during childhood. Specific presentations within these broader categories included: (I) Child P ychology and life- pan development: theory, re earch finding , and methodology (E. Mavi Hetherington and Paul B. Balte ) (2) The life- pan intervention cube: implication for policy (Orville G. Brim, Jr., and Deborah Phillip) (3) The ocial con truction of childhood: orne contemporary proce e (john W. Meyer) (4) Clas and the ocialization of children: con taney and change? (David L. Featherman and Kenneth I. Spenner) (5) Childhood precursors of the life cour e: early per onality and life di organization (Av halom Ca pi and Glen H. Elder, Jr.) (6) Personality development: a life- pan per pective (Richard M. Lerner) (7) Explanatory tyle acro the life pan: achievement and health (Martin E. P. Seligman, Le lie P. Kamen, and Susan Nolen-Hoek ema) ( ) Further per pective on elfhood (M . Brew ter mith) (9) Change in children' ocial live and the development of ocial understanding (judith Dunn and Lonnie R. herrod) (10) Family adaptation to tre ful change (Ro D. Parke) (II) Individual difference in cognitive development: doe in truction make a difference (Franz E. Weinert and Helmke Andrea) (12) Schooling and cognitive development: cro -cultural perpective (Harold W. Steven on) (13) Cognitive development in life- pan perspective: from de cription of difference to explanation of change (Marion Perlmutter) (14) Le on from the life- pan: what theori ts of intellectual development among children can learn from their counterparts tudying adults (Robert J. Sternberg)
A volume based on the conference is in preparation, to be edited by the three conference organizers. DE EMBER
Participants in the meeting were: Paul B. Balte
Orville G. Brim, Jr.
Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) Ru sell age Foundation (19 5-86)
Av halom Ca pi Judith Dunn Glen H. Elder, Jr. David L. Featherman Joan Girgu Jutta Heckhausen
E. Mavi Hetherington Le lie P. Kamen Richard M. Lerner John W. Meyer Susan Nolen-Hoeksema Ro D. Parke Marion Perlmutter Deborah Phillip
Martin E. P. eligman Lonnie R. Sherrod Kenneth I. Spenner Robert J. Sternberg Harold W. Steven on M. Brew ter Smith Frederick Verdonik
Franz E. Weinert
Cornell Univer ity Univer ity of Cambridge University of orth Carolina University of Wi on in Princeton University Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) Univer ity of Virginia University of Penn ylvania Penn ylvania State Univer ity tan ford Universit niversity of Penn ylvania University of Illinoi Univer ity of Michigan National A ociation on Education in Young Children (Washington, D.C.) niver it of Penn Ivania Social ien e Re earch Council Duke Univer ity Yale Univer ity Univer ity of Michigan Univer ity of California, anta Cruz Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York, and Social Science Re earch Council Max Planck In titute for P ychologica1 Re earch (Munich)
Schools and intellectual development At its 1984 conference on chool and intellectual development, the Subcommittee on Child Development in Life-Span Per pective of the Committee on Life-Course Perspectives on Human Development identified a need for enhanced communication between the different di cipline concerned with re earch in this area, especially acro anthropology, p ychology, and ociology, and for further re earch of a comparative nature. At the same time, a study by Harold W. Steven on, University of Michigan, on the effects of chooling on cognitive development in rural and urban Peruvian children was recognized as an unusually valuable re ource. Thus, the subcommittee has awarded a small "seed" grant to Mr. Steven on which allowed him and his collaborator Teofilo Altamirano, Catholic University of Peru, to plan a second wave of this study. They are now collecting data on the subjects when the oldest
member of the ample will have entered parenthood. The ubcommittee' contribution has allowed the inve tigator to relocate the ample, develop a battery of mea ure (with the ubcommittee's guidance), and pilot te t the measure . A workshop was held on October 23, 1986, at the University of Michigan, to di cu progre on thi data collection program. Thi meeting al 0 brought together investigators with the aim of encouraging more comparative work and facilitating communication acro s the e discipline on thi topic. The subcommittee-organized work hop preceded a conference, sponsored by the Univer ity of Michigan, that examined literacy and
chooling; the juxtaposition of the two meetings allowed several participants to join both meeting . Participants in the subcommittee's meeting were: Teofilo Altamirano Richard M. Lerner Marion Perlmutter Lonnie R. Sherrod Harold W. Steven on David Utah Frederick Verdonick Daniel A. Wagner Franz E. Weinert
Catholic Univer ity of Peru Penn ylvania State University Univer ity of Michigan Social Science Research Council University of Michigan Univer ity of Michigan University of Michigan Univer ity of Penn ylvania Max Planck In titute for P ychologica1 Re earch (Munich)
Recent Council Publications Contents America at Work: National Surveys of Employees and Employers, edited by Arne L. Kalleberg (page 77) Final Report, Advisory Panel on International Educational Exchange (page 78) Flowers of Fire: Twentieth-century Korean Stories, edited by Peter H. Lee (page 78) Human Development and the Life Course: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Aage B. 0renson, Franz E. Weinert, and Lonnie R. Sherrod (page 79) Japan in Transition: From Tokugawa to Meiji, edited by Mariu B. Jan en and Gilbert Rozman (page 80) Kinship Organization in Late Imperial China: 1000-1940, edited by Patricia Buckley Ebrey and Jame L. Watson (page 80) New Directions for Latino Public Policy Research, prepared by the Committee on Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hi panic I ue (page 81) Religion and Political Conflict in Latin America, edited by Daniel H. Levine (page 81) States and Social Structures Newsletter, publi hed by the Council' Committee on State and Social Structure (page 82) Symposium on the Coordination of Economic Policies between Japan and the United States, edited by Richard C. Mar ton and Koichi Hamada (page 82) Transition and Development: Problems of Third World Socialism, edited by Richard R. Fagan, Carmen Diana Deere, and Jo ~ Lui Coraggio (page 82) Women, State, and Party in Eastern Europe, edited by Sharon L. Wolchik and Alfred G. Meyer (page 83)
America at Work: National Surveys of Employees and Employers, edited by Arne L. Kalleberg. A report to the U.S. Department of Labor prepared under the auspices of the Advi ory Group on a 1986 Quality of Employment Survey. New York: Social Science Re earch Council, April 1986. Paper, 2.00. Available from the Council.
America at Work ummarize the recommendation of the Council's Advi ory Group on a 1986 Quality of Employment Survey. Convened at the reque t of the DE E 1BER
Department's Bureau of Labor-Management Relations and Cooperative Programs, this advi ory group was appointed in August 1985 and charged with recommending a new program of survey of employed American . The group intended to de ign a program that should be of substantial value to the program and policies of the Department of Labor itself, as well a to other federal agencies and to member of the cientific and policy analytic communities more generally. The recommendation emerged from two meetings, a review of the literature, and consultations with colleague in everal nation. The e di cussions were supplemented by written commentaries on an interim version that were olicited from a wide range of interested per ons, including union leader, staff members of survey research organizations, and social cienti ts both in the federal government and in academia. The report de cribes the need for new urveys of employment and outlines recommendation for their content and design. In re ponse to the need for information on recent and on-going dynamic change in the American labor force and economy, the report recommends that new studies of employee and employers be initiated. The e tudie would have the e characteristic: (1) information would be obtained from a large random ample of the nation' employed labor force; (2) information would al 0 be collected from a national ample of companie and public- ector employers; (3) organizational data would be linked to the information obtained from emplo _ ees; (4) information would be obtained from a sample of employees within each of the organization ampled; and (5) the survey would be de igned a panel studie . Becau e it i not practical to eek to accompli h all these goals in a ingle tudy, it i recommended that a program of studies be undertaken to meet informational goal in this area. Such an "America at Work" program would con ist of two complementary tudie of employee and employers. The fir t tudy, a "National Employee Survey," would collect detailed information from a nationally repre entative ample of about 3,000 employees, along with m de t amounts of information on their employing organizations. The econd tudy, a "National Emplo r Survey," would collect detailed information from ke managers in a national ample of at lea t 2 0 organization with orne minimum number of em77
ployees (perhap 20). In addition, a sample of employee within each of the e organizations would be interviewed. Taken together, these two studie would provide the kind of information on the nature of work and its content in the United States that is needed by policy maker to make informed deci ions about the is ues that are confronting the nation. The e studie would al 0 provide cientists with the kinds of information they need to refine and develop models of organization and of organizations' complex interactions with employees' work lives and their family situations and well-being. The Advi ory Group consi ted of Clifford C. Clogg, Departments of Sociology and Statistics, Pennsylvania State University; Philip E. Conver e, In titute for Social Research, Univer ity of Michigan; Henry S. Farber, Department of Economics, Mas achu etts Institute of Technology; Martin R. Frankel, Department of Statistics, Baruch College, City University of ew York; Robert L. Kahn, Survey Re earch Center, Univer ity of Michigan; Arne L. Kalleberg, Department of Sociology, University of orth Carolina; Thoma Kochan, Department of Indu trial Relations, Sloan School of Management, Massachu etts In titute of Technology; Robert Kraut, Bell Communication Re earch (Morristown, ew Jer ey); Stanley Lebergott, Department of Economic, Wesleyan Univer ity; Roberta Bal tad Miller, Division of ocial and Economic Science, National Science Foundation; and Phyllis Moen, Departments of Human Development and Family Studies, and ociology, Cornell Univer ity. Mr. Kalleberg al 0 served a a con ultant to the project. Richard C. Rockwell erved a staff.
Final Report, Advisory Panel on International Educational Exchange. Sponsored by the Conference Board of A ociated Re earch Councils, the Board of Foreign Scholarships, and the United States Information Agency. February 26, 1986. ii + 25 page. Paper, free. Available from the Publications Office of the Council.
Information Agency (USIA) an Advisory Panel on International Educational Exchange. The Final Report of the panel was published and presented to Charle Z. Wick, the director of the USIA, during the early month of 1986. The panel reviewed such basic questions as the contribution of government-sponsored academic exchange programs to the national intere t of the United State, their succes in promoting mutual understanding among nations, their relationship to private exchange efforts, and the appropriate emphaes they should have in a changing world. The panel con ide red suggestions that the exchange programs should shift emphasi away from higher educational institutions, but firmly concluded that they hould not. It aw the exchanges contributing to a trong international pre ence on American campuses which is important to the national intere t. The panel empha ized the need to preserve quality in the "flagship" of American international exchange and made various propo als for doing o. It also addres ed the management of the exchange by the Board of Foreign Scholarship , the USIA, and the operating agencies, among which the Council share respon ibility for three-the CIES, the International Research & Exchange Board (IREX), and the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. No basic change was recommended, but the panel called for "constant and systematic scrutiny" of the performance of the e operating agencies. The long-standing problems of proper location of the exchange programs within the federal government al 0 occupied the panel, and led to lively exchanges among the panel members. The panel was well aware that the Fulbright program, however important, is only part of a much larger complex of federally- upported activities in international education and re earch. The majority concluded that the Fulbright program should remain with the USIA, while a minority thought that the dangers of too clo e a link between information services and educational exchanges suggest the wisdom of relocating the responsibility for the exchange programs, perhaps in a new federal entity responsible for international studies and foreign languages.
The Conference Board of Associated Re earch Councils is made up of the pre idents and one additional repre entative each of the American Council on Education, the American Council of Flowers of Fire: Twentieth-century Korean Stories, Learned Societie , the National Re earch Council, edited by Peter H. Lee. Publication supported by the and the Council. Joint Committee on Korean Studies. Honolulu: In 1982, the Board jointly established with the University of Hawaii Press, 1986 (revised edition). Board of Foreign Scholarships and the United States xviii + 379 pages. Paper, $13.50.
This anthology of modern Korean short stories, which wa first published in 1974, has been revised, and three stories have been added. The short stories in this volume, which were written between 1910 and 1961, present an example of how 20 Korean writers ought to interpret and understand the changes and pre sures that Korean people, society, and culture faced over these years. Twentieth-century Korean fiction has thrived de pite an adver e environment. The short tories in thi volume are an example of the writer' efforts to explore new forms of expre sion; this genre provided a medium for establishing a new literary language which is unfettered by the formalistic styles of traditional prose or poetry and transcends the con traints of language and culture. But at the arne time, the e writers found Korean culture and the nation threatened by three wars, the Japane e annexation, a ban on the use of the Korean language, the partitioning of the nation, and increasing mechanization; they also ought to reformulate and reinforce that culture and language. This conflict between old and new as well as the contradiction and ab urdity within ociety are illustrated through a recurring theme in the e torie , the marginal people of Korean ociety. It is through the re idents of slums, a shoe hine boy, pro titutes, cripples, and other, that many writers have contrasted the hopes and search for the self and freedom with the harsh realities of their respective period. There is no celebration of their plight, but a ympathy in that they are caught in a situation from which escape is difficult and simple decisions are not easily made. But while one i pre ented with the various contradiction within society, many of the stories are also allegories for Korea's status in the international arena. The opening passage of "Potato," for example, a story by Kim Tongin, states, "Strife, adultery, murder, theft, begging, imprisonment-the slums outside P'yongyang's Ch'ilsong Gate were a breeding ground for all the tragedy and violence of this world." Lee concludes, in his introduction, that "Nurtured in a most perverse atmosphere, twentieth-century Korean fiction has struggled to as ert its freedom and autonomy. Its vitality and versatility will be a measure of the continued possibility of the literal imagination in an uncertain age."
Human Development and the Life Course: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Aage B. S0rensen, Franz E. Weinert, and Lonnie R. Sherrod. DECEMBER
Sponsored by the Committee on Life-Cour e Per pective on Human Development. Hillsdale, New Jer ey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986. xxiv + 604 pages. Cloth, 39.95. This volume addresse the trengths and limitation of a life-cour e per pective on human development. Accomplishing thi goal require broad topical and di ciplinary repre entation. The book contain chapters ranging acro s topics from the molecular genetics of aging to social structural constraint on life-span development, and methodologically from neurophysiological studies of the aging brain to people' phenomenological recon truction of their life cour es. The commonalitie acro chapter are a focus on the when, where, and why of change and stability acro s the life span and a concern with interrelationships acros domain and level of analy is. This comprehensive coverage of topic and di cipline repre ented by life-cour e re earch on human development demon trates the breadth and diversity of the field and indicate that no ingle characterization of life-cour e or life- pan re earch can be fully adequate. The book wa spon ored by the Committee on Life-Cour e Perspective on Human Development, formed by the Council in 1977 to employ a life-cour e approach to attain a deeper under tanding of human development. During it hi tory, the committee has turned its attention to everal period of life: middle and old age as well as childhood. Thi volume, ba ed in part on a conference held in Berlin in September 1982, focu e primarily on adult development and old age. The volume, in its organization and content, repre ents three objectives which have al 0 guided the committee's program. Fir t, the volume reflect the committee's attention to and u e of a life-cour e approach in guiding and structuring re earch on human development. Each of the 21 chapter in the volume bring one or more propo Itlon of a life-cour e approach to bear on a specific re earch topic, using the theoretical viewpoint and empirical methodologies of a particular di cipline. The chapters are organized across representative topic from biology, sociology, and psychology. Second, the volume represents the international collaborations from which the life-span perspective emerged, and which have resulted from the program of the committee. Of the 30 contributors to the volume, more than half report on re earch from countries other than the United States. Third, the volume reflects the committee's full program of conferences 79
and work hop which have erved to elaborate and istration, Organization ,Citie and Population, and specify aspect of a life-cour e per pective, to identify Rural Economy and Material Condition . The artire earch topic where the approach would be cle in the fir t two parts focus on tructures and particularly u eful, to target area where additional organizations through which ociety became increasre earch i needed from the per pective, and to ingly centralized and standardized. The articles and recruit cholar to uch re earch. Topic of chapter author are: "Introduction to Part One," Marius B. interconnect with themes or ubthemes of pa t Jansen, Princeton Univer ity; "The Central Governconference or workshops in addition to repre ent- ment," Albert M. Craig, Harvard University; "The ing the re earch program and intere ts of the Ruling Class," Mr. Jansen; "From Domain to Prefecindividual contributors. All contributor have had ture," Michio Umegaki, Georgetown University; orne involvement with the committee's program "Local Admini tration: The Example of Awaduring it hi tory, as a committee member or a a Toku hima," Andrew Fraser, The Au tralian National Univer ity; "Introduction to Part Two," D. participant in one or more activity. Thu, although the committee ha produced Eleanor We tney, Ma sachu etts In titute of Technoleveral other publication acro s its program, the ogy; "Buddhi m: The Threat of Eradication," Martin current volume offer a comprehensive overview of Collcutt, Princeton University; "The Military," Ms. its work and thereby also repre ents a ummary We tney; "Education: From One Room to One tatement on the tatu of life-cour e re earch on System," Richard Rubinger, University of Hawaii; human development a repre ented by this program. "The Pre ," Albert A. Altman, The Hebrew UniverA concluding chapter (epilogue) sugge t some sity of Jerusalem; and "Shipping: From Sail to direction for future re earch and re earch planning, Steam," William D. Wray, University of British orne of which have been pur ued by the committee Columbia. The latter two ections explore variou groups in during the volume's preparation and publication. the general population. Taking advantage of statistical data and the expansion of social cience methods, espec.ially in Japan, the contributor explore the Japan in Transition: From Tokugawa to Meiji, changes (a well a what did not change) experienced edited by Marius B. Jan en and Gilbert Rozman. by the people in regional and urban ectors. The Publication re ulting from a planning meeting article and author are: "Introduction to Part pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Three," Mr. Rozman; "Population Changes," Akira Studies. Princeton Univer ity Pre s, 1986. xii + 485 Hayami, Keio Univer ity; "Castle Towns in Transition," Mr. Rozman; "The Edo-Tokyo Transition: In page . Cloth, 45.00. Search of Common Ground," Henry D. Smith II, The period between 1 50 and 1 80 wa one of Univer ity of California, Santa Barbara; "Introducimmen e change in Japan and ha been the focus of tion to Part Four," Kozo Yamamura, Univer ity of much debate in the study of modern Japan. Through Wa hington; "The Meiji Land Tax Reform and Its thi volume Me r. Jan en and Rozman, both of Effects," Mr. Yamamura; "The Rural Economy: Princeton Univer ity, bring new material to thi Commercial Agriculture, By-employment, and Wage heavily debated period. They argue that while the Work," 0 amu Saito, Hitotsubashi Univer ity; "Grain change during thi period cannot be con idered Consumption: The Ca e of Cho hu," Shun aku politically revolutionary, the ocial tran ition wa Nishikawa, Keio Univer ity; and "The Material profound. To uncover how Japan wa able to change Culture: Stability in Transition," Su an B. Hanley, o dramatically without undergoing the revolution- Univer ity of Wa hington. The conference, held at White Sulphur Springs, ary upheaval among elite or the rna e which was common to other culture , the author of the article We t Virginia in August 1982, was upported by the in thi volume explore the gradual, but profound Japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion. change in the governmental, cial, and economic ector. The editor conclude that "the Japane e experience teache u that without the explo ion of revolution at the top, without rna ive change in the Kinship Organization in Late Imperial China: circum tance of life below, a radically different 1000-1940, edited by Patricia Buckley Ebrey and Jame L. Watson. Paper from a conference held in ocial tructure can materialize" (page 13). Thi volume i organized into four parts, Admin- 1983 pon ored by the Committee on Studie of
Chine e Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societie , a predece or of the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie. Studie on China 5. Berkeley: U niver ity of California Pre , 1986. xiv + 319 page. Cloth, 40.00. The tudy of kinship and kin hip organization provides one of the be t ways to understand the coexi ting uniformitie and variation of Chine e ociety. Thi volume had its origin in a multidi ciplinary conference held at A ilomar, California in January 1983 on "Family and Kin hip in Chine e Hi tory." At the conference, paper were pre ented on a wide variety of topics, including hou ehold compo ition, inheritance, adoption, and child rearing. For this volume, the topic has been narrowed to kinship organization. The paper in the volume are: "Introduction," Patricia Buckley Ebrey, University of Illinois, and Jame L. Wat on, Univer ity of Pittsburgh "The Early tage in the Development of De ent Group Organization," M . Ebrey "Political Succe and the Growth of De cent Group : The hih of Ming-chou during the ung," Richard L. Davi , Duke Univer ity .. 1arriage, Descent Group , and the Locali t trategy in ung and Yuan Fu-chou," Robert P. Hyrne, Columbia Univer ity "Patriline and the Development of Localized Lineage : The Wu of H iu-ning City, Hui-chou, to 1528," Keith Hazelton, Princeton Univer ity .. 1arriage, Adoption, and Charity in the Development of Lineage in Wu-h i from ung to Ch'ing," Jerry Dennerline, Amher t College "Two De cent Group in North China: The Wang of Yung-p'ing Prefecture, 1500-1 00," u an Naquin, Univer ity of Penn ylvania "The Ma Landlord of Yang-chia-kou in Late Ch'ing and Republican China," Evelyn S. Raw ki , University of Pittsburgh "Anthropological Overview: The Development of Chinese De ent Group ," Mr. Watson
New Directions for Latino Public Policy Research. Prepared by the Committee on Public Policy Reearch on Contemporary Hispanic I ue, pon ored by the Inter-Univer ity Program for Latino Re earch and the Social Science Re earch Council. Au tin, Texa: CMAS Publication, Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texa, 1986. 30 page. Paper, free: Available by writing to Harriett Romo at the Center.
The increasing size of the U.S. Latino population and its continuing ocial and economic di advantage, coupled with the paucity of re ource available to re earcher on Latino policy is ue , prompted the Inter-Univer ity Program for Latino Re earch (IUP) DECE 1BER
and the Social Science Re earch Council to initiate a program for funding re earch. Entitled Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hi panic I ue, this program i upported by the Ford Foundation. Its goal is to help advance an under tanding of contemporary Latino life by facilitating informed debate and deci ions by policy maker at each level of government. The 1985-1986 grant competition was an attempt to combine trong element of multidi ciplinary re earch on Latino ocial i ue with the policymaking proce . Thi booklet de cribe the IUP, the Council, and the hi tory of the grants competition. An overview of the re ult (e.g., a demographic profile of the applicants) and ummarie of the grantee and their re earch projects are al 0 provided. Religion and Political Conflict in Latin America, edited by Daniel H. Levine. Paper from a conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Pre , 1986. xiii + 266 page. Cloth, 24.95, paper, 9.95.
In contra t to earlier a umption that economic change would accompany the diffu ion of ecular value, religion continue to permeate all facets of ociety in Latin America, particularly in the daily live of the urban working and pea ant cla e . Furthermore, religion and the politic of prote tare trongly linked in many contemporary Latin American ocietie. This volume explore the significance of popular religion in Latin America, and tre e the importance of gra roots religiou movement in the formation of political action. The 11 paper in thi volume include: "Religion, the Poor, and Politics in Latin America Today," by Daniel H. Levine, Univer ity of Michigan; "Ambivalence and As umption in the Concept of Popular Religion," by Thoma A. K elman, University of Notre Dame; "Latin America's Religiou Populi ts," by Charle A. Reilly, Univer ity of California, San Diego; "EI Salvador: From Evangelization to In urrection," by Phillip Berryman, Philadelphia; "Nicaragua: The Struggle for the Church," by Michael Dod on, Texas Christian Univer ity; "Brazil: The Catholic Church and Ba ic Chri tian Communities," by Thoma C. Bruneau, McGill Univer ity; "Brazil: The Catholic Church and the Popular Movement in Nova Iqua~u, 1974-1985," by Scott Mainwaring, Kellogg In titute of International Studie , Univer ity of Notre Dame; "Chile: Deepening the Allegiance of 81
Working-Class Sector to the Church in the 1970s," by Brian H. Smith, Massachu etts Institute of Technology; "Colombia: The Institutional Church and the Popular," by Daniel H . Levine, Univer ityof Michigan; and "Bolivia: Continuity and Conflict in Religious Di cour e," by Su an Ro ales Nelon, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The e paper were originally prepared for a conference held March 1982 in Elkridge, Maryland.
received attention either by policy maker concerned about national, especially dome tic, policies or by economists intere ted in analyzing the potential co ts and benefits of international cooperation. Thi ympo ium include orne of the article pre ented at a conference held in Tokyo on March 25-27, 1985. The meeting was a project of the Japan-U.S. Cooperative Re earch Program in the Social Science and the Humanities spon ored by the ocial Science Re earch Council and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Support for the States and Social Structures Newsletter. Publi hed American participants was provided by the by the Council' Committee on State and Social Japan-United States Friend hip Commi ion. The Structure. 0 charge. organizer of the conference were Richard C. Mar ton, U niver ity of Pennsylvania, and Koichi The up urge of interest in "the state" which has Hamada, Yale University. developed in comparative social cience over the past The sympo ium include the following article : decade ha rai ed questions about tates a in titu- "Introduction," Me sr . Mar ton and Hamada; "Real tional tructures and actor, and has prompted ' Exchange Rate, Interest Rates and Fi cal Policie ,to debate about state in relation to ocial group and Jacob A. Frenkel, University of Chicago, and A af proce se of ocial change. The purpo e of this Razin, Tel Aviv Univer ity; "Monetary Policie in newsletter is to offer intere ted cholar a more Interdependent Economies: A Strategic Approach," regular opportunity than ha hitherto exi ted for Stephen J. Turnovsky and Va co d'Orey, University multidi ciplinary communication. The new letter of Illinois; "Effects of Anticipated Real Supply feature e ays on pecific theoretical and hi torical Shocks and Coordinated Monetary Accommodai sues, reports of re earch in progre s, information tion," Masanao Aoki, Univer ity of California, Los on publication , brief book review , information on Angeles; "The Effects of Coordinated Foreign the activitie of re earch centers and program , and Exchange Intervention in an Exchange-Rate Union," an "announcements" ection. Intere ted cholars are Mr. Marston; and "Strategic Aspects of International asked to write to: Ellen Immergut, Managing Editor, Fi cal Interdependence," Mr. Hamada. States and Social Structures New letter, do Social Science Re earch Council, 605 Third Avenue, New Transition and Development: Problems of Third York, New York 10158. World Socialism, edited by Richard R. Fagen, Symposium on the Coordination of Economic Policies between Japan and the United States, edited by Richard C. Marston and Koichi Hamada. In The Economic Studies Quarterly (Tokyo), 37 Uune 1986). Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. Limited copies available from the Council. In the pa t 20 years, economic ties between the United States and Japan have increased markedly. Today, the unilateral imposition of economic policy, domestic and international, by one country has important spillover effects on the economy of the other. For example, domestic monetary policies in the United States have affected the value of the dollar and the yen, while policies to resolve domestic issues in one nation directly affect that of the other. But despite this interdependence, the international coordination of economic policy has only recently
Carmen Diana Deere, and Jo e Luis Coraggio. Papers from two meetings ponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . New York: Monthly Review Press, 19 6. 352 page. Paper, 12.00.
This volume examine the major political and economic aspects of the transition to ocialism in small peripheral economie; it focu e on the mechanism and institution required for building participatory democracy in the proces of transition and on the various constraints which hinder that proce s, such as dependency relations with developed, central economies. The Nicaraguan case i highlighted with papers di cussing other relevant Latin American, African, and Asian experiences. In addition to the introduction, prepared by the editors, the 14 papers in the volume include: "Notes on the Analy is of the Small Underdeveloped Economy in Transition," by E.V.K. FitzGerald, VOLUME
Institute of Social Studies (The Hague); "External Finance and the Transition to Socialism in Small Peripheral Societies," by Barbara Stallings, Univerity of Wisconsin; "The Conflict at Home and Abroad: U.S. Imperialism vs. the New Revolutionary Societies," by Roger Burbach, Center for the Study of the Americas (CENSA), Berkeley; "Agrarian Reform, Peasant and Rural Production, and the Organization of Production in the Transition to Socialism," by Carmen Diana Deere, University of Massachusetts; "Economics and Politics in the Transition to Socialism: Reflections on the Nicaragua Experience," by Jose Luis Coraggio, The Regional Coordinator of Socio-Economic Research (CRIES), Managua; "The Making of a Mixed Economy: Class Struggle and State Policy in the Nicaragua Transition," Eduardo Baumeister and 0 car Neira Cuadra, Center for the Study of Agrarian Reform (CIERA), Managua; "State and Society in the Transition to Socialism: The Theoretical Legacy," by Carollee Bengelsdorf, Hampshire College; "The Role of Ideology in the Transition to Socialism," by John S. Saul, Atkinson College, York University (Toronto); "Ideology and Revolutionary Politics in Transitional Societies," by Orlando Nunez Soto, Center for the Study of Agrarian Reform (CIERA), Managua; "The Politics of Transition," by Richard R. Fagen, Stanford University; "Mass Organization, Party, and State: Democracy in the Transition to Socialism," by Michael Lowy, French National Center for Scientific Research (Paris); "Mobilization without Emancipation? Women's Interests, State and Revolution," by Maxine Molyneux, University of Essex; and "War, Popular Participation, and Transition to Socialism: The Case of Nicaragua," by Peter E. Marchetti, S.J., Central American University (UCA), Managua. These papers were originally presented at two meetings held in October 1983 in Washington, D.C. and in September 1984 in Managua, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. Women, State, and Party in Eastern Europe, edited by Sharon L. Wolchik and Alfred G. Meyer. Papers from a conference cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1985. xiv + 453 pages. Cloth, $42.50; paper, $16.95. The papers in this volume were first presented at a conference on "Changes in the Status of Women in Eastern Europe," held at George Washington University, December 4-6, 1981. The university's Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies cosponsored the conference DECEMBER 1986
together with the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. Political factors currently serve to define Eastern Europe as constituting a region. Yet significant differences characterize the region's many countries. The papers in this volume explore the differences as well as the commonalities that mark women's status. In so doing, they examine the consequences of processes which integrate women into modern roles by administrative fiat rather than through political mobilization and negotiation. The papers and their authors are: Martha Bohachev ky-Chomiak, Manhattanville College, "Ukranian Femini m in Interwar Poland" Mary Ellen Fischer, Skidmore College, "Women in Romanian Politics: Elena Ceau~escu, Pronatalism, and the Promotion of Women" Karen Johnson Freeze, Harvard Busine School, "Medical Education for Women in Au tria: A Study in the Politics of the Czech Women's Movement in the 1980 " Bruce M. Garver, University of Nebra ka at Omaha, "Women in the Fir t Czecho lovak Republic" Alena Heitlinger, Trent University, "Pa age to Motherhood: Per onal and Social 'Management' of Reproduction in Czecho lovakia in the 1890 " Barbara W. Jancar, "Women in the Oppo ition in Poland and Czecho lovakia in the 1970 " Gail Kligman, University of California, Berkeley, "The Rite of Women: Oral Poetry, Ideology, and the Socialization of Peasant Women in Contemporary Romania" John Kol ti, University of Texa , "From Courtyard to Cabinet: The Political Emergence of Albanian Women" R6zsa KulcsAr, Central Statistics Office, Hungary, "The Socioeconomic Condition of Women in Hungary" Robert J. McIntyre, Bate College, "Demographic Policy and Sexual Equality: Value Conflicts and Policy Apprai al in Hungary and Romania" Alfred G. Meyer, Univer ity of Michigan, "Feminism, Socialism, and Nationalism in Eastern Europe" Silva Melnarit, University of Ljubljana, "Theory and Reality: The Status of Employed Women in Yugo lavia" Bogdan Mieczkowski, Ithaca College, "Social Services for Women and Childcare Facilities in Ea tern Europe" Daniel N. Nelson, Univer ity of Kentucky, "Women in Local Communi t Politics in Romania and Poland" Mary E. Reed, Latah County Historical Society, "Peasant Women of Croatia in the Interwar Years" Dorothy Rosenberg, Colby College, "The Emancipation of Women in Fact and Fiction: Changing Role in GDR Society and Literature" Renata Siemienska, University of Warsaw, "Women, Work, and Gender Equality in Poland: Reality and Its Social Percc:ption" Ivan Volgyes, Rutgers University, "Blue-Collar Working Women and Poverty in Hungary" Sharon L. Wolchik, George Wa hington University, ''The Precommuni t Legacy, Economic Development. Social Transformation and Women's Roles in Eastern Europe" Susan L. Woodward, Yale University. "The Rights of Women: Ideology, Policy, and Social Change in Yugoslavia"
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 1015 mcorporat~d m tM Stat~ oJ Illmois, DtCn71Mr 27, 1924, Jor 1M purpos~ oJ advanang r~starch m 1M SOC1lJl saencts. Nongovtmmmtal and an natur~, tM Counal appomts commltk~s oJ scholars whuh Sttlt to achUve 1M Counctl's purpos~ through 1M g~atlon oJ nw and tM Iranllng
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oJ scholars. TM actlllltuS oJ tM Counctl art suppo-rud pnmanly by grants Jrom privalt JOUndatlOns and govtrnmmt agtflCU .
Dtrtctors, 1986-19 7: ZA NE D. BERGER, 1 achusetts Institute of Technology; RI HARD A. BERK, University of California, anta Barbara; HOWARD GARDNER, Harvard niversity; E. MAVI HETHERINGTON, University of Virginia; ROBERT W. KATES, Brown University; GARDNER LI DZEY, Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral Science; BEVIS loNG TRETH, Debevoi and Plimpton; HUGH T. PATRICK, Columbia University;Jo EPH A. PE IIMAN, The Brooking In titution; CoNDOLEEZZA RI E, Stanford Univer ity; WILLIAM H . EWELL, JR., University of 1ichigan; YDEL F. SILVERMAN, The Graduate Center, City University of New York; RODOLFO STAVE HAGEN, EI Colegio de M~xico; TEPHEN M. STIGLER, University of Chicago; FRAN I X. SUTTON, Dobbs Ferry, New York; FREDERIC E. WAKEMAN, JR., Social Science Re earch Council; HERBERT F. YORK, ni,'ersityof California, an Diego. O/TlUf'S and taJr FREDERIC E. WAKEMAN, JR., Prt uknt; DAVID L. SILLS, £xtcuhve Alsocialt; RONALD J. PELE K, Controller; DORIE INOCCHI, tant to tht Prtsuknt; JOAN DA IN, P. NIKIFORO DIAMANDOUROS, YA MINE ERGA , MARTHA A. GEPHART, RlCIIARD H . Mo S, ROBI'RT W. PEAR ON, RICHARD C. ROCKWELL, BLAIR A. R BLE, loNNIE R. SHERROD, DAVID L. SZANTON, STEFAN TANAKA, TOBY ALICE VOLKMAN .