CIENCE RE EARCH
VOLUME 40 â€˘ NUMBER 1 â€˘ MARCH 19 6 605 THIRD AVEN E . :\,EW YORK, . '.Y. 10158
Frederic E. Wakeman , Jr. Elected President of the Social Science Research Council liE. Co :-: IL.'S 80 RD OF DIRECTORs-acting on the recommendation of the Executive Committee-ha elected Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr., profe or of hi tor} and former chairman of the Center for Chine e tudie at the Univer ity of California, Berkeley, a pre ident f the Council, effective July 1, 19 6. Mr. Wakeman will ucceed Franci X. utton, who ha erved a acting pre ident ince October 1, 1985. Mr. utton had replaced Kenneth Prewitt, who re igned from the pre idenc in 19 5 to become vice pre ident for program at the Rockefeller Foundation. The Council' new chief executive officer, who i 48 year old, i one of the nation' foremo t hi torian of modern China. He ha authored or edited ix book on China, including The FaLL of Imperial China (1976) and The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in eventeenth-Century China (two volume , 1985), and numerou article. The announcement wa made by Hugh T. Patrick, R. D. Calkin profe or of international bu ine at Columbia Univer ity and chairman of the Council' board of director. In making the announcement, Mr. Patrick tre ed how fortunate the Council ha been to have had Mr. utton a acting pre ident during thi year of the pre idential earch. He then noted that Mr. Wakeman ha "uperb cholarly credential and an excellent record in cholarly ad mini tration." Mr. Patrick al 0 tated "that the en e of 10 that the Council felt when Mr. Prewitt moved to the Rockefeller Foundation will be overcome by thi di tingui hed appointment." "Both the board and the taff look fon ard to working in clo e a ociation with Mr. Wakeman," he added.
For contents of thi issue, t't'
the box on page 2.
Frtdtric E. Waktmall, Jr.
Mr. Wakeman graduated from Harvard College in 1959 and tudied for a year at the In titut d'Etude Politique in Pari . He received a Ph.D. in Far Ea tern hi tory and Oriental language from the U niver ity of California, Berkeley, in 1965. He ha taught at Berkeley for the pa t 21 year . Almo t every national cholarly a ociation in the United tate that ha a China program ha benefited from Mr. Wakeman' leader hip: the Council, the American Council of Learned ocietie, the Com1
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE
2 7 12 17 19
Frederi E. Wakeman, Jr. Elected Pre ident of the Social i nee Re arch Coun il The mparative ' tudy of Mu lim Societie Barbara Dal, Mttcalf rhe ulture of Fear- Joan Dlll5in cce s to Re arch ite broad-Elinor Bar,," ote on the Origin of "Interdi iplinal)'''Dallld L. Sills Coun il Personnel taff appointments -Bryce Wood di at 76 Recent Council Publication
mittee on cholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China, and the National Humanitie Center. At the two Council, he erved as chairman of their Joint Committee on Chine e tudie (1982) and a chairman of one of it predece or committee , the Committee on Studie of Chine e Civilization (1974-79). He recently pent everal year in China in variou capacitie: he wa a vi iting profe or at Peking Univer ity and a consultant to the U. . ational Academy of cience. The Council' board wa particularly attracted by Mr. Wakeman' broad range of intere ts in all of the ocial cience. Hi goal for the Council include the
trengthening of the ocial cience a re earch enterpri e ; increa ing their application to ocial policy isue ; and improving their interrelation hip with the humanitie . Mr. Wakeman i married to Carolyn Wakeman, an Engli h literature peciali t and China cholar who coauthored To tM tonn: The Ody try of a RevoLutionary Chine e Woman (1985), an account of a leading ir,tellectual who urvived the Cultural Revolution. He ha three children, Frederic, Matthew, and arah, who are age twenty-four, even, and two, re pectively. The ocial cience Re earch Council i a not-forprofit organization founded in 1923 "for the purpo 'e of advancing re earch in the ocial cienccs." Throughout its hi tory, and particularly ince World War II, the Council ha been a leading national organization for international training and re earch. Jointly with the American Council of Learned ocietie , it pon or and upports training and rcearch on all the major region of the world. The Council' founding member were the repreentative of the even major ocial cience profc 'ional a ociation: tho e for anthropology, economic , history, political cience, p ychology, ociology, and tati tic. ince the early 1930s, all of the Council' chief executive officer have been political cienti t or ociologi t . Mr. Wakeman will be the fir, t 0 hi torian to lead the Council.
The Comparative Study of Muslim Societies by Barbara DaLy MetcalJ* 1. S FOR TilE PPOINTME T of a new Joint Committee on the omparative tudy of Mu lim ocietie i a growing intere t in many field of cholar hip in defining "Mu lim ocietie a a di tinct field of tudy. Thi intere t ha been fueled by the grm ing u e of Mu lim ymbol a indicator of loyalt and of Mu lim paradigm a a guide to behavior and the haping of in titution . In recent year, the creation of new links among Mu lim, the e tablishment of new institution, and the revitalization of old one' have had ub tantial cultural, economic, and political effects. he committee and its member are de cribed in the box on page 3. For many decade, the ouncil' committee deal-
TilE S flM
â€˘ Ihe author, a hi torian, i, an editor at the niver ity of Calif01 nia PIe (Ilel keley).he i the chair of the newly.appointed Joint Committee on the Comparative 'tudy of "iu lim ocietic .
ing with Third World ocietie have been organi/cd by geographical intere ,in re pon e both to thc hi toric configuration of world culture and to thc methodological need, both in the ocial cience. and in the hi torical and humani Âˇtic di ciplinc., to intcgrate 'pecialized reoearch into manageable gcographic context. Thc con iderable achievemcnt of the area tudie approach are evident, but ccrtain 'ubject cannot be appropriately ,tudied olely in rcgional term. uch topic a capitalism, imperialism, revolution, and urbani/ation-to cite only a fcwneed to be tudied not only from local tandpoints. but in tran regional or even global perspective, and in comparative terms. Similarly, many important a p ct ' of Mu limocietie can only be fully under to<xl when viewed transre rionally, comparatively, and III hi,torical depth. VOL ME
The unity of Muslim society The common a p cts of Mu lim culture and ocietie are multiple, and of cour e have deep hi torical root. During the fir t centurie of the 1 lamic empires, a template of belief and in titution wa created which, through political expan ion, miionary pro elytization, and va t trading empires and network became reworked and repli ated in a wide variety of geographical context . The role of Arabic a a common acred language, an educational y tern based on normative cia ic and standardized mode of in truction, network of peripatetic sufi and other teacher e pecially as ociated with the long-di tance mercantile trade route, and the unifying experience of the hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) fo tered, at lea t for orne member of every Mu lim ociety, bond that tran cended parti ular time and place. The ub quent impo ition of European colonial rule over mo t Mu lim populations, however, weakened or destroyed one of the mo t potent principle of I lamic identity: the unity of I lam and politic. The obviou power of the new imperial cultural and political form eemed to threaten I lamic value and ocial life. At the arne time, the colonial experience provided new bonds and timulated wide pread and elf-con iou rea ertion of the belief, practice , and perceived norm of the I lami tradition.
Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies In October 1985, the Coun il appointed-jointly with th Ameri an Council of Learned Societie a n~w committee, the Joint ommillee on the Comparalive tudy of Mu lim oci tie. Funded for an initial thre -year p riod by a grant from the Ford Foundation, the committee will take a it purview Muslim ocieties the world over and will encourage interdi ciplinary reearch into the relation hip between Islamic y tern of faith and knowledge and the ocial lives of Mu lims. The member of the committ e are Barbara Daly Metcalf, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, chair; Dale F. Eickclma!" ew York niver ity; Gilles Kepel, entre d'Etude et de Recher he Internationales (Pari); Ira M. Lapidus, Univer ity of California, Berkeley; M. Khalid Ma ud, I lamic Re.carch In titute (I lamabad); Jame Pi catori, The Au tralian ational niver ity; William R. Roff, 0lumbia University; and Charles C. t wart, Univer ity of Illinoi . David 1.. zanton erve as tafr.
A profound concern with Mu lim identity and unity ha b en further timulated by decolonization, demographic growth, indu trialization, urbanization, and a changing international economic order a iated with, among other thing, the oil wealth beneath Mu lim land. The Mu lim population i a rapidly growing one: there are today orne 850 to 900 million Mu lim worldwide, with the large t con entration in the widely- epa rated countrie of Indone ia, Paki tan, and Nigeria. Modern communication have trengthened and elaborated the tie among Mu lim p ople . There ha b en a steep growth in the number ~ho make the pilgrimage to Mecca, creating a ~ore mten e en e of common identity among Mu Itm from a far afield a China and en gal, Yemen and Banglade h. Growing number of tudents from Indone ia, Malay ia, the outhern Philippine, and Africa are tudying in Middle Ea tern univer itie , preading idea and e tabti hing per onal contact acro national boundarie . There are regular and increasingly frequent conferences and con ultation among Mu lim intellectual and uLama (religiou cholar ) held in uch center a Teheran, Mecca, and Kuala Lumpur. There are va t number of Mu li~s from A ia and Africa, from laborer to highly killed profe sional and military per onnel, working ide by ide in the Arabian penin ula. Worldwide trading and bu ine link are forged among audi entrepreneur , I maili merchants, and other . In addition to older form of a ociation, many new type of tran national linkage are being formed. There are major new I lamic banks and the largely Muslim oil cart I, OP C. The Organization of the I lamic Conference hold regular meeting of head of tate and foreign minister. The Aga Khan Foundation ha pread a worldwide awarene of Mu lim tyle in architecture and approache to medical care, urban planning, and higher education. a ette ( ound, and now video) di eminate mo que ermon acro international boundarie, 0 that influential preacher now reach audience far b yond their local communitie . The Iranian revolution ha offered a model for new relation hip between the I lamic 0cial order and tate politic . Colonel Qadhafi, the Ayatollah Khomeini, and the audi ruler have eparately upported numerou , often very di tant, regime , partie, movements, and cau e that are believed to hare their ideological orientation . Each of the e organization, in titution , individual, and movements i enriching the flow of information and re ource among Mu lims. In the e linkage, Muslim peoples out ide the Arab Middle Ea t are particularly important. There are 3
2 5 million Mu lim in outh A ia and 230 million in the Middle Ea t. outhea t A ia ha 165 million; Africa, 90 million; the oviet Union, 40-60 million; and hina perhap 40 million. In addition, ian and African Mu lim nation are gaining dominant role in ariou international forum . At the recent m etin of the 45-member Organization of the I lamic onference, the Afri an and A ian tate, led b pre ident ekou oure of uinea and Zia ul-Haq of Paki tan, voted Eg pt back into the conference over the objection of the Arab tate. The major area of growth b conver ion are al 0 out ide th Middle Ea tern heartland; man are in Africa.
Comparative study A focu on Mu lim OCletle direc our attention to certain kind of analy i that can only be done on a comparative ba i . The definition of a field of tudy in term of a great ci ilization offer unu ual cop for a king que tion about the wa cultural ideal find their expre ion in ocial, economic, and p litical context. We hope to learn about common Mu lim pattern of ocial and political organization, and of characteri tic wa of argument and interpretation, a well a ad ance our under tanding about when and how the e commonalitie are realized. The committee' project, therefore, will fo u on I lamic belief, idea , ideologie, pi ritual e perience , and preferred or accu tomed in titutional form, a they intera t \ ith the pe ific ociopolitical and economic condition under which mo t Mu lim live. Few cholar debate the need for analy e linking com pIe cultural and hi toricat phenomena with major economi and political trend. In practice, however, mo t tudie empha ize one dimen ion or the other. The a ume, rather than explore, the complex, multidimen ional relation hip between the two. [he unfortunatel pre alent We tern a umption that "religion" can be con tituted a a eparable, and on the wh Ie, dependent, domain of ociet promote a mode of anal i that may do inju ti e to ocietie ' out ide of the We t and, in the ca e of Mulim ocietie , often eem to do o. In contra t, the committee will en ourage the treatment of I lamic idea and in titution not imply a dependent variable, to ial, and political be ac ounted for by economi, force or ondition, but a powerful and at leat pal,tiall indep ndent urce of, or framework for, peronal identit, ial a tion, and ocial organization. B making "I lam" a contant element in the tudy of otherwi e often radically different C'::letle, In often ver different circum tance ', we have an 4
opportunity to examine the kind of meaningful continuity thi world civilization and moral order provide. To recognize the e Mu lim ocietie a an appropriate field of tudy i not to return to the ideali m of early rientali m that looked for a reified I lam and ignored ever day realitie .
The contemporary relevance of religion A brief re iew of orne contemporar phenomena rna help to clarif thi per pective. ntil very recentl , orne modernization theori t and other expected "religion" to b come increa ingly marginal a a political for e, largely be au "modernization" wa a umed to encourage" ecularization." Thi a umption ha been hattered both b the Iranian revolution and by imilar re urgence el ewhere. Buddhist revival ha occurred in everal countrie of uth and outhea t A ia, notabl in Burma, ri Lanka, and Vietnam. Chri tian group ha e become imp rtant force oppo ed to authoritarian regime in Latin America and the Philippine. In I rael, religiou partie have emerged a powerful nationali tic force , and in India, the p litical a piration of the ikh have led to violence. I n the 19 4 pre idential electi n in the nited tate, religiou leader play d a urpri ingl important role. Whether a in truments of the tate or a force of popular oppo ition, religiou belief, practice, and in ' titution cannot b ignor d or regarded a merel derivative; the mu t be under to d a p tent urce and tructure of meaning and action in pecific hi torical contex
The use of indigenous concepts The centrality of religion ha alread been embedded in a erie of conferen e , held under ouncil au pi , focu ed on the internal di cour e, the vocabularie , the concept, and the metaphor u ed b Mu lim in educational, legal, moral, and p litical debate. he e conference attempted to I ate these debate in concrete historical and con temp rary setting. The oal wa ' to interpret continuitie. and change in dicour e in relation to chan ing economic and politi al condition and new media te hnologies. The onference participant weI' a k d to addre.. 'hy particular peopl, egment 路 of ociet, and movement adopt certain m de ' of discour 'e; how the dra, on what mi Tht be called an Ilami I'epel't ire; and how values and worldl actualitie hape each other. Th committee h pes to build on this approa hand to look bond the c gniti\e and rationaliz d dimenVOl. l ' \11:.
ion of culture that are the cu tomary focu of ocial cience analy i . In recent year, everal of the Council ' area committee have directed attention to the indigenou conceptual y tern -ae thetic, intellectual, piritual~f the ocietie they tudy. In mo t contemporary re earch, however, the weight of tudy ha been on what i cognitive, functional, and y tematic. ince the thru t of We tern intellectual culture ha been to pre toward the rational and the objective in philo ophy, in the natural and phy ical cience , and of cour e in the ocial cience, thi empha i i not urpri ing. In the proce ,however, the analytical tool that have been developed have been Ie well- haped to tudy the ae thetic, the emotional, and the piritual, a well a alternative y tern of rationality, which define much of human life, and which contribute importantly to ocial a well a to per onal action. A a re ult of it analytical tool, the We tern ocial cience ha e often either ignored or found it difficult to deal with action and con traints derived from tran cendent y tern of faith, belief, and feeling, and their re ulting imperative. The emotional power and degree of commitment of I lam evident throughout the world today make Mu lim ocietie an obviou , indeed important, ubject of tudy for tho e intere ted in exploring the e larger i ue. he in titution of our own ociety empha ize the eparation of religion and politic; in tho e countrie where I lamic idea are powerful, thi eparation i denied. Mu lim thinker and actor are con tantly debating how to relate and integrate all a pects of human experience and all phere of per onal and ocial life. Becau e the e debate are 0 explicit, and the ucce e and failure in implementing them have been 0 numerou and varied, the debate and their outcome hould provide e pecially intere ting data and theory for tho e concerned with imilar i ue in any ociety.
Research programs At its fir t meeting in New York on October 1-3, 1985, the committee con idered two kind of activitie , the fir t related to haping re earch, the econd to creating an infra tructure for encouraging peciali ts to ee their work in the larger context of Mu lim ocietie generally. In its re earch program, the committee plan to work a a continuing eminar over the next few year . It ha irlentified two broad theme that will be the focu of work hop cheduled to follow the 1986-87 fall and pring meeting of the committee. Additional participants will join the committee for each of the e work hop , forming a group MARCH
that will have the opportunity to work together over everal meeting . Out of many po ible tarting points, the committee decided to choo e two theme that will, in different way, direct attention to the fundamental que tion of the meaning of being Mu lim. The fir t work hop, "Movement and Exchange in Mu lim elfDefinition," will fir t meet following the committee' April 1986 meeting in ew York. The econd workhop, "On Being Mu lim in on-Mu lim Countrie ," will follow the fall meeting in Pari . The two topic are linked by their focu on ituation in which the ignificance of Mu lim ymbol i heightened either by travel or by the implication of long-term re idence in a colonized or plural ociety. uch experience can timulate parochial and ethnic elf-awarene a well a more univer al tie . The projects are thu grounded in a concern with the nature, ource, and hi torical tran formation of individual and group identity among Mu lim in variou etting, and the implication of the e identification for indi idual , for larger communitie , and for whole ocietie.
Movement and exchange Thi project derive from the high cultural value placed by Mu lim on travel, for example, on the required pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj), but al 0 on purpo ive travel (rihla) , often in pur uit of knowledge, and on travel to take up re idence in a Mu lim etting when one i hampered from living a fully Mu lim life (hijra). Movement ha fo tered continuou exchange among Mu lim that have erved to communicate, renew, and re hape the received tradition. The term "movement" encompa e travel timulated by ritual law, my tic piety, trade, education, pro elytization (daCzva) , and migrant employment. Ca e tudie of uch movement both highlight and define what it mean to be Mu lim and provide an opportunity to inve tigate the experience of movement on Mu lim . elf-dp.finition . The e elf-definition are not only per onal: they have been ignificant for the development of common in titution and for common involvement in ocial and political action. The working paper for the fir t meeting will all be comparative, typically working from primary re earch in the main part ofthe paper, upplemented by analy e ba ed on econdary ource to ugge t com pari on . There will, in addition, be at lea t one paper on I lamic legal theory related to movement, prepared by a Mu lim cholar. 5
Muslims in non-Muslim countries
meet each other and to di cu their projec . The committee hope that thi occa ion will encourage hi project will focu on i ue related to educatudents to think about their projects in a larger contion, political theor , and law among Mu lim who text, perhap to link tudents and other who e work live under long-term, non-Mu lim admini tration may have comparative implication , and generally to (for example in Ru ia and in China, or in land fo ter exchange with colleague out ide a pecific under colonial occupation); among Mu lim who geographical pecialty. We will a k the tuden for have migrated to non-Mu lim countrie (for example, ix-month report to be ent to each member of the to Europe), and among Mu lim living in ocietie group, and we will encourage tudent to vi it each with large non-Mu lim population (for example in other in the field to the extent that thi i practicable. Lebanon, Nigeria, Malay ia, and Europe). Paper will The econd of the e projects hope to provide a few addre a erie of que tion : How doe education po tdoctoral training grants for cholar who want to hape and u tain a en e of identity and what kind of develop experti e in a econd Mu lim area. The education i regarded a appropriate by Mu lim? committee' goal i to encourage comparative tudie What part of the sharica (I lamic law) i followed and that embrace a multidi ciplinar approach, recognize what place i given to a common legal code? How i the methodological and theoretical importance of political tatu defined and how doe it correlate with continuitie in Mu lim culture, and focu attention the nature of the community and the nature of tate upon influence within and beyond the world of policy? What i the range of cultural expre ion in Mu lim that tran cend regional difference . Applithe community? In each ca e, the community mu t be cation form for thi program will be available in the examined in its in titution ,i degree of integration fall of 1986. We hope that the training year provided with the ociety, and its link of whatever kind to by thi program will be upplemented by a econd Mu lim organization and ocietie. The fir t meeting year, in re idence in the area of tudy, upported by of the work hop will focu on four etting: France, the Fulbright I lamic Civilization program. The India, the oviet Union, and We t Africa. committee al 0 hope to organize po tdoctoral ummer in titute (involving vi iting Mu lim cholar) for Field-building projects college teacher who offer cour e on I lam or on The committee ha al 0 planned program de- Mu lim ocietie. igned to encourage the comparative tudy of Mu lim Finally, the committee al 0 hope to con ider way ocietie . The fir t of the e projects will be a eminar of reaching a larger public. There i a pre ing need for graduate tudents who are either about to do for more eriou information about Mu lim ocietie. predoctoral field work or who have ju t returned. A a cholarly in titution, enriched by the participaMo t will have been trained in area tudie program . tion of Mu lim cholar and committed to openApplication have b en olicited from uch tudents, minded cholar hip, the committee i well placed to and it i planned to invite orne of them to join mem- counteract the tereotype of I lam and Mu lim that ber of the committee for two day in ew York to pervade We tern culture. 0
The Culture of Fear A report on a project of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies
byJoan Das in*
CCE IVE MILITARY TAKEOVER in Brazil and the population. Project re earch focu ed on the contruction of mechani m for repre ion and the maouthern Cone countrie of Ar entina, Uruguay, and Chile during the 1960 and 1970 ignalled the nipulation of fear by the military regime, the experiemergence of new form of authoritarian rule. The e ence of fear in different ocial group, and the develregime were ocially and politicall repre ive, on the opment of re i tance mo ements which occurred 0 er one hand, and economically dynamic, on the other, time a fear wa ub tantially overcome. Repre entaeeking to further tie between the local economy and tive topic include the method and pha e of repre large international ource of capital (Cardo 0 1982). ion in the four countrie (Fagen 1986); fear among The military ruled a an in titution, rather than a direct victim in Chile ( alamovich 1986); re i tance individual , expanded the role of the tate, and em- in the Brazilian labor movement (Alve 19 6); and pha ized technocratic experti e in policy making. intellectual contribution to the 10 of fear (AlThe e characteri tic led cholar to label the regime tamirano 1986; arlo 1986). ee the box on page 8 for "bureaucratic-authoritarian," di tingui hing them a Ii t of the participants. from previou populi t dictator hip in the region he project wa called "The Culture of Fear," a (O'Donnell 1973; Collier 1979). concept that wa it elf the ubject of much debate Thi cla ification ha generated exten ive debate, becau e of the difficultie involved in defining prenot only becau e the e military regime per i ted into ci ely what a "cultural approach" to fear hould inthe 1980, but al 0 becau e their emergence chal- clude and in i olating tho e factor that di tingui hed lenged a central hypothe i of modernization the fear created by the e four military regime from theory-that more advanced indu trialization would many other hi torical experience of fear produced re ult in the development of democratic political y- by tate terror. The e que tion were debated in a erie of eminar held in 19 1-82, in which it wa tern (Collier 1979). Three principal per pective ub equent project re earch on have been employed in thi di cu ion (Carreton decided to focu 19 5). One approach focu e on the internal charac- Brazil and the three outhern Cone countrie . The teri tic of the political regime and tend , therefore, et of ca e wa limited in thi way becau e the milito empha ize their repre ive elements. Another tary regime were ideologically imilar, creating "naeek to link the gene i of the e regime to the de- tional ecurity tate" which upended civil libertie mand of a new pha e of economic accumulation re- and permitted authoritie to wage unre tricted war quired by the proce of capitali t development, while again t internal di enter. The e mea ure were 0 a third tre e change in military organization and ten ibly taken to a ure political tability for economic the expan ion of militar power in Latin America a growth, but were in fact u ed to eliminate oppo ition to a new economic model ba ed on the concentration the ba i for the analy i of military govern men . In contra t to much of thi work, which focu e on of income and the exclu ion of worker and the poor. political regime and th tate, a project pon ored by The project continued in 19 3 with po ition paper the Joint Committee on Latin American tudie outlining pecific re earch que tion for the countrie ought to analyze repre ion and wide pread fear a cho en. The re earch wa presented at a conference ocial proce e and to identify the multiple way in convened in Bueno Aire in 1985. which in titution and individual in Brazil and the Four major problem were explored in the Culture outhern Cone countrie were affected by and re- of Fear project: (1) the characteri tic of political fear; sponded to tate terror. Thi wa defined a the y- the mechani m through which it was induced; and its tematic threat and u e of violence by governments con equence for individual and collective behavior; again t both political di enter and the general (2) the difference and imilaritie of repre ive practice ; (3) the tage of political fear a it wa impo ed and conte ted; and (4) the legacie left by political *The author, a peciali t in modern thought and literature, serve as taff for the Joint Committee on Latin American tudi . fear after the re toration of con titutional governMARCH
T he nature of political fear Participants in the "Culture of Fear" Project ociologi t Juan E. orradi of ew York Univerity erved a the prin ipal project organizer, working clo eI with hi torian Patricia Wei Fagen of the Refugee Policy Center in Wa hington, D. ., and political ociologi t Manuel Antonio Garreton, of the Latin Ameri an Faculty of the ocial ience (FLAC 0) in antiago, Chile. The e three cholar are currently editing a volume ba ed on the paper pre ented at the Bueno Aire conference for publication in Engli h, pani h, and Portugue . In addition to the organizer, the following individual participated in one or more pha e of the project: arlo Altamirano, cultural tudie, enter for the tudy of tate and ociety (CEDE ), Bueno Aire; 1aria Helena Moreira Alve ,political cience, Amher t College; Marcelo Cavarozzi, politi al cience, enter for the tudy of tate and ociety (CEDE ), Bueno Aire ; Joan Da in, cultural tudie, ocial i nce Re earch Council; Jean Franco, literature, olumbia Univer it ; Hugo Friihling, law and philo ophy, Vicariate of olidarity ( antiago); Cecilia alli, 0 iology, ao Paulo; Albert O. Hir hman, conomi ,In titute for dvanced tudy (Princeton, ew Jer e ); Heloi a Buarque de Hollanda, literature and communication, Federal niver it of Rio de Janeiro; Javier Martinez, ociology, Latin American Faculty of the ocial cience (FLA 0), antiago; Emilio Mignone, lawyer, Center for Legal and ocial tudie (CEL), Bueno Aire; Gi II Munizaga, ommunication, Center of ultural and Arti tic Expre ion and Re earch (CE E A), antiago; Guillermo O'Donnell, politi al cience, Brazilian nter for Analy i and Planning (CEBRAP), ao Paulo, and Kellogg In titute for International tudie, niver ity of otre Dame; arina Perelli, Center for I nformation and the tud of Urugua (CIE ), Montevideo; Juan Rial, enter for Information and the tudy of Uruguay (CIE ), Montevideo; oHa alamovich, Chri tian Churche ' Foundation for ocial Aid (FA IC), antiago; Jorge Edgardo apia, Univer ity Re earch In titute of Rio de Janeiro (IUPERJ); Beatriz arlo, literature, ational Univer ity of Bueno Aire; and Lui a Valenzuela, noveli t, ew York City.
ment (Fagen 19 6). orne of the central i ue dicu ed in connection with each of the e problem and the direction for further re earch ugge ted by the project are pre ented blow.
The unprecedented level of per onal in ecurity that re ulted from tate iolence in Argentina after the 1976 militar coup provided the initial e idence for tudying thi problem. Re earch conducted in Argentina in 1979, when reports of abduction , torture, and di appearance b the Argentine ecurity force had already created an international candal, indicated that individual who in the pa t might have oppo ed uch practice or conte ted the government' official ver ion of e en howed little concern (O'Donnell & alli 1979). The re earcher hypothe ized that the e attitude re ulted from the generalized fear and confu ion created by the brutality of the military' campaign again t alleged terrori ts. Although guerrilla violence and death quad retribution in the immediately preceding p riod had predi p ed much of the population to accept the military takeover, official iolence oon upplanted terrori t iolence. A Juan orradi (19 5) wrote: "The arbitrarine of ecurit procedure, the tale of di appearance , the fear that an one could be picked up, the rumor in one' neighborhood or in the office that omeone' relative had vani hed or been tortured oon made denial, rationalization, and mere elfregard the out tanding ocial norm ." Much evidence ugge ts that governments at 0 developed trategie for pre enting tate t rror to the public. Corradi (19 3), for example, di cu ed the modifi ation in public di cour e that "amounted to a reca ting of collective memor ." he e included an over implified dichotomy between friend and foe, who could be overt and covert, actual or potential. According to the rhetoric of the Argentine regime, the pre ent table order wa immen ely preferable to the immediate chaotic pa t, but could be maintained only through totalloyalt to the regime and igilance again t its en ernie . Official di cour e al 0 made a puriou di tinction b tween "violence" and "order." Thi rhetorical oppo ition rna ked a real connection b tween tate violence and the fal e "order" it enured, which had b en gained through the uppreion of legitimate conflict and di ent. Pre cen or hip wa another important mechani m in the ideological manipulation which pro ided a rationale for repre ion. In Brazil, for example, elective go ernment cen or hip reinforced the notion that citizen hould empower regime to wage "total," "global," "permanent," and "apocalyptic" war again t their internal enemie, ince the media portrayed a harmoniou country who e path to na-
tional de elopment wa pre umabl guaranteed by I n Chile, alamovich and Lira (19 5) found that government vigilance again t di enter. Thi image the ubjective experience of fear mirrored ocial and wa achie ed by allowing new torie which empha- political factor . In clinical work with the ictim of ized the overnment' ucce ful campaign again t direct repre ion, they noted a variet of p chologiurban guerrilla while imultaneou Iy uppre ing cal ymptom which reflected the traumatic effect of tho e about the activitie of the ecurity apparatu , torture; of the di appearance or violent death of a particularly the torture of political u pects and pri - family member; of arbitrary detention; of intimidaoner . Critici m of the government' economic and tion; and of exile or 10 of employment. While ocial policie were al 0 cen ored, but laudatory initiall private reaction , the e ymptom were pre torie were permitted, creating the impre ion that ent in 0 many people that they ignificantly affected trong "national ecurity" mea ure had in fact pro- collective behavior. vided the condition for economic growth and development (Da in 19 2). Variations in repressive practices There were variation in the e pattern of official di cour e and in cen or hip practice , but all the reThe comparative tudie of the depth and inten ity gime depended to orne degree on a elf- of fear in the four countrie rai ed the larger que tion pre entation which ju tified the abrogration of civil of imilaritie and difference in the policie and libertie for national ecurit purpo e . According to practice of repre ion. While each militar regime Corradi (19 3), the overall effect wa "to paralyze the ingled out worker and oppo ition political group, critical will of the ubjects." ignificant ector of the both violent and nonviolent, a targe for repre ion, population were thu convinced that it wa nece ary each al 0 depended on a web of "national ecurity" to upend indi idual right and di mantle civic in- legi lation to complement tate violence. A Patricia tematitution in order to create political tability. Both Fagen ob erved (19 6), the e law in tituted rhetorically and in practice, the e regime turned tic information control; they marginalized in titution peace into wartime, put civilian under military for legal and ocial a i tance, uch a the court ; the juri diction, and tran formed ociety into a permitted purge of the regime' opponents from battleground again t " ubver ion." In thi proce , influential po ition ; and they in titutionalized rein titution uch a labor union, political partie, and triction on labor union, tudent organization , and chool 10 t their traditional function a mediator political partie . between individual and the tate, lea ing civilian onethele ,there were ub tantial difference in population ulnerable to the abu e of power prac- the level of repre ion. Con iderably more political ticed with virtual impunity by the agents of repre ion. activity wa permitted in Brazil, for example, than in Government effort to rationalize or rna k repre - Chile, yet both ituation had more "protected pace" ion, however, did not alway di tract people from the for di enter than wa true in Argentina or Urugua , fear they felt. On the contrary, fear of tate terror wa where there were more direct victim of repre ion perva ive and affected many a pects of daily life, a relative to the general population. Political practice te timonie , per onal interview , and life hi torie ex- and in titution affected the pattern of repre ion in amined in the cour e of the project revealed. For each country, but could al 0 operate to limit repre ion. example, O'Donnell and alli (1979) and O'Donnell Thi wa true of the Church and of religiou mo e(1983) noted a erie of con equence in Argentina: ment , union , partie , urban and rural "gra root" depoliticization; a ignificant reduction of a oci- a ociation, and prof~ ional organization in Brazil ational acti itie ; the denial of evidence regarding (Alve 1981- 2; 19 5; Fagen 19 3). In Chile, the human right abu e ; and the adoption of aggre ive Church and the medical and legal profe ion have economic trategie. Political fear appeared to gener- played a major role in defending human right ate inten e privatization but al 0 cruelty in everyday (Friihling 1985), while the tudent movement wa a life that reflected the attitude and practice of au- focal point of re i tance in Uruguay (Perelli 1985). It thoritariani m exerci ed by the tate. Daily activitie wa concluded that the inten ity of the repre ion were carried out in a climate of intimidation created did not predetermine the degree of re i tance that by the ecrecy and my tery which hrouded the con- could emerge. In Chile, for example, major in tituduct of government bu ine and, in particular, by the tion engaged in prolonged and active oppo ition to ilence urrounding the activitie of the ecurity ap- the military regime, de pite con tant and relativel paratu . har h repre ion (Fagen 1986).
The stages of fear In tracing the fear experience a it wa haped by the dynamic of repre ion and re i tance through the variou tage of the military regime , much di cu ion centered on the 10 of or "exit from" fear (Garret6n 1983). A Corradi (1983) po ed the problem: "Who wa in ulated from re ocialization and intimidation? What proce e led ome to conquer fear? What type of re i tance developed?" The project re earch made clear that form of rei tance exi ted throughout the period of military rule. Even when citizen ought afety by retreating to the private phere of family and friend and avoiding any con trover ial activitie, they re ponded enthu ia tically to coded expre ion of di ent embedded in vanguard poetry, theater, popular mu ic, and form of humor (Hollanda 1985; Munizaga 19 5). Although cen or hip forced arti ts to u e indirect or allegorical form ,literature and other kind of art work provided an arena for political debate when other in titutional channel for the expre ion of di ent, uch a political partie, the Congre , the courts, the univer itie , and the new media were clo ed down or controlled ( arlo 1985; Altamirano 1985; Oa in 1985). Overt form of oppo ition al 0 developed. The main protagoni ts of the e movements were clergy, law er ,journali t , teacher, and other profe ional oppo ed to repre ion on humanitarian and civic ground. In Argentina and Uruguay, in particular, where the e individual had little in titutional protection, they them elve became the victim of repre ion. Over time, however, their work united people around pecifically nonpolitical objective, uch a obtaining information about political u pects who had di appeared. Often, when the re 'ulting organization became focal points for many individual who aw no other outlet for political activitie , human right or related legal work developed into political organizing and other prote t activitie (Fagen 1986). More explicitly political oppo ition to the repre i e regime emerged later, particularly in Brazilian labor union (Alve 1981-82; 1985) and in the popular protest movement in Chile (Martinez 1985). The different role of human right group in each of the four countrie i particularly triking. In Chile, the e group formed quickly and remained important; in Brazil, they developed more lowly but had a key role in the tran ition to civilian rule, e pecially after 1978. In Argentina, the human righ group attracted ignificant upport only in the final month of the military regime, in part becau e the early ac10
t had them elve become victim of crime by ecurity force. In Uruguay, finally, human righ group were not an important factor, ince mo t of the civilian oppo ition, which wa clande tine, wa ba ed in traditional political partie (Fagen 1986). There icon iderate debate about whether the eroion of fear and the concomitant emergence of re i tance were the key factor in the tran ition to civilian rule that have occurred in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. In the Argentine ca e, the military' dia trou conduct of the mid-1982 Falkland IMalvina war clearly precipitated the regime' collap e, and in all three ca e , economic policie promulgated by the military were un ucce ful. The e failure gave the civil oppo ition, particularly economic elite which had formerly upported the regime , con iderable clout in pre ing for the end of military rule. onethele ,in Brazil and Uruguay, e pecially, the military, even though they were forced to relinqui h power, al 0 maintained at lea t partial control of negotiation with oppo ition force. One outcome of thi ituation i that both in Brazil and in Uruguayunlike in Argentina-there have been no trial to inve tigate human rights abu e committed by ecurity force . That there i no nece ary connection between the 10 of fear, the ri e of a civilian oppo ition, and the collap e of the e military regime i made clear in Chile, where the regime ha not been ou ted, even though fear ha been widely overcome and there a trong civilian oppo ition movement (Fagen 1986). ttVI
The legacies of political fear Oi cu ion of the legacie of fear in the e countrie and the po ibilitie for ocietie without fear gave ri e to many que tion for further re earch. The political tran ition to civilian rule in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, for example, have provided new information on the political i ue rai ed by efforts to di mantle the tate' repre ive apparatu e . In fact, the trial of former Argentine junta member had begun ju t week before the Bueno Aire conference wa convened, providing a dramatic context for the di cu ion of the extent to which political terror wa u ed a an in trument of tate policy during the period of military rule, and to what degree human rights abu e would be puni hed. Al 0 con idered were the mechani m that would be u ed to re-e tabli h civillibertie and the way in which new in titution would be created or already exi ting tructure would be adapted to check the power of the military and the intelligence ervice. VOLUME
In more general term, que tion were rai ed about whether the political pa ivity that had been engendered by fear would per i t; what kind of leader hip and party tructure would emerge; and how trade union and other outlawed or debilitated in titution would re ume functioning. It wa clear that the di cu ion of politically-induced fear would be upplanted by a di cu ion about the nature of democratic practice , not only on the tate and political regime level but al 0 a they operate on the many level of ocial and political relation . The Culture of Fear project faced everal pecial challenge. For one, the fact that 0 many of the re earcher involved were them elve victim or fir t-hand witne e of repres ion meant that the experiential dimen ion and the human factor were given pecial weight in the analy e . While the participants agreed this wa unavoidable, and fortunately 0, their per onal involvement in the ubject al 0 meant that the generalization and ab traction of individual experience fundamental to ocial cience inve tigation was difficult. Commanding the broad and multifaceted literature relevant to the project, which included material from ocial and political theory, psychology, and a growing body of human rights documentation, as well a finding a common ground in the variety of di cour e utilized by the different di cipline , wa an e pecially demanding ta k. Finally, the very concept of "the culture of fear" wa a problematic category, ince the understanding of fear as a perva ive and dynamic ocial proce in the e recent military regime i till in its initial tage. Nonethele , the project did collect valuable new data on the e phenomena in the four countrie tudied. It added to the under tanding of linkage between the private and public phere in the e countrie and it ugge ted new connection between the well-known pha e of the military regime and the type of politically-induced fear pecific to each pha e. The project al 0 ynthe ized approache from variou dicipline and created a conceptual convergence around the e particular fear experience . The perpective developed will be of continued u efulne a more information about these fear experience emerge in the newly-restored civilian regime. 0
References Altamirano, Carlo. "Cultura de izquierda, di idencia intelectual y proce 0 autoritario: la experiencia argentina" ["Culture of the Left, Intellectual Di idence, and the Authoritarian Proce : The Argentine Experience"). Paper presented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. MARCH
Alve , Maria Helena Moreira." ra root Organizations, Trade nion and the Challenge to the Controlled A~rtura in BraziL" Paper pre entedat"TheCultureofFear" eminar ,1981-1982. - -. "Culture of Fear, Culture of Re i tance: The ew Labor Movement in BraziL" Paper presented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Buenos Aire , 19 5. Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. "The Authoritarian Regime at the Cro road: The Case of Brazil." Paper pre ented at a conference on" he Pro pect of Democratization in the outhern Cone," Yale niver ity, 19 2. Collier, David, editor. Tht tw Authoritarianism in Latin Amtrica. Princeton Univer ity Pre ,1979. publication of the Joint Committee on Latin American tudie. Corradi, Juan. "The Cult of Fear." Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" eminar, 19 1-19 2. - -. "The Culture of Fear in Civil ociety." Report ubmitted to the Social Science Re earch Council, 15 December 19 3. - -. "Toward a Society Without Fear." Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Das in, Joan: "Pre Censorship and the Military tate in Brazil," in Prt Control ArOUtld tht World, Jane Curry and Joan Da in, editor. New York: Praeger Pre , 1982, page 149-186. Preented at "The Culture of Fear" eminar, 1981-1982. _ _ . "Memoir of the Generation of '68: A Case tudy of Fear and the Political Text in BraziL" Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Fagen, Patricia Wei . "The Organized Agent of Fear. orne otes and Comparison ." Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" eminar, 19 1-1982. _ _ . " ummary of Di cus ion on the Role of the Agents of Fear." Report ubmitted to the ocial Science Re earch Council, 15 December 1983. _ _ . "Repre ion in Four Countrie : Method and tage." Paper presented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire , 1985. _ _ . "Introduction to Fear eminar Volume." Draft, 1986. Franco, Jean. "The Behaviori tic Body: The cientific Method of Fear." Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" seminar, 1981-82. _ _ . "Gender, Death, and Re i tance: Facing the Ethical Vacuum." Paper presented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Friihling, Hugo E. "Limitando la accion coerciva del estado: La e trategia legal de defensa de 10 derecho humano en Chile" ["Limiting the Coercive Action of the tate: The Legal trategy for the Defen e of Human Right in Chile"). Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" eminars, 1981-82. _ _ . "Reproduccion y socializacion de nuCJeo de re i tencia: La experiencia de La Vicaria de la Solidaridad en Chile" ["Reproduction and Socialization of Nuclei of Re i tance: The Experience of the Vicariate of Solidarity in Chile"). Paper presented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 1985. Garreton, Manuel Antonio. "Respuesta al miedo y efecto de este en la tran icion" ["Response to Fear and Its Effect in the Tran ition"). Report ubmitted to the Social Science Re earch Council, 15 December 1985. - - . "Los regimenes militares del Cono Sur y la cultura del miedo" ["The Military Regimes of the Southern Cone and the Culture of Fear"). Pre entation at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 1985. Hollanda, Heloi a Buarque de. "Brasil, 1964-1978: Idas e vinda
da cultura de re i tencia." ["Brazil, 1964-1978: Coming and Going of the Culture of R i tance"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" confere~ce, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Martinez, Javier. "Miedo al e tado, miedo ala sociedad: obre las 'prote ta 'opo itora en Chile y el problema del miedo" ["Fear of the tate, Fear of Society: Regarding the Oppo ition 'Protest' in Chile and the Problem of Fear"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Munizaga, i elle. "Miedo y propaganda en el regimen autoritario chileno" ["Fear and Propaganda in the Chilean Authoritarian Regime"]. Paper prepared for "The Culture of Fear" conferen e, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Mignone, Emilio Fermin. " 1as alia de miedo: formas deju ticia y compensacion. EI ca 0 argentino en per pectiva com parada" ["Beyond Fear: Form of Ju tice and Compensation. The Argentine Ca e in Comparative Per pective"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. O'Donnell, Guillermo. Modtrniz.ation a11d BUTtaUcTaticAuthoritarianism. tudit i11 outh Awnca11 Politics. Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre ,1973. O'Donnell, Guillermo, and Cecilia Galli. "Adaptations to ial Change at the 1icro Level." Report to the Social ience Reearch Council, 1979. - - . "La co cha del miedo" ["The Harve t of Fear"]. Ntxo (Mexico City): 6:6, January 19 3. - - . "Regimene politico y produccion de miedo" ["Political
Regime and the Production of Fear"]. Commentary at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 1985. Perelli, Carina. "La logica del miedo: Un nucleo de re i tencia e tudiantil en eI Uruguay de 10 ochenta. De la fu ion a la fi ion" ["The Logic of Fear: A Nucleu of tudent Re i tance in ruguay of the 19 Os"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. Rial, Juan. "Lo limite del terror controlado: Lo hacedore y defensore del miedo en el Uruguay" ["The Limits of Controlled Terror: The Maker and Defender of Fear in ruguay"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Buenos ire, 19 5. alamovich, oria, and Elizabeth Lira. "P icologia del miedo en la ituacione de repre ion politica" ["The P ychology of Fear in ituation of Political Repre ion"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. apia, Jorge Edgardo. "La produccion de e pacio imbOlicos de re i tancia: EI ca 0 de Madre de la Plaza de Mayo y familiare de de aparecido y detenido politico" ["The Production of ymbolic pace of Re i tance: The Ca e of the Mother of the Plaza de 1ayo and the Familie of the Disappeared and Political Detainee "]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5. arlo, Beatriz. "E trategia de la imaginacion literaria" [" trategie of Literary Imagination"]. Paper pre ented at "The Culture of Fear" conference, Bueno Aire, 19 5.
Access to Research Sites Abroad A report on a conference sponsored by the Council and the Smithsonian Institution
by Elinor Barber, in collaboration with Gretchen Gayle EllsworthÂˇ
CHOL R FROM THE UNITED TATE have long had the freedom to pur ue their re earch intere ts in region of the world that were either the colonie of We tern nation or economically and politically ubervient to the We t. However, ince World War II, the ituation ha changed dramatically. Many of the new nation do not allow foreign cholar unretricted acce to vi it and pur ue their tudie. The po twar emergence of the oviet Union and the United tate a antagoni tic uperpower ha complicated the i ue further. Among the other barrier that have been erected worldwide are the withholding of vi a , clo e crutiny of propo ed projects, and the negotiation of reciprocal flow of enior cholar and tudents. â€˘ Elinor Barber, a hi torian, i director of research at the In titute of International Education (New York). Gretchen Gayle Ell worth i deputy director, Directorate of International Activitie, The mithsonian In titution. he coordinated the planning for the conference.
The ju tification for the e barrier are not prima facie acceptable to tho e who are affected by them, but both natural and ocial cienti ts in the United tate have, for the mo t part, come to recognize that ho t countrie may have valid rea on for impo ing contraints on their tudie. On the other hand, the development of new knowledge i 0 important that exten ive efforts mu t be made to counteract countrie ' re triction of acce imply a an exertion of power or becau e it eem in their elf-intere t, narrowly contrued, to do o. Thi al 0 hold true for We tern countrie , including the United tate. It may be ea ier to accept carefully-calibrated reciprocitie ( uch a tho e negotiated by the International Re earch & Exchange Board for US- U SR exchange ) than to accept the con traints impo ed by Third World countrie who e cholar and tudent do not encounter comparable re triction in the United tate. I n order to explore an array of i ue encap ulated by the horthand term "research acce ,tt a conference VOL ME
with thi title wa held in Wa hington, D.C. on ovember 18-19, 1985, co pon ored by the Council and the mith on ian In titution. The term "re earch acce "i u ed widely to connote how freely and in what way re earcher of one country can tudy the topic of their choice in another country. It wa to under tand better the "acce problem"-the limitation or denial of re earch acce s-and the circumtance in which it i more and Ie likely to occurthat the mith onian conference wa convened. The conference con idered primarily i ue of re earch acce in relation to U. . cholar. The participant are Ii ted in the adjacent box.
Participants The participant in the conference included cholar in the ocial and natural cience who have done exten ive re earch abroad, e pecially in Third World countrie . The e cholar are ba ed in univer itie , mu eum , or other re earch e tabli hments. taff from organization concerned with international cholarly relation ,area tudie, and field tudie al 0 participated. Among the fir t group, there were eight cholar (four ocial cienti ts and four natural cienti ts) who pre ented ca e tudie ba ed on their own and their colleague ' experience . The e ca e tudie con tituted the ba i from which new per pective on the i ue of re earch acce could be haped. The covered re earch in the humanitie , archeology, botany, zoology, geology, hi tory, and other ocial cience. Bolivia, Brazil, India, Malay ia, Morocco, Mozambique, epal, ri Lanka, and Venezuela were among the pecific countrie who e policie and procedure were di cu ed.
Complexity of the problem
Participants in Council-Smithsonian Conference on Research Access Robert McC. Adam, The mith on ian In titution, cochair Kenneth Prewitt, The Rockefeller Foundation, cochair Benedict R. Ander on, Cornell Univer ity Peter haw A hton, Harvard Univer ity Bernard Barber, Columbia Univer ity Elinor Barber, In titute of International Education ( ew York) Richard H . Ben on, The mith onian In titution Paul R. Bra ,U niver ity of Wa hington Mary Brown Bullock, Committee on cholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China (Wa hington, D.C.) David Challinor, The mith onian In titution William K. Cumming, ational cience Foundation Gretchen ayle Ell worth, The mith onian In titution Robert A. Fernea, Univer ity of Texa Virginia Feur - agnon, ocial cience Re earch Council, taff John D. Gerhart, Ford Foundation Irving Loui Horowitz, Rutger Univer ity Allen F. 1 aacman, Univer ity of Minne ota Allen H . Ka of, International Re earch & Exchange Board ( ew York) Herbert . Klein, Columbia Univer ity Richard D. Lambert, Univer ity of Penn ylvania Betty J. Megger ,The mith onian In titution Rhoad Murphey, Univer ity of Michigan A hi andy, Centre for the tudy of Developing ocietie ( ew Delhi) John Paul, U .. Department of Education Ca andra A. Pyle, Council for International Exchange of cholar (Wa hington, D.C.) John E. Reinhardt, The mith onian In titution Walter Ro enblith, ational Academy of cience Robert Ro enzweig, A ociation of American Univeritie (Wa hington, D.C.) u anne H. Rudolph, Univer ity of Chicago FrederiC E. Wakeman, Jr., Univer ity of California, Berkeley Chri ten M. Wemmer, The mith onian In titution
The paper and the di cu ion produced in ights well beyond the conference organizer' earlier conceptualization of the problem of acce in term of the mutual rights and obligation of re earcher and ubjects (i.e., countrie ). Through di cu ion, factor uch a ource of funding and pon or hip, type of re earch, topic and field of tudy, and characteri tic of the re earcher them elve were di covconcerned, a variety of i ue developed around ered to be very complex. The di cu ion of the e factor included the fol- com pari on of acce granted to ocial and natural cienti ts and perceived difference in acce aclowing points. With regard to pon or hip, there wa general agreement that Department of Defen e up- corded to di cipline within the ocial cience. In the port of over ea re earch would damage everely the natural cience, projects are large- cale and longlikelihood of obtaining acce s. In ofar a topic are term, and cultural and political i ue are Ie imMARCH
mediate than they are in the ocial cience. Beyond thi , there i great variation within the ocial cience. Critical tudie and tudie of" trategic" topic often are refu ed, while re earch that enhance a en e of a national pa t or that ha a practical impact i likely to be welcome. Thus, historian generally have far Ie trouble in obtaining acce in Latin America than do other ocial cienti ts. 0 agreement prevailed a to whether the natural or the ocial cience are likely to be defined a more threatening to national intere ts, a often it i not easy to relate the re olution of acce reque t directly to propo ed topic. The conferee found that the problem of acce s i much more complex than wa implied previou lyand generalization are difficult to make. The problem i Ie amenable to the removal of pecific ob tacle , or tractable by the exchange of pecific rewards and threats. Indeed, it is all too ea y to come to the impractical conclu ion that every situation i different, depending entirely upon which particular cholar i involved in which particular country. Yet orne general pattern do emerge, ugge ting kind of interactions and mea ure that may improve the receptivene of other countrie to U .. re earcher .
The development model Perhap the mo t important in ight that the conference yielded i that, in many Third World countrie , re earch by American cholars i encouraged only if it contribute in orne way to the nation' development. uch contribution a ume many different form . Among them are re earch on problem that the government define a e ential for the practical improvement of condition of life or for the generation of a en e of cultural-hi torical identity. Another i the training of local re earcher in field uch a archeology, fore try, and the ocial cience. In almo t all developing countries, vi iting researchers eeking to combine re earch and development aim mu t adju t their priori tie according to the priori tie of the ho t-country government or the re earch community. It al 0 require orne tran fer of reource (training, collaborative arrangements) to the indigenou lOre ident re earcher ." One way in which American re earcher can contribute to the development of cience in Third World countrie i to draw their cienti t into new network . Thi can be done by exchanging publication , arranging visiting appointments, and inviting Third World cienti ts to participate in international profe ional meeting. U.S. cholars may have to acrifice orne of the indi14
viduali m they prize in order to encourage complementary and ub tantive contribution .
Reciprocities During the conference, it became clear that different balance of reciprocity help to facilitate reearch aero national boundarie . Indeed, in de eloping relation hip between orne countrie it may be nece ary to di regard formal reciprocity altogether. The United State and the oviet Union maintain trict reciprocity in the exchange of cholar, and re triction or rejection impo ed by one ide meet with appropriate retaliation on the part of the other. However, cholarly relation between the United tate and China are quite different. A one participant路 noted, cholarly relation with China eem to be at the tage where reciprocity mu t virtually be et a ide while the relation hip i developed. In between the e extreme are our relation hip with countrie that have more and Ie power vi -a-vis the United tate. In the ca e of India, it i at lea t arguable that the United tate hould in i t on a greater degree of reciprocity. U .. reciprocity with countrie that have weaker cientific communitie often re emble the development model de cribed above, where re earch acce i exchanged for the training of re earcher and for other re earch-related re ouree . While it i not ea y to enforce formal reciprocity without governmental backing, the conferee agreed that governmental involvement in cholarly relation i be t avoided. However, more informal reciprocity can be developed on a cholar-to- cholar ba i and reinforced through the upport of governmental aid agencie or private foundation. Reciprocity, then, mu t be defined in term of the re pective trength of tho e carrying on re earch over ea and tho e granting acce .
The personal factor A recurrent theme of the conference was the importance of per onal relation hip in facilitating acce to over ea re earch ite. Good per onal relation hips are mo t likely to emerge over a long period of time. In thi re pect, the well-funded longterm project more often a ociated with the natural cienee are a con iderable advantage, but in the 0cial cience, the tru t that is ba ed on long-term interaction al 0 can be developed. The per onal factor extend beyond mere familiarity to such topic a a foreign re earcher' concern for the intere ts of local counterparts. This includes an appreciation of both VOLUME
the difficultie under which they work and the cholarly contribution that they have made. The development of effective per onal relation hip with Latin American archeologi ts, for example, ha depended upon U.. cholar ' willingne to under tand the theoretical per pective of their colleague while ini ting on the adoption of uniform re earch method . The participants in the conference noted that an empha i on per onal relation hip i not entirely congenial to academic in the United tate. One reaon for thi i the fear that departure from univerali m in cience may blur di tinction between highand Ie er-quality work. Thi problem eem to be e pecially acute in the ocial cience . Another rea on i the concern that relation hip built on per onal tie may di appear along with tho e who create them. Empha i on the per onal factor tend to upport the a umption that en itive, ethical, con iderate individual will make all the difference, thu ob curing the importance of y tematic problem (de cribed below). Yet all the participant agreed that although per onal factor have a certain fragility, their importance in fo tering the kind of tru t that come with continuou and con iderate interaction cannot be gain aid.
Politics and policy Politic and policy (foreign policy or economic polic ) are readily evident and ea ily acknowledged a affecting the movement of re earcher between the United tate and the oviet Union or Japan. It eemed, however, that the conferee had greater difficulty accepting the influence of politic on their acce to re earch ite in Third World countrie . The ca e tudie pre ented by everal of the participants offered a wide range of example . Political ympathy with the travail and goal of a newly-e tabli hed regime might help re earcher to accept re triction impo ed on their re earch. Contrariwi e, political antagoni m to an exi ting regime may bring about the expul ion of outspoken re earcher. Further, the elf-cen or hip often dictated by the unpredictable re pon e of a Third World government to re earch propo al directly challenge many American cholar 'belief that a democratic country hould not limit the acce of U.S. re earcher when their own cholar may tudyany ubject they wi h in the United tate. There wa orne di cu ion of the widely-held belief that the powerful both re i t being tudied and are better able to avoid being the subjects of re earch. In thi context, it wa noted that it may be more difficult to obtain re earch acce in countrie with trong ciMARCH
entific communitie than in countrie with weak one . he main rea on i that cholar in countrie where the cience are more highl developed are able, through peer review, to di mi the re earch propo al of orne American cholar a being of poor quality. The fact that knowledge i power wa tre ed at everal points during the conference, u ually in reference to acce a politically or economically threatening. Knowledge i power also in that it permi control of the nature and quality of re earch carried out in one' country. There wa di cu ion aloof the perception by orne re earcher that they are harra ed by a government' incon i tent and arbitrary treatment. It wa pointed out that ambiguity, delay, capriciou ne ,and even deception in handling re earch permi ion may all be part of a con ciou policy-a omewhat ho tile policy. However, it wa noted that, in orne countrie , official policy and unofficial practice may diverge, and where official policy i more re trictive than unofficial practice, knowledgeable U. . re earcher are able to exploit thi divergence. There wa orne di cu ion a to whether countrie who e policie are explicitly or implicitly ho tile toward American re earcher hould have imilar policie directed again t their re earcher in the United tate. The conferee agreed that the U .. government hould be brought into the picture only a ala t re ort. A more effective approach would be to accept the acce i ue a embedded in a political proce and to build con en u favorable to acce : "earning righ ," a it were. Thi may be difficult. There are indication that nationali t, authoritarian bureaucracie are likely to make thing wor e for U. . re earcher before they get better. While orne of the participants felt that the e bureaucracie are creating unrea on able academic i olationi m, other felt that the policie are de igned to protect the rea on able need of vulnerable new nation .
Systemic problems The participants in the conference tried to di tingui h between acce problem rectifiable through the correct actions of individual re earcher and tho e that are beyond the control of individual . Among the latter are funding tructure that preclude long-term projects, even though long-term projec help to encourage olid relation hip with re ident cholar and provide them with orne of the amenities that American re earcher take for granted. More appropriate funding tructure would facilitate the training of individual from developing countrie a an inve t15
ment to\ ard valuable longer-term cooperation. Other factor include political ten ion between countrie that inevitably afC ct relation hip among cienti t -e pecially political cienti t , who tend to be identified with government policie. The dimini hing ecurit of faculty-e p cially nontenured facult -in U. . univer itie make it very difficult to acrifice individual advantage in favor of developing aluable "collaborative" relation hip with cholar o er ea. he priori tie of cientific di cipline in the United tate al 0 po e a type of ob tacle: favoring theoretical over applied cience run counter to the prioritie of developing countrie . Another ob tacle i the cata trophic decline in international communication that ha re ulted from the international debt problem. The con en u wa that uch y temic problem cannot be olved b individual; they mu t be addre ed by international in titution and offi ial in 01 ed in the allocation of re ource .
review that virtually obviate the i ue of acce . The p ible expan ion of thi mechani m wa ugge ted. Another organizational approach i embodied in the over ea re earch center. In orne ca e , the e center help directly in obtaining acce . In other, they ad vi e American cholar on the be t way to obtain permi ion to carryon their work. It wa ugge ted that the e center al 0 might expand their activitie . The operation of the International Council of ientific Union al 0 wa de cribed, with empha i on the pecial advantage of making bilateral arrangemen in the context of a multilateral tructure. Inno ation in the U .. in titutional environment al 0 might induce cholarly communitie in developing countrie to cooperate. One po ibility i the e tabli hment of an organization to deal with a multiplicity of activitie in the field of international education (language learning, graduate training program , exchange, re earch). Thi organization could be modeled after the ational cience Foundation and might include in its function a concern with re earch Organizational approaches acce . It wa not the mandate of the conference to devi e Adapting In titutional Review Board to internaolution to the problem of re earch acce ,but rather tional re earch might help to re olve acce i ue to bring new per pective to the problem. everthe- related to ethical problem . The e board pre ently Ie , orne organizational approache were di cu ed. review the ethic of all dome tic re earch that involve It wa pointed out that it i difficult to de ign an human ubjects. While the board are ba ed in uniin titutional mechani m that con ider matter of ver itie , an international board could be attached to quality and of acce at the arne time. Example of an agency like the planned ational Endowment for uch mechani m are the area committee jointl ap- International ludie. The participant in the conference eemed to conpointed b the Council and the American Council of Learned ocietie; the Joint Committee on Latin clude that it i important to maintain a much private American tudie wa de cribed a illu trative. and academic control over international re earch a he e committee generall include foreign cholar, po ible, ince the expan ion of the domain of the who participate in reviewing projects and awarding tate and the backwa h from international politic are grant, thu providing the kind of collaborative peer among the principal thr ats to re earch acce. 0
A Note on the Origin of Interdisciplinary" II
by David L. iLIs* WARS ARE OTORIO S for having unintended con equence , and there are countle example of their acceleration of organizational, cientific, technical, 0cial, and political change. World War I wa no exception, and the year immediately after the war brought many fundamental change in European and American ociety. Here I will refer only to orne remarkable development in the organization of ocial and humani tic re earch in the United tate. Con ider the e con equential events. In 1919, repre entative of a number of cholarly ocietie e tabIi hed the American Council of Learned ocietie (the immediate timulu wa to participate in the formation in Europe of the International Union of Academie). In that arne year, a unique college \ a founded in New York, the ew chool for ocial Re earch. In 1923, there wa an organizational meeting that initiated planning for the 15-volume Encyclopaedia of the ocial cience (Macmillan, 1930-35), hailed by many a the fir t major collaborative project of American cholar hip. At another meeting, that arne year, repre entative of four major ocial cience a ociation founded the ocial cience Re earch Council; when it wa incorporated the next year, three other profe ional a ociation al 0 participated. From today' per pective, the e were perhap the mo t momentou five year in the organizational hi tory of American scholar hip. he tated purpo e of all of the e in titution and enterpri e wa to timulate and coordinate re earch, particularly what i now called "interdi ciplinary" reearch. Accordingly, it i reasonable to expect that the founding documents and the early tatements of purpo e would include the word "interdi ciplinary" in order to de cribe thi intention. But thi eem not to have been the ca e. I wa timulated to look into the origin and u e of the word "interdi ciplinary" by an inquiry from Roberta Frank of the Centre for Medieval tudie of the Univer ity of Toronto. Her hypothe i wa that the \ ord had been invented at the Council. I aid in reply to her letter that I would look into the matter, but that my gue wa that the word had entered the language from the phy ical ciences, and could perhap be located in the early documents of the ational Academy of cience in Wa hington. .The author, a sociologist, i the executive associate of the Council. He i the editor of the 1 -volume Intnnational Eru:yclofJtdia of tht OCUli cimct (Macmillan and Free Pre , 1968; 1979).
I turned to earch the record and periodical of both the Council and the American Council of Learned ocietie. I al 0 earched the long introductory e ay in Volume 1 of the Encyclopaedia of the ocial Science. Nowhere could I find "interdi ciplinary" in the publication of the 1920 , although it i clear that the idea underlying it wa everywhere. The International Union of Academie encouraged "collecti e re earche ,". while the Council a erted in it Annual Report for 1925 that "ordinarily the Council will deal only with uch problem a involve two or more di cipline ."2 Plainly, omeone had to invent the word "interdi ciplinary." The rationale for my own earch for the moking gun wa not antiquariani m, but rather the opportunity it provided to examine the e early record and to relive vicariou ly the di content of the e founding father with the tatu quo and their efforts to change it by omehow combining the method and per pective of the different di cipline . Without Roberta Frank' que tion in mind, I could not have read the e du ty record with uch fre h eye and with uch an inquiring mind. 3 My inve tigation led me to the reports of the Council' ix famou Hanover conference of 1925-30. In tho e long ago, nonair-conditioned year , the Council' board, taff, and committee , along with a orted gue ts, would meet in Hanover, ew Hamp hire for everal week in Augu t and eptember to review the Council' program and the tate of the ocial cience more broadly.4 At the 1930 Hanover conference, a tatement about the Council' program wa formally adopted by the board. It included the a ertion that "It i probable that the Council' intere t will continue to run trongly in the direction of the e intermerican Council of Learned ocietie . Bullttin. umber I, tober 1920, page 8. 2 ocial ience Re earch Council. "Report for th Year 1925 Made to the American Political Science Association by Charles E. Merriam, Chairman," Amnican PoLitical cimct Rrornu, February 1926, page 1 6. 3 The recently-revived poet, Robert W. ' ervice,ju tifying participation in the Yukon gold ru h during the 1 90, tated: "Yet it i n't the gold that I'm wanting much a ju t finding the gold." (1907) I
4 For a brief account of the Hanover conference, ee Itrms, June 19 0, page 3!).-37. ee alo the biography of one of the Council' principal founder: Barry D. Karl, Charlts E. Mtrriam and tht tudy of PoLitics. Univer ity of Chicago Pre ,1974, page 134-136.
di cipline inquirie ."5 ot quite "interdi ciplinary," but clo e. At lea t I had found an an wer to Roberta Frank' que tion. An intere ting equel to the tor ugge ts that the cour e of interdi ciplinary re earch then (a now) did not alway run moothly. The Univer ity of Chicago ociologi t Loui Wirth wa commi ioned by the Council to prepare a report on i hi tory, activitie , and policie ; he ubmitted the report in Augu t 1937. In it, he had rather har h word to ay about the Council' ambition for interdi ciplinary re earch: It rna al 0 be aid the Council ha allowed itself to some e tent to become ob sed at time by catch phra e and logan which wer not ufficiently critically e amined. Thu there i orne ju tification for aying thal much of the talk in connection with ouncil policy, e pecially in the early year, about cooperation and interdisciplinary re earch turned out to be a delu ion.'
Eleanor C. I bell, the Council' taff a ociate emeritu ,called the Wirth report to m attention, and expre ed the view that there mu t be omething mi ing in the record thu far e tabli hed between 1930 and 1937. he believe that there mu t be un· publi hed (or even publi hed) u e of the term during the e year , eI e Loui Wirth would not have emphaized the word 0 much in hi 1937 report. 7 In hort, "much of the talk" mu t have been written down omewhere. Unfortunately, the Wirth report wa never pubIi hed, and hi u e of "interdi ciplinary" cannot be a true "fir t" in the e etymological Olympic. Later that
5 'ocial cien e Re arch Council. ixlh AnnlU1l RtPort, 19291930, page I . • ocial ience Re earch Council. "Keport on the Hi tory, Activitie and Policie of the Social ience Re earch Council." Prepar d by Loui Wirlh for the Committee on Review of Council Policy. Mimeographed. Augu t 1937, page 145. 7 Letter, Eleanor C. I bell to David L. ill, February ~8, 19 6.
year, in December 1937, a notice of the availabilit of Council fellow hip reprinted in the Journal of Educational ociology referred to "training of an interdi ciplinary nature" (page 251). Thi i currently the ear· lie t publi hed u e of the word "interdi ciplinary" in the file of Merriam-Web ter. s In the meantime, Roberta Frank pur ued her reearch into the publication of the National Academy of cience, with little ucce . he did uncover a 1871 new paper report on Alfred Mayer' ucce ful inve tigation into the "hum of the mo quito' wing" being attributed to the "interfiliation of eemingly divergent cience" and the advocacy by the ational cademy of Science in 1909 of "the cro ing of di cipline ." But he reported to the Council, "You're till the fir t. "9 The earch continue, and reader are invited to participate in it and end in their re ults. I earched, but hardly exhau tively. The founding documents of the ew chool for ocial Re earch have yet to be examined, a well a tho e of Yale Univer ity' In titute of Human Relation, founded in 1929 for the ex pre purpo e of breaking down di clplinary boundarie . A nearly-forgotten 1927 book edited by William F. Ogburn and Alexander A. Goldenwei er, The ocial Science and Their Interrelations, 10 eem not to u e the word "interdi ciplinary," but what about the ource u ed by the author and editors? There i much re earch yet to be done. A the Ru ian proverb ha it," ot finding a needle in a hay tack i no proof." 0 Telephone conversation Wilh Frederick C. Mi h, editorial director, Merriam-Web ter, March II, 19 6. • Letter, Roberta Frank to David L. ill, February 21, 19 6. 10 80 ton: Houghton Mifflin, 1927.
Council Personnel Staff appointments
Richard H. Mo will join the Cou ncil taff on June 1 t a a taff a ociate with re pon ibility for the Council' new program in foreign policy tudie . Thi program, funded by a grant from the Ford Foundation, eek to extend re earch on foreign policy making beyond its conventional focu on the executive agencie of government. Mr. Mo will also erve on the taff of the Program in International Peace and ecurity tudie, with particular re pon ibility for reearch planning activitie and evaluation. Mr. Mo ha been a consultant to the Council' program in International Peace and ecurity tudie ince June 1984. Before coming to the Council, he worked a a program a ociate for Oxfam America in Harare, Zimbabwe; a taff editor of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; and a an a itant on the taff of Senator Adlai E. Steven on III. He received hi B.A. from Carleton College in 1977 and i currently completing his doctoral di ertation at Princeton Univer ity' Woodrow Wil on chool. Hi own re earch intere t have centered on action-reaction cycle and the role of misperception in creating and u taining international conflict. Hi di ertation i a focu ed ca e com pari on of conflict piral that a e e the relative importance of mi perception and other factor, uch a third-party conflict and dome tic politic , in generating conflict between the United tate and the developing countrie . oby Alice Volkman, an anthropologi t, will join the Council taff on June 1 to erve primarily a taff for the joint committee on outh and outheast A ia. Her appointment will make it po ible for David L. zanton, who currently taff the e two committee , to devote him elf to three new committee : the Committee on ew York City; the Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim ocietie; and the Advi ory Committee on International Program. M . Volkman i currently oh the taff of Documentary Educational Re ource (Watertown, Ma achu ett ), where he has done exten ive re earch and writing on ethnographic films. She received a B.A. in art hi tory from the U niver ity of Chicago in 1969 and a Ph.D. in anthropology from Cornell Univer ity in 1980. he ha done archeological field work in France and in Alaska; she has worked in the publication and Far Ea tern art departments of the MetMARCH
ropolitan Mu eum of Art (New York); and he ha taught at both Simmon College and Tuft Univerity. he ha conducted field re earch among the Toraja of outhern Sulawe i (Celebe ), Indone ia. Her book ba ed on thi field work, Feasts of Honor: Ritual and Change in the Toraja Highlands, wa publi hed by the U niver ity of Illinoi Pre in 1985.
Bryce Wood dies at 76 Bryce Wood, an executive a ociate emeritu of the Council, died of cancer in Wa hington, D.C. onJanuary 23, 1986. Bryce joined the taff in 1950 and erved continuou ly until hi retirement in 1973. He had received a Ph.D. in political cience from Columbia Univer ity and had taught at both Columbia and warth more. He was the author of two major related book on Latin America: The Making of the Good Neighbor PoLicy (1961) wa followed a generation later by The D 路 mantling of the Good Neighbor PoLicy (1985). Loui Wolf Goodman, of the Woodrow Wil on International Center for cholars in Wa hington (who had ucceeded Bryce a the Latin American taff member at the Council), wrote that the publication of Bryce' la t book on U.S. policy toward Latin America "could not be more timely." Shortly after he retired from the Council, Bryce helped to e tabli h and then to ad mini ter the Emergency Committee for Aid to Latin American Scholar , which under hi leader hip enabled many refugee cholar from Chile and other military regime to continue their career in other countrie . The Council' foreign area committee flouri hed from the 1950 onward , and Bryce wa particularly active in two of them: the Joint Committee o~ . Latjn American Studie (1959- ) and the Joint Committee on Contemporary China (1959-81). A staff to the committee on Political Behavior (1949-64) and Comparative Politic (1954-72), he contributed enormou ly to the ucce of the e notably productive committee. Hi article on "Area tudie" in the International Encyclopedia of the ocial ciences (1968) remain an authoritative tatement. Fir t and foremo t, Bryce wa a supportive friend and colleague to a generation of cholars. Lucian W. Pye, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology, recall that he wa the "rna terful helping hand of all com19
mittee chairmen." Rob rt E. Ward, tan ford Uni- Famou for hi ta te in French re taurants and fine er it , wrote that he can think of no one who wa wine, Bryce wa al 0 recalled for hi intere t and kill "more dedicated, more ophi ticated, more effecti e in bird watching and in hiking on everal continent ; in the taff role than Bryce." Jo eph LaPalombara, for ailing hi boat WhistLer in race on Long 1 land Yale niver ity, recall that he ,a "a friend, cholar, ound; and for rowing hi DawdLer during three amiable colleague, mediator extraordinary, and elf- 200-miJe trip in Puget ound. Ie promoter of the interdi ciplinary cholarly Hi intere t in the ource of the place name on the enterpri e." David B. Truman, formerly pre ident i land where he lived re ulted in hi writing an Juan of Mt. Holyoke College, remember "the rich I Land: Coastal PLace Name and Cartographical Nommfriend hip that Br ce ga e u all." And abriel A. ciature during hi o-called retirement. Almond, tan ford ni er it , recall that Bryce Through hi fine intelligence, hi boundle enpia ed a ignificant role "in the etting of tandard , ergy, and hi warm and collegial relation hip to comin the di covery of cutting edge , in the earch for mittee member , Bryce wa an exemplar of a Council talent, and in the codification of re earch finding ." taff member.
Recent Council Publications Content A ian Amnicans: Growth, Change, and Diver: ity, b Rob rt W. Gardner, Bryant Robey, and Peter mith (page 20) Chine e Rural Droelopmmt: The Great Transfonnalion, edit d by William L. Pari h (page 21) The Comparative Evaluation of Longitudinal urvty, b Robert F. Boruch and Robert W. Pear on (page 21) A Guide to Univer: ity Based Graduate Training Progrm in oviet Inlnnational Behavior (page 22) Relationship and Droelopmml, edited by Willard W. Hartup and Zick Rubin (page 23)
Asian Americans: Growth, Change, and Diversity, by Rob rt W. Gardner, Bryant Robey, and Peter mith. Ba ed upon re earch pon ored by the ommittee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u . Volume 40, umber 4 of the Population Builetin, October 19 5. 44 page. Paper, 4.00. Available from the Population Reference Bureau, 2213 "M" treet, .W., Wa hington, D. . 20037.
he three author of thi bulletin are all member of the Ea t- We t Population In titute, Ea t- We t Center (Honolulu). he tabulation on which the bull tin i ba ed were prepared for a monograph on ian American pon ored b the ouncil' Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u . Me r. Gardner and mith are coauthor of the monograph, along with Herbert Barringer, Univer ity of Hawaii, and Michael Levin, U. . Bureau of the Cen u . 20
The fir t three paragraph of the bulletin provide a u eful ummar : " he 19 0 U. . cen u counted 3.5 million A ian American, up from 1.4 million in 1970. A ian American made up ju t 1.5 percent of the total U .. population of 226.5 million a of April 1, 19 0, but thi wa the third large t racial or ethnic minority after black (26.5 million and 11.7 P rcent of the total) and Hi panic (14.6 million, 6.4 percent of the total). A ian increa ed far more during the 1970 (141 percent) than black (17 percent) or Hi panic (39 percent), although Hi panic added the mo t number of the three minoritie . "Taking into account natural increa e (birth minu death ) and continuing immigration, e p cially of refugee from outhea t A ia, we e timate the A ian American population at 5.1 million a of eptember 30, 19 5, about 2.1 p rcent of the orne 239 million total U. . population a of thi date. The gain of nearl 50 percent in the five and a half year ince the 19 0 cen u reaffirm A ian American ' tatu a currently the U . .' fa te t growing minority. Barring ub tantial change in U .. immigration law, A ian American could total 9.9 million by the year 2000 and approach 4 percent of the U. . population. " he e new re idents are having an impact on thi countr that far exceed their number , yet American know urpri ingl little about them. a group, A ian American do not re emble other racial or ethnic minoritie . Le well known i the fact that A ian American vary widely in their characteri tic according to their cultural origin and when they arrived in the U. ." VOL ME
Chinese Rural Development: The Great Transformation, edited b William L. Pari h. pon ored by the joint Committee on Chine e tudie. Armonk, â€˘ ew York and London: M. E. harpe, 19 5. vii + 27 page.. loth, 30.00; paper, 14.95.
The Comparative Evaluation of Longitudinal Surveys, by Robert F. Boruch and Robert W. Pear on. A Report ubmitted to the Measurement Method and Data Improvement Program of the National ' ience Foundation under the au pice of the Working Group on the Comparative Evaluation of LongitudiThe paper in thi volume were fir t pre ent d at a ew York: ocial cience Re earch nal urvey. conferen e on "Bureaucrac and hine e Rural DeCouncil, 19 5. v + 78 page. Available from the velopment" held in 19 1 under the spon or hip of Council on reque t. 2.00 to cover po tage and the joint ommittee on ontemporary hina, one of handling. the predece 'or committees of the joint ommittee on Chinee tudie , which i pon ored by the ounThere ha emerged in recent ear a growing conei) and the American ouncil of Learned ocietie. cern about the u e of relativel large national lonIn th la t decade, a Chine e agriculture ha gitudinal urve (i.e., repeated ob ervations of the moved rapidl from collective to family farming, arne per on or other init through time). Thi conthere ha been a tremendou purt in production and cern ari e in part from a heightened en itivit to the income. Thi b ok, including report b everal of the dimini hed upport for new data collection program few We tern cholar privileged to ob erve this prowithin the U .. federal tati tical tern and the incess fir thand, comments critically both on pa t crea ing competition throughout the re earch and problems that helped create the recent chan e and policy communitie for what have undoubtedl alon the full range of cau e and con equence of the e way been carce re ource for re earch. The concern transformation . with longitudinal urve a a t 01 for under tandin Although the author di ClI in con iderable detail the effect of ocial program or for the advancement the much heralded impact of private incentive, they of fundamental knowledge in the ial cience al 0 go bond the e to e amine the whole array of other ari e from a concern that inve tment in the e data aspect ' of government policy-price, planting colle tion pr gram have been uncoordinated and quota ', material upplie, and loan - orne of which that many uch urvey unnece. arily overlap one remain Ie s than ideal. The complex con equence of another. the new policie , including more income equalit than De pite the e concern , there have yet to be develwould be expected but a 10 of orne ocial benefit oped tool for evaluating the relative or comparative that may make the n w program unpopular among value of longitudinal urvey ' and criteria b which certain public con tituencie , are al 0 analyzed. more intelligent deci ion can be made with re pe t to fhe contributor and their paper are: whether an ongoing urvey-in com pari on to other \far Blecher, Oberlin College urve - hould be continued or terminated. "Balance and leavage in rban-Rural Relation" At pre ent, the choice of u er and pon ors f ~teven B. Butl r, In titute of Current World ffair (Sali bury longitudinal urvey are not informed by a rich Conn cti ut) , "Price i, or and ommune dministration in Po t-Mao under tanding of the comparative advanta e and China" weakne e ' of alternative data et or alternative ur'orma Diamond, niver ity of 1i higan ve de ign. or do user and pon ' r kn w how "I aitou Revi ited: ' tate Policie and ocial hange" be t to mana e thee large inve 'tment in re earch, or 'ichola R. Lard}, niver it of Wa hingLon the condition under which thee intrument pro"~t,lte Intervention and Pea ant pportunities" duce the large t benefit to the development of cience \,inol ce, niver ity of California, anta Barbara "Pea ant Hou ehold Individualism" or to public p lic. learl, legitimate repli ati n rna William 1.. Pari. h, niver ity of hicago be hard to di tingui h from what 'ome pon or ee a "Introduction: Hi\torical Ba kground and Current I sue" unnece ar redundanc. Alth ugh reliance on a \f,uk ~ lden, State niver it of . ew York, Binghamton ingle data ource invite bia 'ed or inconcluive re"Income Inequality and the 'tate" ults, inve 'tment in imilar or equivalent data 'erie J()nathan nger, 'niversity of Kan a "Remun ration, Ideology, and Pel' onal Intel'e ts in a hinee are likel to ield dimini 'hing return '. More impor\'illage, 1960-19 0" tant, similar data or different anal e of the 'ame I homa B. Wien., Wa\hingLon, D. . data have been known to produce perplexingly dif.. Pm el t\ and Progres in the Huang and H uai River Ba in " ferent re ult . Put briefl ,ea h additional in trument I).l\id Zweig, 'niver it} of Waterloo (Ontario) "Pca ants, Ideology, and :'IIew Incentive ' tem: Jiang u ma not I ad to an equally \'aluable increment in knowledge. PI ()\ ince, I9i8-I9 I" ~I\K( II
In January 1984, the ouncil' Committee on Problem and Poli y appointed a Working Group on th Comparative Evaluation of Longitudinal urvey to giv att ntion to the and related que tion a they p rtain to the relatively large national longitudinal survey in which the U .. federal tati tical community ha d vot d con id rable re ource and on whi h many ial ienti t rely for their analy e of ocial and economic change. The working group wa compo d of Robert F. Boruch, orthwe tern Univer ity, chair; Ri hard A. Berk, niver ity of California, anta Barbara; Donald Hillman, Lehigh Univ r ity; an Laird, lIar ard niver ity; and Martin H. David, Univer ity of Wi con in. Robert W. Pear on rved a taff. The program of the working group wa upported by a grant from the National ci nce Foundation' Program for Measurement Method and Data Improvement. The working group recently ompleted i ta k by ubmitting thi report to th Foundation. The report con Iud that judging the comparativ value of longitudinal urvey i an intractable ta, k. The qu tion of whether one longitudinal sur ey i "better" (Ie co tly, more informative, Ie . ambiguou) than another i not a que tion for which a ati factory an wer or valuation technology exi ts. The an wer depend on a great variety of fa tor, many of which cannot b known in advance of the collection of the data itself. Moreover, the rep rt attempts to how that even the u e of po t hoc compari. n of uch information a the number of r ulting publication i fraught with diffi ulty. The report argue, h wever, that the e difficulti ugge t that the que tion itself may be inappropriate, although not the underlying concern that motivate its a king. Indeed, criteria exi ,t for evaluating the potential u e and u fuln of parti ular longitudinal ur eys (or other data olle ti n de ign ). And th report offer, in Parl II, tandard by which the value of parti ular urvey may b e aluated. The que tion with whi h the report conclude i how one can impro e th u e and u efulne of I ngitudinal urvey in the social cienc . Although the que tion i not ea ilyanswer d, the report argue that th program through whi h this improvement would likel com about includ s (1) re earch that would permit a b tt r under tanding of the ocial proc ' e that imitat formal ,'andom allocation or at lea t produ e th arne re ults; (2) test! of the fea ibility of combining longitudinal with e p rimental rear h de 'ign (the report include, a epa rate tion which di us e ' thi recommendation in detail); (3)upport of elf-consciou Iy designed obs rvatori in which
data collection i conceived a only part of the proce through which longitudinal urvey can b tran lated into a richer under tanding of people, organization, and their interaction; and (4) the y tematic tudy of the co ts of different means of data collection.
/ A Guide to University Based Graduate Training Programs in Soviet International Behavior. cond Edition. Prepared und r the au pice of the ubcommittee on For ign Policy tudie of th Joint ommittee on ovi t Studie. ew York: ial cience Re earch ouncil, January 1986. Paper, free. Available from the oun it. The univer itie Ii ted in this guide were el ct d on the ba i of di cu ion with both cholar in the field and repre entative of univer itie off ring graduate program in Ru ian and ovi t tudie. The 17 univer itie are in luded becau th y ati fy at lea t three of the following criteria: they grant a certificate ba ed on the completion of a formal program; they offer a numb r of cour e in the oviet foreign policy field; they include a minimum of one p rmanent faculty m mb r who e primary re earch intere t is in oviet foreign p licy; and within the la t fiv year, their graduate have written di rtation in the field of oviet foreign policy. Th guid updat d annually. The universitie who graduate training program are d crib dare th niver ity of California, Berkeley; the Univer ity of alifornia, Lo Angel / Rand Graduate In titute; Columbia Univer ity; Georg town University; Harvard niv r ity; the University of Illinoi ; Indiana Univer ity; the niv rity of Kan a ; the University of Mi higan; Ohio tate Univer ity; Princeton ni er ity; tan ford sity; Tufts Uni er ity; th Univer ity of Virginia; Gorge Wa hington niver ity; and the Univer ityof Wa hington. Th Joint om mitt e on Soviet tudie wa appointed in January 1983 by the Council and the Am rican Council of Learned ocietie in respons to initiative. from, and after exten ive con ultation with, . cholars representing the ommuniti of 'Ia ic and '0 i t studi " Its central charge i the dey lopment of the field of Russian and '0 iet tudie ' in it blOad 路t en, : the 'limulation of re earch, the recruitment and training of new talent, and the , tr ngthening of holarl resource. rhe 19 5-19 6 memb rship of the Sub ommitte on Foreign P licy ' tudi is Rob rt L gold, ColumVOl.
bia Univer ity, chair; Lawrence T. Caldwell, Occidental College; Arnold Horelick, Rand Corporation (Santa Monica, California); Stephen Meyer, Ma achu. ett In titute of Technology; Mar hall hulman, Columbia Univer ity; and William Zimmerman, IV, niversity of Michigan. Blair A. Ruble erve a taff.
Relationships and Development, edited by Willard W. Hartup and Zick Rubin. Papers from a conference spon 'ored by the Committee on ocial and Affective Development During Childhood (1976-85). Hilldale, New Jer ey: Lawrence Erlbaum As ociate , . 1986. xv + 219 page. Cloth, 27.50.
It ha become a trui m that the ocial and emotional development of children emerge from their relationhip to other people, e pecially parents, ibling, teacher, and friend. The central importance of the'e relation hip ha been a umed by mo t major theoretical approaches to child development. Psychoanalytic theory, for example, view children's early relation -hip with their parent a the primary determinant of personality development. Conceptions of attachment, as elaborated by John Bowlby and others, empha ize the importance of the child' 'ocial world. The importance of children's ocial relation hip i a umed by parents, educators, and other individual concerned with child care. Parents and teacher are highly attuned to their children's social adjustment-"getting along" or "relating"not only becau e it contribute to a peaceful home or 'chool but al 0 becau e it enriches the child' ocial and emotional growth. De pite thi univer al acknowledgment of the central role of ocial relationship in children' maturation, tho e who tudy ocial and emotional development have applied relatively limited conceptual and methodological approache to the tudy of early social interaction. There ha been con iderable re earch on the nature of parent- infant relation hips, and more recently a renewal of interest in children' peer relation hip , but for the mo t part tudents of development have taken the e relation hip for granted. They have not y tematically explored the variou dimen:ions of children' relation hip: the nature of the measurement of uch variables as intimacy, hierarchy, reciprocity, and loyalty; the way in which pecific encounters or interaction are organized in relation hip over time; the ocial and emotional reource' provided by the e relation hip ; the way in which the:e relation hip are haped by the phy ical 1 RCII 19 6
environment and the urrounding culture; the ways in which relation hip are embedded in complicated ocial network ; and the ways in which relation hip are altered a children them elve change and develop. Thi volume attempt to correct the lack of fresh perspective in the tudy of children' ocial relation hips and pre ents a wide range of new and relevant re earch. InJune 1982, the Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood spon ored an interdi ciplinary conference on "Relation hips: Their Role in Children's Development." he conference, organized by the editor of this volume, was held at Harwich Port, Ma achu etts, on Cape Cod. Theori ts and re earchers repre enting a wide range of di cipline and perspective were invited to participate. Thi volume i based on idea that were fir t rai ed and debated at that conference. Many of the contributors have been deeply involved in re earch on child development, from infancy through adole cence, while other have conducted their re earch mainly with adults. They repreent the di ciplines of biology, clinical p ychology, developmental psychology, ocial anthropology, 0cial psychology, and ociology. They al 0 have been identified with a wide range of methodological orientation, including ethology, qualitative ob ervation and ethnography, clinical interview, que tionnaire tudie, laboratory experiments, and the quantitative analy i of interaction equence. Mo t importantly, each contributor ha a perspective on social relation hip that may help to advance our understanding of children' relation hip as well a their social and emotional growth. Taken together, the contribution to thi volume provide a u eful beginning for new con ideration of the nature and dynamic of children's ocial relationhips and of the role that the e relation hip play in children' development. The contributors to the volume are: Ellen Ber cheid June Flee on Willard W. Hartup Robert A. Hinde Joan Steven on-Hinde George Levinger Gerald R. Patter 'on Zick Rubin L. Ian roufe Barrie rhorne Thoma S. Weiner Robert '. Weiss
niver ity of Minne ota niver ity of Minne ota niver ity of Minne ota niverity of Cambridge niver ity of amhridge niverity of Ma sachu etts Oregon 'ocial Learning enter (Eugen ) Brandei niversity niver ity of Minne ota Michigan 'tate niver ity niver ity of California, Lo ngele niver ity of rfas achu ett
OCIAL CIE CE RE EARCH COU CIL 605 fHIRD AVE!': E., EW YORK, ' .Y. 1015 Tht Coullcil wa\ ilicorpOmltd III lilt Sialt oJ l/IillOll, Dtctmbtr 27, /924, Jor Iht PWpolt oJ adt'allcillg rt tarch ill Iht ooal citllcts. NOlIgovtmmtlllal alld IIlltrdiICipllllary ill Iwlurt, tht CowlCiI appolllu cOlnllullttl oJ <cholan which ttl! 10 achitvt Iht COUIICil'1 purpolt Ihrough 1M gtlltmlioll oJ Iltw idta! alld tht Imillillg 0/ Icholan. Tht aclit'ilit.! oJ Iht Coullcil art lupporttd primaril) by grallt! Jrom both pm'alt Joulldalion! alld govtmmtlll agtllClt . DII路tcIO~, 19 ~ 6: RICII RD . BIKK, 'niH:rity of C.. lifornia, ant.. B.. rbar<l; ' n .PII ... s E. FIE'II8ERG, Carnegie-:\iellon Univer ity; How, R() G.\R()'EK, Veteran dminiMr<ltion \fedk.ll Center (Bo ton); E. MAVI~ HErIlEKI,(.ro" niversity of Virginia; CII KtE' O. jO'E', niver It} of irginia; R081KI W. K \ IE'. lark t 'ni\el it)'; ('''KD'IR LI'DlE\, Center for dvanced 'tudy in the B havioral ience; HC(.H T. P TRICK, Columbia nh'el ity; jO''''''11 A. PI.CII\I " fhe Blooking In titution (Wa hington, D.C.);\OH F. SII.VEK\f s, fhe Graduate Center, City Univer it} of '\ew YOI k; Rooolto TAUSIIA( ..... , EI Colegio de :\1eico; 'TEPIIE' M. 'TI(.UK, ni\er it} of Chicago; FK.\'l/CI" X. l nos, ' ocial ience Re earch Council; Lon.... . fill \" ew hool for Social Re~ealch; 'lO,n lK8, Harv<lrd Univer ity; HER8UT F. YOKK, Univer it of California, 'an Diego,
O//ictn alld SlaJf: FKA'CI\ X. ' 1 nos, Aclillg P".lidmt; D.\\ I\) L.III', E.\tcillivt A~IQ(lalt; RO'AIO J. Prl ECK, COlllrolltr; V/K(.I'I FEl'RY-(, (.'0', AWllflllllo lilt Prtlldml; jo.\, DA"I', P. IKIIOKO' DI \\1\Sool KO', Y '\\\lSE EKC,\\,:\1 Krlt . GlPII\K r, ROBERT W. PE K\OS, RI II Rll C. ROCKWEll., BI \IR \. Rl'81 E, Lo 'II , II R. II ... KROIl, D,\\ II) l.. ~J''' TO'l/.