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Growing Old in China A report on contemporary social science research on aging In the People's Republic of China

by Alice . Ro si* T TUS ' OF SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY in China mu t be een in the context of national policie affecting higher education and re earch during the 35-year hi tory of the People' Republic. Economic development in the indu trial ector and reorganization along ociali t line in the agricultural ector were high priori tie when the Chine e Communi t Party came to power in 1949. The goal of expanding heavy indu try had a far greater impact on the educational ystem than agricultural reform. A flouri h of enthu ia tic optimi m accompanied the Fir t Five Year Plan (1953- 1957); 1956 marked the fir t "leap forward" in China' efforts at indu trial modernizatioin, which in turn called for a greatly expanded educational y tern at all level . Another hift in direction oon followed, a the moderation of the early 1960 wa followed by the Cultural Revolution, beginning in 1966. Thi time, however, the impact on higher education wa more inten e and perva ive, ince college and univer itie became major targets for reform. All college and univer itie were do ed, many for five or more year , and tudents b came activi ts in inten e battle again t their teacher and the admini trator of their chool and college . Academic excellence and high achievement were corned a eliti t, the curriculum criticized for not being relevant to the need of local economie , THE

• Th author i a profe sor of sociology at the Univer ity of Ma achu etts. he erved on the Council' board from 1972-78; from 1976-78, he erved a chair. See the box on page 35.


For conunts of this issue, ee the box on page 34.

Francis X. Sutton Elected Acting President of the Council; Presidential Search Committee AppOinted The board of director of the Council, at its Annual Meeting on June II , 1985, elected Franci X. utton to be acting pre ident of the Council, effective ctober I, 1985. He will ucceed Kenneth Prewitt, who had earlier announced hi intention to re ign the pr idency to become vice-pr ident for program at th Rockefeller Foundation. Mr. Prewitt will remain as pre ident until October 1. Mr. utton received a Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University in 1950 and joined the taff of the Ford Foundation in 1954. ince hi retirement in 1983, he ha been writing a hi tory of the Foundation' international activitie . He ha been a member of the Council' Committee on Problems and Policy ince 1984. At it June II meeting, the Council' board al 0 appointed a Pre idential arch Committee, charged with recommending one or more candidate for the presidency to the Executive Committee, which in turn will ubmit a recomm ndation for election by the board. Neil J. mel er, University of California, Berk ley, wa appointed as chair. The other members are Robert McC. Adam , The mith nian In titution (Wa hington, D.C.); Philip E. Conver e, Univer ity of Mi higan; Eleanor E. Maccoby, hwartz, Univer ity of tan ford Univer ity; Murray L. California, Lo Angele ; Loui e A. TiIIy, New hool for ial Re earch; and idney Verba, Harvard University. David L. iII, the executive associate of the Council, will rYe a taff to the committe . Nomination of candidat for the presidency are weI om d , and hould be sent to Mr. mel er at the Council.


acceptable di cipline a hi tory, philo ophy, and demography. oeiology and much of oeial anthropolCONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE ogy a we know them became "forbidden area" for ~~ Franci x. uuon Elected Cling President of the 27 year. Council; Presidential arch Commiuee Appointed A We tern cholar i not privy to the numerou ~~ Growing Old in China-Alia . Rossi debate that mu t have preceded the re- tabli hment ~9 Council Mark 50th Anniversary of Its Committee on Social Security-David L. SIlls of the two di cipline in 1979. We do know that the 41 Council Fellow hip and rant Announced for effort to re-e tabli h oeiology in 1979 was not the 19 6-87 fir t but the econd attempt during the 27 year to 42 Current Activities at the Council -The hi tory of social scientific inquiry (page 42) win back official approval. An un ucce ful bid wa -Cognition and urvey research (page 42) made in 1957 to ecure official recognition (Cheng -Prccurso of adolescence (page 4~) -The brain and behavior (page H) and 0 1983, page 480). Neverthele ,mo t Chine e -Mu ieal development (page 45) oeiologi ts could not practice their prof, ional craft -Soviet and East European economi (page 46) -Family and life course in japan and the United tates openly for many year . Many pent more than 20 (page 46) year in agencie and academic units dealing with -japan, the United tat ,and the world: 1950-19 0 economic, demographic, and philo ophical i ue. It (page 47) -The Lotu utra in japane culture (page 48) i intere ting to peculate what impact thi experience -The Four- even debate in Korean neo-Conhad, not merely of a per onally frustrating nature, fuciani m (page 48) -Suppon for new teaching position in Ru ian and but of a potentially po itive nature. Their reas ignviet tudi (page 48) ment to other di cipline and involvement in gov49 Council Personnel -New directors and offICe ernment agencie enabled them to learn new kill -Staff appointment that often bridged the barrier that tend to epa rate imon Kuznets die at 84 one di cipline from another. 51 Council Fellow hip and Gran Awarded in 19 5 It i extremely fortunate for the hi tory of oeiology 5~ Recent Council Publication in China that the di cipline became re-e tabli hed in 1979, not 1989. The leader of the di cipline today who play important role in the di cipline' reand demand were made to u e political and attituditabli hment are men and women in their 60 and nal criteria for tudent admi ion and advancement 70 . Had official recognition of the field been withrather than te t core and cla room performance_ held for another decade, there would be very few ince Chairman Mao' death in 1976, yet another people trained in the field to carry re pon ibility for hift in political and economic goal ha taken place, the difficult task of training a new generation of under the "Four Modernization " program (in agoeiologi ts. There are everal po itive consequence riculture, indu try, cience and technology, and na- of the fact that an older generation of oeiologi ts and tional defen e) of the Sixth Five Year Plan (1981- anthropologi ts i now playing a pivotal role in the 1985) which, it i hoped, will enable China to be re-e tablishment of the di cipline in China. For one, tran formed into a "modern oeiali t state" by the the older generation of cholar can take for granted year 2000. An important difference in the 1980 orne degree of re pect and admiration on the compared to the earlier period i the greater willing- ground of age tatu alone, certainly to a larger exne to rely on foreign cience and technology to as i t tent than their We tern路 counterparts can, imply bein reaching the new national goal ; in particular, cau e r pect for the elderly eem more deeply felt in there i an openne to reliance on the experti e of China than in the W 1. Second, a large number of Western nation . the e older oeial cienti ts received their profe ional The Chine e had relied heavily on Soviet advi or training in the West and have excellent command of in building a new educational y tern, which included Engli h. They have al 0 had ongoing or ea ily reaca ting upon the Soviet advice that there wa no nece - tivated contacts with W tern ocial cienti ts who e ity in a Marxi t tate for uch bourgeois ubjects as aid they have been enli ting in furtherance of the goal oeiology and anthropology, particularly oeioeultural of quickly producing a new generation of oeiological anthropology (phy ical anthropology and archeol- teacher and re earcher . Furthermore, while they ogy were Ie affected by the political ferment of the may not have kept up with We tern re earch and time). With di ciplinary bani hment in the wings, theory of the 1950s through the 1970, they have many oeiologi ts fled to Taiwan between 1949 and rna tered new area of knowledge and acquired valu1952, while other were rea igned to uch politically able experience in related field . 34





For the immediate future, the tatu of ociology and of at lea tome pecialtie within anthropology in China eem ecure. A major turning point, and a pJ;ime example of the do e connection between national goal and the tatu of academic di cipline , wa the Sixth Five Year Plan that wa adopted in Decemb r 1982 (covering the period 1981-1985). Unlike all previou Five Year Plan , the Sixth Plan include " 0cial" a well a economic development. In the ection of the Plan dealing with cientific re earch and education, there are pecific provi ions for the ocial cience ,with ociology identified as one of the 12 key re earch area who e growth and development are to receive priority upport. In 1984, all the indication were po itive that uch upport will be continued and enlarged in the eventh Five Year Plan. The CSCPRC ociology and anthropology delegation traveled widely in China during early 1984, vi iting univer ity re earch in titute and profe ional as ociation in ix citie . The report attempts to ummarize what we learned about the field and ubfields of anthropology and ociology. At the reque t of [tnns, I have extracted from the report only the ection on aging re earch, and only a portion of that in order to meet the con traint of pace. Reader are urged to con ult the full report if they wi h to learn more about aging than the brief ob ervation reported here. The full report aloha ub tantial ection devoted to re earch on anthropology, children, crime and delinquency, the divi ion of labor within the family, divorce, the family, gender, lingui tic , marriage, urbanization, youth employment, and many other topic (Ro i 1985).

China as a youthful society Concern for the elderly i a topic on which there i a mutuality of intere t among ociologi ts in the We t and in China. The pecific problem confronting China and We tern nation on thi topic are quite different, however. In the developed nation of the We t, concern center on their capacity to u tain the growing financial co ts a ociated with old age penion , in light of the fact that the elderly are a rapidly growing proportion of the popUlation. While there i much talk of the current "cri i "of pen ion program in We tern countrie , mo t of the cri e in the We t will not take place until the econd decade of the 21 t century. Few young adults in We tern nation would cite ecurity in old age a a factor in their motivation for having a large number of children. Family ize i more apt to reflect life style value ; what nonfamily EPTEMBER


Sociology and Anthropology in China The accompanying article i adapted from the report of a delegation of 10 American social cienti ts who visited China to urvey the tatu of sociology and anthropology. The delegation was selected and ponsored by the Committee on holarly Communication with the Peopl' Republic of China ( CPRC), which i jointly ponsored by th Council, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the National Academy of Scien es. ix member of the delegation were sociologi ts (the chair, Alice S. Ros i, University of Massachu etts; the taff escort from the CPRC, Amy Auerbacher Wilson; the delegation . interpreter, Jersey Liang, Wayne tate Univerity (now Univer ity of Michigan); an Lin, tate Univer ity of New York, Albany; William L. Parish, University of Chicago; and helby tewman, Carnegie-Mellon Univerity). Four member repr en ted anthropology (Emily Martin, The Johns Hopkins Univer ity; Mar hall ahlin, University of Chicago; Carol A. Smith, Duke Univer ity; and William S- Y Wang, U niver ity of California, Berkeley, who i a pecialist in lingui ti ). The delegation wa ho ted in Beijing by the Chine e Academy of the Social Science (CA ), while the Mini try of Education served as the ponsor of the delegation' vi its to the other five cities on its itinerary: Tianjin, Wuhan, hanghai, Xiamen, and Guangzhou. The report was written by Alice S. Ros i, with a ub tantial amount of as i tan e from other member of the delegation. The accompanying article i adapted from page 1-8 and 78-91 of the full report (Ro i 1985).

intere ts married couple wi h to pur ue; the degree of career commitment of married women; and the couple ' a e ment of their current and probable future earnings. An increasing proportion of young We tern adults i now choo ing to remain childle s (e timate range from 20 to 30 per cent in candinavian countrie , for example); tho e who choo e to have a econd child are likely to do 0 to provide a companion for the fir t-born. Large familie of four or more children are increa ingly infrequent, and tend to be a ociated with high level of religio ity, rural or mall town re idence, famili tic value , and traditional gender role . China i unlike other parts of the developing world in its knowledge of, planning for, and commitment to arre ting the population growth rate while imultaneou ly increa ing the economic growth rate. 1 China is al 0 one of the oldest, mo tophi ticated culture on the globe, with a long tradition of re pect for the old and of filial re pon ibility toward elderly parents. I It is intere ting to note that the fir t annual meeting of the fir t nationwide Chinese ociological a sociation, held in 1930 in hanghai, had the theme "The Populati n Problem of China" (Zhao Baoxu 1983, page 6).


It i ironic that a ociety like China (along with many other in the Third World) combine re pect for the old with the demographic characteri tic of being overwhelmingly a youthful population, with upward of 60 to 70 p r cent of the population under 30 year of age. By ontra t, We tern nation per i t in a youthful elf-image while in fact they are increa ingly aged ocietie. We tern nation once hared the demographic profile now prevalent in the developing world, for they too on e had predominantly youthful popUlation and a hort life exp ctancy. We cannot be ure what will happen when a very large proportion of a nation' population i ver 60 year of age (other than precipitou population decline), ince an "old" ociety in thi n e I an unprecedented experience in human hi tory.

Western experience with aging During our vi it to hina, and in reading Chine e publication ince our return, we often encountered the claim that We tern countrie abandon the old who live in lonely i olation, if not poverty, neglected by ociety and their children alike. Thi i a eriou mireading of the current ituation of the elderly in the We t, un upp rted by what we know of the financial, p ychological, and ocial circum tance of the elderly in We tern nation . The elderly in the We t are not predominantly poor, and ociety ha not abandoned them. Economic upport or hared hou ehold were never a pr dominant pattern in We tern hi tory; independent nuclear hou ehold are a We tern characteri tic that predate indu trialization, and We t European countrie began to develop tate old age pen ion program in the middle of the 19th century. It hould al 0 be pointed out that the elderly are not left adrift from meaningful contact with their adult children in We tern ocietie . All ocial urvey over the pa t everal decade indicate high level of contact through vi its and telephone call between the two older generation . While chronic di abilitie are common among the "old-old" (75 and older), the majority of the 65-75 age group i healthy enough to live independently. On the other hand, while pen ions may provide financial upport, when poor health begin to take its toll of the elderly, ocial, emotional, and phy ical upport are called for that involve per onal care giving. tudy after tudy ha hown that uch per onal ervice are largely given by women: by wive to their typically older hu band and by daughter to their 36

elderly mother (Fi cher and Hoffman 1984; Brody 1981; Brody et al. 1983). It wa our impre ion during the cour e of di cu ion with Chine e ociologi ts (thi hould be a readily-te ted hypothe i rather than merely an impre ion) that the parent-child relation hip ha more inten ity acro the life cour e in China than it does in the United State . But it would be a eriou mi reading of We tern pattern to a ume purpo eful neglect on the part of adult children toward elderly parents. There ha been much controver y in We tern ociology and among policy maker concerning the age for retirement, i.e., hould it be compul ory? hould it be younger or older than the pre ent Social ecurity retirement age of 65? Recent American路 debate have centered on pu hing ahead the age of retirement to 68, to relax orne of the pre ure on p n ion revenue . In light of the trend toward early retirement among American worker , it i not clear that an older age of retirement would be welcomed by them.

Old age support in China There i a ho t of problem concerning aging and old age upport in contemporary China, orne imilar to tho e in the We t, other more like the problem faced by developing countrie el ewhere in the world. For the urban hine e popUlation, the problem are omewhat imilar to tho e in the We t. State employee ,the ingle large t employment category in urban place , can retire at 60 if they are male, 55 if they are female. Tho e who engage in phy icallytaxing occupation can retire at 55 if male, 50 if female. Yet with the pa age of time, more and more hine e urvive well into their 70 (Bani ter 1984; Davi -Friedmann 1984). In the major citie , particularly a a con equence of increa ed longevity but very much reinforced by retricted migration to large citie , the Chine e are already experiencing a harp increa e in the proportion of retired urban re idents. hanghai City, for example, i aid to have almo t 1.1 million retired worker, up from lightly under a half million in 1978, with the re ult that the ratio of retired to employed worker in the city i more than three time the national average. e\ compul ory retirement law affecting tho e who had tayed on at work until 65 are al 0 having an impact. The explo ion of young retired p ople (in their 50 ) largely re ults from the dingti y tern, in which adult children are guaranteed job in their parents' place of \ ork if the parent retire . Since the number VOLUME




of young people eeking work exceed the number of new job openings, thi pecial inducement to early retirement i thought to b a u eful mean of dealing with unemployment among young adults. The dingti y tern draw upon the trong motivation of parents to facilitate the placement and ecurity of their young adult children. The dingti y tern doe not involve an automatic, immediate replacement of a parent by a on or daughter; rather, thi depend on the kill level required by the parent' job. However, a very large proportion of job require only minimal on-the-job training to acquire competence. Where greater kill i involved, the adult children may be given extra chooling, in which ca e the job i kept open until the hooling i completed. In till other ca e of highly killed job , the child may be a igned to another type of job entirely, but within the workplace of the parent. We \ ere told that the dingti y tern ha begun to wane during the pa t few year , to different degree in different parts of the country. The dingti y tern i ometime combined with another procedure that help to retain the work contribution of particularly well-qualified parents. Thi i an income ub idy or income upplement (bucha) ytern, which permits the retired older worker to work at another enterpri e. Under thi y tern, the worker collects hi retirement pen ion (u ually 75-85 per cent of hi original alary) from hi former workplace, while the new work unit pay him the additional 15-25 per cent to compen ate for the income 10 that occurred when he took early retirement under the dingti y tern to a ita on or daughter ecure employment (Zhao Baoxu 1983, page 21).

The "orphaned elderly"

extreme abu e, though tre in family relation ha been tudied and there are occa ional hint that children interfere in the plan of their parents to remarry. With the formation of organization like the hanghai Gerontology Re earch A ociation in 1982 and the pre ence of numerou member intere ted in problem of the aged in the ociological as ociation ,a good deal of re earch on aging will probably reach pUblication in the next few year . Chine e ociologi ts who pecialize in aging re earch expect trong endor ement for their re earch to be a priority under the next Five Year Plan. There al 0 eemed to be high level of intere t in international collaboration on the topic, in particular, conference or work hop on income upport in old age.

The rural aged The ituation in the Chine e country ide i of cour e va tly different, more like the problem confronting other developing ocietie throughout the world. Here, the clo e linkage between problem of the elderly and population policy wa con tantly noted in di cu ion. An example i afforded by our di cu ion at the Tianjin Academy of ocial cience, where re earch on old age upport wa reported and di cu ed ba ed on field work in the rural area around Tianjin City. There are orne 3,000 production brigade in the area, only 120 of which provided pen ion for the elderly in 1979. Thi increa ed to 200 by the following year. What differentiated the brigade with orne pen ion y tern from tho e that did not wa their relative affluence: brigade with pen ion y tern had an average per capita income of 200 yuan, while the average income acro all the brigade in the Tianjin area wa 150 yuan per year. In fact, a full 700 of the 3,000 brigade had an average income of 200 yuan, 0 only 26 per cent of tho e with the potential of providing pen ion actually did o. Uncertainty concerning the tability of brigade annual income contributed in orne degree to the lack of pen ion sy tern among tho e brigade with relatively high annual income.

ot all elderly Chine e men and women have grown children to live with or contribute to their upport, even for today' cohort of elderly with their relatively large familie . We heard much of the "orphaned elderly" while we were in China. We had the opportunity in Shanghai to meet orne of the e men and women at the Fir t Welfare Home for the Aged, which had been e tabli hed in order to meet their Aging research in the future need. In light of the We tern experience of belatedly The ocial agencie in Shanghai a well a local coming to grip with the pre ure on old age pen ion ociologi ts have become aware of many problem confronted by the elderly who are not in home for plan that lie ahead-when the large baby-boom the aged: extreme crowding, friction with family cohorts retire while the mall baby-dearth cohorts fill member , and phy ical abu e and neglect have all the rank of the work force-it i under tandable that come to the attention of both ocial worker and re- the Chine e are cautiou in their approach to the i ue earcher . We aw no evidence of the prevalence of of tate, local, or provincial pen ion for the entire EPTEMBER



population. U nle income ri e markedly a a con e- countrie . Planning and re earch in the aging field quence of an expan ive economy, there are evere already involve cooperation between re earcher in limitation on the extent to which rural commune ,or demography, economi ,and ociology. Anthropollargely rural province , can adopt a pen ion y tern ogy would al 0 be highly relevant in the e inquiries, more generou than the very minimal a urance now with the potential of providing not only important available to the Chine e pea ant. If migration to the knowledge to tate planner but al 0 more global large citie continue to be everely re tricted, there under tanding of cultural difference in adaptation will be an increa ing contra t in age di tribution be- w~~ 0 tween the country ide and large urban place. The very large birth cohorts of the 1950 and 1960 , fol- References lowed by very mall cohorts under the 2- and I-child BANISTlR, j . "Analy i of Recent Data on the Population of hina." Population and Dtvtlopmmt Rtvinv, 10(2):241-272, family policy era , would put an enormou train on 19 4. any provincial or national y tem-a train even BRODY, E. M. "'Wom n in the Middle' and Family Help to Oldtt greater than W tern nation will experience in light People." TM GtTonlologist, 21(5):471-480, 1981. of the large proportion of tate budgets that mu t go BRODY, E. M., P. T. jOH 0 , M. C. FULCOMER, ADA. f. LA. (,. into indu trial and technological development during "Women' hanging Roles and Help to Elderly Parents: Ani路 the arne decade. tud of Three neration of Women." Journal of GtTonlol0t:J, 3 (5):597- 607, 19 3. Thi awarene place a very pecial burden on hine e re earcher who wi h to contribute to an CHE G, L., D A. o . "The Reestablishment of Sociology in the Peopl ' Republi of hina : Toward the inification of Marxian under tanding of the proc of aging and the oluiology." Annual Rtvinv of ociology, 9:471-49 , 19 3. tion of pr blem exp rienced by the elderly. There i DAVIS-FRIEDM , D. Long Livt : Chinty EltkrLy and lht Communist an obviou linkage between aging re earch and reRtvolution. Cambridge, Ma a hu ell: Harvard Univer ity Pr , 19 4. earch on marriage and kin hip, guided by the funFI CHER, L. R., A DC. HOFTMA . "Who Care for the Elderly: The damental que tion of whether in fact, rather -than Dilemma of Family upport." In M. Lewi and J. L. , filler, in hope, the Chine e pattern of filial re pon ibility editors, Rt tarch in ociaL Probkms and Public Policy. Greenwich, toward the economic and ocial upport of elderly Connecticut: j I Pre , 1984. parents will or can be retained in light of the very Ros I, ALICE, ., editor. ociology and Anthropology in lht PtofJ/t' RtflubLic of China: RtPorl of a Dtkgalion Visit, Ftbruary-Marc/e great change taking place in the ociety_ Planned 1984. ponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communica路 migration, from highly populated area in the ea t tion with the People' Republic of China. Wa hington, D.C.: and outhea t to the re ource-rich we t and northwe t National Academy Pre , 1985. provinces, hould probably be con idered in term of ZH 0 BAoxu. ociology and Population tudit in China. Au tin, multigenerational family units rather thanju t young Texas: Texas P pulation R earch Center Paper, 5, adults-the typicallong-di tance migran in We tern 19 3.






Council Marks the 50th Anniversary of Its Committee on Social Security Committee described at the time as "one of the best examples of the Council's cooperation with government"

by David L.

in the development of cooperative relation hip between 0cial cience in titution and the federal government. It ha been aid that the major eriou reading that Pre ident-elect Franklin D. Roo evelt had with him on the crui e that he took on Vincent A tor' yacht during the month before hi inauguration wa the page proof of Rtcmt odal Trmds in tM Unittd tall. Thi two-volume book wa the report of a tudy that had been commi ioned by Pre ident Hoover in the fall of 1929. t U ing ocial re earch to help olve the nation' enormou ocial and economic problem wa in the air. For example, on ovember 17, 1933, Pre ident Roo evelt wrote to the Council endoring its propo al to e tabli h commi ion on international economic relation and public ervice peronneJ.2 It wa the Rockefeller Foundation, however, that in thi in tan e became the marriage broker between the ouncil and the federal government. On April 27, 1933, the taff of the Council wa invited by a Rocke~ ller Foundation official to ubmit to him within 48 hour " ugge tion for immediate re earch relating to urg nt problem confronting the Federal Admini tration in the current national emergency." On its own initiative, the taff ubmitted ugge tion for reearch on 10 topic , including "unemployment rerve and relief."3 Thi ugge tion eem to have b en the precur or of the ommittee on ocial ecurity, ince it led to a ouncil conference in I




• Th author, a ociologi t, i th executive associate of th Coun il. I Pr ident' R . earch mmitt e on ial Trend . Rtunt 0rial TTmd\ in 1M Unittd tau.. New York: McGraw-Hili, 1933. W Ie ' C. Mitchell and harl E. Merriam, the two mo t promin nt of th founder of th Council, erved a chairman and vi -chairman, re pe tively, of the committee. William F. gborn, who be ame chairman of the Coun ii' board in 1933, rved as director of rearch. ial . n e R ar h Council, Committee on Problem and Poli . \{inutes of the meeting of November 25, 1933, Appendix 1. 3 Ibid . . iinut of the meting of ptember 7-8, 1933, Appendix 11. EPTEMBER


ills *

ovember 1933, attended by, among other, Harry Hopkin, the chief ew Deal relief admini trator. 4 During 1934, both the federal government and the uncil held meting and con ultation on the problem of unemployment, which became the primary concern of a federal ommittee on Economic curity. Pre ident Roo evelt, however, in i ted that old-age in urance wa the mo t important of hi propo al for economic ecurity. Thi wa a new and therefore que tionable idea; Paul H. D ugla , a profe or of economic at the Univer ityof hicago,later recalled that "there wa no popular upport for, no prior legi lation, little real upport in ongr ,and grave doubt about the con titutionality of the concept.":! everthele, old-age in urance wa an idea who e time had come. (In the United tate, that i . We were the 21 t country in the world to enact oldage in urance legi lation.) The Council' Committee on ocial ecurity was e tabli hed a of Jul I, 1935, with an initial grant of 95,000 for the year 193~36 from the Rockefeller Foundation-and with many hundred thou and of dollar to come. On Augu t 14, 1935, Pre ident Roo evelt igned the ocial ecurity Act of 1935, noting that it wa de igned to protect people, e pecially the aged, again t "the hazard and vici itude of life." On Augu t 14, 1985, a 50th anniver ary celebration wa held in Baltimore. Among tho e in attendance wa J. Dougla Brown, emeritu profe or of economic , Princeton U niver ity, who erved a a member of the committee from 1937 to 1942, and a chairman from 1939 to 1942. In 1934, Mr. Brown became a taff member of Pre ident Roo evelt' Committee on Economic ecurity; a a re ult of hi early and crucial involvement in the Act, he ha been dubbed the "father of ocial ecurity."6 Al 0 pre ent wa the economi t Eveline M. Burn , who had al 0 erved on the taff of Pre ident Roo evelt' committee and who then became an active taff member of the Council' committee. When he Ibid. Minut of the meeting of March 17, 1934, Appendi 3. Thoma E. Pri e and Mary E. Ro . "Fifty Years Ago." ocinl tcurity Bull.ttin 48, 3 (March 19 5), page 3. • U A Today. Augu t 14, 19 5, page 2A. 4



died in eptember 1985, the New York Time de cribed her a "one of the architects of the ocial ecurity Act."7 he ouncil' ommittee on cial ecurity wa generou ly upported by the Rockefeller Foundation during the year 1935 to 1942, and it met 30 time. Its bibliography of publication run to 12 ingle- paced typed page , including nine book , which are Ii ted in the bibliography at the end of thi article. The Council e tabli hed an office in Wa hington on eptember 1, 1935, where it maintained a re earch taff for even year , under the direction fir t of J. Frederick Dewhur t and later of Paul Webbink. The compo ition of the committee differed from that of mo t Council committee: it eleven original member included only four from academic in titution . Its mo t di tingui hed member , in addition to tho e Ii ted above, were Che ter I. Barnard, then pre ident of ew Jerey Bell Telephone and ub equently pre ident of the Rockefeller Foundation; the economi t We ley C. Mitchell, a founder of the Council and the director of the ational Bureau of Economic Re earch; and umner H. lichter, profe or of economic at Harvard Univer ity. The economi t W. . Woytin ky wa al 0 a member of the taff and wrote a ub tantial number of the committee' publication. Th committee wa broadly charged with bringing the re ource of the ocial cience to bear up n the problem entailed in the udden e tabli hment of a national y tern of ocial ecurity in urance, problem for which both public official and ocial cienti ts had been generally ill-prepar d. It immediately underto k a large volume of re earch through i own taff and it became a clearinghou e for agencie and individual who either needed the re ults of re earch in di charging their ad mini trative and legi lative repon ibilitie or were in a po ition to contribute to the r earch effort. I rvice to official agenci includ d the provi ion of advice on matt r of per onnel, the d velopment of re earch and admini trative program ,th actual participation of its taff member in th e tabli hm nt of agencie and of procedure for the admini tration of the ocial ecurity y tern, and the conduct of re earch at the ugge tion of official . It maintained clo e contacts with the 0cial curity Board, which frequently turned to it for techni al and con ultative ervice. The committee' own work wa upplem nted by that of the Council' 7


Nrw York Timn

eptember 6, 19 5, page 86.

ommittee on Public Admini tration, which wa able to bring its experience gained in everal year' tudy of the working of federal ad mini trative agencie to bear on the organization and procedural problem f the new-fledged y tern of ocial in urance. In the committee' final year, Erne t W. Burge ,a profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Chicago, and a member of the ouncil' board, reported to the board, at its March 28-29, 1942 meeting, that he had vi ited what he thought wa the Council' new office at 726 Jack on Place, .W., directly aero Penn 1vania Avenue from the White Hou e. He found it to be "an old office of the Council, where the work of the Committee on ocial ecurity had been carried on a one of the be t example of the Council' cooperation with government."8 The committe wa di charged for a number f rea on , principally becau many of i young collaborator in univer itie were being drafted into military ervice. Thi wa an appropriate end, ince the committee' life had panned the year between the Depre ion and World War II. The Wa hington office became the wartime office of the Council; i primary purpo e wa to a i t the ocial cience in the war effort. 0 Books publi bed by the Council's Committee on Social Security so ,RAy fO. 0 . Tht FtdtTal Rok in Ufltmploymmt Compmation Admillistration. Wa hington : Committee on ial urity, 1941. 8 K S, Evt.L1 t. M. British Untmploymmt Programs, 1920-1938. Washington: mmitt eon ial ecurity, 1941. eRA T, {AKG Kt.,.. Old-Agt trurity: ocial alld Finaru:ial Twuls. Wa hington: mmiu eon ial ecurity, 1939. K LP, C. A. acial Insurallu Coordination: An Anal . of Gmnan alld British Orgalliwtioll. Wa hington : mmittee on ial curity, 1939. M C t.lL, Do GLA H. rom Ytar. of Unflnploymmt RtlitJ in NfW }tTSfJ, 1930-/936. Wa hington: Committee on Social curity, 193 . " OYTI !>KY, W. . Earnillgs alld acial teurity ill tht Unittd Statts. Wa hington: mmitt on 'al ecurity, 1943. - - - . Labor in tht Uniltd tatt: Basic tatistic for ocial teurity. Washington: Committ eon ial Security, 193 . - - . tasonal Variations in Employmmt ill tht Unittd tat,. Washington: Committee on ial Security, 1939. - - - . Thru A puts of Labor Dynamics. Washington: Committee on ial Security, 1942. ATKI

Social Science Re earch Council. Minute of the me ling of March 28-29, 1942.





Council Fellowships and Grants Announced for 1986-87 THE 0 NCIL H NNO NCED th application date for the re earch fellow hip and grants offered in 1985. The awards-which are de cribed below-are for the academic year 1986-87. The award made for 1985-86 were.Ii ted on page 24-31 in the June 1985 i ue of Items and on page 51-520fthi i ue. Fellowship for International Doctoral Research are offered by a erie of committe pon ored j intly by the ouncil and the American ouncil of Learned 0 ietie . Appli ants mu t b graduate tudents in the ocial cience , the humanitie , or profe ional field who will have completed all require men for the Ph.D. except the di ertation at the time the fellow hip i to begin. The e fellow hip are for doctoral di ertation r arch to be carri d out in Africa, A ia, Ea tern Europe, Latin America and th aribbean, the Near and Middle Ea t, or W tern Europe, or for cro area re earch. A new program in Ru ian and oviet tudie provide upport for the writing of doctoral di ertation. nother new program provide prediertation fellow hip in African tudie to 'upport hort-term field re arch trip to Africa and to encourage preliminary re ear h, collaboration, and planning by tudent preparing for di ertation re earch. The deadline for all predoctoral fellow hip appliovember I, 1985. cation i Advanced Grants for International Research are al 0 available through the jointly pon ored committee . The grants are offered for re earch in or on Africa, A ia, Ea tern Europe, Latin America and the aribbean, the Near and Middle Ea t, or Ru ia and the Soviet Union. They may be u ed to upport reearch on one country, comparative re earch betwe n countrie within an area, or comparative re earch between area . There i al 0 a pecial program for collaborative re earch on Latin America between meri an and foreign cholar. The d adline for all advanced re earch application i December I, 1985. Application procedures for international awards. Per on intere ted in applying f, r any of the award de cribed above hould write to the Council for the annual Ftllow hip and Grants brochure. Application mu t be ubmitted on form provided by the ouncil. Inquirie concerning fellow hip and grants for



China and Ea tern Europe hould be addre ed to the American Council of Learn d cietie, 228 Ea t 45th treet, ew York, ew York 10017. The international award program co p n ored with the American ouncil of Learned ocietie are upported by the Ford Foundation, the ational Endowment for the Humanitie , the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Japan-United tate Fri nd hip ommi ion. Indochina Studie grants are available to upport re earch, writing, and the archiving of material on Cambodia, Lao, and Vietnam, drawing on the knowledge and exp rience of the refug e who have left the e three countrie ince 1975, and who are now re iding in rth America. Intere ted re earcher , writer , journali ts, arti , and other profe ional and cholar hould ubmit a letter outlining the propo ed project, a well a their own qualification . p cifically excluded are proje ts oncerned with the American experience in Indochina, and the exp rience of Indochina refugee in orth America. The Indochina tudi Program i upported by the Ford Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the ational Endowment for th Humanitie. Grant application mu t be received by D cember I, 1985. For more information, e the ouncil' Fellow hip and Grants brochure. MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Security. Thi program, funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, ek to expand the c nceptual ba e of ecurity tudie and to broaden the range of di cipline and cholarly approache that are employed in thi re earch. In developing a compreh n ive under tanding of tho e factor that contribute to the initiation, maintenance, and reduction of global conflict, the program encourage the application of theorie and method from the phy ical and biological cience and the ocial/behavioral cience, including hi tory and foreign area tudie, to i ue of international peace and ecurity. The program offer both di ertation and po tdoctoral training-and-re earch fellow hip for the duration of two year . The 1985 awardee will be Ii ted in the December Items. The next deadline for application i December 15,


1985. Additional information i contained in an annual brochure, MacArthur Foundation FeLLow hip in International ecurity, obtainable from the Council.

Grants for Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hispanic Issues. Thi program, co pon ored by the Inter-Univer ity Program for Latino Re earch,* wa e tabli hed with fund from the Ford Foundation in order to enc urage re earch that will both have value to the Hi panic communit and demon trate the u of ocial ience re ear h in publi policy formation; to benefit the field of Hi panic tudie by increa ing the number and quality of trained reearcher ; and to advance an under tanding of contemporary Hi pani life in the United tate. The program' fir t award were made in the ummer of

1985; ee page 52, below. The next deadline will be announced in the fall of 19 5. Additional information may be obtained from Virginia Feury-Gagnon at the Council. In the administration of its fellow hip and grant programs, the Council doe not d' criminate on the basis of age, color, creed, disability, marital tatus, national origin, or ex. Applications for fellow hip and grants are particularly invited from women and member of minority group . 0 • Centro de Estudio Puertorriqueno. Hunter College. City Univer ityof ew York; tanford nter for Chicano Re earch. tanford Univer ity; nter for Mexican American tudi • Univer ity of Texa ; and the Chicano tudie Research Center. University of California. Lo Angeles.

Current Activities at the Council The history of social scientific inquiry The oun il and th enter ~ r Advanced tudy in the Behavioral cience (tan ford, alifornia) will pon or a ummer in titute in 1986 devoted to di ciplinary and interdi iplinary per p ctive on the hi tory of ocial scientific inquiry. Recent decade have witne d a dramatic growth of intere t in the hi tory of the ocial cience, much of it fo u ed on the hi tory of particular di cipline . his in titute will xamin outstanding example of u h di iplinary hi tory, con ider more integrative approa he , and di cu the relation hip of the hi tory of the ocial cien e to ocial ientifi inquiry. Th in titute will: (1) treat critical i ue of hi toriographi al orientation and m thod; (2) examine relevant a p ts of the hi torical differentiation of the social ience; (3) identify common feature in the disciplinary development of the ocial cience; and (4) examine recurrent movemen toward interdi ciplinary inquiry and the histori al ba e of the recent 'ense of ri es in ome (ial ien e . The in titute will deal with di ipline-ba d re'earch in a broad rang of behavioral cience di ciplinc ' . Th work of individual parti ipants will focu on problem in the hi tory of particular di ipline. An important feature ofthe in titute, however, will be its focu on more int grative hi tori al approache . Detail ' of the program will of cour e be influenced by the compo ition of participants. It i anticipated that the in titute will b of on iderable intere t to holar In uch field a anthropology, biology, economic, 42

education, geography, hi tory, lingui ti ,medicine, philo ophy, political cience, p ychiatry, p ychology, ociology, and tati tics. The in titute will be held from July 7 to Augu t 15, 1986, and will be directed by George W. tocking Jr., pro~ or of anthropology, U niver ity of Chicago, and David E. Leary, profe or of p y hology and humanitie , Univer ity of ew Hamp hire. Arnold Thackray, profe or of hi tory and ociology of cience, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, will erve a a conultant. The in titute will be open to cholar who have recently completed the Ph.D. An award of 4,000 to cover travel and ub i tance expen e will be paid to th holar elected. A formal announcement giving other detail will b available in the fall. Intere ted cholar hould write to: Robert . Oll. A ociatc Director Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral ience 202 Junipero rra Boul vard lanford. California 943 5

Cognition and survey research The ouncil ha appointed a new Committee on ognition and urvey R earch. Rob rt P. Abel on, Yale Univer ity, and Judith M. Tanur, tate Univerity of ew York, tony Brook, cochair the committe ; the other member include Roy G. D' Andrade, Univer ity of California, an Diego; Robyn M. Dawe , Univer ity of Or gon; Micheline Chi, Univer ity of VOW 1E




Pittsburgh; tephen M. Fienberg, Carnegie- Mellon Univer ity; Robert M. rove, Univer ity of Michigan; and Elizabeth F. Loftu , Univer ity of Wa hington. Robert W. Pear on erve a taff. Support for the program i provided by grants from the National cience Foundation and the Milbank Memorial Fund. Th committee eek to link one of the mo t rapidly advan ing area of inquiry in the ocial and behavioral iences-<ognitive p ychology-with the theory and practice of one of the mo t important in truments of ocial ob ervation-the ample urvey. The cro -fertilization of the e two field Uoined by peciali ts in d ci ion theory, lingui ti , ocial p ychology, and tati tic ) will be promoted through an integrated program of work hop and through the or- ! che tration and over ight of re earch. urrent plan for the committee include the commi ioning of a handbook on cognition and urvey re earch and the pon or hop of work hop on the emantic of interview que tion , interviewerexp rimentor effects and re pon e behavior, and context effects of re pon e to urvey que tion . A work hop on the mea urement of pain i planned a a wa of improving tool for mea uring ubjective phenomena. The committee al 0 hop to encourage and over ee urvey-ba ed re earch that lead toward the creation of an inventory of cognitive abilitie .

Precursors of adolescence The Subcommittee on Child D velopment in Life pan Per pective of the Committee on Life-Cour e Per p ctive on Human Development held a workhop on the precur or of adole cence in ew York on May 9-11, 1985. There has been little attention to the precur or of adole cence, but there are a number of studie with information on school-age children and plan to follow th children through the adole cent tran ition. Thu , the purpo e of the work hop wa to bring together the e inve tigator with cholar who currently tudy adole cence in order to examine precur or of the adole cent tran ition. Thi work hop was de igned to contribute to the haTing of intere ts, increa ing the imilarity of measure in comparable domains u ed in different tudie, and identifying longitudinal reearch problem , e pecially tho e pecific to the ubtantive area under inve ligation. The adole cent development re earcher indicated what data from the childhood year would elucidate key i ue of importance to adole cent developmentali ts. In turn, the childhood development reearcher reviewed their current de ign and SEPTEMBER


mea ure Icon tructs in the context of their plan for further waves of data collection. The e pre entation by the two group led to the recognition that by integrating their re pective experti e there could be an elucidation of key i ue of development that are of intere t to each group. For in tance, ju t what, if anything, i unique to adole cence? That i , to what extent are the change een in adole cence ba ed on developments in infancy and childhood? Longitudinal data are needed to addre thi i ue of con tancy and change; while the childhood re earcher will have ample moving into the adole cent year , and will be able, therefore, to inve tigate thi concern, it will al 0 be u eful to rely on the experti e of the adole cence longitudinal reearcher , in term of guidance on what variable will be important to mea ure. Thu , both groups--b cau e of their common conceptual and empirical intere ts--formed naturally into a re earch collaborative network. Information on mea ure wa exten ively exchanged during the work hop. umerou cale and mea urement intruments are being circulated after the work hop. Thi followup will con titute the fir t tep in the organization of an active collaboration. The participants included: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Doris Entwi Ie Beatrix A. Hamburg

E. Mavi Hetherington Richard Lerner Michael Lewi Anne Petersen Robert Plomin Lonnie R. herrod Marion Radke-Yarrow

Educational Testing rvi e (Princeton. ew Jersey) The John Hopkin University Mt. inai Medical Center ( ew York) University of Virginia Penn ylvania tate University Rutgers Univer ity Penn ylvania tate University Univer ity of Colorado Social Science R earch Council National In titute of M ntal Health

The brain and behavior The fourth conference organized by the ommittee on Bio ocial Per pective on Parent Behavior and Off: pring Development wa held on May 19-22, 1985 at the Belmont Conference Center (Elkridge, Maryland). The conference was funded by the Alfred P. loan Foundation. The focu of the conference wa on interrelationhip between brain maturation and behavioral development; it wa held with the recognition that the tudy of brain-behavioral interaction during maturation and evolution play a critical role in the bioocial per pective-because neural function i the 43

biological factor exerting the mo t direct control over behavior. By focu ing on brain and behavior relation through ontogeny and phylogeny, the conierence erved b th to provide participants in the ocialb havioral ience and in neuro cience with new conceptual framework and to aid in much needed and timely integration of neural and behavioral re earch. In the la t decade, the field of developmental p ychology and developmental neuro ci nce have blo omed. P ychologi ts and lingui ts have charted the maturation of language, cognition, and ocial behavior in th human child. Primatologi ts have provided imilar de cription of primate b havioral development. Po tnatal brain maturation i now de crib d in con iderabl anatomical and phy iological detail. At the arne time, rapid progre ha b en made in behavioral analy i. ro -di ciplinary int gration have proceeded lowly, however. Behavioral and neural cienti ts are often both phy ically and conceptually i olated. They may be hou ed in eparate hool (liberal arts ver u medical), utilize different educational background ,and peak different cientific language. While behavioral ienti ts have b n deciphering the complexitie of cognition and di covering hitherto un u pected capacitie in the human neonate, behaviorally oriented neuro cienti ts continue to focus on animal conditioning and learning experiments. Relatively few ocial cienti t de cribe their finding in term amenable to neurological analy i . There i little re earch that utilize both ophi ti ated neurobiological technique and equally ophi ticated b havioral analy i , yet ju t uch an approach i nece ary if the complexitie of brain-behavioral interaction are to be deciphered. Thi meeting wa de igned to b gin to bridge thi interdi ciplinary gap by bringing together invetigator from a wide variety of biological and behavioral di cipline . Ea h participant brought exp rti e in a primary behavioral or neuro cience area. The conference wa unique among other recent one on brain and b havior relation becau e of its attempts to place the developing child and adole cent within the framework of the human family and ociety. One re ult of the exten ive animal re earch of the la t decade has been the realization that adequate brain development often depend upon p cie typical environmental input at particular time in the developmental cycle. Although it can b a umed that human re emble other animal in thi regard, much of the experimental work which could fully elucidate thi i ue cannot be performed on human. Another 44

alternative to uch work i to examine human development and par nt behavior in evolutionary and cro -cultural contexts in order to determine tho e a pect of neurally relevant elf-, parental-, or ociety-generated experience which have u ually characterized development. on equently, a econd aim of the conference wa to fo ter cro -di ciplinary analy i of the role of the child-rearing environm nt in providing for adequate neural maturation. The conference wa organized around e ion of pre entation dealing with the neuroanatomical development of the brain and the role of genetic mechani m ,brain pia ticity and development, neural influence on behavior during development, and environmental factor which contribute to the development of the brain and b havior. he participants included-in addition to ommittee member -the following: Eri Courche n Ad Ie Diamond Marian C. Diamond u an Goldin-Meadow Terryl T . Foch Howard Gardner Gilbert


Jeann tte John on

Micha I M. Men nich Brian Morgan Helen J. Neville Arnold


Eri Wann r

an Di go hildren' Ho pital Center Yale Univer ity University of California. B rkel y University of hicago tanford Univer ity Veteran Admini tration Medical Center (Bo ton) University of orth rolina. Green boro ational In titute on AI oholi m and Alcohol Abu e (B the da) University of California. an Franci co Columbia Univer ity College of Phy ician and urgeon The Salk In titute (La Jolla. lifornia) University of lifornia. Lo Angel Alfred P. loan Foundation ( ew York)

The member of the committee are Jane B. Lanca ter, Univer ity of ew Mexico, chair; Jeanne Altmann, Univer ity of Chicago; Richard J. Celie, Univer ity of Rhode I land; Kathleen R. Cib on, Univer ity of Texa , Hou ton; Beatrix A. Hamburg, Mt. inai Medical enter ( ew York): M lvin J. Konner, Emory Univer ity; Michael E. Lamb, Univer ity of Utah; Anne Peter en, Penn ylvania tate Univerity; Alice S. Ro i, Univer ity of Ma achu etts; harle M. uper, Harvard Univer ity; and Mari A. Vinov ki , Univer ity of Michigan. Lonnie R. herrod erve a taff.





Musical development The ommittee on Development, iftedne ,and the Learning Proce held a work hop n mu ical development, in cooperation \ ith the Mi hkenot ha'ananim and the Mu ic Center of Jeru alem, on Jun 15-20, 1985. he work hop wa held 10 Jeru alem. While mu ical development may be viewed a uniquely and d eply r oted in its own material and i own way of thinking and achi ving expre ivene ,the nature of mu ical knowledge and its development can al 0 b informed by a b tt r undertanding of the - mental, en orial, and ymbolic proce e hared by creative individual in other domain . Thu , the work hip wa organiz d to bring together experienced mu ician-teacher , compo er , and mu ic th ori ts with re archer knowl dgeable in uch area a cognition, internal repre entation, learning, language, and creative thought proce 'e . Participan con idered the nature of I arning in variou real-life mu ical contexts: the learning that occur through private "con v ration " am ng performer, their in trumen , and the core in th cour e of learning a new work; verbal, ge tural, and mu ical interaction among p rformer a they pr '; par for a concert; and, of cour e, th learning that o cur in interaction between teacher and tudents a w II as b tween the group and its coache . During the meeting, general que tion were addre ed u h a : What factor contribute to on-thepot microchange in performance in the e working ituation and how do the e ultimat ly (or not) re ult in the internalizati n of de p r and more global muical under tanding? What can be learned about th intuitive knowledge of young performer and how i thi knowledge influenced (or not) by more reflective CapaCltIe uch as tho a ociated with analy i or ymbolic de cription at variou time in the p rformer' devel pment? What can be learned about how young performer learn to integrate (or not) the myriad detail of a compo ition with i larger de ign? uch integration involve tran forming attention to technical detail and the knowledge of a piece a "held in th hand" a a equence of action into mean for projecting mu ical tructure and expre ivene . Can the e everyday learning ituation be probed 0 as to better under tand the important developmental tranition that occur in mu ical knowledge and performan e, e p cially during midadole cence? uch tranition can lead gifted performer to move away from mu ic altogether or to achieve arti tic excellence.



In ord r to in ure that the meeting tayed clo to the a tual exp rience of learning in th everyda \ ork f young performer , ion were organized around both videotape of rna ter cla ,ob erv d b all in advance of the m ting, and ob ervation of live rna ter la e taught by arti t-tea her who wer al 0 parti ipants at the meeting. he Jeru alem Music enter, where the me ting wa held, provided an ideal en ironment for uch ion. Vid otape allowed clo er analy i of the mu ic cla e during ub quent di u ion ion , enabling eriou effor among th participant from variou di ciplin to und r tand one another' language of d cription, tacit under tanding and a umption, and impli it judgmen . In thi way, the pontaneou omments of a rna ter-teacher and the ometime urpn 109 onthe- pot re pon e of a tudent which mi ht otherwi e remain unnoticed, much Ie explained, were explor d and queried within th interdi iplinary p rpective of th meeting. B th vid 0- and audibtap of the work hop were al 0 made for future reference by committee member or other . One theme that figured prominently in the meeting wa that of "language of de cription" a the e interact with other "field of attention" uch a the in trument, mu ical tructure, and ound. The i ue of external de cription- tandard mu ic notation, music-theoretic term , de criptive work ,a well a ge ture and movement-a the e inter ect with internal repre entation , even inner hearing, provided a ommon terrain for a cro -di ciplinary focu . For example, it wa a ked: What are the relation b tween the kind of entitie , feature, and relation captured by tandard mu ic notation, and the kind of entitie , feature , and relation a ociated with kine thetic "feel" of a mu ical pa age a played on a familiar in trument, or the rememb red" ound" of the pa age a played by another arti t? What are the d vclopmental implication of learning to "map" acro the e and other mode of repre entation? I it ignificant that younger gifted performer (under the age of 10) eem to have the ability to move freely among variou mode and media, even inventing their own, while lightly older p rformer eem to have difficulty doing o? I there a ignificant relation between the trongly emerging capacity to de cribe the world ymbolically during thi arne p riod (7-10 year of age) and the children' demon trated ability for multiple repre entation of mu ical relation ? Participants, in addition to the member of the Committee on Development, Giftedne , and the L~arning Proce , included:


Zvi Avni Dalia Cohen V ronika Cohen Ram Evron Hagilh Friedland r Ruth Katz David Lewin Donald hon Benny hannon Hermin in lair Leo Treitl r Avraham Wachman Uzi Wie el

Rubin Acad my of Mu ic (Tel Aviv) Th Hebrew Univer ilY of jerusal m Rubin Academy of Mu ic Uerusalem) The jerusaJem Mu i mer Mi hkenol ha'ananim (Jeru lem) The Hebrew University of jeru alem Yale Univer ity Ma achu et In titute of Technology The Hebrew Univer it of jerusal m University of Geneva tate Univer ity of ew York, tony Brook Technion-I rael In titute of Technology (Haifa) Rubin Academy of Mu ic (Tel Aviv)

The member of the committee are David H. Feldman, Tufts Univer ity, chair; Jeanne Bamberger, Mas a hu ett In titute of Technology; Mihaly C ik zentmihalyi, Univer ity of Chicago; Yadin Dudai, The Weizmann In titute of ience (Rehovot); Hm ard ardner, Veteran Admini tration Medical enter (Bo ton); Howard E. Gruber, Univer ity of Geneva; and Helen Weinreich-Ha te, Univer ity of Bath. Lonnie R. herrod erve a taff.

Soviet and East European Economics The Joint Committ eon oviet tudie pon ored iu Fir t Annual ummer Work hop on oviet and Ea t European E onomi in hampaign- Urbana, Illinoi on.J uly 7-19, 1985. The program wa initiated with the cooperation of the Joint Committee on Ea. tern Europe a well a the Ru ian and Ea t European Center of the Univer ity of Illinoi . Primary funding \ a provided by the Ford Foundation. The work hop brought together 21 doctoral candidate ,a nd junior faculty member to participate in a 'erie of inten ive eminar intend d to increa e the participants' familiarity with the work of leading :cholar in the field a well a with each other' recarch. Plann d by th committe' ubcommittee on Economic , the program ought both to u tain high quality I' earch on the economie of the viet Union and Ea tern Europe and to combat the en e of isolation that i felt by many younger cholar engaged in research on the economie of the Soviet Union and Ea tern Europe. In addition to eminar e ion organized around the work of each partici46

pant, the work hop offered lecture and di cu ion period with the faculty a well a invited peaker. Among the major topic of di cu ion were que tion of trade, economic organization and reform, cyclical fluctuation in centrally planned economie , energy utilization, and technological innovation. H rbert . Levil'!e of the U niver ity of Penn ylvania dir cted the work hop program. He wa joined on the faculty by Jo ef Brada, Arizona State Univer ity; Richard Eric n, Columbia Univer ity; Ed A. Hewitt, the Brooking In titution (Washington, D.C.); and Bori Rumer, Harvard Univer ity. John Hardt, Library of Congre ; Jame Millar, Univer ity of 11linoi ; and Jan Vanou , PlanEcon, Inc. (Wa hington, D.C.), were invited a vi iting peaker. The participants at the work hop were tuart Brm n, mith College; John Burkett, Univer ity of Rhode I land; Irwin oilier, Univer ity of Hou ton; hirley Ged on, Univer ity of Vermont; Michael Heme ath, Harvard Univer ity; anci Hubbell, Tufts Univer ity; Barry Icke , Penn ylvania tate Univerity; Vladimir Kontorovich, Command Economie Re earch, Inc. (Princeton, New Jer ey); Heidi Kroll, Harvard Univer ity; u an Linz, Univer ity of alifornia, Irvine; Han on Leung, Univer ity of Toronto; John Litwack, Univer ity of Penn ylvania; Jan Maciejewicz, Central Planning In titute (War aw); Judith McKinney, Emory Univer ity; Dori Mahaffey, Miami Univer ity; Kent 0 band, Harvard Univer ity; Thoma Richard on, olumbia Univer ity; Peter Rutland, Univer ity of Texa ;Jean Te che, Columbia Univer ity; Miron Wolnicki, Villanova Univer ity; and Huizhong Zhou, orthwe tern Univer ity. In addition, Bozena Lewin, Ford Foundation ( ew York); Jiang hunze, In titute of World Economic and Politic, Chine e Academy of ocial Science ; and Zhang Duoyi, In titute of oviet and Ea t European tudie , Chine e Academy of ocial Science, oberved the work hop proceeding. Blair A. Ruble erv d a taff.

Family and life course in Japan and the United States For the pa t everal year, group of American and Japane e anthropologi t , hi torian ,and ociologi ts intere ted in the life-cour e perspective on family compo ition and intergenerational relation have been meeting and di cu ing parallel re earch projects under the au pice of the Joint Committee on Japane e Stu die and the Japan ociety for the Promotion of Science. Through everal planning workhop and many individual visits b tween Japane e VOLUME

39, N



and American cholar, member of both group were able to come to agreement on ub tantive approache to the tudy of the life course and to tandardize their u e of a number of methodological tool , including multigenerational tudie. A a culmination of cooperative work that began in 1980, a binational conference on "Family and the Life Cour e in japan and the United State" was held at the Ea t- We t Center (Honolulu), on December 11-13, 1984. The conference wa upported by the Japan ociety for the Promotion of Science and the Joint Committee on japane e Studie , with the a itance of the japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion. The 16 paper -eight by Japane e and eight by American -were divided among three major theme: The Cultural Con truction of the Life Cour e; ocial Structure and Life Cour e .Tran ition ; and Multi-Generational Family Continuity and hange. The team of japane e participants wa led by Kiyomi Morioka, eijo Univer ity, and the participation of American cholar wa organized by Tamara Hareven, Clark Univer ity; Reuben Hill, Univer ity of Minne ota; and David W. Plath, Univer ity of 11linoi . Other participants included:

Japan, the United States, and the world: 1950-1980

The decade between 1950 and 1980 were marked by profound alterations in the balance of global political power, economic trength, cientific and technological leader hip, and cultural influence. The e hifts, which were of cour e unanticipated in the 1950 when the po twar relation hip b tween japan and the United tate wa being constructed, have included the dramatic ri e in japan' economic role and the decline of American political hegemony. The global roles of japan and the United State have changed, ju t as ha the global environment in which their relation hip exi t; yet, the bilateral relation hip between the two countries-in political, military, economic, cientific, educational, and cultural realmshas remained one of the central elements of the international order ince World War II. To examine the changing relation hip between japan and the United tate, and to a s the interacting influence of bilateral ties in one field, such a economic cooperation, on tho e in another-education and culture, for example-Akira Iriye, Univer ityof hicago, and Chihiro Ho oya, International Univer ity of japan, organized a erie of workshop and conference on japan, the United State, and the T uda College Kazuo Aoi University of Southern World: 1950-1980. The project wa pon ored by the Vern Bengston CaHfornia japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the University of Southern fargaret Campbell joint Committee on japane e Studies, which received California upport for the American participation from the University of orth Carolina Glen H. Elder, Jr. japan-United State Friend hip Commi sion. A o aka Univer ity Eshun Hamaguchi of work hop among cholar within the two erie Univer ity of hicago D nni Hogan Tokyo Metropolitan University countrie culminated in a binational conference held Kunio I hihara Konan Women' liege Takeji Kamiko in Honolulu, January 18-22, 1984. University of Hawaii Takie Lebra At the conference, 20 papers-12 by American Wa eda University Kanji Masaoka and eight by japane e-on economic, political, cienSophia Univer ity Yoriko Meguro and cultural relation between the two countrie tific, Taisho Univer ity Taka hi Mochizuki University Cornell were pre ented. In addition to Me r. Iriye and Robert J . mith Ho oya, the participants included: Theodore C. Be tor attended the conference a Hitotsuba hi University Tad hi Aruga taff for the joint committee. tanford Univer ity Barton J. Bern tein Revised ver ion of the japane e papers have b en Western Michigan University Warren Cohen edited by Kiyomi Morioka and publi hed in Engli h International Monetary Fund Robert A. Feldman under the title, Family and Life COU~ e of MiddLe-Aged (Washington, D.C.) Wen ( ee Ii ting under "Recent Council Publication ," Robert G. Gilpin Princeton University University of Tokyo page 54). Mr. Elder organized a panel for the Nagayo Honma Princeton University August 1985 meetings of the American Sociological Osamu I hii Sophia Univer ity Hideo Kanemit u A ociation at which orne of the American and tanford University tephen D. Kra n r Japane e participants in this project pre ented papers Walter leFeber Cornell University ummarizing the sub tantive, theoretical, and Take hi obaya hi Hito uba hi University University of Washington methodological finding of the collaborative project. Kenneth B. Pyle Ma achu etts In titute of haron Traweek Mr. Elder expects that the e paper will be edited and Technology published together a a journal sympo ium issue. SEPTE 1BER





kio Watanabe 1itsuru Yamam to

University of California, anta ruz Univ ity of Tokyo Hito ubashi Univer ity

Daniel I. Okimoto, tanford Univer ity, and obuya Bamba, 0 aka Univer ity, had participated in th formation of the project and had contributed paper for the conference, but were unable to attend the Honolulu e ion. Alexa Hand, Univer ity of hi ago, erved a rapporteur for the conference. Th odore C. Be tor attended the conference a taff for the Joint Committee on Japane e tudie. Me r. I ri e and Ho oya are preparing the pap r for publication in Engli hand Japane e edition .

The Lotus Sutra in Japanese culture In ollaboration with the Univer ity of Hawaii and the Ea t- We t Center (Honolulu), the Joint ommitte on Japane e tudie p n red a con~ rence on th Lotus utra a a cultural motif appearing in a wid vari ty of literary, arti tic, and intellectual g nre throughout Japane e hi tory. h conferenc wa organized by Willa J. Tanabe and orge J. Tanabe, Jr., both of the Univer ity of Hawaii. Twenty-five paper and lecture on the Lotus utra in variou religiou, arti tic, literary, and politial realm 'ere pre ented. Participan included: Zen hO A aeda Alfred Bloom David Chappell Yo hiko K. D k tra Allan rapard Paul ron r Helen Harda re Ma ao I hi hima hOtam Iida Hok n Itohi a Paul Jaffee eii hi Kiriya To hio Kuroda â&#x20AC;˘ eil M Mullin T ugio Miya

Dani I Montgom ry n til Murano higenori agatomo Barbara Ru h ii ha I a yokai kido R 000 hioiri Yutaka Takagi Yo him Tamura KOho Tanaka HO}i) Watanabe hOzen Yamaka


RyUkoku Univer ity University of Hawaii University of Hawaii Kan i University of For ign tudie East- W t nter (Honolulu) University of Virginia Prin eton University Tai ho Univer ity niversity of British Columbia Ri hO Univer ity Ryukoku Univer ity Ri hO Univer ity aka Univer ity weet Briar College Tokyo ational R earch In titute of Cultural Propertie Trumbull, Connecticut Honolulu, Hawaii Univ rsity of Hawaii Columbia University University of Hawaii Ri hO Univer ity Tai ho University Ri hO Univer ity Ri hO niver ity Tokyo, Japan Ri hO Univer ity Tai ho University

The Four- Seven debate in Korean neo-Confucianism To examine one of the central i ue in the hi torical development of Korean neo-Confuciani m-the o-called "Four- ven" debate between T'oegye (Vi Hwang) and Kobong (Ki Tae ung) in the early Vi dyna ty-the Joint Committee on Korean tudie pon ored a work hop on ovember 8-10, 1984. Organized by Michael . Kalton, Wichita tate Univer ity, the work hop wa intended to make reear h on the debate a ce ible to cholar of neoonfuciani m who are not them elve peciali ts in Korean intellectual hi tory and philo ophy and to lay the groundwork for a collaborative tran lation and annotation of the tex central to under tanding the ub tance of the debate. In addition to Mr. Kalton, the participants included: Oak


hun Kim

Young-chan Ro W i-ming Tu amuel Yama hita

Univer ity of California, Lo Angele eorge Ma n Univ rsity Harvard University Pomona Colleg

Support for new teaching positions in Russian and Soviet studies The Joint Committee on oviet tudie of the American Council of Learned OCleUe and the ocial ience Re earch Council ha announced a pilot program to upport the creation of new teaching po ition in the ocial cience and humanitie . The purpo e of thi program i two-fold: one, to encourage college and univer itie to expand their offering in oviet affair by the addition of new faculty po ition ; and two, to expand the opportunitie for cholar. with recent Ph.D . in the oviet field to acquire profe ional experience. The committee expects to make a mall numb r of award , of up to 36,000 each, to be u ed over a three-year period, commencing in the fall of 1986, to provide upplemental alary upport for new appointments. In making the e award , the committee hope to encourage the development of po ition in di cipline and ubfield traditionally underrepreented in oviet tudie, uch a anthropology, demography, economic, and ociology. The deadline for application i December 2, 1985. Intere ted in titution hould contact Blair A. Ruble at the Council (212-661-0280). VOLUME




'C ouncil Personnel

New directors and officers The Council' board of director , at its meeting on June 11, 1985, elected or re-elected five director. . ewly-elected to board member hip for three-year term were E. Mavi Hetherington, U niver ity of Virginia, from the American P ychological A 0 iation, and Richard A. Berk, Univer ity of California, anta Barbara, from the American ociological A 0ciation. Hugh T. Patrick, olumbia Univer ity, wa re-elected to board member hip from the American Economic A ociation for a three-year term. Howard Gardner, Veteran Admini tration Medical enter (Bo ton), and Robert W. Kate, Clark Univer ity, were re-elected to three-year term a director -atlarge. The board al 0 elected the Council' officer for 1985-86. Mr. Patrick wa elected chairman; tephen E. Fienberg, Carnegie-Mellon Univer ity, wa reele ted vice-chairman; tephen M. tigler, Univer ity of hicago, wa re-elected ecretary; and Mr. Gardner wa elected trea urer. Ronald J. Peleck, the Council' controller, wa re-elected a i tant trea urer. harle O. Jone , Univer ity of Virginia, wa reelected chairman of the Executive Committee and idney Verba, Harvard Univer ity, wa re-elected chairman of the Committee on Problem and Policy (P&P). Joel E. Cohen, The Rockefeller Univer ity, wa elected a member of P&P. A announced in the box on page 33, the board al 0 accepted Kenneth Prewitt' re ignation a pre ident and elected Franci X. Sutton a acting pre ident, both effective October 1, 1985. -

Staff appointment Va mine Erga joined the Council on eptember 3rd a a taff a ociate, re pon ible primarily for the emerging project on the analy i of "per onal te timony" data-letter , diarie , and the like. She will al 0 a i t in developing a program on the initiation of civic di cour e on topics of public policy and will erve as a European con ultant to the new program on International Peace and Security Studie . M . Erga received honor degree in ociology from the univer itie of Su ex (1971) and Rome (1978). She ha taught at the univer itie of Bari and EPTEMBER


Macerata and at the American Univer ity in Rome. In the United State, he ha b en a vi iting cholar and re earch a ociate at the Welle ley Center for Reearch on Women, the enter for European tudie at Harvard Univer ity, and the Pembroke Center at Brown Univer ity. he ha been awarded fellow hip by the American ouncil of Learned 0 ietie , the Ford Foundation, the Italian ational Council of Reearch, and the Pembroke Center at Brown. Her re earch intere t have focu ed on both contemporary ocial movement and welfare politic. he ha publi hed exten ively in Italy, where her book, Nelle magLie della poLitica: Femminismo, poLitica ociaLe ed institutizioni neLl'ItaLia dRgLi anni eUanta ("In the intertice of politic: Femini m, ocial politic, and in titution in Italy during the 1970 ") i forthcoming (Milan: Franco Angeli). everal of her article have been publi hed in j urnal in France, the United tate, and We t Germany. Sh ha erved a a conultant to the OECD, WHO, U E CO, and everal in titution directly involved in formulating public policy in Italy.

Simon Kuznets dies at 84 imon Kuzne ,profe or emeritu of economic at Harvard Univer ity, died on July 8 in Cambridge, Ma achu etts. Mr. Kuznets became an active participant in Council activitie oon after it wa founded in 1923 and immediately after he received a Ph.D. in economic from Columbia Univer ity in 1926. He wa are earch fellow of the Council in 1925-26, the fir t year of the Council' fellow hip program, devoting him elf to reearch on ecular movements in production and price . For ix year , 1938-43, he wa a member of the Council' board of director , de ignated by the American Economic A ociation, and he continued to participate in variou Council activitie . Hi major contribution to the Council' program wa a chairman of the Committee on Economic Growth throughout its 20 years of exi tence, 1949 to 1968. During the year 1938-71, Mr. Kuznets wrote, edited, or coauthored 10 book pon ored by the Council-a record approached by no other cholar. The la t of the e book , The Economic Growth of Nations (Harvard Univer ity Pre ,1971), remain a cia ic in 49

development economi . A ub tantial portion of hi re ear h wa developed in collaboration with and with the upport of the C mmitte on Economic Growth, which had its origin in a memorandum that he ubmitted to the Council in 1948. In it, Mr. Kuznets propo ed: . .. a committee for th purpo e of exploring po ibl dir tion of tudy of economic growth, the latter defined as long term increase (or declin ) in magnitude and change in tructure of larger social units (nation- tate primarily). The aim of u h exploration is to tabr h how fruitful empirical tudy of economi growth can be t be planned; and, in are in which the groundwork i not ready for empirical tudies, to timulate thinking and di cu ion I ading toward formulation of the necary intellectual framework . I

Mr. Kuznets urged that the committee concern itelf not only with economic tudie but al 0 with factor affecting economic growth uch as cience and te hnology, natural re ource , the efficiency of the tate, and other ocial mechani m ,cultur ,and 0cial tructure. He noted that the committee hould include member from a variety of di cipline other than economi . In the two decade that followed appointment of the committee, major tudie of long-term e onomic growth were initiated in Au tralia, anada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherland, orway, weden, and the United Kingdom. Mr. ial 'ence R earch Coun ii, Committee on Problem and Poli ,Minute of the m ting of January 8, 1949, Appendix I, "Mem randum on tting Up of a ial ien e Resear h Council ('.ommittee on a tudy of Economi Growth," prepared by im n Kuzne , December 8, 194 .


Kuznets and oth r cholar in the field u ed the e tudie in comparative analy e of economic growth and in trengthening the mpirical foundation for th oretical and policy analy i . Mr. Kuznets guided and in pired a great deal of the committee' work. He vi ited economi ts abroad and at home to recruit their intere t in the committee' plan ,advi ed the often na cent attempts at empiri al tudy, and maintained an overarching grand trategy of re earch planning and of communication among holar . Few committee in the Council' hi tory have had a chairman who worked with uch dedication and uch kill in joining the efforts of many, oft n quit di parate, holar. Member of the Committee on Economic Growth have te tified that their greate t reward came from their a ociation with the committee' chairman. In addition to hi entral role in the work of th ommittee on Economic rowth, Mr. Kuznet helped to organize the work of the Council' ommittee on the Economy of China, which con tituted in many en e a p cial ca e in the analy i of problem of economic growth. He wa chairman of thi committee throughout i exi tence, 1961 to 1970. In 1971, Mr. Kuznets received the Alfred obel Memorial Prize in Economic cience for hi "empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which ha led to a new and deepened in ight into the conomi and ocial tructur and proce of development." On the occa ion of hi death, the ouncil r cord its adne ,its continuing prid in i as ociation with Mr. Kuznets, and its gratitude for hi many contribution to the ocial cience and the Council.





Fellowships and Grants for International Research Awarded in 1985 A supplement to the listing In the June 1985 Issue of Items

Fellowships and grants for Soviet studies In its fir t national competition for grants to American in titution that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian language, the joint Committee on Soviet tudie ,* at its meeting on june 3, 1985, made award to the Ru ian In titute at Indiana Univer ity, the Ru sian School at Middlebury College, the Council for International Education Exchange (New York), and the Ru ian School at orwich U niver ity. The grants are designed to provide fellow hip upport for tudents and to develop comprehen ive and tandardized language proficiency te ting procedure . The committee wa a i ted by a screening committee-Edward L. Keenan, Harvard Univer ity, chair; Richard Brecht, Univer ity of Maryland; Daniel David on, Bryn Mawr College; and Alexander Shane, State Univer ity of ew York, Albany. A econd round of the competition will be held in the winter of 198!>-86. The fir t round of predoctoral and advanced research fellow hip comp tition conducted with grant fund from the new U.S. Department of tate "Title VIII" program for re earch in Ru ian and oviet tudie were completed in J une 1985. The Soviet committee announced the award of 10 graduate training fellow hip and four advanced reearch grants. The committee was as i ted by a reening committee-Leon Lip on, Yale University (chair); Kendall E. Baile, Univer ity of California, Irvine; Elizabeth Clayton, Univer ity of Mi ouri at St. Louis; Thoma Remington, Emory Univer ity; Michael Sack, Trinity College; and Frank ilbajori, Ohio tate Univer ity. Blair A. Ruble and Kri tin Antelman erved a taff. The committee awarded the following graduate training fellow hip at its meeting on june 3, 1985: ANTHO Y P. ALLI ON, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerity of Wa hington, for training in preparation for reearch on comparative sociali t economIc hi tory CHRI TINA jAREMKO, D. Phil. candidate in library cience, t. Antony's College (Oxford), for training in preparation for re earch on Soviet publi hing, libraries, information y tem , and the media TUART KAUFMAN, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univer ity of Michigan, for training in preparation for reâ&#x20AC;˘ Gail War hol: ky Lapidu , Univer ity of California, Berkeley, chair; Joseph Berliner, Brandei Univer ity; Seweryn Bialer, olumbia University; Katerina Clark, Indiana Univer ity; tephen F. Cohen, Princeton Univer ity; Donald Fanger, Harvard Univer ity; Edward L. Keenan, Harvard University; Robert Legvold, Columbia Univer ity; Herbert . Levine, University pf Penn ylvania; and Leon Lip n, Yale University. Blair A. Ruble rYe as taff. EPTEMBER 1985

earch on the trategic aspects of U ..- oviet relation and Soviet civil-military relation STEPHEN KOTKIN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ityof California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for reearch on the hi tory of Soviet citie JOHN M. LITWA K, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univerity of Penn ylvania, for training in preparation for research on Soviet-type centrally planned economie MARY A. ICHOLA, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Univerity of Penn ylvania, for training in preparation for the tudy of po trevolutionary Ru ian literature and, in particular, the work of Bori Pilnyak DAVID K. PRETTY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for training in preparation for comparative re earch on the interrelated proce e of cultural, economic, institutional, and ocial change in the Ottoman Empire and Imperial Ru ia THOMAS J. RICHARD ON, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Columbia Univer ity, for training in preparation for reearch on international trade and the economic and demographic relation hip of non-European area of the Soviet Union to the Ru ian and European area ROSEMARY . TARLTON, Ph.D. candidate 10 anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for training in preparation for re earch on Soviet popular culture and, in particular, the oviet film ELIZABETH A. WOOD, Ph .D. candidate in history, Univer ity of Michigan, for preparation for re earch on the formation of the viet tate and the i ue of women' participation and equality The committee awarded the following advanced reearch grants at i meeting on june 17, 1985: AROL J. ANY, a istant profe or of literature, Trinity College, for re earch on the life and work of Bori Ejxenbaum VLADIMIR BROVKIN, re earch cholar in hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the Men hevik a an oppo ition party in Soviet Ru ia, 1919-1924 ST ART S. BROWN, a i tant profe r of economic, mith College, for re earch on dumping and market di ruption by non market economie PETER T. MERRILL, a i tant profe sor of lingui tic , Univcr ity of Maryland, for re earch on a pect, mood, and modes of di cour e in the Ru ian language

Advanced grants for research on Japan A grant from the japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion to the Joint Committee on japane e Studie ha enabled the japan program to make the following award to holar who were elected by the jCjS ubcommittee on Grants at its meeting on February 15, 1985. The e award arc in addition to tho e Ii ted in the june i ue of l~ms. 51

路 Mt..LVI AIKt..!>, proC or of anthropology, Univer ity of Oregon. for re earch on regional variation in the fomon tradition in prehi toric japan JACK!>O H. BAILt:Y, profe or of hi tory and ocial cience, Earlham liege, for re earch on ocial and political change in anohata, Iwate Prefecture, from 1950 to th pre nt R ~. . BOOCOCK, profe or of oci logy, Rutger Univer ity, for re earch on child care practice and policie in two japan e citi ROBERT BORGE ,a ociate profe or of japane e, Univerity of Ha\ aii, for re arch on r~in' travel in ung China (1072-1073) a an example of early ino-japane relation P",I.IP C. BROW ,a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of orth arolina, harlotte, for re earch on the land tax y tem during the Tokugawa p riod Wt..!>Lt:Y M. JACOBSE ,a i tant profe or of Japane ,Univcr ity of Minne ota, for re earch on time and event in japane e verb u age RI .11 RO H. MI EAR, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Ma a hu etts, for re ear h on Hiro hlma, the at mi holocau t, and the creative arti t H1Gt..R MIY GAW ,a i tant pro~ r of japane e, hio tat Univer ity, for re earch on Japane e ca particle and lingui tic univer al MARK R. Pt..ATTIE, profe r of hi tory, Univer ity of Ma achu etts, Bo ton, for re earch on the southward advance of Japane e imperiali m from the late 19th century to the Pacifi War LEO V. 1(; L, pro~ r of government, We leyan Univer ity, for re arch on the politic of war termination in Japan and th United tate

R YMO 0 B RIEL, a ociate profe or of p ychology, Pomona College, for re earch on the academic performance of foreign- and native-born Mexican American GILBERTO CAROE A ,a ociate profe or of ociology, and IL HA EN, pro~ or of economi ,Univer ity of Texa , for re earch on the ocial and economic integration of Mexican immigran FELIPE G. CA TRO, a i tant profe or of p ychology, and GLORIA Ro tERO A 0 RICHARD CERVA TES, re earcher , Department of P ychology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for re earch on unemployed Mexican American women MAN EL DEL V LLE, adjunct profe or of law, Fordham Univer ity, for re earch on the proce e and con equence of labor market di crimination again t Hipanic that i anctioned by law RIC ROO R. FERNA OEZ, a ociate profes or of education, Univer ity of Wi con in, Milwaukee, for re earch on Hi panic chool dropouts in five citie E TEV T. FLORES, a i tant profe or of ociology, outhern Methodi t Univer ity, and LEO R. CHAVEZ, re earch fellow, Center tor U ..-Mexican tudie, Univer ity ot California, an Diego, for re earch on the ocial integration of undocumented Mexican immigrants and Central Ameri an political refugee E GE E E. CARCI ,profe or of education, and BARBARA M. FLORE A 0 ROBERT L. C RRA 0, a i tant profe or of education, Arizona tate Univer ity, for re earch on effective chooling for Hi panic tuden E .E IA EORG , taff a sociate, Center for the ocial ience , Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on the integration of a new Hi panic population into a multiethnic neighborhood JOSE RA to LLA ES, re earcher, Innovation and Entrepreneur hip In titute, Univer ity of Miami, for re earch on the Hi panic income differential and the incidence of entrepreneur hip. Grants for Public Policy Research on REY ALoo FLORES MAcI ,a ociate profe or of educaContemporary Hispanic Issues tion, Univer ity of Southern California, for a demographic analy i of the literacy characteri tic of Latino In the fir t national competition for award, the new and Latino ubgroup. Committee on Public Polic Re earch on Contemporar Eowl MELE OEZ, a i tant profe or of economi ,FordHi panic I ue met on ugu t 19-20, 19 5; reviewed 156 ham Univer ity, for re earch on labor marke ,human capital, and the determination of income for Puerto application ; and made 17 award . The committee i ponRican and other Hi panic in ew York City ored jointl b the Council and the Inter-Univer ity ProVILMA ORTIZ, vi iting cholar, Educational Te ting ergram for Latino Re earch: Centro de E tudio Puertorvice (Princeton, ew jer ey), for re earch on functional riqueno , Hunter College, City Univer ity of ew York; literacy among young Hi panic adults tanford Center for Chicano Re earch, tanford Univer- HARRY PACI-JO, sociate pro~ sor of publi admini tration, Baruch College, City Univer ityof ew York, for a it ; Center for Mexican American tudie, Univer ity of comparative analy i of Latino tate Jegi lative caucu e Texa ; and the Chicano tudie Re earch Center, Univerand group in elected tate ity of California, Lo Angele. J A -VI E TE PALERM, a ociate profe or of anthropolThe member of the committee are Rodolfo de la arza, ogy, Univer ity of California, anta Barbara, for reUniver ity of Texa , chair; Hubert M. Blalock, Univer ity earch on the growth and expan ion of Chicano/ Me ican rural enclave in California, 1960-19 5 of Wa hington; Frank Bonilla, Hunter College, City Univer ityof ew York: Leobardo Felipe E trada, Univer ity J.L. POLl ARO A 0 ROBERT D. WRINKLE, a ociate profe or of political cience, Pan American Univer tty, for of California, Lo Angele; Joan Moore, U niver ity of Wi re earch on the politics and poli ie of di trict repre encon in, Milwaukee; I aura antiago antiago, Teacher tation: the Mexican American experience College, olumbia Univer ity; and Marta Tienda, Univer- CORDELIA W. REIMER ,a ociate profe or of economic , Hunter College, City Univer ity of ew York, for reity of Wi con in. Kenneth Prewitt and Virginia Feuryearch on Hi panic employment in the public ector Gagnon, ocial ience Re earch Council and Harriett NESTOR PEREZ ROORIG EZ A 0 JOHN I. CILOERBLOOM, a Romo, Univer ity of Texa , erve a taff. Thi program i i tant profe or of ociology, Univer ity of Hou ton, funded by the Ford Foundation. Univer ity Park, for re earch on Hi panic hou ing in the Award were made to the following individual: United tate



Recent Council Publications International Monetary Stabilization and the For- contain the highlights of three paper : "The Ca e for eign Debt Problem, edited by Bert G. Hickman. Pro- Internationalizing American Monetary Policy," by ceeding of a conference co pon ored by Project LINK Ronald I. McKinnon, Stanford Univer ity;"McKinand the Federal Re erve Bank of San Franci co. A non' World Money Hypothe i: Comment," by publication of the Committee on Economic Stability Michael M. Hutchi on, Federal Re erve Bank of an and Growth. The Federal Re erve Bank of San Fran- Franci co; "An Empirical Evaluation of the McKinci co, 1985. 103 pages. Paper, free. Available from non Propo aI," by Peter Pauly and Chri tian E. Peterthe Federal Re erve Bank of San Franci co, P.O. Box en, Univer ity of Penn ylvania. The econd part, on the foreign debt problem, contain the highlights of 7702, San Franci co, California 94120. two paper : "World Recovery and Debt Pro pects," by Thi volume compri e the proceeding of a con- Lawrence R. Klein, Univer ity of Penn ylvania; and ference held at the Federal Re erve Bank of San "The Debt Problem: A Debtor' Point of View," by Franci co on Augu t 29, 1984. Planned jointly by Pedro A. Palma, Metro Economica (Caraca). Inmember of the Bank's re earch taff and Project cluded in the volume i a ummary of the main points LINK, the conference dealt with two important i ue of the floor di cu ion of the McKinnon propo al facing the world economy: (1) international monetary and the debt problem. tabilization, and (2) the world debt problem. The morning ession wa devoted to Ronald I. Principles of Classical Japanese literature, edited McKinnon's proposal for joint action by the central by Earl Miner. Paper from conference pon ored by bank of Germany, japan, and the United State to the joint Committee on japane e Studie with upport from the japan-United State Friendship Comtabilize the exchange rate among their currencie under an agreed growth rule for a weighted average mi ion. Princeton U niver ity Press, 1985. xiii + 281 page . Cloth, 30.00. of their dome tic money upplies. The morning' program al 0 included an invited written comment on The fir t studie of japane e literature in Engli h the propo al by Michael M. Hutchi on, and Peter Pauly and Chri tian E. Peter en' empirical evaluation reflected the concern and method of japane e of it u ing the world econometric model y tern of cholar , and a later wave of work empha ized We tern literary theorie and practice . Thi volume eek Project LINK. Attention hifted in the afternoon to a recon id- to ynthe ize the e two approache by combining an eration of the world debt problem. A paper by Law- awarene of japane e method and theorie of litrence R. Klein u ed re ults from imulation of the erary critici m with the framework of cultural undertanding and critical approache common to We tLINK y tern and other model to throw light on the ern reader. que tion of whether the current world economic reThe even paper in thi volume include: "The covery will ameliorate the debt situation enough to permit the debtor countrie to ervice their debts Collective and the Individual: Literary Practice and while continuing to make economic progre . The Its Social Implication ," by Earl Miner, Princeton article by Pedro A. Palma analyze the origins of the Univer ity; "The Taxonomy of Sequence: Ba ic PatLatin American foreign debt problem, its implica- tern of Structure in Premodern japane e littion ,and orne potential olution. The ession con- erature," by Makoto Ueda, Stanford Univer ity; "The cluded with a roundtable di cu ion in which Me sr . Spatial Structure of japane e Myth: The Contact Palma and Klein were joined by F. Gerard Adam, Point Between Life and Death," by Su umu Univer ity of Penn ylvania; Frederick T. Furlong, Nakani hi, T ukuba Univer ity; "The Sub tratum Federal Re erve Bank of an Franci co; Luis R. Lui , Con tituting Monogatari: Pro e Structure and NarCrocker Bank (San Franci co); Akira Oni hi, oka rative in the Genji Monogatari," by Takehiko Noguchi, Univer ity Oapan); and jiirg iehan, Univer ity of Kobe Univer ity; "Ae thete-Reclu e During the Tran ition from Ancient to Medieval japan," by Bern. The volume contain an "Introduction" by Bert G. Tokue Mezaki, Univer ity of the Sacred Heart Hickman, tan ford Univer ity, that summarize the (Tokyo); "Michi and Medieval Writing," by jin'ichi entire volume, which i divided into two parts. The Koni hi, Tsukuba Univer ity; and "Language in fir t part, on international monetary tabilization, Crisis: OgyU'Sorai' Philological Thought and Hiraga EPTEMBER



Gennai' Creative Practice," by umie jone , Indiana motion of Science. Tokyo: Family and Life Course Univer ity. tudy Group, 1985. v + 256 page. Paper. The e paper were pre ented at a erie of workThe volume pre ents the re ults of a large-scale hop held in 1981 and 1982, pon ored by the joint urvey of life cour e tran ition and multigeneraommitte on japane e tudi . The japan- United tional relation among four cohorts of men born betate Friend hip Commi ion provided upport to tween 1918 and 1937, a well a member of their the committee for thi project. familie in the parental and child generation . The urvey, which wa conducted in hizuoka, japan, in The United States-Japan Cooperative Program in three wave between Augu t 1982 and june 1984, the Humanities and Social Sciences: The Fifteen Year wa carried out by a team of two dozen japanese Report, 1967-1982, compiled by the taU of the ociologi ts under the leader hip of Kiyomi Morioka, japan ociety for the Promotion of cience and the eijo Univer ity, as part of a collaborative project on joint Committee on japane e Studie . Tokyo: japan Family and Life Cour e in japan and the United ociety for the Promotion of cience, 1984. vii + 60 tate . The Shizuoka re earch wa funded by the page. Paper, free. Mini try of Education, Culture, and Science, which al 0 provided fund for thi publication. The United tates-japan Conference on Cultural The pre ent volume include nine paper reporting and Educational Exchange (CULCO ) wa e tab- on the hizuoka tudy and ummarizing other Ii hed in 1961 as a re ult of the ummit meeting japane e re earch per pective on family and life between Pre ident john F. Kennedy and Prime cour e, an appendix de cribing the hizuoka reMinister Hayato Ikeda. CULCON wa created to earch project, and an e ay by Reuben Hill, Univerpromote cholarly, cultural, cientific, and educa- ity of Minne ota, on the concepts and method of tional contacts between the two nation , and in 1966 multigenerational tudie. The paper are revi ed UL ON recommended the formation of a U.S.- ver ion of the japane e contribution to a binational japan ooperative Program in the Humanitie and conference held in Honolulu in December 1984, cothe ocial ience that would admini ter and coordi- pon ored by the japan Society for the Promotion of nate collaborative re earch by team of American and cien e and thejoint Committee onjapane e tudies, with the upport of the japan-United tate japane e cholar. Under CULCO ' direction, the Joint Committee on Japane e tudie wa d ignated Friend hip Commi ion. American participation wa the ecretariat for the American ide, and the japan organized by Tamara Hareven, Clark Univer ity; Mr. ociety for the Promotion of cience became the body Hill; and David W. Plath, Univer ity of IlIinoi . Glen re pon ible for admini tering thejapane e ide of the H. Elder, jr., Univer ity of orth Carolina, i preprogram. In the fir t 15 year of the program, over 30 paring for publication a collection of paper umjoint re earch projects and eminar have been pon- marizing the American cholar' contribution to the ored. Thi report include brief overview of 16 collaborative re earch project. projects, ummarized by the American and japane e . cholar who organized the collaborative efforts. It Contemporary Dissertation Research on Employal 0 include information on the hi tory, admini tra- ment and Training, by Peter S. Barth. Prepared for the program of di ertation fellow hip in employtive framework, and finance of the program. Copie of the Japane e language ver ion of the ment and training at the Social Science Research report are available from the japan ociety for the Council under a grant from the U.S. Department of Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Labor. ew York: ocial cience Re earch Council, Tokyo 102, japan. Copie of the Engli h language 1985. xiii + 102 page. Cloth. ver -ion ar available upon reque t from the Council' ince the mid-1930 , the Council ha ought to Japan Program. Information on the ongoing activitie of the program i al 0 available from both organi- upport the development of the ocial and behavioral cience through di ertation fellow hip program. zation . uch program contribute toward building (and eventually repleni hing) a body of trained per onnel, Family and Life Course of Middle-Aged Men, edited many of whom-long after the period of their by Kiyomi Morioka. elected paper from a binational fellow hip-continue to work in and develop the field onferen e co pon ored by the joint ommitte on in which their di ertation wa written. Between 1980 Japane e tudie and the Japan ociety for the Pro- and 1984, the Council admini tered uch a program 54


39, N



in the field of employment and training under a grant from the U.S. Department of Labor. The return on such an inve tment in young cholar , as well as in their re earch, i often difficult to mea ure. Although important, the benefits are often ubtle and indirect, and the specific results of their re earch may not alway come to the attention of public policy makers with respon ibility for admini tering program that would be informed by uch reearch. Moreover, barriers to interdi ciplinary di cour e are frequently made all the more difficult to cale by the tendency of cholars to write in the magic code that only their immediate peers can decipher. In order to facilitate the transfer of the knowledge generated by di ertation re earch in employment and training, the Council commi sioned Peter S. Barth, an economi t at the University of Connecticut, to ummarize (and oeca ionally translate) 20 of the e di ertation and to make their findings acce ible to individual who may lack advanced technical training. The primary purpo e of this book i to bring the finding and implication of elected di ertations to the attention of officials in the Department of Labor and el ewhere. The descriptions of the dis ertation in the book include: (1) the political and intellectual context that motivated the fellow's interest in the ubject and informed or guided the re earch; (2) de cription of the idea or findings of the di ertation and their policy implications; and (3) de criptions of the data and analytic techniques u ed in the research. In addition to the de criptions, the report includes an introduction in which Barth describe the purpo e of the report, its audience, the criteria for electing the dissertation , the proee s by which the summaries were made, comments about the topics covered, the characteri tics of completed dis ertations, and summaries of the basic conclu ion reached by the e dis ertations. Fellowship recipients who e dis ertations were reviewed and ummarized include:

Paul Carter Taylor, Virginia Polytechnic In titute and tate Univer ity "Employee Stock Ownership: A Microeconomic Analy i " Elizabeth Claire Wesman. Cornell University "Public Policie at Loggerheads: The Effect of Equal Employment Opportunity Legi lation on Union" (2) Labor-Management Issues William DiFazio, City Univer ity of New York "The Effects of Guaranteed Annual Income on the Occupational Careers of Longshoremen: A Pilot Study" Gregory M. Saltzman. University of Wiscon in "The Growth of Teacher Bargaining and the Enactment of Teacher Bargaining Legi lation" (3) The Job Search Process Mary Lynn Braswell. Columbia Univer ity "Unemployment Duration and the Quality of Reemployment After Layoff as a Function of Individual Differences in Labor Market Behavior" Sara Lynn Rynes. University of Wi con in "Evaluation of Job Alternative in the Context of eeking Employment" Christine Lenz. Northwestern University "P ychological and Economic Determinants of Job Search Behavior: A Longitudinal rudy of Adaptation to Job Lo " (4) Discrimination and Labor Markets Nancy A. Garvey, Columbia Univer ity "Job Inve tment, Actual Inve tment and Expected Labor upply, and the Earnings of Young Women" Patricia A. Gwartney-Gibb , Univer ity of Michigan "Married Women's Work Experience: Intermittency and exTyped Occupation" Angelina H. Li, University of Chicago "Labor Utilization and the A imilation of A ian-American " Alan A. Parrow. Duke University "Labor Sectors and the tatu Attainment Proces : Race and Sex Comparison " Patricia A. Roo â&#x20AC;˘ University of California. Lo Angeles "Occupational Segregation in Indu trial Society: A TwelveNation Comparison of Gender and Marital Differences in Occupational Attainment" Yitzchak Shkop, Univer ity of Pitt burgh "The Effects of Providing Variou Option for Continued Employment in the Organization on Pattern of Retirement Deci ion"

(I) Evaluatiog Government Programs

(5) The Labor Market and the Business Cycle

Jam Henderson Browne, Univer ity of Illinois "An Examination of the Social Factor Determining Succe ful Training of Participants in Ex-Offender Manpower Progrnm : A Model for Predicting Social Behavior" Jonathan Katz, Brandei Univer ity "Implementing Development and Manpower Strategies In 50 ton. Chicago. and Philadelphia" Janet M. Lonergan. Massachu etts In titute of Technology "Child upport Enforcement and Welfare Dependency" Michael I. Luger. Univer ity of California. Berkeley "Regional Employment Effects of Federal Bu ines Tax Incentives"

James S. Cunningham, University of California. Lo Angeles "The Effect of Cyclic Variation in the Di tribution of Income on the Mea ured Value of Education" Jeanine Amy Frank, University of California. Irvine "The Effect of Economic Change on Employees' Health and Absenteei m" James Pearce. University of California, Lo Angeles "Implicit Contracting, Trade Unionization, and the Respon e to Demand Variation in U.S. Manufacturing"



For a copy of the report, write Robert W. Pear on at the. Council. 55

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 1015 Incorporattd in tlu talt of Illinois, DtctmMr 27, 1924, for tIu purpo t of advancing r~ tarch in tIu social scitnct Dirtctor, 1985-86: RICHARD A. BERK, niversity of California, anta Barbara; TEPHE E. FIENBERG, Carnegie- {ellon Univer ity; HOWARD GARD ER, Veteran Admini tration 1edical Genter (Boston): E. MAVI HITHERI GTON, University of Virginia; CHARLES O. JONES, University of Virginia; ROBERT W. KATES, Clark Univer ity; GARD ER LI DZEY, Genter for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral Science; HUGH T. PATRICK, Columbia Univer ity; jo EPH A. PECHMAN, The Brookings In titution (Wa hington, D.C.); KE ETH PREWITT, Social Science Research Council; YDEL F. ILVERMA ,The Graduate Genter, City Univer ity of New York; RODOLFO TAVE HAGE ,El Colcgio de Mexico; TEPHEN f. STI .LER, Univer ity of Chicago; FRA CI X. UTTON, Social Science Research Council; LoU! EA. TILLY, New School for Social Research; IDNEY VERBA, Harvard Univer ity; HERBERT F. YORK, Univer ity of California, an Diego.







Items Vol. 39 No.3 (1985)  
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