Items Vol. 38 No. 2-3 (1984)

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Law and the Social Sciences An overview of a forthcoming Council-sponsored book

by Leon Lipson and Stanton Wheeler*

To WRITE ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP between law and the social sciences begs a cultural question at the outset. The authors of this article became aware of this when they attempted to expound the law-andsocial science relationship on a visit to China. For our hosts, the idea made no sense, because law is a social science. In the United States, on the other hand, the law retains both the prestige and the stigma attached historically to the world's second oldest profession. (In contemporary China, now perhaps, it is the social sciences that are acquiring both.) This article has three main purposes: (1) To orient the reader to the history of the relationship between law and the social sciences in the United States as organized enterprises, objects of study, academic disciplines, means of social action, and forms of social intervention; (2) To explain the approaches taken by the contributors in a forthcoming state-of-the-art volume sponsored by the Council, giving a brief notion of the contents of the chapters in the volume and their connections with one another; 1 and (3) To report and hazard some conjectures on some of the principal trends that may be inferred from the volume.

* Mr. Lipson is a professor oflaw, and Mr. Wheeler a professor of both law and sociology, at the Yale Law School. 1 This article is adapted from the introduction to a forthcoming book, Law and the Social Sciences (New York: Russell 'Sage Foundation, 1985). The book is a product of the Council's Committee on Law and Social Science (1974-84), of which Mr. Lipson was chairman and Mr. Wheeler a member. The other members of the committee were Phoebe C. Ellsworth and Lawrence M. Friedman, both of Stanford University; Marc Galanter, University of Wisconsin; Sally Falk Moore, Harvard University; and Nelson W.


Law and the Social Sciences-Leon Lipson and Slaliloll Wheeler


The Short and Happy Life of Social Indicators at the National Science Foundation- Murray Abom 41 Biosocial Perspectives on Child Abuse and Neglect 44 Fellowships and Grants for International Research Offered for 1985-86 44 New Fellowship Program in Russian and Soviet Studies 45 Current Activities at the Council - New directors and officers (page 45) - Joint Advisory Committee on International Studies (page 45) - Symposium on science and technology studies (page 45) - Research opportunities in the behavioral and social sciences (page 46) - Forecasting in the social and natural sciences (page 47)

- Resistance and rebellion in the Andean world (page 48) '- New approaches to Latin American labor history . (page 50) - Francis X. Sutton receives AAS Distinguished Service Award (page 51) 52 Fellowships and Grants Awarded in 1984

Polsby and Philip Selznick, both of University of California, Berkeley. David L. Sills served as staff to the committee. In addition to the Introduction by Messrs. Lipson and Wheeler, the book consists of the following chapters: Varieties of Legal Systems, Sally Falk Moore, Harvard University; Law and the Normative Order, Richard D. Schwartz, Syracuse University; Law and the Economic Order, Edmund W. Kitch, University of Chicago; Adjudication, Marc Galanter, University of Wisconsin; Legislation, David Mayhew, Yale University; Implementation and Enforcement,Jeffrey L. Jowell, University College, London; Punishment, Jack P.


Background The wellsprings of the modern law-and-socialscience movement-as its members came to think of it-may be found in two related ideas that were already in evidence by the turn of the 20th century among some social scientists and academic lawyers. The first was the growing perception that law is a social phenomenon, and that legal doctrine and legal actors are integral parts of the social landscape. Because they are a part of social life, legal phenomena both stimulate changes in other social institutions and are affected by social changes and pressures occurring elsewhere in the society. The law also serves to codify social relations, to make them more explicit, and to impart structure to them. If legal events and actors are thus interwoven with the society, understanding legal phenomena requires examining them not in isolation but in relation to the surrounding social world. This observation sounds so obvious in the late 20th century that one wonders how it could ever have seemed otherwise. It is useful, then, to recall the position taken by Christopher Columbus Langdell, professor and dean at Harvard Law School, roughly a century ago. Langdell located the science of law among the other activities of a great university, justified the university as the proper place for the training of lawyers, and had a vision of the subject matter that made the recommended intellectual activity appropriate:

possible facility for teaching and learning law ... . We have also constantly inculcated the idea that the library is the proper workshop of professors and students alike; that it is to us all that the laboratories of the university are to the chemists and physicists, all that the Museum of Natural History is to the zoologist, all that the botanical garden is to the botanist.

If all the materials for the science of law lay in "printed books," then there would be no need to inquire into other on-going behavior-of judges, courts, lawyers, juries, or other legal actors-no need, in other words, for the kinds of studies and analyses carried out by participants in the law-and-society movement. And if one used those legal materials primarily to discern legal principles, the capacity of legal life to reflect the nature of the society in which it was located would have remained hidden from view. It was just this capacity that was brilliantly illustrated by Emile Durkheim in his imaginative use of the ratio of civil to penal law in a society as an index of changes in social solidarity. The second idea underlying the law-and-social science movement was that legal institutions not only are embedded in social life, but also can be improved by drawing upon the organized wisdom of social experience. Here the pragmatic and the scientific combine to provide a new way of assessing legal doctrine and legal practice. In its less technical form, this view is reflected in the assertion, made by Oliver Wendell Holmes in the 1890s, that the life of law has not been logic but experience. Its most prominent early example among legal materials is the famous "Brandeis [It] was indispensable to establish at least two things: first that Brief' of 1908, which examined dozens of reports of law i~ a science; secondly, that all the available materials of that the actual working conditions and experiences of science are contained in printed books. If law be not a science, a women in factories in a successful effort to help the university will best consult its own dignity in declining to teach state of Oregon justify its protective labor legislation it ... If ... there are other and better means of teaching and learning law than printed books ... it must be confessed that in court. The principle that courts, advocates, and such means cannot be provided by a university. But if printed scholars should look beyond the cases and the case books are the ultimate sources of all legal knowledge; if every doctrine to real-life circumstances became one of the student who would obtain any mastery of law as a science must cornerstones of the development of legal realism later resort to these ultimate sources; and ifthe only assistance which it is possible for the learner to receive is such as can be afforded in the 20th century. Later still, a more precise method of organizing hy teachers who have traveled the same road beforehand, -then a university and a university alone, can furnish every certain legal-social experience was worked out for the study of the effect that the enactment of rules by a legislature, or the pronouncement of doctrine and decision by a court, or the promulgation of adminisGibbs, Vanderbilt University; The Legal Profession, Richard L. Abel, University of Calii()rnia, Los Angeles; Private Government, trative regulations would have on the behavior of Stewart Macaulay, University of Wisconsin; Legal and Civic Par- persons and institutions. These "legal impact studies" tipation, Austin D. Sa rat, Amherst College; Social Science in took on increasing intricacy and formality as policy Legal Decision Making, Julius G. Getman, Vale Univel'sity, and makers and scholars learned the importance of atPhoebe C. Ellsworth, Stanford University; Problems of Method, tending 'to desired and undesired effects, to uninShari Seidman Diamond, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. tended or unforeseen consequences, and to changes The pl'eparation of the book was supported by a grant from the Law and Social Sciences Program of the National Science Foun- that occur as relevant conditions change over the lifetime of a rule. dation (SOC 77-11370).






In its more technical and scientific form, the application of behavioral science to law had equally ardent advocates and detractors. In retrospect, it seems fair to say that many of the advocates were less than fully appreciative of the difficulties encountered in attempting to do relevant and significant social research on legal issues, and thus often claimed more than they could deliver. Manifestoes were eloquent; methodologies, ambitious; results, modest. The advocates often encountered a stridently defensive group of legal academics who were all too ready to pounce on the frailties with professionally specialized acumen as a basis for dismissing the enterprise. The result is that other than the now well-documented rise and decline of legal realism in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s, and occasional substantive fruits of that period, such as the work of Karl N. Llewellyn and E. Adamson Hoebel in legal anthropology, one can talk about the early history of the law-and-society movement by referring to the turn-of-the-century giants of European social science, Durkheim and Weber, and the subsequent recognition of the potential of social science in the work of the Americans Holmes and Pound, with little of great significance emerging until after midcentury. The enterprise of law and social science that is reflected in the pages of this new Council volume is an outgrowth of the enormous expansion of the social and behavioral sciences that took place in the 1950s and afterward in the United States, building on wartime and postwar research and training. That general movement brought new funding for social research through the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the social science division of the National Science Foundation. It was also marked by a period in which private philanthropy, most notably the Ford Foundation, made significant grants for large-scale social research (the most prominent result in law-and-society work being the jury studies by Harry Kalven,Jr., Hans Zeisel, and their colleagues). The application of behavioral science to law was made easier by three other trends that emerged during this period . First, after World War II major works of European social theory were translated and published in English for the first time, so that the works of Weber, Durkheim, and others became more easily accessible to the American scholarly community. The rebirth of interest in European theory had a second effect: American social scientists moved away from the strong rule-skepticism characterized by the period of legal realism to entertain at least the idea that the study of law could deal with the role of legal principle and legal reasoning in the behavior of legal actorsSEPn:MBER


without becoming in itself an entirely nonnative enterprise. The result is that many of the studies that have emerged more recently have a joint focus that attends to rules and their interpretation, as well as to the more concrete behaviors of legal actors. Finally, the singular case of the American caste system and the major Supreme Court decision concerning it, Brown v. Board of Education of Topelw (1954), highlighted the role, dubious as it was for many, of the social sciences as potential influences on legal policy. Perhaps even more important, the Brown case and its aftermath provided a visible, powerful instance of the impact of law on society and in that way stimulated research on law. Taken together, these developments created a fertile ground for the institutionalization of interdisciplinary work in law and the behavioral sciences. Although the particulars of the developments differed by discipline in ways far too detailed to be recited here, it seems fair to say that something like a "Iawand-society" movement was generated during the 1950s, and that it grew so much in the 1960s and 1970s that there is by now a large body of findings, propositions, and conjectures worth analyzing in an assessment volume. There are many signs of the field's institutionalization. There has been a consistent flow of funding specifically for work in law and social science since at least the late 1950s, when the Council-with support from the Ford Foundation-began to give postdoctoral grants for research on American governmental and legal processes. This program ultimately became a responsibility of a new Council Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes (1964-72) . In the early 1960s, the Russell Sage Foundation began to devote a major portion of its resources to the lawand-society field. Beginning in the early 1960s and continuing for over a decade, Russell Sage funding provided the principal resources for training and research in law and the social sciences. The funding took three interrelated forms. (1) It provided substantial support to those institutions willing to commit themselves to interdisciplinary programs in law and the social sciences. The first programs were established at the University of California, Berkeley; at the University of Wisconsin; at Northwestern University; and at the University of Denver. Later programs of varying degrees of intensity and duration were established at Yale, Harvard, Stanford, and the University of Pennsylvania. The funding enabled the development of interdisciplinary courses and seminars and support for faculty members and graduate students committed to the enterprise. (2) The Russell Sage 27

Foundation established a fellowship program for a select group of scholars to pursue interdisciplinary training, often at universities that were receiving institutional support. The training, often for two-year periods, enabled the scholars to develop the background that would facilitate a career commitment to interdisciplinary work. (3) The Russell Sage Foundation provided funding for major pieces of sociological research, and often published the results of that research. This three-pronged support provided by Russell Sage-for institutions, for individual training, and for research-gave momentum to the law-andsocial science enterprise. Of special importance in the United States was the development of a new program in law and social science at the National Science Foundation. The NSF had been funding basic research in the social sciences for many years, but it had never developed a specific program to support research in law and social science. In 1972, such a program was initiated, along the lines of other NSF programs: the screening and selection of research proposals through a system of peer review and the award of research grants to successful applicants. Although the total budget is small (around $1 million a year), it provides a basis for the continuity of research and of research interests. Those receiving awards include anthropologists, economists, political scientists, psychologists, and sociologists, along with those trained primarily in law. Other patterns of support have been institutionalized in a number of European countries: for example, at various Max Planck institutes in Germany and at the Centre for SocioLegal Studies at Oxford. The growth of the enterprise is also reflected in the birth of associations and journals devoted specifically to interdisciplinary concerns. In the United States, the Law and Society Association represents a large portion of this interest. The Association's annual meetings are attended by lawyers as well as by social scientists. The Law & Society Review, the official organ of the Association, has been in existence for over 15 years. A strategically important role was played also in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the Council on Law-Related Studies under the direction of David Cavers, who before moving from Duke to Harvard had been active in founding Law & Contemporary Prob/Plns. By the end of the 1970s, many university departments in faculties of arts and sciences had provided recognized home bases for social science students of law: the sociology of law in departments of sociology, the psychology of law in psychology departments, etc. The picture in law schools was different. The law28

and-society enterprise once stood pretty much on its own in the law school world; but by now legal history, like law-and-economics, has emerged as a separate program, with its own cast of characters, its own field of application, and its own doctrine.路 Legal philosophy has had a more diffuse impact in law schools, while the perspective called critical legal theory has gained many adherents. As a consequence of these developments, what was once thought of as the law-and-society enterprise-economics apart-is fighting for space among all the others. The behavioral sciences have remained relatively stable except for beachheads here and there, while the others have grown faster.

The plan of the book The new book sponsored by the Council is at bottom a volume of assessment: it is not a collection of speculative essays and not a set of reports on fresh research. It is designed with attention to three dyads, which in turn are interlocked. First, the authors of the chapters are about evenly divided between contributors trained and working primarily in law, and those trained and working primarily in one of the social sciences. (One chapter and the introduction are written jointly by different pairs of authors of two different orientations.) Each contributor, however, is conversant with work and problems across the range of relevant disciplines; several of them are formally or informally trained in both law and a social science; most of them hold academic appointments in "well-mixed" faculties or schools; and most are engaged in training and supervising students who attend law schools as well as stu.d ents who study in faculties of arts and sciences. Second, the scope of each chapter was fixed not by its supposed disciplinary boundaries hut by the importance or interest of the subject and the work done on it, although it will be obvious to the reader that in some cases the topic leans toward one "-ology" more than it does to others. Third, each chapter contains, in slightly different ratios, both an exposition of the author's point of view and a survey of the pertinent literature-to which, in most cases, the author of the chapter has been a substantial contributor. It ought not to be hard for the reader to make the relevant distinctions. It would be impossible to summarize the information and opinions presented in the substantive chapters without compressing an already condensed text to an indigestible consistency. We limit ourselves here to some illustrative highlights of their message, reVOLUME




serving the next section for more abstract themes that cut across many of the contributions. • It has been a commonplace of critics at least since the time of Tocqueville that law spreads to cover ever-more aspects of American life while (or because?) other dimensions of organization such as religion, tradition, community, and fraternity give ground under various current pressures. Sometimes the critics have disagreed, or doubted whether the tendency toward legalization has generally worked for or against equality, for or against participation, for or against justice. One concomitant of the law's success was that theories about law tended until rather recently to be developed within the legal profession and thus to have a high normative component, no matter whether the theorist's attitude was positive or negative. Social scientists have been exhorted by (academic) lawyers since the 1920s to pay more attention to the law; but the same jurists who thought they welcomed the attention cherished the arcane and thus sometimes forbidding accoutrements of the guild. Most law firms probably would have resisted scholarly scrutiny of their part of the legal profession as intru- . sive, unethical, and irrelevant. In commenting on a proposal that large law firms be studied by legal scholars, an illustrious lawyer once told an illustrious university president, "Let them study the provision of legal services to the poor!" It was not until the 1970s that many academic lawyers accepted as good form the activity of studying law teaching and practice as an enterprise not less respectable than poets writing poems about the writing of poetry or playwrights writing plays about actors or writers. As attention thus came to be focused on the legal profession in the law schools, in part as a result of the interests of scholars engaged in what they termed critical legal theory, observation and analysis were devoted to the possible role of the organization of law school training and lawyering in preserving established hierarchies. For this reason among others, in the first half of the century the sociology of the legal profession was not a very prominent part of the sociology of the professions: the economics of legal institutions, of lawsuits, and of law firms was not a very favored subject among economists; the anthropology of law did not attract many anthropologists, at least in the field of the law of "advanced" societies; political scientists had and seemed to prefer their own ways of analyzing the state and constitutions. • One role played by social scientists persisted and has even grown in importance, throughout the changes in the relationship of theoretical perspecSEPTEMBER


tives: that of practical applications to the solution of legal problems. Whatever the views about the wisdom of social science applications in the desegregation arena, it is by now only one of an enormously varied number of applications of social science in trial and appellate courts as well as in legislative and administrative settings. Behavioral science arguments and evidence have been prominent in many issues concerning evidence and testimony such as the reliability of eyewitness testimony, in cases of race or sex discrimination, in death penalty litigation, in the issues surrounding the location of nuclear energy plants, in questions of jury size and composition, in cases involving natural disasters, as well as in such earlier applications as economic analysis in connection with patent and copyright claims. In some of these areas, the social science component is neither auxiliary nor ancillary; rather, it lies at the core of the legal claim and the evidence in its behalf. Thus, it is being institutionalized, to some extent, in legal practice, in funding, and in interdisciplinary journals. Academic lawyers doing "empirical" work may work with or study under social scientists for information and method; the apparent precision of statistical arrays and operations, deceptively implying the possibility of transforming quantity into quality, may have impressed some lawyers or convinced them that judges and juries would be impressed, despite the admonitions of statisticians and social scientists. Law schools sometimes add social scientists to their teaching faculties, encourage law-trained faculty members to add social science training to their skills, and even permit students to take courses elsewhere in the university from lesser breeds. Social scientists, meanwhile-especially in the recent past-sometimes take advantage of these needs to promote access to legal materials and lawyers for research agendas of their own. Off to one side, the historians have been digging into legal materials, turning up with their spades the messy counterexamples that the past obtrudes on law professors' generalizations. • Social scientists, trying to blend immanent and external perspectives in looking at law, have recently turned to the settlement of disputes as an object of analysis. Dispute settlement has promised to reward the efforts of anthropologists, historians, communitarians, devotees of critical legal theory, and reformers. Descriptively, the focus on dispute settlement offers a hope of measuring the amount and intensity of certain kinds of claim making and claim adjusting, and thus of getting a handle on litigiousness that goes 29

beyond the observation (itself problematic) of formal the prestige of Germanic scholarship (about the time litigation. Normatively, it appealed to interests-not of the first World War) and the rise of liberal rationalways held in common-in cheapness, community, alist generalists in the early 1970s. Yet the generalizinformality, efficiency, and perhaps also in reducing ing enterprise continued under other banners with the power and income of lawyers. For some, the very faint devices on them: rationalizing, harmonizing, idea of a plurality of dispute-settling institutions, au- promoting uniformity, restating, celebrating the subtonomous with regard to the state, would help to stantive virtues exercised obliquely by procedural retard the growth of Leviathan. Books and articles nicety, and exalting reverence for constitutions and sported the theme of law without lawyers, law without constitutionalism. More recently, the vinues of ecosanctions, and justice without law. Some of the studies nomic analysis of legal dynamics have been acclaimed, found that some extrajudicial procedures such as and the acclamation in turn criticized; some efforts commercial arbitration caught on and became estab- have been made to apply to the law some of the lished to the extent that they limited or adapted fea- methods used or at least reported from linguistic tures of the regular legal system. Others suggested philosophy, structuralism, and literary criticism; that deep and persistent features of American societal Marxism and other sometimes-critical theories have development pressed the polity toward a centralizing been brought to bear on the ideological and economic legal system which, though it might sacrifice some _ aspects of law work in a contest where the participants virtues, would help to avert greater vices; to use the recriminate with mutual charges of mystification. language of game theory, this view defended law as a Time was when the social sciences found reflection in "mini maximizer." At another level of theorizing, legal literature chiefly in the form of methodological some scholars have warned that the focus on dispute manifestoes. Now that social science research in law settlement should not be taken to imply that the prac- has ramified and deepened, we may be entering a tice of law is limited to representation of clients in period of declamatory empire building, not by the disputes. partisans of law and social science but by advocates of • One contributor works outside the United States more traditional legal scholarship. Uowell), and foreign experience is indirectly reflected in several of the other chapters. Enough is reported Cross-cutting themes and trends to disclose the affirmative and negative forms of the institutional fallacy: that is, the error of supposing Although the chapters of the book are focused on that two institutions bearing the same name must various substantive areas and lean primarily on difserve the same function in two societies, and the error ferent disciplines, they share several partially overof supposing that a given function cannot be per- lapping preoccupations. These cross-cutting themes formed in a second society if it lacks an institution by and trends may point in the direction of future rewhich that function is performed in the first. Unex- search and action. pected parallels attest the presence of similar difficulPower. The chapters on integration and conflict, on ties, although not necessarily of comprehensive "con- private government, on varieties of legal order, on vergence": for example, in their domestic businesses, . participation, and some of the others refer to inAmerican entrepreneurs and Soviet managers alike stances of continuing tension between private and often fail to pursue breach-of-contract remedies, public ordering of behavior; between diffused and theoretically available, because they wish despite the concentrated power; between power in its formal, breach to have continuing relationships with the modern legitimation through the political process other parties. I n one polity, the profit-and-loss state- and power in its economic and social modes, made ment seems to suffer, in the short run; in the other, partly convertible with other modes through law as the complaint is made that the Plan is distorted by the well as other processes. Certain activities of all or part forbearance of the putative plaintiff; but the busi- of the public are regulated by contract-like arnessmen in both polities may well know what they are rangements between government and subsets of the doing. people, a development which observers called, with • For a profession that prides itself on distrusting some alarm, the Kammel:\taat (roughly, corporate large generalizations, the law operates on the basis of state) when they noticed it a generation ago in central implicit tenets whose power is great while they last, Europe. Several chapters, e.g., on administration and although their life may be short. It is true that philos- on private government, deal with the conflicting ophers of law were not held in great esteem in the values of keeping or making public officials accountUnited States in the period between the decline of able and allowing them the discretion without which 30





they cannot do all of their work. In the chapters on deterrence, social science in the courts, and normative issues one can see the contemporary version of venerable arguments over the causes of violation and evasion of the law and, even more problematic, the causes of compliance. The chapters on economic analysis, private government, and varieties of legal order, among others, sketch informal mechanisms for coping and finagling, or (to change the metaphor) social lubricants of the creaky joints in the formal machinery. Design and function. These themes are counterpointed against the themes of power. Lawyers are supposed to be specially competent to invent, facilitate, and obstruct connections among purposes, policies, rules, and forms; almost all the chapters give instances of success and failure therein. Accountability versus discretion, mentioned above, is paralleled here by the tension between uniformity of administration and responsiveness to small variation. The neatness of hierarchical organization is counterposed to the flexibility of bargaining and negotiation. In the system in which individuals enter the legal profession, accidents of design and function-which may not be quite accidental-have produced a curious matching stratification of students, law schools, occupational roles, and intellectual perspectives. Symbolic. Several observers of American law have noticed the conflict between the mystique of legal formality, routine, and language and the pressure for explicitness and candor on the part of courts, legislatures, administrators, and other figures in authority. Sociologists, social psychologists, cultural anthropologists, and social critics have looked at law as ritual, drama, theatre, morality play. Students of language and of the legal profession, especially the legal historians, have drawn attention to the changing waves of emphasis between the (inseparable) expressive and instrumental uses of law. Those who wonder at our secular devotion to constitutionalism have linked it both to the historical need for cultural integration and to the philosophical dispute over the immanence of obligation, a connection that leads to the questions about the sources of compliance mentioned above under the theme of power. Cost.\. This theme is not an economist's monopoly. In less explicitly pecuniary terms and in other vocabularies, several of the contributors to this volume have taken up the problems of externalities, transaction costs, secondar y effects-usually undesired and unplanned-of legal intervention, problematic primary effects (legal impact studies), and occasional



secondary gains. The legal system, when measured by most ordinary criteria, seems so obviously inefficient to many that the second-degree revisionists, criticizing the critics and suggesting that the legal system serves to direct resources to their most efficient use by some appropriate standard, feel impelled to meet the charge of paradox. Institutional. Although the vast literature on legal education is not fully reviewed, some suggestions are made here and there about the duality of law school training and research as partly professional and partly academic. Studies of the interaction between the legal profession and the public raise questions of the degree of penetration of the legal system into lay mores and of the degree to which lawyers and jurists have and discharge an ethical obligation to reach the public in disseminating the legal culture. That the legal profession has grown much more attractive, and a little more accessible, as a subject of academic study by social scientists from various disciplines is itself a significant fact of recent legal history. Dynamic. Lawyers in common law jurisdictions have long been comfortable, and some have been adept, in analyzing adjudication as a means by which doctrine could be progressively cleansed. In some branches of the law, especially those touched more insistently by history and historians, they have thought about changes over time in the presuppositions of jurisprudence. Now, thanks to the increasing intervention of social scientists or social science in legal research, lawyers' attention is being drawn also to social change; to changes in institutions; to the modification of language over legally relevant intervals of time (control of language through education, caste monopoly of legal vocabulary and professional diction, changes in connotations and currency of terms, changes in style of legal language). The events of administration, legislation, and negotiation are coming more and more to be seen as ordered in a flow, a process of interactive approximation to an end sometimes willed but more often speculatively inferred. Lawyers already have rich informal experience in the workings of organization; now they are being introduced to the more systematic discussions among organization theorists, especially the analysts of bureaucracy, concerning the ways in which organizations not only persist (although the original purposes may obsolesce) but even develop new and invigorating objectives, to which in turn they must be adapted. All of these changes take place at rates which themselves may change; students of law and society have to keep an eye on the primary curve as well as on its derivatives.


Like most collective efforts, the forthcoming book is less comprehensive, less unified, and yet more repetitious than we should have liked. Some omission was early and deliberate: for example, we decided not to cover the vast field of the administration and substantive doctrine of criminal law (apart from the chapter on deterrence) because so much recent compendia and assessment had been published that more would be only marginally useful. By common although mostly tacit consent, the contributors tended not to cover what might be called the manifesto literature, stimulating though much of it is; and vol-

umes that themselves consist of secondary evaluation are relatively neglected. The committee regrets that arrangements made for other contributions by scholars from outside the United States did not bear fruit. All the contributors feel that more could well have been said on the details of the practice of law, on the application of economic theories and methods to a wider variety of legal issues, on the language of the law, and on other important subjects that we have ignored or compressed. We console ourselves and justify the enterprise with fair words like "suggestive" and "heuristic"; words that urge the reader to go on. 0

The Short and Happy Life of Social Indicators at the National Science Foundation by Murray Aborn* The December 1983 issue of Items was a Special Issue, devoted to a review of the Council's II-year program in social indicators. It included reports on the program byfive key participants; it listed all the chairmen, members, and staff of the Council's Committee on Social Indicators; and it included a bibliography of 109 publications of the Council's Washington-based Center for the Coordination of Research on Social Indicators. At the end of 1983, the Center was closed, and the continuing program, with staff, was transferred to New York. In order to provide readers with an understanding of the programmatic interests of the National Science Foundation in this field of research, the Council has asked Murray Aborn, the NSF officer responsible for social indicators, to review the broad field of social indicators from the point of view of the staff of the principal funding organization.

BEGINNING IN 1971 and continuing for some 11 years, the National Science Foundation (NSF) maintained a distinct program for the support of research and related activities directed towards the development of social indicators and systems of social accounts. A portrayal of the shape and magnitude of NSF funding for social indicators is shown in the figure on page 33. The figure indicates that an average of about 10 per cent of the budget of the NSF division now called Social and Economic Science was expended in sup-

* The author serves as head. Social Measurement and Analysis Section. and program director, Measurement Methods and Data Improvement, Division of Social and Economic Science. National Science Foundation. 32

port of the program over a 12-year period. While this level of expenditure is not remarkable in either budgetary proportions or absolute dollars, it does illustrate NSF's conviction that something distinguishable from the activities associated with the established social science disciplines was taking place in the scientific community and it does document the extent of NSF's commitment to it.

Program impact gready exceeds program size The Division of Social and Economic Science is organized largely along disciplinary lines, with specific programs dedicated to such traditional disciplines as economics, sociology, and political science. Earlier, the Division also included the disciplines of anthropology, linguistics, and social psychology (which were later transferred to a newly-formed Division of Neural and Behavioral Sciences). This administrative detail is germane to understanding that the creation of a program in something like social indicators was unusual; it correctly implies that the significance of the program's existence at NSF was greater than its budgetary proportions would suggest. The program was also significant in the historical development of the social sciences at NSF. Despite its size and limited life span, the program left a data resource legacy which became the principal argument in the successful battle to save the Division from possible extinction during the most recent round of budVOLUME




getary retrenchments affecting science funding agencies. J I t is no exaggeration to say that this legacy is the main reason the Division's budget is now being restored to previous social science levels. 2 An increase of $3,400,000 in Fiscal Year 1985 will strengthen key time series data collection for major national data resources, including the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the General Social Survey, and the National Election Studies, and support rigorous quantitative research using these and other data bases. 3 The Division's support of projects concerned with data development did not originate with the social indicators program, but the program gave this area of effort a tremendous boost by supplying new and exciting intellectual dimensions to what was previously justified as a means of encouraging greater data sharing among researchers, or as having benefits re-

lated to economies of scale. Among these new dimensions were emphases on longitudinality, trend assessment, and social reporting. But the impact of the social indicators program did not stop with data development or with the initiation of important new time series, or even with progress toward increasingly sophisticated methods of data analysis. Because it necessitated contacts with federal agencies involved in the actual production of economic and social indicators, the program helped pave the way for NSF's engagement with the federal statistical system-an engagement which has led to the opening of new opportunities for contributing to the qualitative improvement and greater accessibility of the government-generated social science data base-by far the largest and richest research resource available to the social scientific community. It might also be added that the program was a powerful factor in persuading both NSF's top management and the National Science Board of the 1 For example, in 1981-the year the Division's budget was scheduled to undergo a 75 per cent reduction in funds-the legitimate needs of the social sciences for large-scale, then-director of NSF testified before a Senate Subcommittee that long-term funding. Social indicator projects were inwhile the support level for the behavioral and social science5 was fluential in moving the social sciences into the realm being sharply curtailed, the remaining funding was "sufficient to of "big science" at NSF-albeit on a very modest scale maintain support for the most urgent requirements, such as social compared with most of the natural sciences. For science data bases and studies of unemployment and inflation. Other areas of social science are not of equal priority with support example, the relatively large grants which helped the for the natural sciences and engiheering because the social sci- Social Science Research Council support its Center ences are not as closely coupled to the President's plans to stimu- for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators late industrial development and economic recovery." See Statement of Dr. John B. Slaughter, Director, National Science Foun- came up for review before the National Science dation, before the Subcommittee on HUD-Independent Agencies Board on three separate occasions. These reviews gave of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, April this highest of the nation's scientific advisory bodies a 30, 1981, page 16. The same message was contained in the Foundation's budget request to the House Appropriations Committee, where $6.0 million of the $10.1 million remaining in the Division's budget after a proposed decrease of $30 million was earmarked for the support of "data series and related research resources that are critical to modern quantitative social science." See Hearings Before the Subcommittee on HUD-Independent Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981, p. 44. Congress ultimately raised NSF's Fiscal Year 1982 social sciences appropriation from the proposed $10.1 million to $17.5 million after members of the research community registered strong protestations against the severity of the cut in social science funding generally, and specifically against the presumed sufficiency of a $10 million appropriation for the maintenance of NSF-supported data bases. See, for instance, the Statement of Dr. F. Thomas Juster, Director, Institute for Social Research and Professor of Economics, University of Michigan, prepared for the Subcommittee on HUD-Independent Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations, May 7-8, 1981. 2 National Science Foundation,Justification oj Estimate.l路 oj Appropriations, Fiscal Yea/' 1985. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1984, page BBS-IV -6. :1 National Science Foundation, op. cit., pages BBS-IV-5. SEPTEMBER


Funding for Social Indicators Within NSF's Division of Social and Economic Science, 1971-82





... ~





:S Si




72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 Years

Legend Division IZi.2 Program



rare opportunity to become familiar with the overtime operation of a significant social science facility.

The science indicators connection

While there is no reason to doubt that the Board's enthusiastic reception was primarily a response to the A good beginning soundness of the scientific arguments, other factors The Division's good fortune with social indicators also account for the success with which the social began early on, when it presented plans to the Na- indicators program was launched. For one thing, such tional Science Board to undertake a social indicators an initiative was clearly recommended by a Special initiative. The Board is a 24-member, presidentially- Commission which the Board itself had created in appointed body which is responsible for shaping NSF 1968. 4 An even broader recommendation concerning policy. Its functions include the review of new pro- federal support for social indicators development is grams and related matters brought to its attention contained in a contemporary report of the National because of their policy implications. The Board also Academy of Sciences.5 But the timing of the initiative must approve all grant commitments beyond certain was also felicitous in that it came during a period in dollar thresholds, and a year or so preceding the which the Board was planning to produce a series of social indicators presentation I participated in the biennial Science Indicators publications to serve as presentation of a multiyear social sciences proposal Board reports to the President and the Congress. It whose size exceeded one of those thresholds. Much to was hoped at that time that Science Indicators would our surprise, given the fact that the proposed project eventually serve as guidance for policy action in the had many of the characteristics of large-scale projects allocation and management of resources and as an in the natural sciences, and given the NSF ethos of early warning system for emerging national probmodeling the social sciences after the natural sciences, lems; in these capacities, the series bears a kinship the presentation elicited considerable criticism from with the general objectives associated with social indivarious Board members. Generally, 'concern was ex- cators. This is reflected in the introduction to the first pressed about the wisdom of allocating a sizable pro- Science Indicators volume, published in 1973,6 which portion of social science funds to a project seemingly emphasized the difficulty of measuring the social and oriented toward creating an expensive new technol- economic impacts of scientific knowledge. ogy rather than improving the quality of the more Given this background, it is small wonder that the conventional techniques employed by the social sci- Board listened to our social indicators presentation ences. We tried to counter by responding that the with something more than normal interest. The project would result in improvements in the more Board at that time was embarking upon a social reconventional social science techniques, mentioning porting venture which included the use of Delphi that, for example, the project held the specific prom- techniques to gather expert opinion,1 and the ise of improving the existing state of the art in making sponsorship of a nationwide survey of public attitudes economic projections. To this one Board member toward science and technology. wryly remarked that he thought he would vote in Before proceeding with the history of the program, favor of the project because once it was completed, I should like to make one more point-a rather subtle economists could at least be counted on to make one-concerning the Board's reaction to the presenbetter-planned mistakes. . Our presentation to the Board a year later was In stark contrast to this earlier experience. The details of ~ National Science Foundation, Klloll'll'dgl' into Action: Improving our plans to inaugurate a social indicators program th(' Nation's Use Ii! the SOt illl Scienas. Report of the Special Commiswere exceptionally well-received and drew many fa- sion on the Social Sciences of the National Science Board. Washvorable comments. We made no claims for the field's ington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1969. ;; National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, ultimate emergence as a discipline having a research The Behavioral and Social Scimces: Outlook and Nel'dl. A report by tradition of its own, but we stressed the distinctive the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Commiuee Under the qualities of the data and methods likely to be em- Auspicies of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National ployed. We proposed plans to mobilize the necessary Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and P~)licy, scientific manpower and to support some institutional Social Science Research Council. Washington, D.C.: NatIonal mechanism to help get things organized (ultimately, Academy of Sciences, 1969. 6 National Science Board, Scil'll(,(' inriimton-I972. Washington, this became the Social Science Research Council's D.C. : Government Printing Office, 1973. Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indi7 Delphi is the name for a set of techniques used to ohtain cators) . Both the sul~ject matter and our plans were collective judgments on issues which cannot be resolved on the basis of hard data or well-established theories. greeted with enthusiasm. 34





tation. Because the Division supported so few projects of a scale or a character requiring Board review, Board members had little occasion to acquire an indepth knowledge of the Division's activities; since the composition of the Board changes over time, mem路 bers often held rather parochial (as well as erroneous) views of the social sciences in general and of the social sciences as they existed within NSF. I have good reason to believe, therefore, that until the social indicators presentation, the Board never drew a connection between science indicators and social science, no less between science indicators and the programs of NSF's Division of Social Sciences. The presentation therefore accomplished an unintended but important objective: it made the Board aware that it was itself engaged in a social scientific activity.

A sustained reputation The favorable image of social indicators within the Foundation at the outset remained intact throughout the life of the program. This phenomenon held true not only from the National Science Board's perspective, but more generally with respect to the National Science Foundation as a whole. The "nuggets" emerging from NSF-supported social indicators projects were partially responsible for this state of affairs. ("Nuggets" in the jargon of the Foundation are compact items of readily communicable information representing scientific developments suitable for transmission to the news media or useful in connection with such specialized media as the Foundation's widely distributed Annual Report or as background material in the Foundation's budgetary documents. They are submitted by program officers and pass, by a process of selection, through many hands up the various administrative levels of NSF.) Successful nuggets, i.e., either near misses or those which actually appear in one form of publication or another, can make a program more visible than any other form of program output. Social indicators nuggets, although perhaps not numerous, were absorbing to natural as well as social scientists; they were varied and often colorful. Eyecatching graphic representations were sometimes possible-a rarity in the social sciences. For example, NSF's 1977 Annual Report illustrated social indicators by a large array of shaded clock faces showing the changing patterns of time use in the United States. 8 8 Based on data supplied by F. Thomas Juster and Frank P. Stafford, directors of the National Time Use Data Series. University of Michigan.



A nugget which exemplifies the use of visual metaphors to simplify the communication of highly complex social indicator information was derived from an article entitled "Facing the Nation" prepared by Howard Wainer of the Educational Testing Service (Princeton, New Jersey). The technique of display-one which capitalizes on the human ability to perceive and remember small variations in the structure of human faces-was developed by Herman Chernoff, a mathematician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The technique involves letting the size, shape, or orientation of each feature of a cartoon face represent one particular variable. Thus, in Wainer's utilization of the technique, income was represented by the curvature of the mouth, crime rate by width of the nose, education level by slant of the eyes, and so forth. Using state-level data drawn from public use files and performing the transformations required by Chernoffs technique, Wainer prqjected the faces onto a map of the United States to produce a comparative display of multidimensional information which the viewer can grasp quickly by the gestalt of the faces or discern more carefully by an examination of individual features. Other factors also played a role in program popularity. For instance, some social indicator projects produced offshoots which proved to be eye openers to colleagues in other parts of NSF and left them impressed with the versatility of the field. Albert D. Biderman's . "kinostatistics" or Graphic Social Reporting Project at the Bureau of Social Science Research (Washington, D.C.) and Henry M. Peskin's Environmental Asset Accounts Project at Resources for the Future (Washington, D.C.) are two examples. The former contributed greatly to a revival of interest in high-quality statistical graphics, a revival which now encompasses the wider statistical community; and it also led to the formation of a pan-disciplinary organization (the Council on Social Graphics) which spans fields of science and engineering as distinct from one another as architecture, computer science, museum management, demography, telecommunications, semiotics, economics, and holography. The Resources for the Future project developed a system of water quality network models capable of assessing the effects of federal water pollution control regulations on the nation's water resources. The system was adopted for use by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of the Interior. The data bases on which the system operates were assembled as part of an earlier social indicators prqject conducted by 10 senior in35

vestigators located at different academic and nonprofit institutions but operating under the coordinating sponsorship of the National Bureau of Economic Research. This earlier project was aimed at making the National Income and Product Accounts into a more complete socioeconomic accounting framework. An unusual form of recognition took place when staff of the Council's social indicators Center conducted a series of interviews with NSF program directors who had planning responsibilities in major areas of collaborative endeavor in the natural sciences (e.g., research operations in the Antarctic, International Biological Years, observations of rare astronomical events). The purpose was to see what could be learned from the strategies employed by natural scientists in managing the intellectual, financial, and logistical aspects of such efforts. Many of these officials long afterward expressed a fascination with the idea of analogous planning activities in an area such as social indicato路rs; almost all were willing to participate in a series of seminars which, the Center thought at one time, it might organize to bring planners in the various areas into contact with the problems of planning for coordinated research in a specific field of the social sciences. While the seminars to bring together planners from the social and natural sciences never materialized, an analogous and in many ways more significant event recently took place under the auspices of the Center's governing body, the Committee on Social Indicators. This event grew out of the Center's explorations into the subject of forecasting and its relation to social indicator development. A conference on forecasting in the social and natural sciences was held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, on June 10-13, 1984. The conference involved participation by prominent members of the social and natural sciences communities, and included papers on topics which ranged across the scope, methods, limitations, impacts, and consequences of forecasting from the perspectives of fields as diverse as agricultural science, atmospheric science, ecology, economics, evaluation research, and social indicators (see pages 47-48). To return to the National Science Board, here the favorable image of social indicators had a firmer and more continuous basis as a result of the Board's ongoing familiarity with the social indicators program through more-frequent-than-customary presentations, and through research outputs of that program which proved helpful to the Board's Science Indicators series. The best example of the latter was the work of 36

Nestor E. Terleckyj and collaborators under the project "Indicators of the State of Science and Research." The compendium of indicators encompassed by the Board's first two Science Indicators volumes were based mostly on human and financial resources devoted to research and development and on educational inputs such as enrollments and degrees awarded in the sciences at institutions of higher learning. Terleckyj's project, conducted under the auspices of the National Planning Association (Washington, D.C.), was aimed at producing a variety of additional indicators-the main emphasis being on indicators of the effects of science and research upon the economy and society. Indicators of this sort were, and are, of intense interest to the Board, and Terleckyj prepared a chartbook summary of the project's results 9 for distribution to Board members-prior to commercial publication of the charts and tables accompanied by interpretive text a year later. 10 The influence of the State of Science and Research project on the Board's Science Indicators series is difficult to gauge in any direct way. The specific indicators which Terleckyj and collaborators proposed were neither developed further nor added to the battery of indicators appearing in subsequent Science Indicators volumes. Even where suggestions of influence may be inferred from the treatment given to areas of overlap with State of Science and Research indicators in succeeding Science Indicators publications, the extent of influence cannot be assessed since there were other avenues used by the Board to expand and enhance the quantitative measures forming the core around which the Science Indicators series is built. However, that the Board was cognizant of the State of Science and Research project is evident from the fairly frequent citations to Terleckyj's writings and from testimony before congressional committees published in subsequent Science Indicators volumes. A very important set of programmatic activities of whose influence there is absolutely no doubt took place under the auspices of the social indicators committee's Subcommittee on Science Indicators. The subcommittee's early impact is publically acknowledged in the second volume in the Science Indicators series, 11 in whose preface the Board expresses its

N Nestor E. Terieckyj, Slate of Science and Research: Some New Indimlors. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association,

1976. 10 Nestor E. Terleckyj, editor. Slale of Science and Research: Some Nl'UI Indicators. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977. II National Science Board, Science Indimwrs-1974. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975. VOLUME




appreciation to the Council for sponsoring a symposium and publishing a critical review of the Board's first Science Indicators report. Later symposia centered on the contents of subsequent Science Indicators volumes, such as that occurring in connection with the publication of Science Indicators-1976, which was attended by current and former Board members and whose proceedings were later published in a special issue of an international science policy journal. 12 Another lasting achievement of the subcommittee is embodied in the highly-regarded volume Toward a Metric of Science. 13 It should not be concluded that the Board's favorable view of social indicators was derived solely from its special concern with science indicators. The amount of international and domestic governmental activity devoted to social indicators and social reporting made a strong impression on the Board; social indicators were apparently having many real-world impacts, and in the Board's eyes this imposed a special responsibility for NSF to remain aware and alert to the effects of its own projects in the area. In fact, in 1977 the Board decided that social indicators were too important to be left exclusively to social scientists. Accordingly, it mandated the inclusion of two nonsocial scientists on the Council's Committee on Social Indicators as a condition of future support, and the Council responded positively.

The great decompression If the Foundation's experience with social indicators was so happy, why was the social indicators program discontinued? Actually, discontinued is not precisely the right term. It is still appropriate for researchers to submit social indicators proposals to NSF. Grants are still being made that are either explicitly or implicitly related to social indicators development or to other aspects of the "social indicators movement," such as social accounting, social reporting, and social forecasting. But it is nonetheless true that no program in the formal sense of the term exists. What happened? The short answer is that, toward the close of the 1970s, social indicators began to fade as a distinguishable field of research. An area of endeavor which 12 Harriet Zuckerman and Roberta B. Miller, editors, "Science Indicators: Implications for Research and Policy." Scientometncs, 2(5-6):327-468, October 1980. 13 Yehuda Elkana; Joshua Lederberg; Robert K. Merton; Arnold Thackray; and Harriet Zuckerman. editors, Toward a Metric lif Science: Thl' Advent oj Science Indimtors. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1978.



emerged in the borderlands between disciplines, social indicators retained its identity so long as it remained compressed, as it were, between established disciplinary domains. I would describe what was happening at the close of the 1970s as the beginning of a great decompression. This same observation has been reported in a number of recent articles, though not all agree on the exact timing of events or the nature of the process. The following are some examples of what I mean. In a paper prepared for delivery at the 1982 World Congress of Sociology, Wolfgang Glatzer predicted that because of the field's "potential for diversity," social indicator approaches are more likely to become integrated into the older, better-established areas of research than to continue as an independent research tradition. 14 Reviewing the history and progress of the social indicators movement against the background of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Social Indicators Programme, Henri Verwayen noted that: The modern social indicators movement originated in a time of great prosperity in western countries .... A time in which the issue of economic growth as the overriding concern of governments came under increasing attack .... The world has not continued. however. along a smooth pathway on which ever growing resources could be "better" allocated .... practically all countries have had to adjust during the past decade or so to the twin effects of a severe recession and structural changes in world markets .... Although this drastic change in economic conditions has not invalidated the basic premises of the social indicators movement. ... it certainly has affected the margins between which the movement has run its course. 15

A more formal analysis was recently published by Howard D. White, who with some assistance from the Center performed a large-scale bibliographic analysis of authors and works associated with the social indicators movement. 16 The results of White's H Wolfgang Glatzer. "Actors and Approaches in Social Indicators Research." Paper prepared for the symposium "Problems of Social Indicators: Their Role in Social Development." Tenth World Congress of Sociology, Mexico City. August 1982. 15 Henri Verwayen. "Social Indicators: Actual and Potential Uses." Socia/Indicators Research. 14(1): 11-12, January 1984. 16 Howard D. White. "A Cocitation Map of the Social Indicators Movement." Journal oj the American Society Jor lriformation Science, 34(5):307-312. September 1983. The technique White employed-a variant of citation analysis combined with multidimensional scaling-assumes that within the corpus of published documents constituting the literature of a scientific specialty. the frequency with which authors cite one another can be made to yield a portrait of the substantive structure of that specialty, showing. for instance. whether groups of authors tend to form clusters characterized by differences in concept, method,


analysis imply that in the 1980s, the area of social indicators activity most likely to grow, and presumably advance, is one peopled by investigators who are not strongly identified with the field and whose research, despite its association with social indicators contexts, might just as easily be classified "mainstream quantitative sociology" as anything else. White's study has special meaning for NSF's social indicators program because it supports the view that in the 1970s it was becoming increasingly difficult to identify research that qualified as social scientific and was distinctively social indicators in character. Reviewing social indicators accomplishments in the December 1983 issue of Item\-a special issue devoted to the Council's program in social indicatorsKenneth Prewitt concurred with the results of the White study when he wrote, "Perhaps the main difficulty facing any serious assessment of social indicators, and the Council's role in developing them, is the blending of social indicators with contemporary trends in quantitative social science."17 And in that same issue, Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, whose scientific and administrative activities have been of enormous influence on the development of the field, asserted that the field could have been looked upon as evanescent from the outset. She wrote: Never did I view social indicators as an endeavor separate from the disciplines. It was not intended to be a distinct discipline, as one may view sociolinguistics. It was instead a cross-disciplinary effort that could be absorbed by the disciplines: an intellectual effort to which sociologists, economists, social psychologists, political scientists, and others could contribute""

In comments I contributed to that same issue of Item~, I too offered a view of social indicators as an effort of limited life span, comparing it to NSF's involvement in the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) and pointing to similarities in both the obstacles to achievement and the achievements of the twO. lli IDOE was a decade-long, multinational exploration of the possibilities for monitoring the world's oceans. Social indicators can be interpreted as style, or technique. White's analysis ultimately produced a "map" providing a spatial depiction of the different clusters revealed by the analytic procedure, along Wilh the degree of overlap or nonoverlap among them. 17 Kenneth Prewitt, "Council Reorganizes Its Work in Social Indicators." Itelns , 37(4) :77, Decemher 1983. IS Eleanor B. Sheldon, " Recollections and Views of Key Figures in the Social Indicators Program:' Items, 37(4):80, December 1983. I" Murray Aborn, "Recollections and Views of Key Figures in the Social Indicators Program ." items, 37(4):86, December 198:t


a similar attempt at exploration, this time in societal monitoring-although the attempt was unintegrated and small in scale compared with IDOE. The marine biologists and physical scientists who worked within IDOE during its 10 years of existence carried the lessons learned along with the gains in knowledge and technique back to their parent disciplines when the cross-disciplinary effort was over. The same may be said for the dissolution of social indicators. In retrospect, it was a special effort to provide a more scientific basis for the measurement and reporting of social conditions and the analysis of long-term social change. Some of the concepts and techniques emanating from the effort are becoming institutionalized in the traditional social science disciplines, according to Wolfgang Glatzer, and the effort itself is undergoing a process which Robert K. Merton has termed "obliteration by incorporation." Data resources and other data-related initiatives received great impetus from, as well as general nurturing under, the social indicators program, but by the early 1980s they had become too broadly associated with the quantitative approach per se in social science to be identified exclusively with any single field of endeavor. The state of affairs with respect to data resources may be judged from the contents of the table on page 39, which describes nine of the larger largescale data projects being supported by the Division at the time we ceased placing grants under the social indicators rubric. It is not difficult to imagine how any or all of these data resources might be utilized in the pursuit of social indicators development, but it is also not difficult to imagine how they might be utilized in other types of social science research. None of this should be taken as grounds for bemoaning the passing of social indicators as a visible program within NSF. The program ended the way it began, as an initiative commanding broad interest and high esteem. During its lifetime, the program made salient contributions to the survival of social science at the Foundation, and some of its offshoots-like the recent conference on forecasting in the social and natural sciences (see pages 47-48) -may have planted the seeds for the future welfare and growth of the social sciences in NSF.

Social accounting Referring once again to the December 1983 issue of ltem\' devoted to a review of the Council's social indicators program, the Council's position on the policyanalytic potential of the field comes through quite clearly. Both Eleanor Sheldon and Robert Parke, VOLUME




en to: :;j to:


Large-scale Data Projects Supported by the National Science Foundation's Division of Social and Economic Science through Fiscal Year 1982

to: ;t:


00 ~

Project Title

Data Archives of the ICPSR

1940/50 Census Public Use Sample Files

National Election Studies

General Social Survey

National Time Use Data Series

Panel Study of Family Income Dynamics

Quality of Life Survey Series

Longitudinal Establishment Data Base

Environmental Asset Data Bases




The Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) processes, documents, conserves, and disseminates major data collections deposited by private and public agencies Public use samples from the 1940 and 1950 decennial censuses compatible with the public use files for the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses Biennial pre- and postelection national surveys dating from 1952 to the present Cross-sectional surveys, mostly annual, on attitudes and values regarding so~ietal institutions and major social Issues T ime budgets gathered periodically from nationally representative samples of American households Annual information on the economic fortunes of 5,000 American families together with the families formed by children of the original sample Replicated sample surveys of objective life conditions and the respondent's subjective assessments of their quality Data from the Annual Survey of Manufacturers and the Census of Manufacturers matched and merged intoover-time files preserving confidentiality Collation of large numbers of diverse data sets pertaining to specified features of the physical environment and studies of their valuation

Project Director(s) and Sponsoring Institution

Cumulative Funding

Other Sources of Support

Jerome M. Clubb, Gregory M. Marks, University of Michigan


National Endowment for the Humanities

H. H . Winsborough , Karl E. Taeuber, Robert M. Hauser University of Wisconsin Warren E. Miller University of Michigan


U.S. Bureau of the Census


James A. Davis, Thomas Smith, Norman M. Bradburn National Opinion Research Center F. Thomas Juster, Frank P. Stafford University of Michigan



Foundation for Child Development

Greg J. Duncan University of Michigan


Philip E. Converse, Angus Campbell Univel:5ity of Michigan


U.S. Department Health & Human Services; Rockefeller and Sloan foundations Russell Sage Foundation

Richard Ruggles, Nancy D. Ruggles Yale University


U.S . Bureau of the Census; Small Business AdministJ路ation

Henry M. Peskin, Resources for the Future


Environmental Protection Agency

former director of the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators, make plain that the role of indicators in public policy formation was viewed as strictly secondary to the fulfillment of a research agenda. Parke stated: The rhetoric of the social indicators movement in the 1960s was laden with suggestions that social indicators would have fairly visible political consequences. It fell to the Council to assert the primacy of social research, to say that political promises must be set aside for the time being, that social science is not ready to deliver on them: the first task is a research task. 20

At NSF we understood the Council's wish to avoid involvement with the widespread tendency to oversell social indicators politically; we needed no reminders of the dangers posed by premature forays into the political arena. Nonetheless, we did not see this as a reason to bar the subfield of social accounting from eligibility under the social indicators program. Although social accounting is normally thought to have a policy guidance if not policy formulation orientation, it too can be the subject of research. In fact, we saw research on social accounting as one important means of developing what social indicators would ultimately require for their unambiguous interpretation: frameworks and models representing the conceptual basis for undertaking societal measurements in the first place. At any rate, no review of NSF's social indicators program would be complete without a report on this component of the program and a tribute to the 25 or so principal investigators who attempted implementation of the incredibly complex and extraordinarily ambitious research prospectus set forth by Bertram Gross in the mid-1960s. 21 . Five major social accounting projects were supported undei- the program. Other sponsored work either was, or is, in some way related to these five major efforts. An excellent summation and critique of four of these projects, along with more general perspectives on the whole social accounting enterprise, may be found in Juster and Land. 22 The conference from which the Juster and Land volume emerged was held under the sponsorship of the Council's Committee on Social Indicators, so that the gulf dividing the Council and NSF on the policy-relatedness issue was not really all that deep. 20 Robert Parke, "Recollections and Views of Key Figures in the Social Indicators Program," 36(4):82, December 1983. 21 Bertram M. Gross, "The State of the Nation: Social Systems Accounting." In Raymond A. Bauer, editor, Socia! Indimtors. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1966. 22 F. Thomas Juster and Kenneth C. Land, editors, Socia! AcrtJullting Systems: Essays on thl' Statl' I!fthe Art. New York: Academic Press, 1981.


For a decade, these projects withstood substantive reviews, but by 1981 there was a consensus that this entire line of research had reached the limits permitted by both the state of the art and the levels of funding which could justifiably be invested in it. The result has been a mothballing of some projects, the dissolution of others, and the continued operation of three in a very low-key, basic research mode. Although the current mode of accounting research supported by NSF is basic and low-key, one of the projects launched under the program has evoked the strong interest of the official keepers of the National Income and Product Accounts at the Department of Commerce. The Measurement of Economic and Social Performance project was disbanded in 1978, but Richard and Nancy D. Ruggles continued their research on the basic problem of revising the existing system of national accounts so as to provide a single framework for economic and social data at different levels of aggregation, from micro to macro, and embracing stocks as well as ÂŁ1ows. 23 Social accounting is one pillar of the social indicators movement still standing. Another is social reporting, mainly practiced abroad insofar as governmental activity goes, but currently being kept active in the private sector by the Council's reorganized Committee on Social Indicators, chaired by Kenneth C. Land, University of Texas. However, the major emphasis in social reporting seems to be on reporting per se rather than on any attempt to do what I would consider to be research on this important subject.

Epilogue Suppose, for a moment, that 1985 witnesses the inauguration of a Mondale presidency and that President Mondale implements by executive fiat what Senator Mondale had tried to accomplish by legislation; i.e., he creates a Council of Social Advisors similar in purpose and function to the Council of Economic Advisors. 24 Suppose further that the creation of such a Council leads inexorably to preparations for the publication of an annual social report of the president, also envisioned under the earlier-proposed legislation, and the establishment of a system of na23 Richard Ruggles and Nancy D. Ruggles, "Integrated Economic Accounts for the United States, 1947-80." Survey of Current Business, Bureau of Economic Analysis, u.s. Department of Commerce, 62(5):2-75, May 1982. 24 ClJlzgreniona! Record Senllte, S15314, "Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities," September 1973.





tional social accounts. If all this were to occur, would the social sciences be better equipped to assist with the accomplishment of social indicators objectives than they were at the beginning of the social indicators movement? The answer to this question is surely in the affirmative. Ongoing work in European countries such as Sweden and West Germany continues to furnish models of academic-governmental cooperation in the area of social reporting. The technology for data-base management and analysis has made enormous strides since the mid-1960s. And even if a rather small number of social scientists was actually exposed to the social indicators experience of the past 20 years, there is no dearth of lessons to be drawn from that experience. Nonetheless, I should think that the most important single factor in the success of any future revival of the social indicators movement will not be what the social sciences have to offer, but rather the extent to

which society has shaped itself around the concepts underlying the employment of social indicators, as well as the mechanisms for their production. In general, social scier:tce proceeds with the active participation of its subjects of study, and so must social indicators. In her 1975 book on social indicators, Judith deNeufville states: If indicators are to be accepted and trusted by various sides of a discussion, they require an institutionalized life, somewhat removed from the immediacy of day-to-day politics. They also seem to require a basis in some consensus about their concepts and methods and the appropriateness of their use in particular contexts. Moreover, if they even appear to be manipulable by those in powei', they will not serve as neutral information carriers in a policy discussion, but will rather be ignored .25 0

25 Judith I. deNeufville, Sociallndicatrm lind Public Policy . New York: American Elsevier Publishing Co., 1975, page 24 :~ .



held a conference on May 20-23, 1984 at the Breckinridge Conference Center, York, Maine, to bring a biosocial approach to the study of child abuse and neglect. The majority of research and theory on child abuse in the United States has relied on medical, psychological dynamics, and social stress models, and much attention has been devoted to policy and social service issues. Little effort, however, has been devote$i to comparing the situation of child abuse in the United States to abuse in other societies, past or present, or in other species. This three-day conference examined cross-cultural, evolutionary, historical, and cross-species research of relevance to offspring abuse and neglect. These combined comparative approaches constitute the committee's biosocial perspective on human behavior. The value of applying a biosocial perspective to the problem of human child abuse lies in the wider dimension through time and space that it adds to modern studies. It takes the focus off child abuse as a social or psychological pathology by demonstrating how offspring abuse is restricted neither t.o the human species nor to modern history. It directs attention to questions about when and where a pattern SEPTEMBER


of abuse might be expected to occur at high frequencies because of the social and ecological contexts in which reproductive units are found. The perspective emphasizes the importance of biological relatedness in shaping social interactions. Communication between the different disciplines (anthropology, pediatrics, psychology, psychiatry, primatology, sociology, and zoology) and perspectives . brought together for the meeting considered the definition and conceptualization of abuse, which remain problematic concerns in research and treatment, in addition to examining the identification of etiological factors and possible consequences. Program sessions were organized around four themes.

Cross-cultural and historical perspectives Although not yet synthesized, there has been a recent growth in attention to cross-cultural and historical aspects of child abuse and neglect. Various reports present preliminary data which suggest that the violent forms of child abuse and neglect prevalent in our own society are rare or unknown in traditional societies but are becoming of greater and greater concern as traditional societies modernize. The value 41

of the cross-cultural and historical record in pro- at the greatest risk. However, few conferences have moting a better understanding of this worldwide tried to consider the developmental aspects of abuse phenomenon lies in the opportunities which these and neglect. Are risk factors different at various deresources provide for independently analyzing the velopmental stages? They seem to be, but there has effects of such factors as population shifts from rural been little systematic discussion of the basis of the to urban contexts, various family structure adap- relationship between risk and developmental level. tations to modern economic systems, and changes in What are the developmental consequences of child family size and child spacing based on the loss of abuse and neglect? If a child is abused at age two, will traditional forms of family planning such as infan- he or she be abused in later life? Do abused children ticide and long lactation amenorrhea. Recent an- grow up to be abusive toward their parents? If so, thropological attention does not directly exploit this when and why? The development of parental compotential, but this growing interest and this expertise petence needs to be examined in the context of opwere brought together in the conference. portunities for experience in parenting. Are parents of certain ages more at risk for abuse and what is the effect of the onset of parenting early or late in the life An evolutionary perspective cycle? These questions suggest a need to bring a child Recent developments in evolutionary theory stress and family developmental perspective to the study of the importance of two major concepts in the shaping abuse and neglect, both to identify gaps in empirical of the biology and behavior of a species: kin selection data and to expand the theoretical frameworks which and parental investment. These concepts are especially are generally brought to bear on the study of abuse suited to the understanding of human social life and neglect. since the human line made what turned out to be an enduring and fundamental commitment to the family as the m<tior mechanism of adaptation to the social Nonhuman primate models and ecological environment. Crucial elements of the The value of nonhuman primate models for studies human pattern include high levels of both female and of child abuse is that they can be used to isolate male parental investment, a division of labor between experimentally factors such as parental and child age parents, and a long period of child dependence upon and health, emotional states such as stress, conditions adults for food, protection, and learning. of maternal rearing, and immediate social context. The value of kin selection theory is that it places a For example, the effects of subadult versus adult fresh emphasis on the shared biological and g..enetic maternal age on child abuse can be studied in interests of close relatives extending beyond the nonhuman primates without any of the complicating parent-child relationship to include the grand- factors of single-parenting, illegitimacy, or school parental generation, siblings, and cousins. Parental dropout status. Laboratory-reared nonhuman priinvestment theory focuses on both the complemen- mates reach pubertal maturation at earlier ages than tary and the competing interests of parents, off-' those in the wild. In fact, there seems to be a secular spring, and siblings: it includes degrees of relatedness trend toward decreasing age at puberty in laboraand biological and psychological needs. A variety of tory-reared nonhuman primates, comparable to the researchers from anthropology, psychology, sociol- secular trend found in humans. The maternal failure ogy, and zoology are applying various aspects of pa- of first-time primate mothers in the laboratory may rental investment and kin selection theory to the be due to their emotional, cognitive, and biological understanding of both nonhuman primates' and hu- immaturity as well as to their primiparous status. mans' reproductive strategies and evolutionary his- Nonhuman primates offer excellent opportunities to tory. A number have used this perspective to grapple study the relationship of age, context, and experience with widespread patterns of behavior which appear to parental behavior patterns. against the interests of the individuals concerned; Field research is essential for understanding offoffspring abuse and neglect is one such behavior. spring abuse among primates. The best biological This research was also represented at t~~ meeting. definition of successful parenting is to raise offspring who themselves survive to raise offspring in the natuDevelopmental issues: Susceptibility ral environment. The evaluation of a "good" primate and consequences mother cannot be found in the behavior patterns of Considerable attention has been devoted to exam- the laboratory environment where maternal care may ining abuse and neglect among children thought to be be the only activity available to a female other than 42





periodic feeding and rest. I t is remarkable that nearly all detailed information we have on normal maternal care and attachment in nonhuman primates comes from studies of mothers with no predators or infanticidal males to contend with and with no need to put in long hours of foraging each day simply to maintain their health and that of their infants. Recent field work on primates has revealed remarkable differences, at the taxonomic levels of species, genus, and family, in what constitutes appropriate maternal care and maternal investment. Furthermore, longterm field studies reveal significant degrees of parental investment in infants even in species which are promiscuous or dominance-oriented in mating patterns. Other long-term field studies reveal remarkable environmental influences on parental investment in male and female offspring. Communication between researchers in child abuse and researchers interested in primate models was one central theme of the meeting. The program consisted of the following sessions and presentations:

Martin Reite, "Child Abuse: A Comparative and Psychobiological Perspective" Byron Egeland, "Issues Related to the Developmental Consequences of Child Maltreatment" Dante Cicchetti, "Report on a Longitudinal Study" Commentator: Charles M. Super

(4) Children at risk Martin Daly, "Children as Homicide Victims" Margo Wilson, "Risks to Children with Substitute Parents" Commentator: Michael E. Lamb

The participants at the conference were: Jeanne Altmann Dante Cicchetti Martin Daly Byron Egeland james Garbarino Richard J. Gelles Kathleen R. Gibson Sarah Hrdy Sheila Ryan Johansson jill Korbin

Michael E. Lamb Jane B. Lancaster ( I) Cross-cultural and historical perspectives Carolyn Moore Newberger Richard Gelles, "What to Learn from Cross-Cultural and Histori- Anne Petersen cal Research: An Overview" Martin Reite Jill Korbin, "Child Maltreatment and the Cultural Context: Cur- Alice S. Rossi rent Knowledge and Future Directions" Euclid O. Smith Sheila Ryan johansson, "Historical Demography and the Impact Charles M. Super of Modernization and Social Change on Sex Ratios of Children" Maris A. Vinovskis Commentator: Maris A. Vinovskis Margo Wilson

University of Chicago Harvard University McMaster University University of Minnesota Pennsylvania State University University of Rhode Island University of Texas University of California, Davis University of California, Berkeley Case Western Reserve University University of Utah University of Oklahoma Harvard Medical School Pennsylvania State University University of Colorado University of Massachusetts Emory University Harvard School of Public Health University of Michigan McMaster University

(2) Evolutionary perspectives Jeanne Altmann, "The Evolution of Behavior and SociallyInduced Morality" Sarah Hrdy, "Sex Bias in Parental Investment Strategies Among Birds and Mammals" Euclid O. Smith, "External and Internal Influences on Aggression in Captive Group-Living Monkeys" Commentator: Kathleen R. Gibson

Members of the committee during 1983-84 were Jane B. Lancaster, University of Oklahoma (chair); Richard J. Gelles, University of Rhode Island; Kathleen R. Gibson, University of Texas (Houston); Beatrix A. Hamburg, Mt. Sinai Medical Center (New York); Melvin J. Konner, Emory University; Michael (3) Developmental issues: Susceptibility and consequences E. Lamb, University of Utah; Anne Petersen, PennJames Garbarino, "An Ecological Perspective on Outcomes: What sylvania State University; Charles M. Super, Harvard Difference Will the Differences Make?" Carolyn Newberger, "Developmental Perspectives on Par- University; and Maris A. Vinovskis, University of Michigan. Lonnie R. Sherrod serves as staff. 0 enthood: Implications for Child Abuse and Neglect"




Fellowships and Grants for International Research Offered for 1985-86 Application procedure. Persons interested in applying THE COUNCIL HAS ANNOUNCED the application dates for the international research fellowships and grants for any of these awards should write to the Council it will offer in 1984-85. The awards-which are de- for its new fellowship and grants brochure. Applicascribed below-are for the academic year 1985-86. tions must be submitted on forms provided by the The awards made in 1983-84 are listed on pages Council. Inquiries concerning fellowships and grants for China and Eastern Europe should be addressed to 52-59 of this issue of Items. International Doctoral Research Fellowships are offered the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East by a series of committees sponsored jointly by the 45th Street, New York, New York 10017. The awards program cosponsored with the AmeriCouncil and the American Council of Learned Societies. Applicants must be graduate students in the can Council of Learned Societies is supported by the social sciences, the humanities, or professional fields Ford Foundation, the National Endowment for the who will have completed all requirements for the Humanities, the William and Flora Hewlett FoundaPh.D. except the dissertation at the time the fellow- tion, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Japan-United States Friendship Commission. The ship is to begin. These fellowships are for doctoral dissertation re- Indochina Studies Program is supported by the Ford search to be carried out in Africa, Asia, Latin Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle National Endowment for the Humanities. D East, Western Europe, or for cross-area research. (See the adjacent box for a new program in Russian and Soviet studies.) Applications are due on November I, 1984. International Postdoctoral Research Grants are also available through the jointly sponsored committees. The grants are offered for research in or on Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Near New Fellowship Program in Russian and Middle East. They may be used to support reand Soviet Studies search on one country, comparative research between The Joint Committee on Soviet Studies of the American countries within an area, or comparative research Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Rebetween areas. There is also a special program for search Council has announced a new fellowship program collaborative research on Latin America between for the writing of doctoral dissertations in Russian and American and foreign scholars. The deadline for all Soviet studies. This new program is supported in part by a postdoctoral research applications is December I, grant from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Stipends for up to 12 months will be offered to Ph.D. 1984. candidates in the humanities and social sciences who are Indochina Studies grants are available to support recitizens or permanent residents of the United States or who search, writing, and the archiving of materials on are enrolled in universities in the United States, and who Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, drawing on the have begun to write up their research results for their knowledge and experience of the refugees who have dissertations. Applications are due on November 1, 1984. Successful left these three countries since 1975, and who are now applicants will be notified by December 15, 1984. Fellowresiding in North America. Interested researchers, ships may begin as early as January 1, 1985 and must begin writers, journalists, artists, and other professionals no later than September 1, 1986. and scholars should submit a letter outlining the Interested persons should write to the Russian and Soviet proposed project, as well as their own qualifications. Studies Program, Social Science Research Council, 605 Specifically excluded are projects concerned with the Third Avenue, New York, New York 10158. American experience in Indochina, and the experience of Indochina refugees in North America. Grant applications must be received by December I, 1984.






Current Activities at the Council New directors and officers The Council's board of directors, at its meeting onJune 13, 1984, elected or re-elected four directors. Newly-elected to board membership for three-year terms were Sydel F. Silverman, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, from the American Anthropological Association, and Joseph A. Pechman, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.), and Rodolfo Stavenhagen, EI Colegio de Mexico, both as directors-at-Iarge. Reelected to serve a three-year term was Stephen M. Stigler, University of Chicago, from the American Statistical Association. The board also elected the Council's officers for 1984-85. Eleanor E. Maccoby, Stanford University, was elected chairman; Stephen E. Fienberg, Carnegie- Mellon University, was elected vicechairman; Stephen M. Stigler was elected secretary; and Louise A. Tilly, New School for Social Research, was elected treasurer.

Joint Advisory Committee on International Studies


An ad hoc Committee on Area Studies was appointed last year by the Council's Committee on Problems and Policy (P&P) to consider means of (1) reviewing the activities of the 11 area committees the Council sponsors jointly with the American Council of Learned Societies and (2) allocating among them core grant funds from the Ford and Hewlett foundations and the National Endowment for the Humanities. The committee members were Sidney Verba, Harvard University (chair); Wendy O'Flaherty, University of Chicago; Hugh T. Patrick, Columbia University; Kenneth Prewitt, Social Science Research Council; Louise A. Tilly, New School for Social Research; Francis X. Sutton, Ford Foundation; and John William Ward, American Council of Learned Societies. David L. Szanton served as staff. The committee met three times and in its final session spent an afternoon reviewing and clarifying its recommendations with the chairmen or represen.tatives of all 11 joint committees. The committee recommended, and P&P subsequently approved, the appointment of a Joint Advisory Committee on International Studies to advise both the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. The Advisory Committee will have eight members jointly appointed by the presidents of SEPTEMBER


the two councils, some coming from the governing bodies of the two councils, others coming from outside. The primary function of the committee will be to recommend to the two councils an allocation of the core funds among the 11 joint area committees. In reaching its allocation recommendations, the committee will be expected to respect the diversity of area committee structures, programs, and modes of operation, which reflect the great variations in the composition of the academic communities concerned with the various world areas, as well as their frequently distinctive intellectual needs and agenda. Allocation recommendations would be made for two- or three-year periods. Detailed reviews of the well over 100 individual research planning projects of the area committees, or of the 150-200 individual awards they grant each year, will not be possible. However, the committee will examine overall area committee programs in light of the intellectual currents and concerns of the particular field, the activities of similar groups, alternative sources of funding, and the core costs of a committee program. The committee will be jointly financed and staffed by the two councils. In addition, the committee will review and make recommendations to both councils regarding other issues and opportunities in the general area of research. These may range from structural questions (government funding policies, research access problems, library or language training needs) to intellectual and programmatic opportunities such as potential linkages between area studies and other related research traditions (comparative studies, development research), or new transnational or trans area topics which might be addressed either by linking existing area committee activities or by the formation of new cross-area programs.

Symposium on science and technology studies On June 11, 1984 the Council's board of directors sponsored a symposium on science and technology studies. The symposium both celebrated the conclusimi of a nine-year program in science and technology indicators (supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation) and initiated a program on computers and contemporary society (supported by a grant from the John and Mary R. Markle Foundation). 45

The presentations included:

search needs of the behavioral and social sciences over the next decade. (1) The politics of knowledge This Decade Outlook will be staffed by the National Arnold Thackray, University of Pennsylvania "An Overview of the Field of Study" Research Council, and will be carried out by the Theda Skocpol, University of Chicago Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and "Governmental Structures, Social Science, and the Develop- Social Sciences-a committee of the National Rement of Economic and Social Policies" search Council's Commission on Behavioral and SoLoren Graham, Massachusetts Institute of Technology "Science Policy in the United States and the Soviet Union: cial Sciences and Education (CBASSE). The committee was established in 1980 to assess Citizen Participation in Policies Toward Molecular Biology" and improve the vitality of research in the behavioral (2) Studying the social consequences of technologies and social sciences. The first committee report, BeGavriel Salomon, Tel Aviv University "The Computer as Educator: Lessons from Television Research" Roger E. Kasperson, Clark University "Information as a Hazardous Commodity" Melvin Kranzberg, Georgia Institute of Technology "Looking Backwards: Studying the Social Consequences of the Computer in the Year 2000"

In addition to the Council's board and staff, the participants included: Murray Aborn Bernard Barber Orville G. Brim, Jr. Charles N. Brownstein Jonathan R. Cole Peter de Janosi Kenkichiro Koizumi Otto N. Larsen Richard W. Lyman Robert K. Merton Roberta Balstad Miller Lloyd N. Morrisett Dorothy Nelkin Albert Rees David Robinson Marshall Robinson John E. Sawyer Arnold Shore Laurence D. Stifel John J. Stremlau Francis X. Sutton Michael S. Teitelbaum Sherry Turkle Eric Wanner Harriet Zuckerman

National Science Foundation Columbia University Foundation for Child Development (New York) National Science Foundation Columbia University Russell Sage Foundation TBS Britannica Yearbook Co. (Tokyo) National Science Foundation Rockefeller Foundation Columbia University National Science Foundation John and Mary R. Markle Foundation Cornell University Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Carnegie Corporation of New York Russell Sage Foundation Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Exxon Educational Foundation Rockefeller Foundation Rockefeller Foundation Ford Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Columbia University

Research opportunities in the behavioral and social sciences The Council is cosponsoring-along with the National Research Council and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences-a study of the re46

havioral and Social Science Research: A National Resource

(1982), was a general statement of the scientific value, significance, and social utility of behavioral and social science research. A second committee report, currently in preparation, derives from a 1983 symposium on "Knowledge in Social and Behavioral Science: Discoveries and Trends Over Fifty Years." These two committee projects concentrated on the past record and present dimensions of behavioral and social science. There is now a national commitment to expand the future scientific and technological base. Promising new research directions must be canvassed, resources needed to foster prospective advances must be defined and evaluated, and priorities for additional scientific research spending must be developed and rigorously scrutinized. These processes are now occurring in nearly every major branch of science. The committee has thus decided to undertake a new study. The project, supported by the National Science Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, and other sponsors, will be completed in 1986. The Decade Outlook will study scientific frontiers, leading research questions, and new resources needed over the next decade, roughly 1986-1995, for rapid progress on fundamental problems in the behavioral and social sciences. The final report is to contain recommendations for research resources, facilities, and programs that may provide a high level of returns to fundamental knowledge. Research areas and new resource needs will be identified by the committee with substantial advice from many distinguished senior level, midcareer, and promising younger scientists. The members of the committee are R. Duncan Luce (cochair), Harvard University; Neil J. Smelser (cochair), University of California, Berkeley; Meinolf Dierkes, European Commission on the Social Sciences; John A. Ferejohn, Stanford University; Lawrence M. Friedman, Stanford University; Victoria A. Fromkin, University of California, Los Angeles; Rochel S. Gelman, University of Pennsylvania; Leo A. Goodman, University of Chicago; James G. Greeno, VOLUME




University of Pittsburgh; Eugene A. Hammel, University of California, Berkeley; Leonid Hurwicz, University of Minnesota; Edward E. Jones, Princeton University; Gardner Lindzey, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; Daniel L. McFadden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; James L. McGaugh, University of California, Irvine; James N. Morgan, University of Michigan; Richard L. Morrill, University of Washington; Sherry B. Ortner, University of Michigan; Kenneth Prewitt, Social Science Research Council; Barbara G. Rosenkrantz, Harvard University; Nancy B. Tuma, Stanford University; and Allan R. Wagner, Yale University. Dean R. Gerstein and Sonja Sperlech of the National Research Council serve as staff to the committee. The committee welcomes suggestions of topics for focused attention, and has announced the following criteria: • A research problem area may now be stimulating many fruitful investigations, but it is believed that it can become more productive. • A research problem area may be of great importance and ripe for substantial advances, even though the research has thus far been disappointing or thin. • A broad gap may exist in methods or theories relevant to many research problem areas. • New infrastructures to facilitate research may be needed, such as regional or national laboratories, data centers, communications networks, specialized fellowships, etc. Suggestion should be sent to either of the cochairs or to the staff at the following address:

Council from the Division of Social and Economic Science of the National Science Foundation. An interest in anticipating the future lies at the heart of the field of social indicators: social indicators may provide not only a description of present conditions and an accounting for how society came to its present state, but also a set of clues as to where society might be going. However, forecasting has been a neglected area of study within the social indicators community. In response, the Committee on Social Indicators hypothesized that much could be learned through interchanges among scientists focusing on the formal methodologies applied in forecastingwhether the forecasts are for economic, social, or natural phenomena. Papers were commissioned from forecasting specialists in a variety of disciplines, including climatology, demography, ecology, economics, geography, oceanography, political science, psychology, sociology, statistics, and urban planning. A synthesis paper prepared by Messrs. Land and Schneider identified a number of similarities between social and natural science forecasts, including similar sources of uncertainty and errors, problems in the specification and estimation of statistical models, and limits on the accuracy of forecasts. Several other issues and findings were common to a number of papers: • The question of whether theories that apply to small scales of time or space can be inflated to larger scales with success • The complex causal role of slowly-changing variables (such as ocean temperature or class structure) in near-term forecasts National Research Council • The need for formal comparisons (so called "foreCommission on Behavioral and Social Sciences casting tournaments") of models of the same pheand Education nomenon 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. • The scientific value of counterintuitive forecasts, Washington, D.C. 20418 which may lead to questions about the data, the models, and "common sense" Forecasting in the social and natural sciences • The special opportunities and problems of linkage The Committee on Social Indicators sponsored a of models from different subject areas, such as reconference at the National Center for Atmospheric lating the concentration of carbon dioxide in the Research in Boulder, Colo~ado, on June 10-13, atmosphere to the energy use patterns of human 1984, on forecasting in the social and natural sciensettlements ces. The conference was cochaired by Kenneth C. • The discovery that addressing forecasting quesLand, University of Texas, and Stephen H. Schneider tions on unconventional time scales seems often to of the Center, which is a facility for climatological, require drawing on other disciplines: long-term ocean sciences, and atmospheric research with labeconomic forecasts must incorporate demographic oratories on a mesa at the foot of the mountains west change that has little effect on conventional quarof Boulder. Messrs. Land and Schneider will co-edit terly forecasts, and climates are affected by the the planned volume based on the conference. Supoceans more than by the atmospheric dynamics on port for the conference was provided by a grant to the which daily weather depends SEPTEMBER



• The advantages and disadvantages of complex models as opposed to simpler methods, such as informed extrapolation • The fact that forecasts invariably involve some element of human judgment and occur within a political context • The observation that new supercomputers will greatly diminish the constraints once imposed on solving large, complex systems of equations

Donald Borock Lawrence R. Carter Robert Chen Robert M. Chervin William C. Clark Niizhet Dalfes James A. Davis Robin L. Dennis

The following papers were discussed: ( 1) The forecasting context Robin L. Dennis, "Forecasting Errors and Their Consequences: Causes and Consequences of the Denver VMT [Vehicle Miles Traveled] Forecast" Herbert L. Smith, "The Social Forecasting Industry" Thomas R. Stewart, "Judgment and Forecasting: Methodological Implications of Judgment Research" Martin Wachs, "Forecasts in Urban Transportation Planning: Uses, Methods, and Dilemmas" (2) Current developments in techniques and models Dennis A. Ahlburg, "Aggregate Economic-Demographic Models" Clive W. J. Granger and Robert F. Engle, "Econometric Forecasting: A Brief Survey of Current and Future Techniques" John F. Long and David Byron McMillen, "A Survey of Current Census Bureau Population Projection Methods" Kenneth G. Manton, "Models for Forecasting Morbidity" Joseph P. Martino, "Recent Developments in Technological Forecasting" (3) Predictability, errors, and verfication Richard A. Berk and Thomas F. Cooley, "Errors in Forecasting Social Phenomena" William C. Clark, "Scale Relationships in the Interactions of Climates, Ecosystems, and Societies" James A. Davis, "The Predictability of Social Change: Evidence from the GSS [General Social Survey]" Douglas A. Hibbs, Jr., "On the Predictive Accuracy of the Time Series Models of Aggregate Voting Intentions in Great Britain: Evaluations Based on Ex-Post Forecasting Experiments" Diana M. Liverman, "Forecasting the Impact of Climate on Food Systems: Model Testing and Model Linkage" Richard C.J. Somerville, "The Predictability of Weather and Climate" (4) Synthesis Kenneth C. Land and Stephen H. Schneider, "Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences: Some Isomorphisms"

Robert Dickinson Michael H. Glantz Clive W. J. Granger Gregory Hayden Wilmot Hess Douglas A. Hibbs, Jr. Judith Jacobsen Rick Katz Kenneth C. Land Diana M. Liverman John F. Long Kenneth G. Manton Joseph P. Martino David B. McMillen Robert Rabin Walter Roberts

Andrei Rogers Mark J. Schervish Stephen H. Schneider Herbert L. Smith Richard C. J. Somerville

Thomas R. Stewart Michael A. Stoto Martin Wachs Frans Wille kens

Michel Verstraete

The participants at the conference were: Dennis A. Ahlburg J. Scott Armstrong Jesse Ausubel Fram;oise Bartiaux Richard A. Berk Thomas W. Bettge


University of Minnesota University of Pennsylvania National Academy of Sciences Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (Louvain) University of California, Santa Barbara National Center for Atmospheric Research

Jean Pascal van Ypersele

Gettysburg College University of Oregon University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill National Center for Atmospheric Research Institute for Energy Analysis (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) National Center for Atmospheric Research Harvard University Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Atmospheric Research National Center for Atmospheric Research University of California, San Diego University of Nebraska National Center for Atmospheric Research Harvard University University of Colorado National Center for Atmospheric Research University of Texas University of Wisconsin U.S. Bureau of the Census Duke University University of Dayton U.S. Bureau of the Census National Science Foundation University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (Boulder, Colorado) U,iversity of Colorado Carnegie- Mellon University National Center for Atmospheric Research Indiana University Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego National Center for Atmospheric Research National Academy of Sciences Rutgers University Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute (Voorburg) National Center for Atmospheric Research National Center for Atmospheric Research

Richard C. Rockwell served as staff.

Resistance and rebellion in the Andean world The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies and the University of Wisconsin jointly sponsored a VOLUME




conference on "Resistance and Rebellion in the Andean World, 18th-20th Centuries," held in Madison, on April 26-28, 1984. The conference, coordinated by Steve J. Stern, University of Wisconsin, is part of a larger committee project on Andean historiography, entitled "Markets, Coercion, and Responses in the Andean World." The conference served as a sequel to the conference on "Market Penetration and Expansion in the Andes" held in Sucre, Bolivia, in July 1983. The topic of rebellion merited a conference in its own right because Andean rebellions of varying scope and ambition have erupted frequently since the 18th century. They have occasionally reached the point of full-scale insurrection, bringing lasting social and political consequences to the region. The conference on resistance and rebellion aimed to draw together and give new direction to research on native Andean action and ideology during such moments of crisis and violence, and to set them in historical perspective. Three sessions explored these themes for the late colonial period, while three were devoted to the 19th and 20th centuries. The sessions on the colonial period took a skeptical view of recent interpretations of the socioeconomic correlates, causes, and geography of the great insurrections of the 1780s, seeking instead to develop the outlines of alternative interpretive schemes to explain both the rise of Andean insurrections and the nature of Andean participation in them. In particular, the papers and discussion called for renewed emphasis on aspec,ts of Andean consciousness-defined as the self-identifications, cultural meaning systems, interpretations of contemporary society, and aspirations of Andean peoples that shaped their political outlooks and horizons-in understanding the causes and character of the rebellions. One of the most stimulating sessions explored continuities and changes in Andean consciousness in a long-term view spanning the 17th to early 19th centuries. This discussion provided a vivid feel for the complexities of the phenomenon, especially for the ways in which Andean consciousness might or might not be compatible with the legitimation of the wider social order and its hierarchies. The discussion also suggested ways in which utopian ideas could take on a certain life of their own even after their material and political underpinnings had faded. The sessions on Andean rebellions during the 19th and 20th centuries, for their part, contributed to a historical perspective on the causes of rebellions and opened up new areas of debate about the contours of Andean consciousness. Papers identified both the "neo-colonial" character of many localized rebellions SEPTEMBER


as well as patterns of interaction between native Andean peoples and official national political structures in order to explain cross-ethnic alliances and their breakdowns in 'terms that took into account Andean political initiatives and expectations. The relationship of Andean peasantry to the "nation," and Andean attempts to account for the importance of both ethnicity and class during the course of mobilization and rebellion, sparked particularly extensive debate. As in the sessions on the colonial period, the papers and discussion underscored a degree of dissatisfaction with conventional interpretations of Andean rebellions and called for more direct exploration of the phenomenon of Andean consciousness-both in its own right and in terms of its material underpinnings. One of the most helpful aspects of the discussion was the participation by historians of Mexico. Their comments were particularly useful in illuminating the causes and character of Andean rebellions by isolating patterns of commonality and contrast with those found in Mexico. Overall, the panels contributed to the development of an approach to the interpretation of Andean rebellions that would underscore the interplay of material and ideological factors over the long term, ana路 Iyze the impact of Andean political strategies and initiatives in the evolution of political life in Peru and Bolivia, and allow for the possibility that Andeans have sometimes held types of consciousness not always associated with "peasants." At the same time, it remains clear that much work needs to be done on the details of political alliance and friction "on the ground" during political mobilization. Further work and discussion on patterns of Andean self-defense and resistance during more apparently quiescent periods are also in order. The following papers were presented: Session 1 From resistance to insurrection: The late colonial crisis Steve J. Stern, UniveJ"Sity of Wisconsin , "The Age of Andean Insurrection, 1742-1782: A Reappraisal" Magnus Morner, University of Gothenburg, and Efrain J. Trelles, University of Texas, "Testing a General Scheme for the Analysis of Rural Rebellions in the Tupac Amaru Uprisings" Sessions 2

Leadership and clientele, factionalism and organization Scarlett O'Phelan Godoy, University of Cologne, "EI perfil de las rebeliones andinas del siglo XVIII" ("Characteristics of Andean rebellions in the 18th century") Leon G. Campbell, University of California, Riverside, "Organization and Factionalism in the Gre<lt Rebellion, 1780-1783"


Sessions 3

Consciousness and identity during the age of Andean insurrection Manuel Burga, Catholic University of Peru, "La crisis de la identidad andina: mito, ritual y memoria en los Andes centrales en eI siglo XVII" ("The crisis of Andean identity: Myth, ritual, and memory in the Central Ande~ in the 17th century") Frank Salomon, University of Wisconsin, "EI culto a los ancestros y la resistencia al estado en un pue010 arequipeno, 1748(?)-1754" ("The ancestor cult and resistance to the state in a village of the Arequipa region, 1748(?)-1754") jan Szem'mski, Catholic University of Peru, "Kill the Spaniard" Aloerto Flores Galindo, Catholic University of Peru, "Buscando un Inca" ("Looking for an Inca")

Eugene Havens, University of Wisconsin; Friedrich Katz, University of Chicago; Brooke Larson, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Karen Spalding, University of Delaware; and Enrique Tandeter, Center for the Study of State and Society (CEDES), Buenos Aires. Silvia Rivera (La Paz), although unable to attend the conference, made important contributions to its intellectual formulation and agenda. Students and observers from the area also participated in the discussion. Joan Dassin served as staff.

New approaches to Latin American labor history

A conference, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies and held in New York, October 13-15, 1983, brought together a variety of specialists to assess the rapidly expanding literature on labor history within the field of Latin American studies. Participants-historians or historicallyminded social scientists-included Latin Americanists from both the United States and Latin America, as Session 5 Coalitions, consciousness, and national crisis: A well as students of the African and United States case study labor movements. These scholars provided diverse Heradio Bonilla, Institute of Peruvian Studies and comparative perspectives on a number of con(Lima), "EI campesinado indigena y eI Peru en eI ceptual and methodological issues raised by the new contexto de la guerra con Chile" ("The indigenous peasantry and Peru in the context of the war with literature on Latin American labor history. Some participants also focused on case materials to illustrate Chile") Florencia E. Mallon, University of Wisconsin, one or another of the new approaches to the subject. "Nationalist and Anti-State Coalitions in the War Much of the discussion centered around two conof the Pacific: Junin and Cajamarca, 1879-1900" ceptual issues: (1) the utility of casting Latin American labor studies within the global approach comSession 6 Cultural idioms and social consciousness in modmonly referred to as world-systems analysis; and (2) ern Andean revolts the usefulness of applying the methods and concerns Rosalind C. Gow, Madison, "Land and Revolution: of the "new social (and labor) history" to Latin AmeriIndian Resistance to Latifundio Expansion and Modernization in the Southern Andes, 1880-1968" can subject matter. The focus was not primarily on jorge Dandier and juan Torrico, Center for the the widely-recognized strengths of these two major Study of Economic and Social Reality (CERES), La post-World War II developments in world historiogPaz, "EI Congreso Nacional Indidgna de 1945 en raphy; rather, the discussion revolved around their Bolivia y la reoeli()n de Ayopaya (1947)" ("The Naweaknesses and potential abuses in Latin American tional I ndigenous Congress of 1945 in Bolivia and labor studies. Some participants argued that worldthe 1947 rebellion of Ayopaya") Xavier Alb6. Center for Research on and Promotion systems analysis has failed to link its overarching conof the Peasantry (CIPCA), La Paz, "De MNRistas a cerns with the dynamics of the world economy to the Kataristas a Katari" ("From MNRistas to Kataristas development and mobilization of national and interto Katari") Victor Hugo C{trdenas (La Paz), "Katarin AI- national labor movements. This failing is crucial, they chhinakapax Qhip Nayr Untasisaw Sarnaqanasa- argued, because it is around the issue of labor mobiliNotas soore eI pensamiento katarista" ("We, the zation that the larger issues of economic expansion descendents of Tupaq Katari, must travel looking and contraction may ultimately pivot. Other particicarefully both behind and ahead-Notes on pants argued that the new social history, with its emKatarista thought") phasis on working class cultural understandings and In addition to the authors of papers mentioned consciousness, holds out the promise of unlocking above, conference participants included the follow- these issues of labor mobilization. Yet the new labor 109: John Coats worth , University of Chicago; A. history often ignores the larger structural constraints Session 4


Rebellion and nation-state formation Michael j. Gonzales, University of Utah, "Neocolonialism and Indian Unrest in Southern Peru, 1867-1898" Tristan Platt, Bolivian National Archive (ANB), Sucre, "Andean Reoellion and the Rise of the Liberal Party: 1825-1900"





on workers' understandings and actions and its methods rely on data available only in highly-developed societies. Much of the discussion thus centered on the problem of fusing these two complementary approaches in what is still a relatively undeveloped world region and field of historical study. Participants concluded that the ongoing definition of the appropriate subject matter for Latin American labor studies will undoubtedly inform much future work in the field. Thus, as yet unresolved questions about the advantages of broadening the traditional institutional and political concerns of labor history to include cultural and social themes, for example, or the fruitfulness of focusing in the first instance on workers in export production, transport, and export processing, rather than on workers in manufacturing industry, in tracing the early ideological and institutional formation of various Latin American labor movements, are likely to be high on the research agenda for specialists in Latin American labor history. The conference, organized by Charles Bergquist, a historian at Duke University, included the following sessions, participants, and presentations: Session 1 Trends and problems in world labor historiography: Their implications for Latin American labor studies Papers by Melvin Dubofsky and Charles Bergquist. Session 2

The current state of Latin American labor studies: A survey and critical evaluation Papers by Paul Drake, Juan Carlos Torre, and Michael Hall (written with Paulo Sergio Pinheiro). Hobart Spalding was the commentator.

Session 3

New methods, subjects, and concepts in the study of Latin American labor history Papers by Barbara Weinstein, Hector Lucena, Francisco Ignacio Taibo, and Steve Stein. Judith Evans was the commentator.

Session 4

Comparative perspectives on Latin American history Papers by William Freund and June Nash.



The participants were: Charles W. Bergquist Paul W. Drake Melvin Dubofsky Judith Evans William M. Freund Michael M. Hall Hector Lucena June Nash Hobart A. Spalding Steve Stein Francisco Ignacio Taibo Juan Carlos Torre Barbara Weinstein

Duke University University of Illinois State University of New York, Binghamton New York City University of Johannesburg State University of Campinas University of Carabobo City College of the City University of New York Brooklyn College of the City University of New York University of Miami Mexico City Instituto Torcuato Di Tella (Buenos Aires) State University of New York, Stony Brook

It is expected that a selection of the papers will be edited for publication.

Francis X. Sutton Receives AAS Distinguished Service Award Francis X. Sutton, formerly deputy vice-president of the Ford Foundation, was for many years the principal officer at the Foundation responsible for the grants that supported the Council's international program. His many friends at the Council were pleased to learn that on March 22, 1984, at the annual meetings of the Association for Asian Studies, his "grace of style and generosity of spirit" were recognized in the presentation to him of the AAS Distinguished Service Award. The citation noted in part that "university centers, the foreign area committees of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, and this Association are all strong today because of the confidence and counsel you and your colleagues have invested in them." Mr. Sutton's address to the Council's Area Assembly on October 29, 1982, published in the December 1982 issue of Items, was entitled "Rationality, Development, and Scholarship."


Fellowships and Grants Awarded in 1984 CONTENTS 52 DISSERTATION FELLOWSHIPS IN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING 52 INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Africa, China, japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe

55 GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH Africa, China, Eastern Europe, japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Indochina Studies

THESE PAGES list the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were awarded fellowships or grants by Council committees in the most recent annual competitions. The grant programs sponsored by the Council and the grant and fellowship programs for research in the social sciences and the humanities sponsored by the Council jointly with the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) are both reported here. The program for Research in Employment and Training was funded by the U.S. Department of Labor. This program has been discontinued, and no new awards have been made since December 1983. The international programs are supported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for the China and the Latin American and Caribbean programs is provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and for the Japan postdoctoral program by the Japan-United States Friendship Commission. The Indochina Studies Program is supported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed are administered by the Council. In the administration of its fellowship and grant programs, the Council does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, creed, disability, marital status, national origin, or sex. The programs change somewhat every year, and interested scholars should write to the Council for a copy of the current brochure.

and the Council awarded, the following dissertation fellowships since June 1983. Robert W. Pearson, Sophie Golonka, and Lisa Seiden served as staff for this pr_ogr~m. JOSEPH C. AGUANNO, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, New York University, for research on the validity of aptitude tests PAUL T. BARTONE, Ph.D. candidate in behavioral sciences, University of Chicago, for research on the relationship of stress to health among Chicago Transit Authority bus drivers PAUL-D. BOLDIN, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Wisconsin, for a longitudinal analysis of wage and employment differences between black and white young adult males DEBORA L. CLOUGH, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Kansas State University, for an evaluation of the appraisal of the physically disabled in the workplace . 1'.RICA L. liROSHEN, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for research on how differences among the characteristics of employers affect the variation in wages among employees FREADA KLEIN, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Brandeis U niversity, for research on the incidence and severity of sexual harassment in service employment and the relationship of sexual harassment to productivity ROSLYN A. MICKELSON, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the effects of race, gender, and class on the attitudes and behavior of youth toward academic achievement CAROL D. MORGAN, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, University of Houston, for an exploration of the processes through which performance feedback and goal setting affect performance EILEEN TRZCINSKI, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research on whether married women use labor force participation as income insurance against the risk of divorce

INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AFRICA The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Allen F. Isaacinan (chair), Jane I. Guyer, Bennetta W. Jules-Rosette, Fassil G. Kiros, Thandika Mkandawire, V. Y. Mudimbe, Peter Anyang' Nyong'o, Harold Scheub, and Michael J. Watts-at its meeting on March 22-24, 1984. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Thomas J. Biersteker, T. Dunbar Moodie, Christopher Davis-Roberts, Christopher D. Roy, and H. Leroy Vail. Martha A. Gephart and Lily Heom served as staff for this program.


GLENN M. ADLER, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in South Africa on worker organization under authoritarian industrializaThe Committee on Dissertation Fellowships in Employtion: black trade unions in the South African automobile ment and Training-Rashi Fein, Paul S. Goodman, Frank industry Stafford, Paula E. Stephan, Linda Waite-recommended, JAMES M. DELEHANTY, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Uni-



versity of Minnesota, for research in Niger on the migration of Hausa cultivators to new agricultural villages on the dry margins of central Niger: a study in political economy and human ecology JONATHON P. GLASSMAN, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in France, Tanzania, and the United Kingdom on resistance to German conquest among the Swahili of the Tanzanian coast JOSEPH A. OPALA, Ph.D. candidate in African languages and cultures, School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London, for research in Sierra Leone on costume and cosmology: a study of the symbolic significance of the hu-ronko war shirts of Limba chiefs F. JEFFRESS RAMSAY, jR., Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University, for research in Botswana and the United Kingdom on local governing institutions in Botswana under colonialism, 1900-1950 PAMELA G. SCHMOLL, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in France and Ni~er on the logic of medical pluralism: a study of healmg among the Hausa of Niger CHINA The Grants Selection Committee of the joint Committee on Chinese Studies (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-jack L. Dull (chair), Nicholas R. Lardy, Susan Naquin, Susan Shirk, Wei-ming Tu, Lyman P. Van Slyke,j. L. Watson, and Pauline Yu-voted during the year to award fellowships to the following individuals. jason H. Parker and Helen Goldsmith served as staff for this program. EDWARD L. DAVIS, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research inJapan on the worlds of Hung Mai: a study of demonic possession, exorcism. and popular religion in Sung China VAl.ERIE HANSEN, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania. for research in japan on deities and Song society ANGELA Y-Y. SHENG, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental studies. University of Pennsylvania, for research in Copenhagen. Heidelberg, and Paris on the art, technology, and social significance of Chinese textiles in the lower Yangtze region in the 13th century

WILLlAM E. DEAL, Ph.D. candidate in religion, Harvard University, for research in japan on the Lot1L~ Sutra and japanese receptivity to Buddhist symbols SUSAN L. GRISWOl.D, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern languages and civilizations. University of Chicago, for research in japan on styles of parody in 18th and 19th century popular fiction WILLIAM W. HAVÂŁR, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in japan on the philosophical cosmopolitanism of Nishida Kitaro, Miki Kiyoshi, and Kuki Shuzo CAROLYN M. HAYNES. Ph.D. candidate in Asian studies, Cornell University, for research in japan on the nature of parody in kyogen VIRGINIA S. HELM, Ph.D. candidate in Asian studies, Cornell University. for research in japan on the development of comic consciousness in medieval japanese narratives VICTORIA E. K~:L1.y-SUZUKI, Ed.D. candidate in education. Harvard University, for research in japan on peer culture and interactions among japanese children LAUREN j. KOTLOFF, Ph.D. candidate in human development and family studies, Cornell University, for research in japan on the socialization of interpersonal norms in elementary school classrooms FRANCES N. MCCALL, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in japan on the politics of liberalizing japan's financial system

KOREA The joint Committee on Korean Studies-Michael C. Kalton, Han-Kyo Kim, Hagen Koo, Peter H. Lee, and S. Robert Ramsey-voted at its meeting on March 8-9, 1984, to award fellowships to the following individuals. Theodore C. Bestor and Robin Kremen served as staff for this program. MARGARET R. BERNEN, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and civilizations. Harvard University, for research in Korea on esoteric Buddhism MILAN G. HE.JTMANEK, Ph.D. candidate in history and East Asian languages, Harvard University, for research in Korea on private academies and the rural elite in Yi dynasty Korea

JAPAN Under the program sponsored by the joint Committee on japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Gary R. Saxonhouse (chair), Gary D. Allinson, Carol Gluck. William Kelly, jeffrey P. Mass, j. Thomas Rimer, Yoshiaki Shimizu, and Patricia G. Steinhoff-at its meeting on February 16, 1984, voted to make awards to the following individuals. Theodore C. Bestor and Robin Kremen served as staff for this program. JOANNE R. BERNARDl, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, for research in japan on the screenplays of Yoda Yoshikata and his collaboration with Mizoguchi Kenji LONNY E. CARl.ILE, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research injapan on big business and the politics of production in japan, 194~1955


LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN The following fellowships were awarded by the International Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-john H. Coatsworth (chair), Elizabethj. Garrels, Shane]. Hunt, Grant D.jones, and Christopher Mitchell-at its meeting on March 2. 1984. The Selection Committee was assisted by the Screening Committee-Bruce Bagley, Gilbert M. joseph, Norma Klahn, Douglas H. Graham, and Kay Warren. with special help from Frank Safford. joan Dassin, Diana De G. Brown, and Marla Onestini served as staff for this program. ALVARO BARROS-LEMEZ, Ph.D. candidate in Spanish and Portuguese, University of Maryland, for research in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, and the 53

United States on the origins, structures, and values of Latin American serial fiction in the 19th and 20th centuries KA YCANDLER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research in Peru on the organization of space and the personification of place by Quechua speakers in the southern highlands JOHN CHASTEEN, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of North Carolina, for research in Brazil and Uruguay on the borderland revolutions of 1893,1897, and 1904 and the creation of political frontiers DAVID HESS, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Brazil on the relations among leaders of Kardecian spiritualism, the Roman Catholic Church, and mainstream medicine LUCIA KAISER, Ph.D. candidate in nutrition, University of California, Davis, for research in Mexico on the familylevel impact of agricultural developments on household economic strategies, resource allocation, and nutrition JUAN KOROL, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Argentina on economic growth and stagnation in the Argentine littoral region, 1840- 1914 SAMUEL MARTiNEZ-MAZA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in the Dominican Republic and Haiti on ethnographic and historical aspects of agricultural labor migrations to the Dominican Republic, 1900-1983 CHARLOTTE REVILLA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Brazil on the links between industrial water pollution and the socioeconomic transformation of small-scale fishing communities in the state of Bahia JEFFREY RUBIN, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in Mexico on constraints on a leftist regional political movement in Juchitan, Oaxaca KATHRYN SIKKINK, Ph.D. candidate in political science and Latin American studies, Columbia University, for research in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile on the influence of the Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL) on development policy in Argentina and Brazil. 1951-1962 HELAINE SILVERMAN, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Texas, for archeological research in Peru on the social, economic, and political organization of early Nasca culture at Cahuachi NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Peter von Sivers (chair), Leonard Binder, Eric Davis, Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hudson, Suad Joseph, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Alan R. Richards, and John Waterbury-at its meeting on February 24-26, 1984. P. Nikiforos Diamandouros and Eileen Elliott served as staff for this program. STEFANIA PANDOLFO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Princeton University, for research in Morocco on the social history of production in an oasis JAMES A. REILLY, Ph.D. candidate in history, Georgetown University, for research in Syria on landownership in a semicolonial economy: the case of Damascus. 1860-1908 SHARON S. RUSSELL, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in 54

Jordan and Kuwait on the effects of international migration on a labor-sending and a labor-receiving country DENISE A. SPELLBERG, Ph .D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Europe, Egypt, and Turkey on 'A'isha: the origin and evolution of a historical personality in Muslim society THEODORE R. SWEDEN BURG, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Texas, for research in the West Bank on popular memory in a peasant society: the 1936-39 rebellion in Palestine (West Bank) SOUTH ASIA The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on South Asia-Myron Weiner (chair), Pranab K. Bardhan, Bernard S. Cohn, Richard M. Eaton, Barbara S. Miller, Harold S. Powers, Norman T. Uphoff, and Susan S. Wadley-at its meeting on March 2, 1984. David L. Szanton and Carolle Ruppert served as staff for this program. MARY K. FAIR, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Nepal on the culture and history of Ghurka soldiers PATRICIA A. GOSSMAN, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian languages and civilizations, University of Chicago, for research in India on religious institutions and peasant organizations in East Bengal, 1873-1937 NIRMALIE S. TENNEKOON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Sri Lanka on the dynamics of collective identity building in the Mahavali agricultural settlement program SOUTHEAST ASIA The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-John R. W. Smail (chair), David O. Dapice, Shelly Errington, Mary R. Hollnsteiner, Charles F. Keyes, Lim Teck Ghee, David Marr, and Ruth T. McVey-at its meeting on March 30, 1984. David L. Szanton and Carolle Ruppert served as staff for this program. CHARLES V. BARBER, Ph.D. candidate in jurisprudence and social policy, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Indonesia on forest protection and land rehabilitation in Java JAY BERNSTEIN, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Indonesia on folk medical reasoning and the storage of technical medical knowledge in .West Kalimantan KATHERINE A. BOWIE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Thailand on local and international trade in the Chiang Mai valley during the 19th century JAMES P. BROSIUS, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in Malaysia on the socioecology of Penan hunter-gatherers in Sarawak RICHARD F. DONER, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand on the problems of economic cooperation in the production of an ASEAN automobile JANICE P. HOSTETLER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Indonesia on recreational dancing and sociocultural change in Jakarta VOl.UME 38, NUMBERS 2/3

MARK McLEOD, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in France on Catholicism and intercommunal violence in northern and central Vietnam, 1820-1885 MARGARET j. WIENER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Indonesia on myth, ritual, and event in the cultural analysis of kingship in Bali Wl::STERN EUROPl:: The following dissertation research fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Western EuropePhilippe C. Schmitter (chair), Arnaldo Bagnasco, Peter A. Gourevitch, Victoria de Grazia, Gudmund Hernes, Peter J. Katzenstein, Charles S. Maier, Victor Perez-Diaz, Rayna Rapp, Charles F. Sabel, Fritz W. Scharpf, and L.J. Sharpe-at its meeting on March 16, 1984. They were assisted by the Screening Committee-Herrick E. Chapman,judith Chubb, G~sta Esping-Andersen, jan E. Goldstein, Robert W. Hanning, David Rosand, Katherine M. Verdery, and Steven B. Webb. P. Nikiforos Diamandouros and Noel Pick served as staff for this program. CELIA S. ApPLEGATE, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in West Germany on political culture and military power in the Palatinate, 1918-1956 Ll::ORA AUSLANDER, Ph.D. candidate in history, Brown University, for research in France on the "culture of production" in the Parisian furniture trades, 1780-1850 LAUREN A. BENTON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in Spain on "self-employed" workers and casual labor in two Madrid industries RICHARD G. BIERNACKI, JR., Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United Kingdom on the culture of German and English factory organization SARAH R. COHEN, Ph.D. candidate in the history of art, Yale University, for research in France on the interrelationship between the fite gaiante and early 18th century dance SCOTT B. COOK, Ph.D. candidate in history, Rutgers University, for research in the United Kingdom on the political aspects of an imperial relationship, using Ireland as an example, 1880-1922 GARY B. HERRIGEL, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in West Germany on the history of the prosperity, crisis, and adjustment of the West German tool industry, 1945-1983 DAVID G. HORN, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Italy on fascism and working-class culture in Milan, 19291936 WILLIAM F. KELLEHER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan. for research in Northern Ireland on work, worldview, and class RANDAl.L W. KINDLrY, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Duke University, for research in Austria on the role of shop stewards in balancing the interests of the union and its members in a concertative incomes policy CATHl::RINEj. KUDLlCK, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in France on disease, public health, and urban social relations in Paris, 1830-1850 Sl::PTEMBl::R 1984

SURA LEVINE, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Chicago, for research in Belgium and other European countries on the Belgian Workers Party and avant-garde art, 1884- 1905 KRISTIE I. MACRAKIS, Ph.D. candidate in the history of science, Harvard University, for research in West Germany on the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft, 1911-1960 jOSEP A. RODRIGUEZ, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for research in Spain on the politics of medicine LYNNE M. WOZNIAK, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in Spain on labor and social pacts, 1977-1983 RICHARD J. YNTEMA, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in the Netherlands on the economics and politics of gild regulation in Amsterdam and Rotterdam from 1600 to 1800 JONATHAN N. ZIEGLER, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Harvard University, for research in West Germany on technology policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1969-1982

GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH AFRICA The following postdoctoral research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on African StudiesAllen F. Isaacman (chair), Jane I. Guyer, Bennetta W. jules-Rosette, Fasil G. Kiros, Thandika Mkandawire, V. Y. Mudimbe, Peter Anyang' Nyong'o, Harold Scheub, and Michael j. Watts-at its meeting on March 22-24, 1984. Martha A. Gephart and Lily Heom served as staff for this program. SARA S. BERRY, associate professor of economics and history, Boston University, for research in the United States on the uses of agrarian surplus in Africa FREDl::RICK COOPER, professor of history, University of Michigan, for research in France on urban workers and urban masses in francophone Africa DENNIS D. CORDELl., associate professor of history, Southern Methodist University, for research in Canada, the Central African Empire, and France on history, society, and low fertility in North Central Africa DUSTIN C. COW l::1.L , associate professor of history, University of Wisconsin, for research in the United States on HassanTya Ghazal poetry Sn.vEN FEIERMAN路, professor of history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Tanzania, the United States, and West Germany on government regulation of healers in Tanzania: the formation of intellectuals, 1880-1935 SUSAN N. G. GEIGER, assistant professor of women's studies, University of Minnesota. for research in Tanzania on women's mobilization in African nationalist movements : Bibi Titi Mohamed and the Tanganyika African National Union, 1954-1965 ANITA j. GLAZl::, associate professor of art history, University of Illinois, for research in Ivory Coast on a comparative study of Sen ufo art PAUL E. LOVEJOY, professor of history, York University, for research in Nigeria and the United Kingdom on slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate 55

RANDALL L. POUWELS, lecturer in African history, La Trobe University, for research in the United Kingdom and Zanzibar on the oral historiography of the Zanzibar Shirazi DAVID W. ROBINSON, jR., professor of history, Michigan State University, for research in France, Mauritania, and Senegal on French colonialism and Islamic authority in Senegal LUISE S. WHITE, lecturer in African history, Rice University, for research in Tanzania on returned Haya female migrants . EDWIN N. WIl,MSEN, professor of African studies, Boston University, for research in Botswana and the United States on the relationship between colonial history and the contemporary status of San in southern Africa

Mellon Prog;ram in Chinese Studies for Research and Advanced Study

KATHRYN BI:.RNHARDT, instructor in history, Wittenberg University, for research on the local politics of water control in the jiangnan during the late Ming and Qing periods LOREN L. BRANDT, jR., assistant professor of economics, St. Olaf College, for research on the interaction of internal anfl external factors in Chinese agriculture: the case of Central and Eastern China, 1890s-1930s CYNTHIA j. BROKAW, instructor in history, Bowdoin College, for research on elite authority in the late Ming social order TIMOTHY j. BROOK, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese history, Harvard University, for research on monasteries and the local socioeconomy of Ming- China CHINA PAMELA K. CROSSLEY, visiting fellow in history, Yale U niversity, for research on Hongtaiji and the transformation The Grants Selection Committee of the joint Committee of the Qing polity, 1627-1643 on Chinese Studies (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-jack L. Dull (chair), Nicholas R. ROBERT P. HYMES, assistant professor of East Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, for research Lardy, Susan Naquin, Susan Shirk, Wei-ming Tu, Lyman on religious Taoism in a local setting: Hua-kai Mountain P. Van Slyke, j. L. Watson, and Pauline Yii-awarded in the Sung dynasty during the year grants to the following individuals in the WILLIAM C. KIRBY, assistant professor of history, Washington University', for research on the international decategories listed. jason H. Parker and Helen Goldsmith velopment of China, 1928-1958 served as staff for this program. DONALD M. NONINI, assistant professor of anthropology, New School for Social Research, for research on the making of the Malaysian Chinese working class, 19001980 Research in Chinese Studies EDWARD L. SHAUGHNESSY, Evanston, Illinois, for research on the military history of the Western Zhou dynasty RICHARD BAUM, professor of political science, University of NANCY S. STEINHARDT, lecturer in art history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the political Pennsylvania, for research on city planning in imperial economy of Chinese bureaucracy China PATRICK HANAN, professor of Chinese literature, Harvard RICHARD L. VON GLAHN, New Haven, ConnectIcut, 'for University, for research on the libertine novel in China research on lineage, family structure, and property in' JOANNA F. HANDLIN, associate in research (informal apthe settlement of China's southern frontier, 750-1300 pointment), john K. Fairbank Center, Harvard Univer- ARTHUR N. WALDRON, visiting lecturer in history, sity, for research on philanthropy and public works as Princeton University, for research on the Great Wall of keys to Ming-Ch'ing definitions of community China CHAD HANSEN, associate professor of philosophy, Univer- WEN-HsING YEH, Newark, California, for research on sity of Vermont, for research on a theory of classical higher education in Republican China Chinese philosophy ROBERT M. HARTWELL, professor of history, University of Pennsylvania, for research on foreign trade, monetary policy, and Chinese "mercantilism" DAVID NOEL KEIGHTLEY, professor of history, University of Mellon Prog;ram in Chinese Studiesfor Summer Language California, Berkeley, for research on the world of the royal diviner: temperament and mentality in late Shang Training at the Inter-University Prog;ramfor Chinese Language Studies (Taipei) China JAMES REARDON-ANDERSON, librarian, C. V. Starr Library, These awards were made by the joint Committee on Columbia University, for research on the introduction Chinese Studies. and development of chemistry in China, 1860-1949 CLAUDIA Ross, assistant professor of linguistics, Purdue University, for research on the verb phrase in Mandarin SUZANNE W. BARNETT, associate professor of history, UniChinese versity of Puget Sound C. MARTIN WILBUR, professor emeritus of East Asian lan- NORIKO KAMACHI, professor of history, University of guages and cultures, Columbia University, for research Michigan, Dearborn on China's national revolution and Soviet advisors, BRIAN McKNIGHT, professor of history, University of Hawaii 1922-1927 BRANTLY WOMACK, assistant professor of political science, PAUL S. Ropp, associate professor of history, Memphis State Northern Illinois University, for research on democratic University institutionalization in post-Mao China: an analysis of the MARK SELDEN, professor of sociology and history, State people's congress system University of New York, Binghamton BELL YUNG, assistant professor of music, University of JOHN E. WILLS, jR., associate professor of history, UniverPittsburgh, for research on the music of China sity of Southern California 56


search in japan on the impact of modern Western theatre on three contemporary japanese playwrights: The joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered Betsuyaku Minoru, Shimizu Kunio, and Tsuka Kohei by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Harold B. THOMAS W. HARE, assistant professor of japanese literature, Stanford University, for research in japan and Segel (chair), Daniel Chirot, jane L. Curry, Edward A. the United States on Kamo no Chomei (1153?- 1216) Hewett, Keith A. Hitchins, Ken jowitt, William G. and his search for Buddhist salvation Lockwood, and Piotr S. Wandycz-at its meeting on TAMARA K. HAREVEN, professor of history, Clark UniverNovember 21, 1983 made awards to the following individsity, for research in japan and the United States on work and family among silk weavers in Nishijin, Kyoto uals. jason H. Parker and Helen Goldsmith served as staff THOMAS R. H. HAVENS, professor of history, Connecticut for this program. College, for research in japan on the impact of the Vietnam war on japanese politics, society, and culture FRANK A. DUBINSKAS, Exxon Fellow, Program in Science, Technology, and Society, Massachusetts Institute of CHRISTINE G. KANDA, visiting professor of art history, University of Pennsylvania, for research in japan and the Technology, for research on urban professionals and the United States on Masuda Takashi (1848-1938), an insocial construction of "tradition" in Slavonia dustrialist and major art collector and connoisseur CHARLES FRAZEE, professor of history, California State University, Fullerton, for a history of the Catholic EARL H. KINMONTH, associate professor of history, U niversity of California, Davis, for research in japan and the Greeks of the Aegean United States on the social and intellectual origins of EUGENE A. HAMMEL, professor of anthropology and defascism among the prewar japanese middle classes. mography, University of California, Berkeley, for research on fertility decline in the Croatian military border ELLIS S. KRAUSS, professor of political science, Western Washington University, for research in japan and the region United States on the politics of public broadcasting and PAUL W. KNOLL, associate professor of history, University the impact of television news on japanese politics of Southern California, for research on Cracovian conciliar thought in the 15th century and the development HERMAN OOMS, associate professor of history, University of Illinois, Chicago Circle, for research in japan on the of Polish political theory creation of political subjects through the dissemination A. JAMES McADAMS, assistant professor of government, of ideology to commoners in mid-Tokugawa japan, Hamilton College, for research on East Germany and 1690--1740 detente, 1982-1984 THOMAS L. SAKMYSTER, professor of history, University of MACHIKO aSAWA, research associate in economics, Columbia University, for research in japan and the United Cincinnati, for research on Admiral Miklos Horthy States on lifetime employment and the seniority wage and Hungary, 1918-1945 system in japan DAVID STARK, assistant professor of sociology, Duke University, for research on coalition politics at the work- DAVID W. PLATH, professor of anthropology and Asian studies, University of Illinois, for research in japan on place: new class configurations in socialist societies the life histories of artisan divers OTTO U Le, professor of political science, State University of New York, Binghamton, for research on dissent through DAVID POLLACK, associate professor of japanese, University of Rochester, for research in japan and the United States nondissent: misbehavior in Czechoslovakia in the 1980s 'on narrative in japanese art and literature THOMAS C. SMITH, professor of history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United States on JAPAN japanese industrial workers, 1890--1920 Under the program sponsored by the joint Committee HONG W. TAN, associate economist, Rand Corporation, for on japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for research in the United States on company pension policies and their implications for japan's aging labor Research-Gary R. Saxonhouse (chair), Gary D. Allinson, force Carol Gluck, William Kelly, jeffery P. Mass, j. Thomas Rimer, Yoshiaki Shimizu, and Patricia G. Steinhoff-at its KOREA meeting on February 16, 1984, voted to make awards to the The joint Committee on Korean Studies-Michael C. following individuals. Theodore C. Bestor and Robin Kalton, Han-Kyo Kim, Hagen Koo, Peter H. Lee, and S. Kremen served as staff for this program. Robert Ramsey-voted at its meeting on March 8-9, 1984, JONATHAN W. BEST, associate professor of art history, to award grants to the following individuals. Theodore C. Wesleyan University, for research in japan and Korea Bestor and Robin Kremen served as staff for this program. on Buddhism, art, and magic in 7th century japan RICHARD j. BOWRING, associate professor of japanese lit- DONALD L. BAKER, visiting assistant professor of history, Illinois State University, for research in the United States erature, Princeton University, for research in japan and on the confrontation with Roman Catholicism in Neothe United States on the Tales of Ise in japanese culture BRETT DEBARY, associate professor of japanese literature, Confucian Korea Cornell University, for research in japan on the work of CHUNG Moo CHOI, researcher in folklore, Indiana University, for research in Korea on the politicization and the poet Yosano Akiko (1878-1942) EDWARD B. FOWLER, assistant professor of japanese litcommoditization of shamanic healing erature, Duke University, for research in japan on shishosetsu, an autobiographical prose genre, in modern LATIN AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN japanese narrative literature The joint Committee on Latin American Studies-jorge JOHN K. GILLESPIE, assistant professor of japanese and comparative literature, St. John's University, for re- Balan (chair), Charles W. Bergquist. Boris Fausto, Manuel EASTERN EUROPE



Cologne, for research in Argentin.a, Bolivia, ~nd Pt;ru ~n Antonio Garret6n, Saul Sosnowski, Stanley J. Stein, Rosethe middle sectors and the dynamICS of colomal socIety In mary Thorp, Arturo Warman, and Kate Young-at its Peru in the second half of the 18th century meeting on March 29-April 1, 1984, awarded grants to the JUAN ANTONIO ODDONE, professor of history, Autonomol:'s following individuals. Joan Dassin, Diana De G. Brown, Metropolitan University of Mexico, for research In and Maria Onestini served as staff for this program. Argentina, the United Kingdom, and Urugu.ay on the economic and social aspects of the commerCIal expansion of the port of Montevideo in the 19th century CARLOS ALTAMIRANO, editorial director, Folios Ediciones, M. FELIPE PORTOCARRERO, .professor of sociology, UniverBuenos Aires, for research in Argentina on the formasity of San Marco~, Lima, for rese~rch in ~eru on the tion and development of the new left in Argentina, social and economIc aspects of pubhc sector Investment, 1960-1973 1978-1983 GEORGE REID ANDREWS, associate professor of history, JOHAN REINHARD, independent researcher, Santiago, for University of Pittsburgh, for research in Brazil on urban research in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru on race relations in Sao Paulo, 1888- 1937 mountain worship and ancient ceremonial centers in the JosE MARiA ARICc), researcher, Latin American Institute Andes for Transnational Studies (ILET), Buenos Aires, for re- MONICA SCHULER, associate professor of history, Wayne search in Argentina on the role of Jose Carlos Mariategui State University, for research in Guyana on the social in the development of Marxism in Latin America history of post-Emanicipation liberated African indenARNOLD D. BAUER, professor of history, University of tured immigrants in British Guiana, 1841-1940 California, Davis, for research in the United States on ENRIQUE SEMO, researcher in economics, National Auto!1the rural history of Spanish America, 1500-198~ omous University of Mexic~ (UNAM), for .research ~n MARIA-VICTORIA BENEVIDES, researcher, Center for the the United States on economIcs and the MeXIcan state In Study of Contemporary Culture (CEDEC), Sao Paulo, transition, 1780-1980 for research in Brazil on the political history of the STEVE J. STERN, associate professor of history, University of Brazilian Labor Party, 1945- 1965 Wisconsin, for research in Mexico on woman, gender CHARLES CARNEGIE, visiting assistant professor, Center for relations, and crime in Mexican society, 1720-1850 Latin American Studies, University of Florida, for re- PAUL SULLIVAN, intern, Wenner-Gren Foundation, New search in Jamaica on the ethnohistory of land use and York, for research in Mexico on the intensification of tenure in rural Jamaica agricultural production in the northern lowlands of the JANET CHERNELA, researcher, National Research Institute Yucatan peninsula for the Amazon, Manaus, for research in Brazil and the EDUARDO VALENZUELA, researcher, SUR Professionals, United States on improvised songs of the eastern TukaSantiago, for research in Chile on th~ development ~f noan speakers of the northwest Amazon Chilean student movements and the hIstory of the ChIRAFAEL ECHEVERRiA, executive director, Center for the lean Student Federation, 1906-1973 Study of Women and Children (CEANIM), Santiago, RAMIRO VElASCO, national deputy, Bolivia, and researcher, and consultant, Regional Employment Program. for Center for the Study of Econo~ic and S?cial Re~l!ty Latin America and the Caribbean (PREALC), Santiago, (CERES), La Pa~, for research In Arge.n~lna, Bohvla: for research in Chile on the concept of labor and its Brazil, and Peru on the power of the BollVlan Workers implications for Latin American development Central (COB) in the Bolivian state ADOLFO MALVAGNI GILLY, professor, Faculty of Political and Social Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), for research in Mexico on cardenismo and the impact of social reform and transformation on NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST the Mexican national consciousness in the 1930s The following postdoctoral research grants were MARiA TERESA GRAMUGLlO, independent researcher, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina on the awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle sociocultural role of the magazine Sur in the 1930s East-Peter von Sivers (chair), Leonard Binder, Eric Davis, ER\V1N GRIESHABER, assistant professor of history, Mankato Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hudson, Suad Joseph, State University, for research in Bolivia on Indian Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Alan R. Richards, and John population history during the 19th century ANDRES GUERRERO, professor, Latin American Faculty ?f Waterbury-at its meeting on February 24-26, 1984. P. Social Sciences (FLACSO), Quito, for research In Nikiforos Diamandouros and Eileen Elliott served as staff Ecuador on local power and ethnic domination in the for this program. 19th and 20th centuries PAULO J. KRISCHKE, assistant professor of politics, Ponti~足 CORNELL H. FLEISCHER, assistant professor of Islamic hiscal Catholic University of Sao Paulo, for research In tory, Washington University, for research on the rise of Brazil on Christian base - communities and the transbureaucracy and dynastic law in the 16th century Ottoformation of Brazilian society man Empire ASUNCIc)N LAVRIN, associate professor of history, Howard NANCY E. GALLAGHER, assistant professor of history, UniUniversity, for research in Argentina, Chile, the United versity of California, Santa Barbara, for research on war States, and Uruguay on Latin American feminism and and disease in Egypt in the 1940s social change, 1880- 1940 YVONNE Y. HADDAD, associate professor of Islamic studies, JOSt: NUN, professor of political science, University of ToHartford Seminary, for research on contemporary ronto, for research in Argentina on the diverse and academic contributions to the "Islamization" of the social evolving meanings of peronismo in the everyday discourse sCIences of the working classes in greater Buenos Aires DONALD C. HOLSINGER, assistant professor of history, SCARLETT O'PHELAN GODOY, visisting fellow, Institute George Mason University, for research on the evolution of Latin American and Iberian History, University of of urban guilds in 19th century Tunis 58


ST1:.PHEN R. HUMPHREYS, associate professor of history, Hollnsteiner, Charles F. Keyes, Lim Teck Ghee, David University of Wisconsin, for research on Tabari and the Marr, and Ruth T. McVey-awarded grants to the followart of narrative in early Arabic historiography ing individuals at its meeting on March 30, 1984. David L. FARHAD KAZEMI, associate professor of politics, New York Szanton and Carolle Ruppert served as staff for this proUniversity, for research on peasantry and rebellion in gram. the Middle East WILFRID j. ROLL.MA~, adjunct lecturer of history, University of Michigan, for research on Islam, the 'ulama, and DANIEL F. DOEPPERS, professor of geography, University of Wisconsin, for research in the Philippines on housing the "New Order" in 19th century Morocco and family budgets in Manila BARABARA F. STOWASSER, associate professor of Arabic, Georgetown University, for research on the QI·thodox DAVID S. GIBBONS, professorial fellow, Centre for Policy Research, University of Science, Malaysia, for research Islamic establishment and the status of women in Islam on rural development, poverty reduction, and political MARIA E. S BTEI.:-.IY, assistant professor of Middle East and process in peninsular Malaysia Islamic studies, University of Toronto, for research on the Timurid patronage state and the economics of cul- ROBERT W. HEFNER, assistant professor of anthropology, Boston University, for research on agricultural involuture tion in highland java MARY C. WILSON, independent researcher, Cambridge, Massachusetts, for research on King Abdullah and the JOEl. C. KUIPERS, visiting assistant professor of anthropology, Wesleyan University, for research in West Sumba emergence of Jordan as a national state and Amsterdam on the formation of narrative in an I ndonesian community SOUTH ASIA H Y V AN LUONG, ·visiting assistant professor of anthropology, Hamilton College, for research in France and VietThe joint Committee on South Asia-Myron Weiner nam on the structural reproduction and transformation (chair), Pranab K. Bardhan, Bernard S. Cohn, Richard M. of Vietnamese kinship under socialism Eaton, Barbara S. Miller, Harold S. Powers, Norman T. j Ul.IANE S. SCHOBER, teaching assistant in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research on religious reform in Uphoff, and Susan S. Wadley-awarded grants to the folBurma lowing individuals at its meeting on March 2, 1984. David NANCY J. SMITH-HEFNER, lecturer in anthropology, Boston L. Szanton and Carolie Ruppert served as staff for this niversity, for research on the acquisition of comprogram. municative competence by children in Java NICOLA B. TANNENBAUM, research associate in anthropolARJUN API'ADURAI, associate professor of anthropology, ogy, University of Iowa, for research in Thailand on Oniversity of Pennsylvania, for research on peasant calShan calendrics, cosmology, and the use of time culation in Western India ROBERT O. TILMAN, professor of political science, North DII.!p K. BASU, associate professor of history, niversityof Carolina State UniverSIty, for research on perceptions of California, Santa Cruz, for research on the life history of external threats held by policy makers in Indonesia . a Calcutta gangster Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand SeoTf C. DELANCEY, assistant professor of linguistics, U ni- T OBY A. VOLKMAN, Documentary Educational Resources versity of Oregon, for research on the syntax of Newari {Watertown, Massachusetts}, AND CHARLES ZERNER, asin Nepal sistant professor of design, Massachusetts College of Art, LOUIS •. A. CORT, specialist in East Asian ceramics, Freer for research in Indonesia on architecture, innovation, Gallery of Art (Washington. D.C.), for research in and the increase in ritual performances in the contemHeidelberg on the Orissa Research Project Archi\'e porary tourist era of Toraja SANDRIA B. FREITAG, research associate, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California. Berkeley, for research in London on crime in British INDOCHINA STUDIES India KATHRYN G. HANSEN, associate professor of Asian studies, The Sub-Committee on Indochina Studies of the joint University of British Columbia, for research on the Committee on Southeast Asia-Charles F. Keyes (chair), Nautanki popular threatre of North India ROl':ALD B. INDEN, associate professor of South Asian his- Amy Catlin, Carol Compton, May Ebihara, David Elliott, tory, University of Chica~o, for research in London on a john Hartmann, Gerald Hickey, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, David critical history of HindUIsm and kingship Marr, Bounlieng Phommasouvanh, james C. Scott, john DAVID M. KNIPE, professor of SOllth Asian studies, Uni- Whitmore, and Alexander Woodside-at its meeting on versity of Wisconsin, for research on Vedic and Hindu March 28-30, 1984 awarded grants for the following indiaspects of traditional Indian health and medicine vidual and collaborative projects. Margaret L. Koch and DENNIS B. MCGILVRAY, associate professor of anthropolDavid L. Szanton served as staff for this program. ogy, University of Colorado. for research on matrilineal society in Sri Lanka AWADH K. NARAIN , professor of history. University of Wis- YEN NGOC Do, Nguoi Viet News Inc. (Westminstel', California); KHOAN LA-PHAM, Santa Ana nified School consin. for research on the history and coinage of the District (Santa Ana, California); LE DINH DIEU, Paris; Sakas of Central and South Asia PHAN Huy DAT, Santa Ana U nified School District (Santa Ana, California); AND T RAN V AN NGO, Agence Havas SOUTHEAST ASIA (Neuilly-sur-Seine), for research on the press in South Vietnam, 1954-1 975 The joint Committee on Southeast Asia-John R. W. NHON THE DOA N [Vo PH EIl': ], Los Angeles, California, for Smail (chair), David O. Dapice, Shelly Errington, Mary R. research 011 the lite ratu re of Sou th Vietnam, 1954-1975 SEPTEMBER 1984


NANCY D. DONNELLY, JANE N. P. MALLINSON, CORINNE COLLINS-YAGER, AND HANG Ly, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, for research on the roles of women in Hmong society, with particular attention to the production and decoration of textiles and healing through herbal medicines GARY YIA LEE, St. John's Park, Australia, AND TIMOTHY DUNNIGAN, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, for research on Hmong political history in Laos, 1935-1975 NHA TRANG Moss [CONG HUYEN TON Nu NHA TRANG], Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia, for research on women in South Vietnamese literature, 1954-1975 FRANK PROSCHAN, Folklore Center, University of Texas; KHAMMEUNG MONOKOUNE, Santa Ana, California; AND RENE SEU, Glendale, Arizona, for research on Kmhmu verbal art MoLY SAM, Department of Continuing Education, University of Texas, for research on the applied technique of Khmer court dance, in comparison with Thai and Indian forms YANG SAM, Philadelphia, Penn!iylvania, for research on

changes in the structure and role of Buddhism in Cambodian politics, 1965-present HUYNH SANH THONG, Southeast Asia Studies Program, Yale University, for research on socialist reeducation in Vietnam since 1975 YAN(; DAO, Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Program, University of Minnesota, for research on the political history of Laos, 1935-1975 Published and unpublished materials generated and collected by these grantees will be placed in an archive and made available both to members of the Indochinese communities and to research scholars.

Council's new telephone number All members of the Council's staff may now be reached by dialing (212) 661-0280. The cable address remains SOCSCIENCE NEWYORK.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158 Incorporated in tlte State of I/linotf, December 27, 1924, for tlte purpose of advancing reuault in the ,H/cia/ scirnre.r Directors, 1984-85: STEPIH,N E. FIENIIERG, Carnegie-Mellon University; HOWARD GARDNER, Veterans Administration Medical Center (Boston); CHARLES 0, JONES, University of Virginia; ROIIERT W. KATES, Clark University; GARDNER LINDZEY, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; EI.EANOR E. MACCOII)" Stanford University; HUGH T. PATRICK, Columbia University; JOSEPH A. PECHMAN, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.); KENNETH PREWITT, Social Science Research Council; SYDEL F. SILVERMAN, The Graduate Center, City University of New York; RODOLFO STAVl:.NHA(;EN, EI Colegio de Mexico; Sn:I'HEN M. STIGl.ER, University of Chicago; LOUISE A. TILLY, New School for Social Research; SIDNH VERIIA, Harvard University; IMMANUEL WAl.U:RSTElN, State University of Ne\\ York, Binghamton; WILLIAM JULIUS WIL\ON, University of Chicago. Officl'I:f and Staff' KENNETH PREWITT, President; DAVID L. SILl.S, Executive Anoriate; RONAI.D j. Pt:Lt:CK, COIl/rolll'1'; THt:l>DORt: C. BESTOR, JOAN DASSIN, P. NIKIFOROS DIAMANDOUROS, MARTHA A. GEPHART, ROIIERT W. PEARSON, Pt.TER B. READ, RICHARD C. ROCKWELL, SOPHIE SA, LONNIt. R. SHERROD, DAVID L. SZANTON.



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