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VOLU ME 34 • NUMBER 2 • JUNE 1980 605 THIRD AVENUE. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016

The Role of the Mass Media in Presidential Campaigns: The Lessons of the 1976 Election by Thomas E. Patterson*


are essentially mass media campaigns. It is not that the mass media entirely determine what happens in the campaign, for that is far from true. But it is no exaggeration to say that, for the large majority of voters, the campaign has little reality apart from its media version. Moreover, the media have become the primary focus of the candidates' campaign efforts. Today's entrepreneuring candidates primarily direct their activities toward getting their messages through the media as often and as favorably as they can. This new character of presidential elections led the Council in 1974 to appoint a Committee on Mass

* The author is professor of political science at Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and a member of the Committee on Mass Communications and Political Behavior. This article is a summary of some of the findings and conclusions of his study of the 1976 presidential election, which was sponsored by the committee and funded by a grant from the John & Mary R. Markle Foundation. The full study will be published this summer by Praeger Publishers (New York) as a book entitled The Mass Media Election: How Americans Choose Their President.

Dear ReaderIf you wish to continue to receive Items, please fill out and return the questionnaire on page 47. The Editor


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The Role of the Mass Media in Presidential Campaigns: The Lessons of the 1976 Election-Thomas E. Patterson Socialization Research Revisited-Peter B. Read 50th Anniversary of the 1930 Hanover Conference Fellowships and Grants Current Activities at the Council -Indicators of social change -Staff appointments Recent Council Publications Readership Questionnaire -To be cut, folded, and mailed

Communications and Political Behavior.1 The committee was established to stimulate, plan, and coordinate research on mass communications and political behavior during the 1976 presidential election. Through different research teams, the committee studied the media process from the formation of the media agenda (i.e., the content of the media) to the impact of the agenda on the American people. The present study addressed two more specific questions. What is the nature of the election messages 1 The 1979-80 membership of the committee was Kenneth Prewitt, Social Science Research Council, chairman; Ben H. Bagdikian, University of California, Berkeley; Leo Bogart, Newspaper Advertising Bureau (New York); Richard A. Brody, Stanford University; Steven H. Chaffee, University of Wisconsin; Herbert Hyman, Wesleyan University; F. Gerald Kline, University of Minnesota; Thomas E. Patterson, Syracuse University; Ithiel de Sola Pool, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Forrest P. Chisman, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, consultant; and Robert A. Gates, staff.


that are transmitted through the media during the policy positions, their personal and leadership charpresidential campaign? And how do these messages acteristics, their private and public histories, backaffect the public's response to today's campaign? In ground information on the election's issues, and order to answer these questions, the study used two group commitments for and by the candidates accounted for only about 30 per cent of election coversources of evidence. First, a panel survey of voters was carried out. Be- age. This represents a major change from presidential ginning in February 1976, before the prirvaries began, and ending in November after election day, elections in the past. In the 1940 election, for examthe 1,200 respondents in the panel were interviewed ple, Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet found that as many as seven times each about their media use, about -35 per cent of election news dealt with the fight their impressions of the candidates and the campaign, to gain the presidency; a considerably larger amount, their awareness of the election's issues, their interest 50 per cent, was concerned with subjects of policy and in the campaign, and similar topics. The interviews leadership.3 In 1976, those proportions were rewere timed to bracket the major stages of the versed. The increase in the number of primaries is one campaign-the early primaries, the late primaries, the conventions, the debates, and the general elec- reason why contestual themes now dominate. It is tion. Five of the waves involved hour-long personal clear, however, that the explanation goes beyond the interviews; two of the waves were conducted by tele- primaries. A comparison of the 1940 and the 1976 coverage, including only the convention and general phone. 2 Second, a content analysis of the news media's election periods, indicates a substantially greater coverage of the 1976 presidential election was con- orientation toward the contest in 1976. Substance received more attention in the 1940s beducted. Examined was the entire election year's reporting of the three major commercial television cause campaigns then were shorter, a condition which networks-ABC, CBS, and NBC; four daily worked to maintain the candidates' control of the newspapers-the Los Angeles Times, the Los Angeles agenda. What they had to say about policy and leadHerald-Examiner, the Erie News, and the Erie Times; ership was the focus of election news because it held its news value and supplied sufficient material to fill and Time and Newsweek magazines. most of the needs of the press for coverage. The fact is, however, there is not enough fresh issue and leadNews coverage of the campaign ershi p material for the candidates to control the news In its coverage of the 1976 presidential campaign, during the 300-odd days of the present campaign or the press concentrated on the strategic game played to meet the press's increased demand for news about by the candidates in their pursuit of the presidency, the election. thereby de-emphasizing questions of national policy The press thus has more opportunity to base its and leadership. Half or more of the election coverage news selections on its values, which results in greater in each of the news outlets studied dealt with the emphasis on the contestual aspects of the campaign. competition between the candidates. Winning and In part, this reflects the tradition in journalism that losing, strategy and organization, appearances and news is to be found in an activity rather than in the tactics were the dominant themes of day-to-day elec- underlying causes of that activity. "The function of tion news. The substance of the election, on the other news," wrote Walter Lippmann, "is to signalize hand, received much less emphasis. The candidates' events. "4 Election activity and voting are the most visible aspects of the campaign and are therefore 2 The panel studies were conducted in two communities, Erie, most likely to be used by the press as election news. Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles, California. Erie is an industrial Heavily emphasized are the simple mechanics of city with a relatively homogeneous population of270,OOO; over 60 per cent of the families make their livelihood in blue-collar occu- campaigning, as well as voting projections and repations. It is a heavily Roman Catholic city whose residents are turns. Moreover, although journalists consider the mostly of German, Italian, or Polish extraction. In contrast, Los Angeles, the nation's second largest metropolis, has a broad economy that employs slightly more white-collar than blue-collar workers. Except for a large Mexican-American population, no minority population predominates. The interviewing was conducted by experienced interviewers employed by the Response Analysis Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey. The questionnaires were prepared by the author.


3 Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet, The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. Third edition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1968), pages 115-119. First published in 1944. 4 This and all subsequent statements by Walter Lippmann are from Public Opinion (New York: Macmillan, 1922). A paperback edition was published by the Free Press in 1965.





campaign to have more than ritual significance, they tend not to view it primarily as a battle over the directions of national policy and leadership. Rather, it is seen mainly as a power struggle between the candidates. "The game is a competitive one," wrote Paul Weaver in describing this journalistic paradigm, "and the player's principal activities are those of calculating and pursuing strategies designed to defeat competitors .... Public problems, policy debates, and the like ... are noteworthy only insofar as they affect, or are used by, players in pursuit on the game's rewards.":> This journalistic model affects presidential campaign coverage in almost every respect. A case in point is the 1976 Democratic nominating process. In theory, there is nothing total about a narrow victory or even a landslide in a state's presidential primary. First, a single primary is just one indicator of the candidates' popularity in a system of 50 state contests. Second, a presidential primary lacks the finality of the general election; the difference in the popularity of one candidate who gets 51 per cent of a state's primary vote and another who gets 49 per cent is insignificant. Recognizing this, the Democratic party has in recent years outlawed "winner-take-all" primaries; a state's delegates are not awarded in total to the first-place finisher, but are distributed among the candidates in proportion to the votes they receive. Press coverage of the 1976 Democratic primaries, however, operated on different principles. The press tended to project a single state's results to the nation as a whole, and something close to a "winner-take-all" rule applied to its coverage. New Hampshire's primary provides an example. Jimmy Carter, the lone centrist candidate, received 28 per cent of the vote. The remaining four candidates, all from the party's liberal wing, who together received 60 per cent of the vote, were led by Morris Udall with 23 per cent. Yet Carter was termed "the unqualified winner" by the press and received the balance of news coverage until the next primary. Time and Newsweek put Carter's face on their covers and his story in 2 ,600 lines of its inside pages. The second-place finisher, Udall, received 96 lines; all of Carter's opponents together received only 300 lines. The television and newspaper coverage given Carter that week was about four times the average amount given each of his major rivals. This pattern held throughout the Democratic primaries. In the typical week following each primary, the first-place finisher received nearly 60 per cent of the news coverage, the second-place finisher only 20 5 Paul Weaver, "Is Televised News Biased?" The Public Interest, Spring 1972:69.



per cent, the third-place finisher about 15 per cent, and the fourth-place finisher about 5 per cent. As the most frequent first-place finisher, Carter received about half of all news coverage given the Democratic candidates during the 1976 primaries; his eight active opponents shared the other half. In the signal tradition of which Lippmann wrote, the naming of a winner in each primary meets almost every criteria for good news. The "winner" is the real story, and reporters are careful not to submerge this story in the intricacies of the presidential nominating system, for to do so would be to ignore the limited news space available, the gravitation toward the most salient fact about an event, and the need to capture what Lippmann called "the easy interest." Journalistic norms also playa significant part in which issues are emphasized in election news coverage. The issues which the candidates stress most heavily are not those which are displayed most prominently in the news. In their campaign speeches and televised political advertising, the candidates talk mostly about "diffuse" issues, ones in which the differences between the candidates are either indirect or mostly those of style and emphasis. These include appeals to separate constituencies and broad policy proposals, as in the commitment to maintain a healthy economy. Such issues in 1976 accounted for over half of the issue appeals in candidate-controlled communications. These issues, however, accounted for only about 20 per cent of the issue messages in election news. The news was dominated by what Colin Seymour-Ure has called "clear-cut" issues, those which neatly divide the candidates, provoke conflict, and can be stated in simple terms, usually by reference to shorthand labels, such as "busing" and "detente."6 Clear-cut issues have a special appeal to the press because they conform to traditional news values-they are both colorful and controversial. They also frequently build upon themselves, leading to charges and countercharges, creating what James David Barber identifies as the common type of developing news story, that of "action-reaction."7 The press also has a liking for "campaign" issues. Campaign issues are ones that develop from incidents, usually errors in judgment by the candidates, such as Ford's remark in 1976 during the second presidential debate that Eastern Europe was free 6 Colin Seymour-Ure, The Political Impact of the Mass Media (Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1974), page 223. 7 James David Barber, "Characters in the Campaign: The Literary Problem," in James David Barber, editor, Race for the Presidency (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1978), page 117.


from Soviet domination. For a week or more after they first break, campaign issues are major news items, often appearing in the headlines and at the top of television newscasts. In contrast, "policy" issues seldom receive this kind of attention from the press. They generally are not placed in the headlines nor are they covered for more than two days consecutively. In 1976, over 50 per cent of the campaign issues received "heavy" news coverage; only 15 per cent of the policy issues received such coverage. Thus, issue news in the present campaign reflects the press's interests more than the candidates' interests. And this too is a change from earlier campaigns. In their panel study of the 1948 election, Berelson, Lazarsfeld, and McPhee found that issue news coverage originated largely with the candidates' "official" statements and speeches in which they talked "past each other, almost as if they were participating in two different elections."8 Although this description applies to candidate-controlled communication in 1976, it does not apply to press-controlled communication. In the news, the major issues arose from the candidates' blunders and their off-the-cuff attacks on the opposition. In all of these tendencies, the print and television media were more alike than different. Every news outlet studied emphasized the contest, the "winner," and clear-cut and campaign issues. The tendencies, however, were, in every instance, more extreme on television. It was on the network evening newscasts, more than in the newspapers, that journalistic values were most evident in coverage of the campaign.

The voters' response The impact of the media's messages was found to depend on whether individuals followed the news closely or casually and whether they relied primarily on the newspaper or on television. Because these differences variedfrom one effect to another and interacted with other factors, they cannot be presented in this brief article. Thus, the following findings are presented with some loss of probity. The interested reader is referred to the full study. Early election researchers studied the mass media's impact on the voters' basic attitudes and, upon finding that attitudes generally were unaffected by the campaign, concluded that mass communication was not a significant influence on the voters' behavior. But the power of mass communication rests largely in its ability to affect voters' perceptions. What the voters see 8 Bernard Berelson, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William N. McPhee, Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign (University of Chicago Press, 1954), page 236.


on television and in the newspaper affects what they perceive to be the important events, critical issues, and serious contenders. And, as V. O. Key Jr., Benjamin Page, and others have noted, the voters' decisions may depend on what they perceive to be at stake when they make their choice. By emphasizing certain campaign events, simply by placing them repeatedly and prominently in the news, the press signals their importance to the public. By neglecting and underemphasizing other aspects, the press almost seems to suggest their unimportance. This power was evident during the 1976 election. Election news emphasized the race rather than matters of policy and leadership, and it was the race that people thought of when asked about the election's "most important aspect." Indeed, although matters of policy and leadership were at the top of people's lists in the interviews conducted just before the campaign, they sank to the bottom during the campign, replaced by a concern with the candidates' electoral success. The substantive side of the campaign in fact appears to have lost ground in the bid for the voters' attention. In their study of the 1948 election, Berelson et al. reported that 67 per cent of voters' conversations were concerned with the candidates' policy positions and qualifications. Only about a fourth of voters' discussions in that election focused on the question of which candidate would win. 9 In 1976, however, only about 34 per cent of people's conversations were concerned with substance, while 50 per cent focused on the contest, mostly in direct response to news stories about the race. The focus of election news also affected which candidates the voters came to know in 1976. Before the first primary in New Hampshire, the Democratic contenders were largely unknown to the voters-only 20 per cent felt they "knew" Carter, Udall, Harris, Bayh, Brown, Church, or Jackson. lo Subsequent news coverage focused on Carter, and he was the sole Democrat to become dramatically more familiar to the voters. During the primaries, the percentage of the electorate which felt it "knew" Carter rose to over 80 per cent, a 60 per cent increase from the pre-primary level. In contrast, recognition levels rose by only 14 per cent for Udall, Brown, and Jackson; by 9

Ibid., page 106.

For each candidate, respondents were asked whether they "had never heard of him before" or "had heard his name, but know nothing about him" or "knew something about him." The last category-whether people felt they "knew" a candidateproved to be the recognition level that was important to people's behavior. This method of measuring recognition was validated by open-ended questions. 10





only nine per cent for Church; remained fairly constant for Harris; and even declined for Bayh. These differences affected the outcome of the Democratic primaries. Although voters in primary elections are more informed than other citizens, they do not necessarily "know" each of the candidates on their ballots. Among Democrats who actually voted in their party's 1976 primaries, for example, about 90 per cent felt that they "knew" Carter, but less than 60 per cent "knew" Jackson, Udall, or Brown. This becomes significant when it is realized that voters limit their choice to familiar candidates; upwards of 95 per cent of the Democratic voters in 1976 cast their ballot for a candidate they "knew." Carter was the beneficiary. He gained many votes from his recognition edge on his rivals; there was a minority of voters who felt they "knew" only Carter and nearly all of them supported him. The themes of election news also had an impact on the voters' images of the candidates. News of the candidates concentrated on how well they were running the race, and the impressions that voters acquired correspondingly tended to be stylistic, associated with the candidates' campaign styles and performance. About 65 per cent of the impressions that voters gained of the candidates in 197.6 were stylistic in nature. Only 35 per cent were political-those concerning the candidates' governing capacities and policy proposals. Substantial consequences resulted. News messages about the candidates' campaign styles and performance were much less likely than messages about their politics and governing capacities to evoke partisan bias. During the primaries particularly, voters tended to develop favorable stylistic impressions of winning candidates and unfavorable impressions of losing candidates, pretty much regardless of the party of the candidate or the voter. This tendency followed the direction of news messages. In 1976, there were two favorable stylistic news messages for every unfavorable one about candidates who were conducting successful primary campaigns. In contrast, stylistic news messages about unsuccessful candidates were, on balance, unfavorable. Once the primaries were over, the voters' partisanship intensified, but this partisanship did not completely override earlier effects. Those individuals who had developed favorable impressions of a candidate's style during the primaries were more likely to have favorable ones afterwards and were more likely to develop favorable ideas about the candidate's politics. Liking his style, they were also more likely to come to appreciate his leadership capacities and policy leanJUNE 1980

ings. This is not to suggest that partisanship and political impressions were less important to the voters' behavior than their thoughts about a candidate's style. Indeed, political influences played a greater role in vote choice in the general election. But stylistic impressions acted to dampen partisan effects, were positively associated with general election preferences, and had a close relationship to primary election choice. News messages about the race, then, are persuasive, in large part because they do not directly challenge the voters' basic political attitudes. The themes of election coverage also affect what voters do not learn about today's campaign. In their study of the 1948 election, Berelson and his colleagues found that, in August, two months before election day, 37 per cent of the voters knew threefourths of the issue positions taken by the candidates. In August 1976, however, only about 25 per cent of the voters knew three-fourths of the candidates' positions and, by October, the proportion had risen to only 33 per cent,u Despite the fact, then, that the 1976 campaign was much longer and more intensely reported than the 1948 campaign, voters actually learned less about the issues. That policy issues were placed less prominently in the news in 1976 than they had been in 1948 is certainly a major reason for the difference.

Disorganized politics Disorganization is the hallmark of the present electoral system. The primaries are waged between entrepreneuring candidates interested mainly in selling themselves. The result is an extraordinary burden on voters, one Key identified in his classic study of one-party politics in the South: "The voter is confronted with new faces, new choices, and must function in a sort of state of nature."12 . Today's general election also places heavy demands on voters. When party leaders controlled nominations, the nominee was linked to the party's traditional constituencies and policies, and a line of responsibility was established between the nominee and his party's performance in office. Voters thus were assured about the nature of the nominee's politics and had the opportunity to reward or punish him for the actions of his party. Today's nominee cannot 11 Berelson et aJ. did not measure issue awareness in the interviews conducted just before election day, but commented that if they had done so, the level of awareness "almost certainly" would have been higher by that time (page 228). 12 V. O. Key,Jr., Southern Politics in State and Nation (New York: Vintage Press, 1949), page 303.


be measured so easily. Every nominee, of course, has to the soundness of press-mediated elections. Casual some enduring ties, including those to party, but the daily news exposure is not a sufficient condition for fact that the candidate now organizes his own cam- informed citizenship. It results only in an awareness paign increases his independence. Moreover, there is of those subjects that are placed at the top of the news little that prevents a candidate from disclaiming re- again and again. Consequently, voters develop more sponsibility for the actions of any preceding adminis- impressions of the candidates' styles than of their leadership capacities and know more of the canditration. It is this chaotic electoral system that the press is dates' victory chances and tactical blunders than of expected by its critics and apologists alike to make their platforms. intelligible to the voters. Reporters themselves often claim they can perform this task. And even if jourThe need for stronger political parties nalists did not want the responsibility, it is theirs by virtue of an electoral system built upon numerous The problem of today's campaign thus lies deeper primaries, self-generated candidacies, and weak party than the nature of the press. The real weakness of the leaders. The burden on the press is particularly se- present system is that it is built upon the dismantling vere during the nominating phase of the campaign. of the political party, which, in Everett Carll Ladd's Communicating with each voter for a few minutes words, is "the one institution able to practice political daily, the press may be asked to 路create an electorate planning."13 Although individual voters cannot that can understand what a half dozen previously readily and at no cost to themselves discover the poliunfamiliar candidates represent. tics of several contenders for their party's nominaIt is an unworkable arrangement. It fails because tion, party leaders, because they specialize in politics, the press is not a political institution and has no stake can make this determination. And judging from the in organizing public opinion. "The press is no substi- most recent campaigns, party leaders are more adept tute for institutions," wrote Lippmann. "It is like the than the voters themselves at selecting nominees who beam of a searchlight that moves restlessly about, meet the public's desires for policy and leadership. bringing one episode and then another out of dark- Parties have an overriding reason-the need to win ness into vision. Men cannot do the work of the world elections-for selecting nominees who will meet with by this light alone. They cannot govern society by the approval of the voters. Public and elite opinion would not sanction a episodes, incidents, and interruptions." Although the press and the political party both serve to link candi- nominating process that was controlled entirely by dates with voters, these two intermediaries are very party leaders, but the time has come to find ways to different in kind. The parties have an incentive to increase the party's influence in a nominating system identify and represent those interests that are making that blends popular participation and party influence. demands for symbolic and policy representation. The A workable system must take into account what the press has no such incentive. It is in the news business, , people, the parties, and the press can and cannot do. and its inadequacy as a linking mechanism becomes However appealing the image of the omnicompetent obvious once the nature of election news is under- citizen, and however attractive the idea of the press as stood. The news simply is not an adequate guide to the corrective for defective political institutions, these political choice. Its major themes are dictated by beliefs are not the basis for a sound presidential elec-路 tion system. 0 journalistic values, not political ones. Moreover, it is a fiction that the press can make up for defective political institutions. As Lippmann 13 Everett Carll Ladd, Where Have All the Voters Gone? (New noted, the press inevitably magnifies the system's de- York: Norton, 1978), page 72. ficiences, as is plainly evident in the 1980 campaign. Today's nomin'a ting system, for example, naturally gives added influence to voters in states holding early contests, a bias magnified by the press's build-up of Dear Readerthese contests and its determination to call and cover the winners. And although changes in the campaign If you wish to continue to receive Items, please fill out and return the questionnaire on page 47. have increased the voters' need for information about The Editor the candidates' politics, election news now contains proportionately less information of this kind. The public's attention to politics is also an obstacle 30





Socialization Research Revisited by Peter B. Read*

Council committee on social and affective development during childhood plans new agenda One of the most basic and intriguing issues in the study of child development concerns how young children learn to behave appropriately in a variety of social situations. Children possess a gradually expanding repertoire of individual needs and preferences which, if acted upon at will, would lead to conflict and disorder both at home and in society. Some degree of cooperation and conformity is demanded by all societies, and at a relatively early age children learn to behave predominantly in exp~cted and socially beneficial ways. Not only does much of this patterned behavior appear without a great deal of explicit training: it often persists in situations devoid of adult sanction. Children can be observed at play-without the presence of a parent or teacher to reprimand. In fact, children will often reprimand each other. Yet, as John A. Clausen (1968) has noted:

behaviors, contained only fragmentary insights. Contributions to the existing knowledge of social and emotional development included Sigmund Freud's (1938) clinical studies of anxiety and guilt, Erik H. Erikson's (1963) proposed stages of psychosocial development, Lawrence R. Kohlberg's (1969) framework for moral development, Albert Bandura's (1969) studies of social learning, and Hugh Hartshorne and Mark May's (1928) explication of the situational determinants of moral behavior. Most of these approaches emphasize a single developmental domain (social, affective, or cognitive), and none has produced a convincing body of empirical data connecting affect to the development of social behavior. As of 1960, the mechanisms of children's rapidly developing, complex social behavior remained largely unexplored. In response to this need for new research, the Committee on Socialization and The social interaction of the young child with his parents, Social Structure convened leading researchers at a siblings and playmates has been little studied . . . (we know) series of workshops which developed a broad review little of the ways in which the child learns to interpret the facial of existing knowledge and identified promising diexpressions, tones of voice, and actions of those with whom he rections for new research. Socialization and Society reinteracts. (pages 143-146) mains one of the most comprehensive statements concerning the strengths and limitations of our While this comment sounds like a critique of knowledge about child development. current knowledge about child development, it apDespite the growth of developmental research over peared ov~r 10 years ago in Socialization and Society. the past 20 years, the study of social and emotional This book of papers summarized seven years of acdevelopment in children has continued to lag behind tivity by the Council's Committee on Socialization and research on other aspects of development. While Social Structure (1960-67). Prior to this period, some important noncognitive topics have attained theory and research on early social development, esprominence, including the study of empathy and sopecially with respect to emotional growth and the cial cognition, much of the agenda developed by the acquisition of socially prescribed or culturally defined Clausen committee has not been addressed. Consequently, in 1976 the Council appointed a Committee * The author, a sociologist at the Council, serves as staff for the on Social and Affective Development During ChildCommittee on Social and Affective Development During Child- hood under the chairmanship of Jerome Kagan, hood. He gratefully acknowledges the ideas and phrases of variHarvard University, with funds provided by the ous committee members that are incorporated here but accepts full responsibility for this statement of their collaborative efforts. Foundation for Child Development and the Bush The current membership of the committee is Martin L. Hoffman, Foundation. In its first three years of work, the University of Michigan (chairman); K. Alison Clarke-Stewart, committee sponsored a series of meetings that foUniversity of Chicago; Willard W. Hartup, University of Min- cused primarily on two topics: the measurement of nesota; Carroll E. Izard, University of Delaware; Jerome Kagan, emotions, and new directions in the study of social Harvard University; Robert A. LeVine, Harvard University; Michael Lewis, Educational Testing Service (Princeton, New Jer- cognition. Three books bas~d upon this work are sey); Zick Rubin, Brandeis University; and Richard A. Shweder, currently being prepared for publication: "Measuring University of Chicago. Emotions in Infants and Children," edited by Carroll JUNE 1980


E. Izard; "Social and Cognitive Development: Frontiers and Possible Futures," edited by John Flavell and Lee Ross; and "Social Cognition and Social Behavior," edited by E. Tory Higgins, Diana N. Ruble, and Willard W. Hartup. These meetings and resultant publications have led the committee to a more direct consideration of socialization issues-issues that will involve an examination of the relationships between social, affective, and cognitive aspects of development. The committee has received funding for its new agenda from the Foundation for Child Development. This article describes a few of the areas in which the committee intends to sponsor the conferences and other activities through which it hopes to generate new socialization research-research that is interdisciplinary, that addresses Clausen's concern for building a richly detailed knowledge of human development, and that captures more fully the emergence and growth of children's emotional experiences and interpersonal skills.

The acquisition of culture There is renewed interest among many anthropologists in the study of the acquisition of culture. Twenty to 30 years 'a go a major concern of cultural "anthropologists was the relationship between culture and personality, especially with respect to childhood socialization. An impressive body of data on childrearing practices was gathered by John and Beatrice Whiting and incorporated in their Children of Six Cultures (1975). Numerous theoretical approaches were espoused regarding the transmission of culture from adult to child (e.g., Benedict 1938). Yet the processes of enculturation, or rather the interaction of children and adults around common social values and behavior, never emerged as a major focus for empirical research in anthropology. Perhaps the most poignant words on this omission were written by Edward Sapir (1934): It is strange how little ethnology has concerned itself with the intimate genetic problems of the acquirement of culture by the child .... We may suggest as a difficult but crucial problem of investigation the following: Study the child minutely and carefully from birth until, say the age of ten with a view to seeing the order in which cultural patterns and parts of patterns appear in his psychic world; study the relevance of these patterns for the development of his personality; ... I venture to predict that the concept of culture which will then emerge, fragmentary and confused as it will undoubtedly be, will turn out to have a tougher, more vital importance for social thinking

reason to believe that this relative neglect of !=hildren in anthropology may be nearing an end. A productive convergence of psychologists and anthropologists upon the study of culture acquisition, as foreseen by Sapir, may be developing. Anthropologists, including Bambi Schieffelin (1980), Theodore A. Schwartz (1978), and Richard A. Shweder and Nancy C. Much (1979), and psychologists including Elliot Turiel (1978), and Katherine Nelson (in press) are exploring similar questions concerning the content of "culture as it is experienced by children and the social and linguistic interactions which lead to "cultural competence." New research on the acquisition of culture will require a conception of culture as something that becomes part of the behavioral and mental repertoire of an individual. There is no general consensus among anthropologists, however, regarding the best way to conceptualize culture. Robert A. LeVine (1979) has noted that recent concept validations have been based on metaphors drawn from law (norm, rule, sanction), theatre (role, actor, script), linguistics and philosophy (code, discourse, symbol), and literary and theological analysis (metaphor, text, narrative). In these diverse formulations, there is the common notion of culture as a collective organization of ideas concerning what is and what ought to be; that is, a set of shared beliefs and values approximating the coherence of an ideological system. These ideas are manifested in social communication; indeed, they define the purposes of communication and the meanings of communicative acts. In this sense, culture subsumes language, and the socialization of the child can be viewed as learning to encode and decode communications in a particular cultural context. It seems inevitable that an increasing number of researchers will be drawn to the study of the cultural aspects of socialization; that they will build upon emerging conceptions of communications and coding systems; aJ?d that new approaches to culture, such as those proposed by Clifford Geertz (1975) and Victor Turner (1976) will be critically assessed by researchers studying children. The Committee on Social and Affective Development has planned a series of activities to address these emerging issues in the study of culture acquisition.

The development of self

The self and the measurement of self have been important topics for many social and personality theorists (see, for example, Mischel 1979). While These words remain true today, although there is there has been considerable research on the concept






of self at points in adolescence and adulthood, relatively little work has focused on the young child's development of a sense of self. There are many reasons for this neglect, including a fundamental difficulty in developing methods which operationalize the self concept, especially in children. The committee believes that these measurement problems should not deter researchers from studying such a central feature of development. Fritz Heider (1958) and others have argued very persuasively that all social interactions and interpersonal relationships require minimal understandings of participants' self concepts. Such notions as empathy, or simply the ability to place oneself in the role of another, are important examples of the role of self at work in interpersonal relationships. Of particular interest to the committee has been the relationship between self development and emotional development. While it is possible to study emotions by analyzing facial expressions or physiological changes such as heart rate, it is logically impossible to state that a child feels a particular affect without first postulating a notion of self. Michael Lewis and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (1979) argue that children may h~ve emotional behavior but will not have emotional experiences until the "I" in "I am sad" or "I am happy" or "I am frightened" has-been established. Emotional experience involves the self both as object and subject. The evolving self must be viewed as a central force in development, capable of organizing a wide range of emerging cognitions, feelings, and behaviors. It is constructed from elements of immediate social interaction, from culture, and from self-directed efforts. In the coming years, the committee would like to encourage new work on the development of self. Some of the issues it hopes to address are (1) the measurement of self, including self reports, physiological measures, and behavioral measures; (2) a study of the categories into which children come to classify themselves, and the influence of culture, social class, and experience on these categories; and (3) the role of self in emotional, cognitive, and social development.

Developmental psychopathology It is time for research on emotional development to benefit from a sharing of knowledge between practitioners and researchers in clinical settings and those researchers who study children in the laboratory, home, and schools. As Robert L. Selman and Regina Yando (1980) have recently noted, "clinical insights and empirical observation need not be antithetical JUNE 1980

forces but alternative and reciprocal methods for understanding the relationship of normality to pathology in a developmental context" (ix). Several clinical approaches to the treatment of troubled children which have emerged in recent years are concerned with aspects of emotional development of interest to nonclinical researchers, and there exists a growing body of important clinical research and documented observations. This work includes the biodevelopmental approach of Sebastiano Santostefano (1978) and his colleagues, the family therapy approach of Salvator Minuchin (1979) and his colleagues, and the self development approach of Heinz Kohut (1971) and his colleagues. Carroll E. Izard (1979) has suggested that efforts to detect and prevent social and emotional maldevelopment are often not grounded in conceptual frameworks that distinguish discrete emotion concepts and variables. Despite considerable recent progress in the development of emotion theory and research, there is a tendency in the laboratory and in the clinic to use such ambiguous terms as "emotional development" and "emotional problems." Often important problems are ignored or inadequately defined because clinicians are compelled to focus upon gross or immediate difficulties. An increased awareness of and new research upon the complexity of discrete emotions would contribute to our knowledge of emotional development in these settings. Problems that seem of particular concern in this context include sadness that contributes to depression; anger that leads to aggression; shame or shyness that disrupts or aborts social relations; and fear that results in school phobias. There is insufficient research upon the process of communicating emotions between parent and child, as well as between members of the entire family system. Promising work in this area has been conducted with infants by Robert Emde (1978) and Dante Cichetti and Alan Sroufe (1978). This research ought _ to be extended to older children and the findings should be shared with and discussed by clinicians. Just as nonclinical researchers have become J;Ilore interested in the total family system, so have an increasing number of clinicians realized that treatment must include a consideration of "transactional contexts" or "patterns of interaction" among all family members. These interaction patterns can then be related to non family settings. Clearly, much can be learned about emotions by bringing together the increasing number of researchers who are concerned with developmental psychopathology (see Achenbach 1974), clinicians who treat emotionally troubled children, and devel33

opmental researchers studying emotional develop- name only a few topics, would all benefit from a more ment. Our knowledge of the processes and progress comprehensive knowledge of the role of affects in of emotional development in all children will prosper childhood socialization. The Committee on Social and Affective Development through this interaction, which will, in turn, stimulate During Childhood anticipates a series of activities that new theory and research. will emphasize the role of emotions in socialization and will examine the nature and growth of children's Affects and socialization early emotional experiences and conceptions of afThe committee has come to view emotions as fect. Studies are needed that document how varying perhaps the weakest link in our understanding of social interactions and circumstances help shape inichild development. While there has been increasing tially transitory affects into more lasting affective attention to measurement procedures, and to the qualities-qualities that have profound implications physical expression of affect in infants and children, for development. Through its activities, the committee hopes to enthere has been only minimal attention to emotions as they are represented in verbalizations, cognitions, courage innovative research on the affects, cogniand social behavior. Emotions exist not only as re- tions, and social experiences that produce, and sponses to stimulus events and as expressive social transform over the years, the wide variety of behavsignals, but also as more enduring personal states iors characterizing the socially competent adult. It such as moods, temperaments, motivations, and believes that innovative contributions to our knowltraits. Furthermore, the path of human development edge of socialization will flow from research efforts leads to increasingly complex affective configura- that are integrative, interactive, dynamic, and intertions. For example, we know little about the disciplinary. Research that is integrative will address emergence and behavioral elaboration of guilt, love, the relationships between social, affective, and cogniand the drive for achievement. Yet they clearly playa tive variables. Interactive research will recognize the mutual influence that occurs between adult and child. major role throughout the life course. Patterned social interactions and persistent behav- Research that is dynamic will examine change, will Ior in nonsocial situations can only occur with an consider those factors that modulate and shape emerinvolvement of the emotions. Successful socialization gent social and affective behavior into increasingly involves motivations and commitments. One area of more subtle personality traits and interpersonal skills. developmental research that has addressed the com- Finally, the committee is convinced that the study plex relationship of affects to emerging social behav- of socialization requires an interdisciplinary perior has been the study of empathy. To experience spective-an awareness that development transpires empathy, a person must perceive the specific affect of in a social structure and a cultural context, inanother (perception, social sensitivity), distinguish volving both psychological and biological processes. between that person's identity and feelings and one's From birth (some say even sooner) all four levels own circumstances (cognition), and, finally, experi- exert their influence as the apparently "Brownian ence a similar affect to the observed other (emotion). movements" of infancy begin. Socialization introThis vicarious affective response has the potential to duces patterns as the levels collide and interact. The motivate a variety of prosocial behaviors and a grow- seemingly random movements and sounds of infancy ing body of research shows that empathy relates to gradually give way to the coordinated, articulate, and altruism and helping beh_aviC!rs (Hoffman 1977). socially effective gestures of the adult. While the Many unresolved issues in the study of empathy Committee on Social and Affective Development remain. Most existing research has focused on em- During Childhood strives to illuminate further the pathy for others' states of distress, but we know little social and emotional underpinnings of these emerabout empathy for others' positive feelings. The so- gent gestures, it is committed to the belief that all cialization of empathy remains a mystery: how does pieces of the puzzle are related, no matter how inearly interaction with parents encourage or hinder visible some of the connecting strands might seem. 0 the development of empathy? Yet current approaches to the study of empathy provide useful References models for considering broader questions about the Achenbach, Thomas, Developmental Psychopathology. New York: Ronald Press, 1974. relationship of affects to developing social behavior. Bandura, Albert, "Social Learning Theory of Identificatory ProResearch on friendship formation, relationships to cesses," in David A. Goslin (editor), Handbook of Socialization authority and to the antecedents of delinquency, to Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969. 34





Benedict, Ruth, "Continuities and Discontinuities in Cultural Conditioning," Psychiatry, 1: 161-167 (1938). Cichetti, D. and Sroufe, L. Alan, "An Organizational View of Affect: lllustrations from the Study of Down's Syndrome Infants" in Michael Lewis and Leonard Rosenblum, (editors), The Development of Affect. New York: Plenum Press, 1978. Clausen, John A. (editor), Socialization and Society. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1968. Emde, Robert et al., "Emotional Expression in Infancy: I. Initial Studies of Social Signaling and an Emergent Model," in Michael Lewis and Leonard Rosenblum (editors), The Development of Affect. New York: Plenum Press, 1978. Erikson, Erik H., Childhood and Society. New York: Norton, 1963. Freud, Sigmund, The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud. New York: Modern Library, 1938. Geertz, Clifford, The Interpretation of Cultures. University of Chicago Press, 1973. Hartshorne, Hugh and May, Mark A., Studies in Deceit. New York: Macmillan, 1928. Heider, Fritz, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958. Hoffman, M. L., "Empathy, Its Development and Prosocial Implications," in C. Keasey (editor), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Volume 25. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977. Izard, Carroll E., Unpublished memorandum to the Social Science Research Council, 1979. Kohlberg, Lawrence, Stages in the Development of Moral Thought and Action. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969. Kohut, Heinz, Analysis of Self: Systematic Approach to the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders. New York: International Universities Press, 1971. LeVine, Robert A., Unpublished memorandum to the Social Science Research Council, 1979. Lewis, Michael and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Socwl Cognition and the Acquisition of Self. New York: Plenum, 1979. Minuchin, Salvator, Families and Family Therapy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Mischel, Theodore (editor), The Self.' Psychological and Philosophical Issues. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1979. Nelson, K., "Social Cognition in a Script Framework," in John Flavell and Lee Ross (editors), Developmental Socwl Cognition: Frontiers and Possible Futures. New York: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming. Santostefano, Sebastiano, A Biodevelopmental Approach to Clinical Child Psychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978. Sapir, Edward, "The Emergence of the Concept of Personality in a Study of Cultures," pages 590-597 in David G. Mandelbaum (editor), Selected Writings of Edward Sapir . ... Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949. First published in 1934. Schieffelin, Bambi, "Getting it Together: An Ethnographic Approach to the Study of the Development of Communicative Competence," in E. Och (editor), Developmental Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press, 1980. Schwartz, Theodore A., "The Acquisition of Culture." Paper prepared for Conference on the Self, Center for Psychosocial Studies, September 1978. Selman, Robert L. and Regina Yando (editors), "Clinical Developmental Psychology," No.7 in William Damon (editor), New Directions for Child Development. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1980. Shweder, Richard A. and Nancy C. Much, "Speaking of Rules: The Analysis of Culture in Breach," No.2 in William Damon (editor), "Moral Development," in New Directionsfor Child Development. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1979. Turiel, Elliot, "The Development of Concepts of Social Structure: Social Convention," in Joseph Glick and K. Alison ClarkeStewart (editors), The Development of Social Understanding. New York: Gardner Press, 1978. Turner, Victor W., Forest of Symbols. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1976. Whiting,]. W. M. and Beatrice B. Whiting, Children of Six Cultures: A Psycho-cultural Analysis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975.

50th Anniversary of the 1930 Hanover Conference The letters of Robert Redfield to his wife keep the past alive

THE COUNCIL WAS FOUNDED IN 1923 and incorporated in 1924. In the summer of 1925, the Council's board met in Hanover, New Hampshire with a group of psychologists. At this meeting, the new Committee on Projects was reconstituted as the Committee on Problems and Policy (P&P), which has served ever since as the Council's intellectual governing body, its gatekeeper for programs and projects. The setting was clearly satisfactory from P&P's point of view, since the following year Hanover was again selected. At this 1926 meeting, Bronislaw Malinowski, then on his first visit to the United States, expounded "the virtues of functionalist anthropology to a receptive audience of American social scientists."l I

George W. Stocking, Jr., "Clio's Fancy: Documents to Pique

JUNE 1980

A series of six Hanover conferences was held; the last, and apparently the largest, was held in 1930. Most conferences included a week-long meeting of P&P, an annual meeting of the board, and a series of substantive conferences attended by both board members and invited guests. The conferences took place in late August and early September and were sometimes referred to as "Summer Conferences." The entire New York staff generally attended, so in effect the Council moved to Hanover for this period. An annual grant of $15,000 from the Rockefeller the Historical' Imagination," History of Anthropology Newsletter, 2 (1978), page 10. See also Stocking's Anthropology at Chicago: Tradition, Discipline, Department Goseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, 1979), pages 18-19.


Foundation paid the travel and expenses of the participants at the Hanover conferences, but the minutes of the P&P meeting at the 1930 conference contain a hint that this grant was not to be indefinitely renewable. In any event, the 1931 meeting was held, with fewer invited guests路, at Siasconset, on the island of Nantucket off Cape Cod (those really were the Good Old Days!), and subsequent summer meetings were held in Franconia, New Hampshire (in 1932, in the midst of the Roosevelt-Hoover election campaign, and again in 1933); at Lake George, New York (1934); at Shawnee-on-Delaware, Pennsylvania (1935); Swampscott, Massachusetts (1936); and Skytop Lodge in the Poconos (1937). Skytop seems to have been the ideal site, and the Council's annual meeting was held there-except during the war years-most of the time for the next three decades. The 1930 Hanover conference consisted not only of a 10-day meeting of P&P and a five-day meeting of the board-it was also an occasion for a series of seminars organized by the Council. These were on legal research, international research, economic research, .and research on the interaction of culture and personality. In addition, the directors of a number of leading foundations were invited by the Council to conduct a series of discussions of their own on problems of foundation administration and on the relationship of foundations to research. There were six evenings devoted specifically to speakers, including Isaiah Bowman on "Geography as a Social Science" and Edward Sapir on "The Cultural Approach to the Study of Personality." By most accounts, the Hanover conferences were both intellectually and organizationally importantparticularly in furthering the Council's interdisciplinary goals. A final assessment of their importance either to the Council or to the social sciences has yet to be made. Some think they were an inefficient way to advance social science research, while others note that references to presentations at Hanover are not uncommon in the literature. They undoubtedly had many intellectually exciting moments, but it is difficult to appreciate how exciting they were by reading the reports, which were written in the flat language of consensus that characterizes most of the reports and minutes of organizations. Fortunately for us, however, the 33-year old University of Chicago anthropologist Robert Redfield was invited to the 1930 conference, and he wrote a series of letters to his wife that convey much of the excitement of the event. We are equally fortunate that these letters were located and edited by George W. Stocking, Jr., the University of Chicago anthropologist and historian of an36

thropology. He published the letters in his History of Anthropology Newsletter in 1978; what follows is a slightly abridged version of Stocking's account and of the letters themselves, which are reprinted by permission of the Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago. A few explanatory comments have been added in brackets.

Stocking's account In 1930, Robert Redfield, who had just published TepoztllLn and was embarking on his extended research on culture change in Yucatan, was invited to Hanover by his Chicago colleague Edward Sapir, one of the members of the Conference inner circle. Redfield's refreshing observations on what was in fact his own entree into the upper echelons of American social science are preserved in a series of letters he wrote to his wife Margaret Park Redfield, from which the following excerpts are taken.

Redfield's letters Thursday morning ... There was much conversation last night and [Edward] Sapir [age 46] and [Harold D.] Lasswell [age 28] kept it up till midnight. How those two can talk, especially Lasswell! I feel very poorly equipped in this company. They are so wise in the ways of the academic world, and make so many brilliant suggestions. ... I do not feel completely at ease in the company of such scintillating intellects. Friday morning ... The place is overrun with pedants and potentates. The potentates are the executive secretaries of the big foundations-collectively they represent hugestaggering-amounts of money that has been set aside for research. The pedants have invited the potentates so that the potentates may see how pedants do their most effective thinking, and how they arrange to spend that money. But no one mentions money, one speaks of "research," "set-up" and "significant results." Golly, its awful. There are about seventy here in all. The Social Science Research Council pays their fares, and boards them, and feeds them, and washes their clothes, and gives them cards to the golf club, and then expects them to produce Significant Results. I see Judd (School of Education) crossing the street. On the verandah under the tall colonial portico, Walter Rodgers is talking to Robert Lynd [age 38; then permanent secretary of the Council]. There is a special conclave of lawyers: Bigelow is here, and the VOLUME




Deans of many another law school, and Judge Car- were laying for him, and there was a good deal of bickering not too well clothed in the subtleties of dozo is expected. Thus do I touch the skirts of the Olympians. academic etiquette. It went on and on till eleven o'clock came. Then I hurried to the dormitory, and tumbled into bed. But Young, Lasswell, and some 5:30 Friday evening It is rather amusing to watch the Effective Minds in others wanted to work off their excitement and sense action, but also a little depressing, like watching of ridicule, which they did, across the hall, with the Shaw's he-ancients. Besides the psychological- help of some gin and ginger ale, and the racket kept ps ychia tric- an th ropo- sociological com mit- up till late. The session of the Committee this morning was tee of mine, three visitors were there, distinguished educators (Judd was one). They all wore glasses, quite interesting, especially a rather sharp conflict mustache and small pointed beard, and an intellectual between the psychometric-statistical viewpoint on the expression. They were so alike they reminded me of one hand, and the psychiatric-sociological view on the other. The principal psychiatrist present is Harry naive efforts to portray the Trinity. The psychologists run to fancy eye-glasses. Allport Stack Sullivan [age 38], a droll person, and interestwore yellow glasses. Gardner Murphy [age 35] wore ing. He is another one, like Sapir and Lasswell, with violet glasses. Sapir has the usual white glasses, but the gift of tongues. When the three of them get together the polysyllabic confluences are amazing. I they are new bi-focals. The discussion centered around the W. I. Thomas have found Sullivan's talk highly interesting, giving project to study crime and insanity among the Scan- me glimpses into a field I know nothing about. After a very large and very excellent Sunday dinner dinavians, and the Lawrence Frank proposal to bring foreign students to a great seminar to train them to at the attractive [Hanover] Inn pictured above [on the letterhead], and the aforementioned conversation make standardized studies of their own cultures. If I were more courageous I would enter into these with Sullivan, I played tennis with Lasswell. He is discussions, because the only words you have to know much better than I, and he beat me in straight sets. It was grand for me-it is fun to butt oneself against are "approach" and "set-up" ... someone stronger--one can let onself go utterly. I ran him around a little at times, and he was surprised to Sunday evening see me not totally infirm. It is amusing to see how he In not many minutes Dr. Sapir is going to deliver a lecture in this room; if I hurry I can get this letter conceived me, and how playing tennis w~th him made him alter his conception of me. Lasswell is a sort of written before his begins. Where was I? Oh yes, last night Isaiah Bowman all-around fair-haired lad, with mental brilliance, [age 52] delivered a talk on geography as a social physical effectiveness, and the most unrestrained self science. It was pretty awful claptrap, and as Bowman confidence .... The talk is about to begin. Have to 0 is an aggressive, not very tactful person, the others stop.

Fellowships and Grants 38-41

CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Africa, China, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe


GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH Africa, China, Eastern Europe, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia

THESE PAGES Jist the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were awarded 路 fellowships or grants by Council committees during the past few months. The grant JUNE 1980

programs sponsored by the Council and the grant and fellowship programs sponsored by the Council jointly with the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) are both reported here. The programs are supported in part by a grant from the Ford Foundation and a matching grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Additional funding for the Latin America and Caribbean programs is provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and for the Japan postdoctoral program by the Japan-United States Friendship Commission. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed are administered by the Council. In the administration of its fellowship and grant programs, the Social Science Research Council does not dis-


criminate on the basis of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, disability, or marital status. The programs change somewhat every year, and interested scholars should write to the Council for a copy of the new brochure. INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Awards for dissertation research abroad have been announced by the area committees of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. These committees administer the program of International Doctoral Research Fellowships (formerly the Foreign Area Fellowship Program). ~he Screening C~m足 mittees are listed under the area hsts. The Screemng Committee for all five Asian programs consisted of Frank P. Conlon, Bruce Cumings, jack L. Dull, Susan Mann jones, Richard P. Madsen, Kathryn Sparling, Donald K. Swearer, jean Taylor, Sylvia]. Vatuk, and D. Eleanor Westney. AFRICA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Africa-Diann H. Painter (chairman), Rene A. Bravmann, Bennetta jules-Rosette, Peter Anyang'Nyong'o, Paul H. Riesman, and Marcia Wright-at its meeting on March 5, 1980. It had been assisted by the Screening CommitteeFrederick Cooper, Monique P. Garrity, Ivan Karp, and Gayle H. Partmann. Thomas j. Bassett, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the Ivory Coast and Senegal on peasant economy and livestock in northern Ivory Coast Marla C. Berns, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Nigeria on the Gongola Basin and the role of art history in historical reconstruction Phyllis]. Boanes, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research in Ghana on the family and household in 19th century Asante Katherine A. Demuth, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Indiana University, for research in Lesotho on the acquisition of tense and aspect in Sesotho William R. Duggan, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Botswana on the history of cultivation Alan P. Fiske, Ph.D. candidate in behavioral sciences, University of Chicago, for research in Upper Volta on the invocation of norms as a process of social reference to relations of shared substance, authority, and reciprocity among the Mossi Paul W. Heisey, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Wisconsin, for research in Botswana on employment and income in Botswana's arable agriculture Sharon E. Hutchinson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for a restudy of the Nuer of the southern Sudan james C. McCann, Ph.D. candidate in history, Michigan State University, for research in Ethiopia on adaptation 38

on the Ethiopian periphery: Ras Hailu's Gojjam, 19001935 CHINA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the joint Committee on Contemporary China-Burton Pasternak (chairman), Cyril Birch, Paul A. Cohen, Robert F. Dernberger, Merle Goldman, Harry Harding,jr., Victor

H. Li, Richard Solomon, and Martin K. Whyte-at its meeting on February 22-23, 1980. Mark E. Lewis, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in China, japan, Paris, and London on the metamorphosis of early imperial Chinese military systems, with special reference to the origins of the Sui-Tang empires Michael Marme, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Taipei on the urban center of Su-chou and its elite, 1368-c.1550 Sun Lung-kee, Ph.D. <:andidate i~ history, Stanfor~ lJniversity, for research 10 ShanghaI, Tokyo, and TaIpeI on the Shanghai intellectual community, 1927-1937 Paul]. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Kyoto on Song fiscal administration and its impact on the regional economy JAPAN

Under the program sponsored by the joint Committee on japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Haruhiro Fukui (chairman), Koya Azumi, Harumi Befu, William B. Hauser ,j. Thomas Rimer, and Gary R. Saxonhouse-at its meeting on March 14-15, 1980 voted to make awards to the following individuals. Theodore C. Bestor, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in japan on the social organization of entrepreneurship in an urban commercial neighborhood jennifer M. Corbett, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research in japan on monetary policy and the internationalization of the japanese economy Norma Moore Field, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian studies, Princeton University, for research in japan on the motifs, images, and language of The Tale of Genji Edward B. Kamens, Ph .D. candidate in East Asian languages and literatures, Yale University, for research in japan on Minamoto no Tamenori's Samboekotoba (a 10th century introduction to the history, doctrines, and practice of Buddhism) Gregory j. Kasza, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in japan on the Home Ministry and the consolidation of japan's militarybureaucratic state, 1936-1945 KOREA

The following dissertation fellowship was awarded by the joint Committee on Korean Studies-Gari K. Ledyard (chairman), Bruce Cumings, Roger L. janelli, Chae-jin Lee, Young I. Lew, David R. McCann, and james B. Palais-at its meeting on March 7-8, 1980. VOLUME




of New Mexico, for research in Panama on labor policy Sherrill McCullough Davis, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and civilizations, Harvard University, for under the Torrijos regime research in Korea and Japan on the process of cultural Mary-Elizabeth Reeve, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, transmission from the Asian continent through the KoUniversity of Illinois, for research in Ecuador on rean peninsula from the 4th through the 8th centuries women's roles in production and their political significance within the Canelos Quichua Federation movement LA TIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Deborah L. Riner, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Princeton University, for research in Europe, the United The following fellowships were awarded by the DocStates, Argentina, Colombia, and Peru on Euromarket . toral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Latin borrowing and political change in Argentina, Colombia, and Peru America and the Caribbean-Franklin Tugwell (chairman), Allen Johnson, Frank R. Safford, Saul Sosnowski, Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in Domimca and Lance Taylor-at its meeting on February 15, 1980. It on political consciousness among a Caribbean peasantry has been assisted by the Screening Committee-Stephen G. Adriaan van ass, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Bunker,Joan R. Dassin, Thomas Flory, Merilee S. Grindle, Texas, for research in Guatemala on the Catholic Church in colonial society, 1524-1821 Fretlerick G. Hensey, and John M. Ingham William D. Belzner, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research in Ecuador on the musical systems of the Canelos Quichua, Shuar, and Achuar Indians Marc Edelman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Costa Rica on the impact of an expanding export economy on peasant production of basic food grains Clark Erickson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research in Bolivia on prehistoric intensive agricultural systems Julie M. Feinsilver, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale Universitl' for research'in Cuba and'Puerto Rico on the politics 0 public health Ricardo Godoy, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Bolivia on mining and the peasant economy of the Jukumani Indians Ann 1:. Golob, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, City University of New York, for research in Ecuador and Peru on the history of the Upper Amazon, 1650-1767 Frances Hagopian, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Brazil on the effects of regime transformation on traditional elites Jonathan D. Hill, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research in Venezuela on the musical performance system of the Korripaco Indians Erick D. Langer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Bolivia on rural society and land tenure patterns in Chuquisaca, 1880-1930 Suzanne M. Lewenstein, Ph.D. candidate in archeology, Arizona State University, for research in Belize on prehistoric modes of production at Cerro Maya Susan Lowes, Ph.D. -candidate in antnropo[ogy, Columbia University, for research in Antigua and the United Kingdom on the creation of a black middle class in the British West Indies Scott P. Mainwaring, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in Brazil on the erosion of an authoritarian regime Deborah Merrill, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Mexico on commercial beekeeping as a production strategy in a peasant economy Kathleefol Newman, Ph.D. candidate in Spanish language and ht~rature, Stanford University, for research in Argenttna on the social and historical implications of the Argentine political narrative, 1929-1979 Sharon Phillipps, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University JUNE 1980

NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for the Near and Middle East-Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid-Marsot (chairman), Renata Holod, Joel Migdal, Francis E. Peters, and Marilyn Waldman-at its meeting on February 26, 1980. It had been assisted by the Screening CommitteeMichael Bonine, Michael C. Hillman, Paul W. Rabinow, and Jerome B. Weiner. Barbara Cottle Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Massachusetts, for research in Israel and India on women's role in the maintenance of the boundaries of social stratification among Cochin Jews Muneera Murdock, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, for research in the Sudan on the impact of agricultural development on the Shukriya of eastern Sudan, a pastoral society Andrew J. Newman III, Ph.D. candidate in Islamic studies, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Egypt, Iran, and India on the life and works of Muhammed Baqir Majlisi Saadia Sabah, Ph.D. candidate in sociology and anthropology, Purdue University, for research in Morocco on the Moroccan lower level bureaucrat as a mediator between local and national systems Daniel J. Schroeter, Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern studies, University of Manchester, for research in Morocco on the history of Essaouira (Mogdor), 17641912 SOUTH ASIA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Heginbotham (chairman), McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAlpin, Barbara D. Metcalf, Wendy D. O'Flaherty, John F. Richards, Myron Weiner, and Joanna Williams-at its meeting on March 28-30, 1980. Sanjib Kumar Baruah, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research in three districts in India on agrarian structures, economic change, and peasant political participation 39

Carol A. Boyack, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for research in Andhra Pradesh on women and economic development in rural South India Anis A. Dani, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Pakistan on changing patterns of conflict in rural Punjab Catherine Sandin Meschievitz, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research on law and society in South India, 1802-1862, with special reference to caste SOUTHEAST ASIA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, David Dapice, Daniel S. Lev, Lim Teck Ghee, Michelle A. Rosaldo, and Alexander Woodside-at its meeting on March 7-9, 1980. Gregory L. Acciaioli, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research on age, sex, inheritance, and the organization of inequality among the Western Toraja of Central Sulawesi Bowman Kimble Atkins, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Thailand on the integration of modern and Buddhist systems of education S. Ahmad Hussein, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Malaysia on the political challenge of both the Dakwah Islamiyyah and dissent in the Malay community Cornelia Ann Kammerer, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Thailand on Akha metaphysics and ritual Nancy Melissa Lutz, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Indonesia on language and marriage exchange in Larantuka Marina Roseman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Malaysia on the use of music in curing among the Temiar Rohini S. Talalla, Ph.D. candidate in regional development planning, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Malaysia on ethnodevelopment, particularly among the Orang Asli WESTERN EUROPE

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Western Europe-juan J. Linz (chairman), Gerald D. Feldman, j. Lionel Gossman, joseph Lopreato, and Michael j. Piore-at its meeting on March 28, 1980. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Robert j. Bezucha, Robert j. Flanagan, jan T. Gross, Susan Harding, Thomas Laqueur, and Timothy A. Tilton. Carol Armstrong, Ph.D. candidate in art, Princeton University, for research in France on the aristocrat and the artist infin de stecle Paris judith Coffin, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in France on the relationship of technology and women's work as exemplified by the sewing machine and by outwork in the Paris garment industry Salvatore Cucchiari, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of ~ichig~n, for research in Italy on Pen40

tecostalism, secular culture, and modernization in southern Italy jennifer Davis, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston College, for research in the United Kingdom on working-class lawbreaking and the creation of a criminal class in London, 1856-1875 Krintine Dever, Ph.D. candidate in comparative human development, Harvard University, for research in Ireland on parent-child relationships and life-span development among families in a rural Irish c'ommunity Robert Fishman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for research in Spain on the labor movement and labor relations Ann Higginbotham, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research in the United Kingdom on the unwed mother in late Victorian Britain Ronnie Hsia, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in Germany on the Reformation and the Counter Reformation in Munster, 1480-1570 Michael jones, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for research in the United Kingdom on Germanic migration and invasion and the evolution of early English society Richard Kremer, Ph.D. candidate in the history of science, Harvard University, for research in Germany on the decline of Naturphilosophie in the 19th century and the formulation of a new method for the physical sciences Tessie Liu, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in France on the rural face of industrialization and changing family economies in the Choletais, 1820-1914 Michael Maas, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United Kingdom and Italy on the idea of ancestral custom in justinianic Constantinople Robert Martinez, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Spain on business elites Patricia Meyer, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Italy on narrative realism in Venetian painting as exemplified by The Miracles of the True Cross, commissioned by the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista Douglas Morris, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Rochester, for research in Switzerland on Carl Gustav jung, Hermann Rorschach, and the rise of 20th century Swiss psychiatry Mark Motley, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in France on aristocratic education and the role of formal schooling in the development of the status of youth, 1560-1680 Laurie Nussdorfer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Italy on urban politics in Baroque Rome Rosemary Orthmann, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research in Germany on the workingclass family economy in Berlin during the period of industrialization, 1874-1913 Timothy Parrish, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New School for Social Research, for research in Spain on the role of the regional elite of La Rioja in Spanish agrarian development, 1953-1975 john Ramsbottom, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in the United Kingdom on English religious nonconformity, 1660-1720 Elaine Schechter, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Denmark and Greenland on the Greenland criminal code as an experiment in Danish progressive jurisprudence VOLUME




Kerry Whiteside, Ph.D. candidate in ,Political philosophy, Princeton University, for research m France on the development of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's political thought GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH AFRICA

The Joint Committee on African Studies-John M. Janzen (chairman), Dan Ben-Amos, Abdalla S. Bujra, Allen F. Isaacman, Paul M. Lubeck, August H. Nimtz, Jr., Peter Anyang'Nyong'o, Diann H. Painter, Stanley Trapido, and Marcia Wright-at its meeting on March 6-8, 1~80 made awards to the following individuals : Iris Berger, research associate, African Studies Center, Boston University, for research in South Africa on women in the industrial labor force from 1930 to the early 1960s John Miller Chernoff, research fellow, Trinity College, Legon, Ghana, for research in northern Ghana on the ethnography of the Dagomba people Mark W. DeLancey, associate professor of government and international studies, University of South Carolina, for research in western Cameroon on the origins, development, and future role of the cooperative movement Alison L. Des Forges, visiting lecturer, State University of New York, Buffalo, for research in Rwanda on a history of the late 18th and 19th centuries WiIIiam M. Freund, visiting fellow, Centre for the Study of Social History, University of Warwick, for research in the United Kingdom on capital restructuring and mass resistance in British Colonial Africa, 1939-51 Jane I. Guyer, research associate, African Studies Center, Boston University, for research in the United States on household structure and smallholder commodity production in Africa Susanne D. Mueller, research associate, African Studies Center, Boston University, for research in Tanzania and Kenya on the development of tobacco froduction David A. Northrup, assistant professor 0 history, Boston College, for research in Zaire on the recruitment of African labor in eastern Zaire, 1870-1930 Judith M. Perani, assistant professor of art history, Ohio University, for research in Nigeria on patron-artist interactions in Nigerian craft industries (joint with Norma H. Wolff) Harold Scheub, professor of African languages and literature, University of Wisconsin, for research in South Africa on the 10 separate literatures of southern Africa Roy Sieber, professor of fine arts, Indiana University, for research in Europe on the northern factor in Subsaharan arts and crafts Timothy C. Weiskel, faculty fellow, Harvard University, for research in the Ivory Coast on agroecology and sociocultural change among the Baule peoples Norma H. Wolff, instructor in anthropology, Iowa State University, for research in Nigeria on patron-artist interactions in Nigerian craft industries (joint with Judith M. Perani) CHINA

Research on Contemporary and Republican China The Joint Committee on Contemporary China-Burton Pasternak (chairman), Cyril Birch, Paul A. Cohen, Robert JUNE 1980

F. Dernberger, Merle Goldman, Harry Harding,Jr., Victor H. Li, Richard Solomon, and Martin K. Whyte-at its meeting on February 22-23, 1980 awarded grants to the following individuals: John D. Berninghausen, assistant professor of Chinese, Middlebury College, for research in the United States, Taiwan, and Hong Kong on literary techniques and their impact on the ideological content in Mao Dun's fiction Wellington K.K. Chan, associate. professor of history~ ~c足 cidental College, for research m Hong Kong and Chma on structural change and innovative strategy in modern Chinese business as illustrated by two Chinese-owned modern department stores (jointly supported with the Subcommittee on Research on the Chmese Economy) Chuan Ju-hsiang, assistant professor of history, Brandeis University, for research in Beijing on women elites in the Chinese revolution (joint award with Philip West) Susan Mann Jones, assistant professor of Chinese civilization, University of Chicago, for research in the United States on merchants and trade organizations in China's new polity Lillian M. Li, associate professor of history, Swarthmore College, for research in Taiwan and Japan on state policy, flood, and famine in the Hai River basin during the modern period Harriet C. Mills, professor of Chinese, University of Michigan, for research in the United States and China on the history of modern Chinese woodcuts, 1929-1979 Lawrence R. Sullivan, assistant professor of political science, Wellesley College, for research in the United States and Hong Kong on the politics of authority in China as evidenced in the 1977-78 party-building campaign Philip West, associate professor of history, Indiana University, for research in Beijing on women elites in the Chinese revolution (joint award with Chuan Ju-hsiang) Arthur P. Wolf, associate professor of anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Beijing on family and fertility in rural China Margery J. Wolf, affiliated scholar with the Center for Research on Women, Stanford University, for research in China on the changing status of women

Research on the Chinese economy At its meeting on February 15-16, 1980, the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy-Robert F. Dernberger (chairman), Robert M. Hartwell, Dwight H. Perkins, and Thomas G. Rawski-made its recommendations to the Joint Committee on Contemporary China concerning grants. The Joint Committee approved awards to the following individuals: Wellington K.K. Chan, associate professor of history, Occidental College, for research in Hong Kong and China on structural change and innovative strategy in modern Chinese business as illustrated by two Chinese-owned modern department stores (jointly supported with the Joint Committee on Contemporary China) Carl Riskin, associate professor of economics, Queens College, City University of New York, for research in the United States and Cpina on Chinese development policies and problems during the 1958-76 period EASTERN EUROPE

The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered 41

by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Dean S. Worth (chairman), Morris Bornstein, Barbara jelavich, Kenneth T. jowitt, William G. Lockwood, Piotr S. Wandycz, and Thomas G. Winner-at its meeting on March 7, 1980 made awards to the following individuals: Marianna D. Birnbaum, adjunct associate professor of Hungarian and comparative literature, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the survival of Latinity in 16th century Hungal'y-Croatia Anna M. Cienciala, professor of history, University of Kansas, for research on the Polish question in World War II Nancy Condee, Providence, Rhode Island, for research on the reception of Soviet literature in the German Democratic Republic Thomas j. Doulis, professor of English, Portland State University, for research on modern Greek historical fiction, 1830-1880 Scott M. Eddie, professor of economics, University of Toronto, for research on the limits of fiscal independence of .sovereign states in a common market: AustriaHungary, 1867-1913 Mary Gluck, assistant professor of history, Brown University, for research on the Lukacs Circle and the emergence of modernism infin de siecie Hungary Micaela S. Iovine, Sofia, Bulgaria, for research on literary language among Bulgarian Catholics, 17th-19th centuries Beata Kitsiki-Panagopoulos, associate professor of art history and architecture, San jose State University, for research on the architecture of 18th century mansions in the Balkans under Ottoman rule Gail Kligman, visiting assistant professor of anthropology, University of Chicago, for research on ideology and praxis as exemplified by ritual in contemporary Romania john H. Komlos, assistant professor of economics, Aurora College, for research on the origins of industrialization in the Czech crown lands Richard C. Lukas, professor of history, Tennessee Technological University, for research on Poland and the Cold War, 1945-53 jay J. Rosellini, assistant professor of German, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on a critical introduction to Volker Braun JAPAN

Under the program sponsored by the joint Committee on japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Haruhiro Fukui (chairman), Koya Azumi, Harumi Befu, Robert M. Hauser, j . Thomas Rimer, and Gary R. Saxonhouse-at its meeting on March 14-15, 1980 awarded grants to the following individuals: Robert Borgen, assistant professor of japanese, University of Hawaii, for research in japan on the poetry of Sugawara no Michizane Linda Keller Brown, senior research associate, Center for the Social Sciences, Columbia University, for research in japan on women as corporate managers john C. Campbell, associate professor of political science, University of Michigan, for research in japan on governmental policy toward the elderly john B. Cornell, professor of anthropology, University of Texas, for research in japan on two urbanizing villages in Okayama 42

Radcliffe G. Edmonds, jr., assistant professor of economics, Southern Illinois University, for research injapan on spatial variation in the quality of primary school education in metropolitan Tokyo W. Mark Fruin, associate professor of history, California State University at Hayward, for research in japan on the emergence and formation of the modern industrial enterprise Terry E. MacDougall, associate professor of government, Harvard University, for research in japan on Asukata Ichio and the dilemmas of socialist leadership james L. McClain, assistant professor of history, Brown University, for research in japan on urban political administration during the Tokugawa period Dana Morris, researcher, Department of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United States on agriculture and society in japan during the Heian period (8th-12th centuries) Tetsuo Najita, professor of history and Far Eastern languages, University of Chicago, for research in japan on the political consciousness of Tokugawa merchants Kate Wildman Nakai, assistant professor of history, University of Oregon, for research in japan on the Tokugawa samurai family Henry D. Smith II, associate professor of history, University of California, Santa Barbara, for research in japan on transformations in japanese pictorial space, as represented in views of the city of Edo (Tokyo) from the early 18th to the mid-19th century Makoto Ueda, professor of japanese, Stanford University, for research in the United States on modern japenese poets and the nature of literature


The joint Committee on Korean Studies-Gari K. Ledyard (chairman), Bruce Cumings, john C. jamieson, Roger L. janeIIi, Chae-jin Lee, Young I. Lew, David R. McCann, and james B. Palais-at its meeting on March 7-8, 1980 awarded grants to the following individuals : jonathan W. Best, assistant professor of Asian art history, Wesleyan University, for research in the United States on the politics of diplomacy in the late Three Kingdoms period Sung-il Choi, associate professor of political science, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, for research in the United States on the primacy of politics and the subversion of democracy in South Korea, 1949-1979 Griffin Dix, assistant professor of sociology and anthropology, University of Santa Clara, for research in Korea on the political economy of wealth distribution in rural Korea Hee Sung Keel, assistant professor of religion, St. Olaf College, for research in the United States on Hyujong, the transmitter of the Korean Zen tradition Chong-Sik Lee, associate professor of political science, University of Pennsylvania, for research in the United States on political leadership in Korea, 1945-1948 Siyoung Park, assistant professor of geography, Western Illinois University, for research in Korea on the spatial impact of growth centers on regional development Doh C. Shin, visiting fellow, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, for research in Korea on public perceptions of the quality of life VOLUME




Lyman L. Johnson, associate professor of history, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, for research in ArgenThe Joint Committee on Latin American Studiestina on the distribution of wealth in Buenos Aires during the Rosas period Albert Fishlow (chairman), Richard R. Fagen, Shepard Forman, Jean Franco, Friedrich Katz, Larissa Adler Lom- Franklin W. Knight, professor of history, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in Cuba and Jamaica on nitz, Guillermo O'Donnell, Hans-Jiirgen Puhle, and FranJamaican migrants and the Cuban sugar industry, cisco C. Weffort-at its meeting on March 13-15, 1980 1900-1934 awarded grants to the following individuals: Santiago E. Kovadloff, Buenos Aires, Argentina, for research in Argentina on aesthetic criteria and the political Regis D. Andrade, research officer, Center for the Study of process in the production of Argentine literature, Contemporary Culture (CEDEC), Sao Paulo, for re1960-1980 search in Brazil on popular movements and the for- Oscar R. Landi, researcher, Center for the Study of State mation of the Brazilian state, 1930-1954 and Society (CEDES), Buenos Aires, for research in Silvia M. Arrom, assistant professor of history, Yale UniArgentina and Brazil on a comparative analysis of politiversity, for research in Mexico on the Mexico City poor cal culture in the two countries, 1930-1946 house, 1774-1872 Linda Lewin, assistant professor of history, Princeton UniFrederick P. Bowser, associate professor of history, Stanversity, for research in Brazil on the social history of ford University, for research in Mexico on socioecoBrazilian family law, 1889-1980 nomic power and political change in Michoacan, 1750- David J. McCreery, assistant professor of history, Georgia 1869 State University, for research in Guatemala on rural Julianne Burton, assistant professor of literature, Univerwage labor, 1890-1980 sity of California, Santa Cruz, for research in the United Ellen Messer, assistant professor of anthropology, Yale States and Cuba on the relationship of the cinema to University, for research in Mexico on the community of social change in Latin America Mitla, Oaxaca Roberto Da Matta, visiting professor of anthropology, U ni- Lisandro O. Perez, associate professor of sociology, versity of Wisconsin, for research in Portugal on ritual Louisiana State University, for research in Cuba and the and ideology in Portugal and Brazil United States on the social demography of 20th century Jose del Castillo, professor of sociology, Autonomous UniCuba versity of Santo Domingo, for research in the Dominican Ofelia Pia netto, Cordoba, Argentina, for research in Republic and the United States on the recent political Argentina on labor organization in an agricultural exhistory of the Dominican Republic, 1966-1979 port economy, 1880-1930 Francisco Delich, executive secretary, Latin American Brian H. Pollitt, lecturer in economics, University of GlasCouncil of the Social Sciences (CLACSO), Buenos Aires, gow, for research in Cuba on agrarian development for research in Argentina and Paraguay on the agrarian since 1959 bases of the Paraguayan state Anna C. Roosevelt, curator, Museum of the American InIna Dinerman, associate professor of sociology, Wheaton dian, New York City, for research in Venezuela on subCollege, for research in Mexico on patterns of household sistence production and demography in prehistoric composition, land tenure, and migration in two Mexican Parmana communities Frank E. Safford, professor of history, Northwestern UniPatricia Weiss Fagen, associate professor of history, San versity, for research in Colombia on regionalist politics, Jose State University, for research in Chile, Brazil, 1845-1863 Mexico, and EI Salvador on state terror and human Gregory P. Urban, instructor in linguistics, University of rights in Latin America Chicago, for research in Brazil on grammatical Alberto Flores Galindo, professor of history, Catholic Unicategories among the Shokleng (Gâ&#x201A;Ź:) Indians versity of Peru, for research in Spain on the Peruvian Reiner Tom Zuidema, professor of anthropology, Univermercantile class, 1760-1830 sity of Illinois, for research in Peru on the ritual and Thomas H. Flory, assistant professor of history, University mythological organization of space in and around the of Michigan, for research in Brazil on land, society, and valley of Cuzco environmental perception in a Brazilian farming community, 1750-1900 Pierre-Michel Fontaine, associate professor of political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST in Brazil on the relationship between race and class The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastRichard Graham, professor of history, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on social structure, political power, Francis E. Peters (chairman), Ali Banuazizi, Richard W. and economic development in late 19th century Brazil Bulliet, ~amir Khalaf, Robert J. Lapham, Ann Elizabeth Evelyn Hu-DeHart, assistant professor of history, Wash- Mayer, and Amal Rassam-at its meeting on March 1 ington University, for research in Mexico on Chinese immigrants and local commercial development in north- 15-16, 1980 awarded grants to the following individuals: west Mexico, 1880-1935 Charles J. Humphrey, lecturer in sociology, University of Shahrough Akhavi, associate professor of government and international studies, University of South Carolina, for Liverpool, for research in Brazil on workers in the autoresearch in Egypt on the political culture of Egyptian mobile industry workers Gordon D. Inglis, Seville, Spain, for research in Spain on Michael E. Bonine, assistant professor of Oriental studies, patterns of local economy in Cuba, 1763-1790 University of Arizona, for research in the United Arab John Randal Johnson, assistant professor of literature, Emirates on Iranian merchant communities Rutgers University, for research in Brazil on the role of William L. Cleveland, associate professor of history, Simon the state in the development of the Brazilian cinema 43 JUNE 1980 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

Fraser University, for research in the Middle East on Shakib Arslan and the politics of Islamic nationalism Arnold H. Green, associate professor of Arabic studies, American University in Cairo, for research in Utah on family history in the Arabic world Kemal Karpat, professor of history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Turkey on migration and settlement in the Balkans and the Middle East, 1850-1920 Reinhold and Erika Loeffler, associate professor~ of anthropology, Western Michigan University, for research in Iran on village Iran after the revolution Fedwa Malti-Douglas, assistant professor of Oriental languages, University of Virginia, for research in the Middle East on blindness and the blind in medieval Islam Thomas S. Noonan, professor of history, University of Minnesota, for numismatic research in Anatolia on relations between the Islamic world and Eastern Europe, 8001015 Daniel A. Wagner, visiting fellow, Harvard University, for research in Morocco on Quranic education and access to literacy in Morocco an.d Qatar . _ Marvin Zonis, associate professor of political science, University of Chicago, for research in the Middle East on the Shah of Iran and the revolution of 1977-79

Richard D. Saran, Ph.D. in ancient Indian history, Ypsilanti Regional Psychiatric Hospital, for research on Jaitaran, a Rajasthan pargana in the Mughal period


The Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, David Dapice, Daniel S. Lev, Lim Teck Ghee, Michelle Z. Rosaldo, and Alexander Woodside-at its meeting on March 7-9, 1980 awarded grants to the following individuals:

Leo Alting von Geusau, associate professor of philosophy, Long Island University, for research in northern Thailand on the traditional medical system of the Akha Bel1iamin A. Batson, research fellow, Department of Pacific and Southeast Asian History, Australian National University, for research in Thailand on Thai-Japanese relations, 1868-1945 David Bradley, lecturer in linguistics, University of Melbourne, for research in Thailand on the decay and acculturation of a Tibeto-Burman language SOUTH ASIA Thak Chaloemtiarana, associate professor of political sciThe Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Heginence, Thammasat University, for research at Cornell University on dimensions of power, leadership, and botham (chairman), McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAllegitimacy in contemporary Thai society pin, Barbara D. Metcalf, Wendy D. O'Flaherty, John F. Clark E. Cunningham, professor of anthropology, UniverRichards, Myron Weiner, and Joanna Williams-at its sity of Illinois, for research in Indonesia on multiple meeting on March 28-30, 1980 awarded grants to the curing systems in East Sumatra following individuals: Stephen C. Headley, research associate, Centre de Documentation et de Recherche sur l'Asie du Sud-Est et Ie John Carswell, curator, The Oriental Institute, University Monde Insulindien, Paris, for research in Java on conof Chicago, for a preliminary survey for the excavation cepts of time and space in Javanese divination of ancient Mantai, Sri Lanka Reynaldo C. Ileto, assistant professor of history, University Diana L. Eck, assistant professor, Sanskrit and Indian of the Philippines, for research on Southern Tagalog Studies, Harvard University, for research on India's sacresponses to the American occupation, 1900-1902 red geography as a study of symbol and culture Audrey Kahin, editor, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell Marcia A. Fentress, research associate, Center for South University, for research in Indonesia on the changing and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, role of Islamic leaders in the nationalist movement in Berkeley, for research on the natural history of the West Sumatra, 1930-1950 Gangetic Valley Tsuyoshi Kato, associate professor of sociology, Kyoto Stewart Gordon, research associate, University of MichiUniversity, for research in Indonesia on Minangkabau gan, for research on the history of a crossable caste populations in Jakarta boundary between the Bhils and the Rajuts Linda Yuen-Ching Lim, assistant professor of economics, John R. McLane, professor of history, Northwestern UniSwarthmore College, for research in Malaysia and Sinversity, for research on land, law, and dependency in gapore on changing modes of industrial redeployment rural West Bengal, 1750-1850 to deVeloping countries Morris D. Morris, professor of economics, University of Mah-Hui Lim, postdoctoral fellow in sociology, Duke UniWashington, for research on change and stagnation in versity, for research in West Malaysia on the developthe I ndian economy, 1700-1947 ment of the Malay business community since indepenGene H. Roghair, postdoctoral fellow in South Asian dence studies, University of Wisconsin, for research on Telugu Mattani Rutnin, professor of drama, Thammasat Univeroral literature in the context of hero and goddess festisity, for research in Thailand on the influence of the vals Chinese cultural revolution on contemporary Thai literAlan Roland, research associate, Southern Asian Institute, ature and drama Columbia University, for psychoanalytic research on the James T. Siegel, professor of anthropology and Asian Indian self and the adaptation of Indians to American studies, Cornell University, for research in Indonesia on relationships the place of imagery in Javanese culture George Rosen, professor of economics, University of Il- Keith Taylor, McBain, Michigan, for research on the tranlinois, Chicago Circle, for research on the Ford Foundasition of Vietnamese society from a dependency of the tion and its role in economic planning in I ndia and Chinese imperial system to a fully independent kingdom Pakistan, 1950-1970 in the 9th, 10th, and lIth centuries






Current Activities at the Council Indicators of social change The Council founded its Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C. in 1972 and established an Advisory and Planning Committee on Social Indicators to guide its activities. Funded principally by the National Science Foundation, the Center has from its inception been engaged in four major kinds of tasks. First, it fosters communcations on social indicators through means that include publishing Social Indicators Newsletter and maintaining a specialized research library. Second, it facilitates the development of new models of social reporting, most recently by commissioning topical social reports for a series to be published by Harvard University Press. Third, the Center provides for the appraisal and stimulation of research on social indicators. For example, the research planning of the Working Group on Neighborhood Quality led to three analyses of the Annual Housing Survey data addressing (1) the relationship between neighborhood conditions and satisfaction with neighborhoods, (2) the effect of race on subjective assessments of housing and neighborhood quality, and (3) the relative importance of different features of neighborhoods. The Subcommittee on Science Indicators plans to undertake an assessment of citation analysis as a research method in science indicators. Fourth, the Center encourages improvement of the scope and quality of data bases for social indicators through activities such as its conference and subsequent publication on the National Longitudinal ("Parnes") Surveys of Labor Market Experience, which are supported by the U.S. Department of Labor. The Center recently sponsored a workshop on two major approaches to social accounting that seem amenable to empirical application in social indicators research: Demographic Accounts, and combined Time BudgetlNational Income and Product Accounts. Demographic Accounting builds upon traditional demographic and sociological notions of popUlation stocks in, and flows among, various sociodemographic states (e.g., age, schooling status, labor force status, occupation, marital status, attitudes, etc.). This approach to social accounting emerged as a distinct field with Richard Stone's OECD monograph in 1971. It has JUNE 1980

grown with a series of United Nations publications by Stone and others and now provides a unified framework for identifying and correcting inconsistencies in sociodemographic data through the longitudinal analysis of transition proba- bilities between states. The time budget approach to social accounting is based on surveys that measure how people allocate time among various activities. This information is combined with recently developed economic theories of time allocation and of theories of household production and consumption to rearrange the extant National Income and Product Accounts . The resulting analyses provide insight into the values that individuals and society place on work, on raising the next generation, on social mobility, and on the search for a better life. In addition, they allow economists and other social scientists to measure and incorporate into a general framework many "productive" activities (e.g., housework, and participation in voluntary organizations) that occur outside the market economy. The purpose of the recent workshop was to assess the promise of these approaches for increasing understanding of social change. The workshop papers are to be published by Academic Press in a volume edited by Kenneth C. Land, University of Illinois, and F. Thomas Juster, University of Michigan. In addition to the above tasks, the Center was urged by a 1977 site visit team from the National Science Foundation to undertake a reconnaissance of the field of social indicators and an assessment of its current needs and accomplishments, and then to propose an agenda for future research in the field. Among the new activities is one that has been inspired by a question posed by members of the NSF site visit team: In 20 years time, what will we wish we had been measuring today? In illustrating the idea, one team member conjectured that the legitimation of bilingual education could lay the foundation for separatist sentiment in the Southwestern U.S., and urged the development of measures designed to provide information on such trends. Issues J:e1ated to values and social organization may serve to structure the report of the planning project. Recognizing the considerable importance of values in so-

cial indicators research, the Center has asked Duncan MacRae, Jr., University of North Carolinia, to address the relationship between values and the conduct of social indicators research. At least two questions will be discussed. One concerns the extent to which values are or should be the object of social indicators research. The second concerns the role that value choices play in the selection of research problems and the analysis of observed trends. The activities outlined here, together with the other activities of the Center, are intended to foster sound research and act as guides to the development of social indicators during the next 10 to 20 years.

Staff appointments David E. Myers, a sociologist, joined the Council in June as a staff associate at the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C. Mr. Myers received a B.S. in sociology from Western Washington State College in 1975, an M.A. in sociology from Washington State University in 1977, and the Ph.D. in sociology from Washington State University in 1980. His research interests include human ecology and demography. With Lewis F. Carter, he is presently writing a book offering a computer-oriented introduction to statistics. He will serve primarily on a program of science planning for the field of social indicators. Robert Pearson joined the Council in June as a staff associate for the Committee for the Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C. Mr. Pearson received a B.A. in political science from the University of Missouri in 1971, an M.A. in political science from the University of Chicago in 1973, and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago in 1980. He comes to the Council from the National Opinion Research Center (Chicago), where he held the position of assistant survey director from 1978 to 1980. His major interests are in the study of leadership selection and in the public's attitudes toward science and technology, serving as associate principal investigator on the National Science Foundation's 1979 study of the public's attitudes toward science and technology.


Recent Council Publications


Elites in the Middle East, edited by I. William Zartman. A publication of the

Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980. x + 252 pages. Cloth, $21.95. This is a volume of papers generated at a conference in Belmont, Maryland in March 1972 and at a workshop in New York in March 1975. The scholars associated with the project decided at an early stage not to focus upon descriptions of particular elites, but rather to adopt what came to be called a "whole-system" approach to elite studies. The characteristics of elites-their social backgrounds, promotion patterns, geographical and ethnic origins, ideological leanings, and generational membership-were viewed as data with which to measure reactions to social change and to determine the processes that lead to such outputs of the national system as policies and strategies. The result of the project is not claimed to be a new theory of e1itesrather it is both a stock taking and an indication of new directions for 'future work. The "Introduction," by the editor, I. William Zartman, New York University, describes the history of the project and the goals of the book. The substantive chapters are by Charles E. Butterworth, University of Maryland ("Philosophy, Stories, and the Study of Elites"); I1iya Harik, Indiana University ("Power and the Study of Elites"); Mr. Zartman ("Toward a Theory of Elite Circulation"; Leslie L. Roos,Jr., University of Manitoba ("Approaches to Elite Research"); Marvin G. Weinbaum, University of Illinois ("Structure and Performance of Mediating Elites"); and Russell A. Stone, State University of New York, Buffalo ("The Impact of Elites and Their Future Study"). The book concludes with a 28page consolidated bibliography of works referred to in the text. Because of the

cross-cutting nature of elite studies, the bibliography serves as a useful inventory of recent (largely) English-language social science research on the Middle Eastfrom Morocco to Afghanistqn.


The Entertainment Functions of Television, edited by Percy H. Tannenbaum. Papers based on a conference organized by the Committee on Television and Social Behavior, held in New York on October 24-25, 1975. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1980. ix + 262 pages. Cloth, $19.95. The Committee on Television and Social Behavior (1973- 79) recognized early in its deliberations that among the neglected items on the communication research agenda was the great appeal of the public media in general and television in particular as a means of disseminating entertainment fare on a broad basis. This volume of studies by 12 psychologists and sociologists--one of two volumes sponsored by the committee-focuses on television's entertainment functions. In addition to Mr. Tannenbaum, who edited the volume, contributors include Leo Bogart, Newspaper Advertising Bureau (New York); Hilde T. Himmelweit, London School of Economics; Marianne E. Jaeger, London School of Economics; Paul E. McGhee, Texas Technological University; Harold Mendelsohn, University of Denver; Stephen C. Scheele, University of California, Santa Barbara; Thomas J. Scheff, University of California, Santa Barbara; Jerome L. Singer, Yale University, H. T. Spetnagel, University of Denver; Betty Swift, Open University (London); and Dolf Zillmann, Indiana University. The eight chapters that follow Mr. Tannenbaum's introduction reflect the substantial diversity of interests and conceptual approaches characterizing research in this field. The chapter by Men-

delsohn and Spetnagel, "Entertainment as a Sociological Enterprise," gives a broad historical perspective within which contemporary issues may be examined. The chapter by Singer, "The Power and Limitations of Television: A CognitiveAffective Analysis," reports on the author's research dealing with fantasy, children's learning through entertainment formats, and the like, but also on the brain-hemisphere theory separating logically reasoned, linear intellectual processes from more spontaneous, emotionally tinged neural activity. The chapter by Himmelweit, Swift, and Jaeger, "The Audience as Critic: A Conceptual Analysis of Television Entertainment," directs attention to the categories, and their underlying judgmental dimensions, of selected entertainment programming from the viewer's perspective. The chapter by Tannenbaum, "Entertainment as Vicarious Emotional Experience," develops a set of theoretical ideas centered on the role of emotional arousal through communication. The contribution prepared by Zillmann, "Anatomy of Suspense," also utilizes an arousal model to describe and analyze the content of suspense. Operating from a somewhat different theoretical stance, Scheff and Scheele explore "Humor and Catharsis: The Effect of Comedy on Audiences." McGhee's contribution, "Toward the Integration of Entertainment and Educational Functions of Television: The Role of Humor," explores that role in abeting the use of television as a learning device. The chapter that closes the volume, "Television News as Entertainment" by Bogart, examines the influence on news programming of such factors as the introduction of "show business" and other audience-building techniques and formats in order to promote higher ratings.




Incm-poroted in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1979-80:







Items Vol. 34 No.2 (1980)  
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