SOCIAL SCIE CE-RESEARCH COUNCIL
GEORGETOWN UNIV~Rsl rY CENTER FOR POPULATION A~S~ARCH
VOLUME 29 . NUMBER 4 . DECEMBER 1975 605 THIRD AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE
Report on a conference:
Traditional Korean Society by Edward W. Wagner
IN 1414, A KOREAN named Yi Su passed the higher civil service examination in Yi Dynasty Korea (I ;~921910) and rose to become minister of personnel. His origins are so obscure that he himself is called the founder of his clan, and among his descendants only one other successful candidate appears-468 years (17 generations) later. The man who took a first in the ame 1414 examination, Kwon Che, was the 16th generation descendant of a figure who rendered meritorious service in the year 930 to the founder of the Koryo Dynasty. Over the next 16 generations, more than 20 of Kwon Che's descendants also passed the civil service examination, while at the same time his line included the brothers Kwon Ch'ol-sin and Kwon II-sin, who were Catholic martyrs in 180l. Among 14,600 successful candidates in the 500-year period during which the examination system served as the principal means of recruitment into Yi Korea's political elite, some 42 per cent belonged to just 36 clans. In contrast, the other 58 per cent who succeeded represent perhaps 700 identifiable clan lineages. The civil service examination process affords an excellent illustration of the problems and promise that • The author, who is professor of Korean studies at Harvard Uni· versity. organized and chaired the conference. sponsored by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, and held in Taejon. Korea on September 1-6. 1975. The members of the Joint Committee on Korean Studies are ChongSik Lee. University of Pennsylvania (chairman); John C. Jamieson. University of California. Berkeley' Gari K. Ledyard. Columbia University; Chae-Jin Lee, University of Kansas; Youngil Lim. University of Hawaii; Richard J. Pearson. University of British Columbia; Edward W. Wagner. Huvard University: sinD. Patrick G. Maddox.
Report on a Conference: Traditional Korean Society-Edward W. Wagner
Project Link: The Seventh Year -Lawrence R. Klein
Language Use in Japan and the United States-Eleanor H. Jorden
Current Activities at the Council
Survey of Social Sciences at NSF
Fellowships and Grants
Training Institute: Genetics of Developmen tal Processes
attend the study of traditional Korean society. There is a strong suggestion of the importance of lineage continuity, of established upper class pedigree, in securing access to political power in Yi Korea and entrance into its social elite. At the same time, it is clear that lesser lineages could en joy the satisfactions and benefits accTUing from examination success and that a man might indeed arise from obscurity and file a claim of privilege on behalf of his posterity. More significantly, these vignettes from the history of the Yi civil service examinations hint at the unusually rich documentary record that awaits search by the persevering investigator. For one thing, the names of all 14,600 successful candidates in the Yi higher civil service examination are known, and a great deal more than their name is known about most of them. Rosters listing about 35,000 men who took preliminary civil service examination degrees after 1510 have now been subjected to initial analysis. A substantial number of rosters for the military and various technical examinations also exist. The triennial census system has left us a lamentably small number of extant documents, none of them dated before 1600, but there is a major cache or two and work already done on these materials is of
critical importance. There is a Korean genealogical tradition in recent centuries that perhaps finds no peer anywhere on earth for zeal and accuracy. Other lineage documents abound. County gazetteers contain largely uncharted riches and the treasure buried in the obituary documents, and elsewhere in private literary collections, is unfathomable. The various annals compiled in the court also offer extraordinary detail, especially in the light of the relatively small national territory and population t.o which they pertain.
The study of Korean history In many of its aspects Korean historiography was set back a generation or more by Japanese colonial rule after 1910. Although it may be said that, for an alien overlord, Japan paid uncommon attention to certain manifestations of the Korean cultural experience, any overall assessment would quickly note that historical scholarship during these years was largely in the hands of the Japanese and that the interests pursued were theirs. Compilations were undertaken, yes, and many materials made accessible. But a fundamental policy decision was made early in the period that the educational curriculum for Koreans would include little of their own history and culture. Not only would few Korean historians be trained but there would be little opportunity for those who were trained to practice their craft. The exigencies of life in postliberation Korea for some years after liberation in 1945 delayed further the development of the study of Korean history in Korea. Coincidentally, however, these same factors kindled new interest in Korea in the West and especially in the United States. In the end, a first generation of Western historians of Korea would emerge at about the same time that the younger post-Korean War historians matured. And a major concern of both groups, each for its own reasons, perhaps, would be the problem of the nature of traditional Korean society. Views among Korean historians as to the basic features of social structure in the Yi Dynasty have turned sharply around during the past 30 years. The pioneering survey historians placed their emphasis on the rigidity of .social stratification and the perpetuation of class divisions by strong hereditary barriers against upward mobility. Their views were based primarily on a variety of provisions in the National Code (Kyongguk taejon) that appeared to draw firm lines among each of four social classes-the ruling yangban, the chungin or petty functionaries, the mass of commoners, and slaves and other "mean" people. Early in the 1940s the innovative research of the Japanese scholar Shikata Hiroshi on the Taegu census registers yielded seemingly undeniable evidence that the Korean social fabric had undergone
profound change after about 1700, but his work made neither the mode of change nor its ultimate thrust clearly visible. And when Korea's liberation demanded textbooks by Korean historians, there was no time to conduct further basic research, or indeed anyone to it. Besides, the vision Shikata's work engendered of a near-total breakdown of barriers between classes must have seemed hallucinatory to the Korean historian who was himself a product of the traditional culture that was under scrutiny. With the passage of time and the eventual coming of tranquility to Korea and its institutions, a new generation of historians emerged simultaneously with a shift in Korean values. It had been a widely shared impulse to reject the notion that the immediate past, the Yi period, contained anything of value or importance for the development of a new, independent Korean society in the mid-20th century. But as Korea began to stand on its own feet and to command the attention of the outside world for its own achievements, Korean historians displayed a new sense of pride and sought new perspectives for their work. It was evident, after all, that Korea today was built on the Korea of yesterday. The restructuring of Korean society that was now under way was part of a process of change and development that began some centuries ago. Indeed, if the historian but looked, he might find features in the old social order that foreordained the patterns of SOciety. idealized by Korean intellectuals today.
A new view of Yi society And so a new view of Yi society evolved; it was the dual reflection of the new value orientation and of much solid new research. It now came to be asserted that, however rigid Yi society may have been in its first two centuries, the invasions of 1592-98 led by the Japanese conqueror Hideyoshi left the old order in disarray, thus providing opportunities for upward mobility on a large scale. Ultimately, this led to the creation of a quite different social structure out of which, in tum, 20th century Korean society emerged. And some scholars went further: there had never been statutory differentiation between the ruling yangban and the commoners, and even in the real world of the Yi this line of social class demarcation, faint at the outset, came increasingly to be blurred. Social hierarchy, in short, was far less conspicuous a feature of traditional Korean I ife than virtually everyone had assumed. In the United States, meanwhile, research based on 17th century census registers strongly supported the view that little upward mobility had been possible for perhaps a full century after the Hideyoshi invasions. Quite. the contrary-the slave population was increasing rapVOLUME
idly. Studies of the products of the civil examination system and of late 19th century elites suggested to American investigators that lineage background was the 6ingle most important factor determining access to the ~igher positions in the Yi government, right down to the closing years of the dynasty. Yet here, too, other directions were suggested by other inquiries. Students of Yi society, in short, were like l;>lind men describing the elephant they each had touched in a different place. It would be too much to expect that anyone had yet seen the beast, but an exchange of views among all those who had ventured tactile exploration surely could not fail to advance understanding. The need for a binational conference became evident.
Aims and results of the conference
The Conference on Traditional Korean Society,l in its prospectus, asserted that "Korea provides an unusual opportunity, a unique one in some respects, to reach firm conclusions concerning the formation, structure, and function of a complex pre-modern society." It went on to state the obvious, that "the fundamental questions have not yet been answered," and it cautioned that at the present stage it would be wise to concentrate on the delineation of problem areas and the posing of informed questions. The aim of the conference, then, was to provide an opportunity for Korean and Western scholars to bring each other abreast of research being carried on in Korea and abroad, to assess the progress that has been made, and to determine what directions ongoing research on traditional Korean society ought to take. An eventual conference volume not only would be the means to share widely both our frustrations and our findings, but it would mark a rare, first effort at a joint undertaking between Korean and Western historians. The conference met for six days, September 1-6, 1975, at the Yusong Hotel on the outskirts of the city of Taejon, 90 miles south of Seoul. There were eight Korean participants and seven from the U.S. and Europe; in addition, seven U.S. graduate students attended some of the sessions. Three other Korean scholars were unable to attend hecause of the pressure of academic obligations during this year, when second semester lectures began earlier than usual on most campuses. The absence of Kim Yong-sop, who had just taken up a professorship at Yonsei University, was particularly regretted; his elucidation of the class basis of landholding in 18th century Sangju, by correlating land register data with that of a nearly contemporaneous census register, is a signal achievement of modern Korean scholarship. Among the U.S. contingent, personal reasons at the last DECEMBER
moment prevented James B. Palais of the University of Washington from attending. The format of the conference was designed to provide optimum time and opportunity for discussion. Eleven papers were presented; a full morning or afternoon session was devoted to each. Participants had been urged not to bring finished papers to the conference and, accordingly, presentations were informal, full, and interrupted frequently by questions and discussion. Each participant spoke largely in his native tongue, thus minimizing the language problem. Unquestionably the conference was a stimulating experience for all who participated. The diversity of views described earlier, on the degree of openness in traditional Korean society, was much in evidence. No conversions took place, but an understanding of the perspective that differed from one's own was certainly enhanced. Discussion in this area was particularly enlivened by the presentations of two Korean sociologists, Choi Jai-seuk and Kim Young-mo. Their inclination to push ahead with the quantitative analysis of masses of data before terminological problems were solved at first shocked the historians. And yet, in the end, it became apparent that the broader characterizations produced by this approach might well be reflected back to illuminate those very questions of definition that so beset the social historian. In this respect, too, the conference not only opened new vistas for research but demonstrated the great benefit to be derived from continued close and unhindered dialogue. 0
1 The partlClpants in the conference. and the papers which they presented. were: Martina Deuchler. University of Zurich, "Transmission and Acculturation of Neo-Confucian Socio-Political Values in Early Yi Korea"; Seong-mu Lee, Kungmin University. "Formation and Development of Yangball Class Status in the 15th Century"; June-ho Song. Chonbuk National University, "The Civil Examination in the Yi Dynasty-Was It Really Not Open to Non-Yangban?"; Fujiya Kawa· shima, Bowling Green State University, :'Lineage Elite and Bureaucracy in Early to Mid·Yi Dynasty Korea"; Susan Shin, Long Island University, "Changes in Labor Supply in Yi Dynasty Korea: From Hereditary to Contractual Obligation"; Jai-seuk Choi, Korea Univer· sity, "Social Classes and Family Structure in the Yi Dynasty"; Edward W. Wagner, Harvard University, "Defining the Privileged Class in 17th Century Santim"; John N. Somerville, Sungjon University (Taejon c'lmpus), "Post-1592 Ulsan-Evidence from the 1609 Census Register" ; Yong-guk Han, Kyongbuk National University, "The Phenomenon of the Sinha (New Household) in 19th Century Taegu"; C. Kenneth Quinones, St. Michael's College, Winooski, Vermont, "The Nature of the Late Yi (1864-1910) Bureaucratic Elite"; Young-mo Kim, Chungang University, "The Social Origins of Bureaucrats in the Late Yi Dynasty; An Analysis Based on Their Curriculum Vitae, 1903-1910." Other Korean participants were Woo-keun Han, currently dean of the Graduate School at Seoul National University; Ki-baik Lee, Sogang University; and Jae-ryong Lee, Sungjon University (Seoul campus). Yong·ho Choe of the University of Hawaii was also a participant in the conference.
Proiect Link: The Seventh Year by Lawrence R. Klein'"
PROJECT LINK, a Council-sponsored project for the international linkage of national econometric models, had an active program during its seventh year. This project involves the construction of a working world model to study the international transmission mechanism and to forecast the level and pattern of world trade. The world model has been constructed by linking national and regional models which are built and maintained by research institutes in the U.S. and abroad. The 1975 annual meeting of Project LINK was held in Toronto, August 18-20,1 and was coordinated with the Third World Congress of the Econometric Society, which met August 20-26. Although the usual format at LINK meetings calls for an entire working week of sessions in late summer, on this occasion the members were able to participate fully in the World Congress by concentrating the LINK meetings into a three-day period. At both the Second and Third World Congresses, • The author is Benjamin Franklin professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania and a director of the Social Science Research Council. He has been a member of its Committee on Economic Stability and Growth. which sponsors Project LINK. since its appointment in 1959. The other members of the committee are Bert G. Hickman. Stanford University (chairman); Irma Adelman. University of Maryland; Barry Bosworth. Brookings Institution; Martin Bronfenbrenner. Duke University; Otto Eckstein. Harvard University; Stephen M. Gold· feld. Princeton University; R. A. Gordon. University of California. Berkeley; Franco Modigliani. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Geoffrey H . Moore. National Bureau of Economic Research; Arthur M. Okun. Brookings Institution; Rudolf R. Rhomberg. International Monetary Fund. 1 Present at the August meeting. in addition to Messrs. Gordon. Hickman. Klein. and Rhomberg of the committee were: F. Gerard Adams. University of Pennsylvania; L. J. Atkinson. U. S. Department of Agriculture; Paul S. Armington. International Monetary Fund (Wash. ington. D.C.); R. J. Ball. London Graduate School of Business Studies; Giorgio Basevi. University of Bologna; Richard Berner. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Washington. D.C.); Terence Burns. London Graduate School of Business Studies; M'hamed Cherif. Free University of Brussels; William Choa. UN Conference on Trade and Development; Antonio Costa. United Nations; Hidekazu Eguchi. Bank of Japan; Franz A. Etdin. Stockholm School of Economics; D. K. Foot. University of Toronto; Walter Freriches. University of Bonn; Guido Gambetta. University of Bologna; Jorge Gana. University of Pennsylvania; Victor Ginsburgh. Yale University and Free University of Brussels; Heinz Gluck. Institute for Advanced Studies (Vienna); Julian Gomez. UN Conference on Trade and Development; Hal Goolsby. U.S. Department of Agriculture; Gerald Grisse. University of Bonn; J. Gunning. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Hannu Halttunen. Bank of Finland; J. F. Helliwell. Uni-
sessions were included devoted exclusively to Project LINK. In Toronto, two LINK sessions were devoted to substantive and theoretical presentations, with more concrete results than at the earlier Congress. In addi-. tion, many LINK members participated in later sessions of the Congress, some LINK-related and some dealing with other subjects. The first LINK session was chaired by R. A. Gordon; three papers were presented: Keith Johnson and Lawrence R. Klein, "Historical Simulation of the LINK System and Error Analysis of Ex-Ante Forecasts, 1970-74"; Chikashi Moriguchi and Lawrence Lau, "Alternative Approaches to Linkage"; and R. J. Ball, T. Burns, and J. S. E. Laury, "Balance of Payments Adjustment: The Case of the U.K." Lawrence R. Klein chaired the second session, which included two papers: Bert Hickman and Anthony Lima, "Price Determination and Transmission of Inflation in the LINK System"; and Wilhelm Krelle and ,"Talter Freriches, "A Disaggregated Econometric Forecasting System of the BRD." Stephen Magee served as discussant, and discussed the whole range of LINK presentations ft:om both sessions, calling attention to critical issues in system structures, particularly the need for more direct use of money supply variables. In 1974, Project LINK adopted the procedure of holding a meeting in the spring focusing on new forecasts. and dealing with more general problems on a somewhat broader scale in the late summer meeting. In 1975, this design was followed again. The spring meeting in Frankfort, hosted by the German Research Association and the Bundesbank, was devoted principally to trade foreversity of British Columbia; Lars Jacobsson. Svenska Handelsbanken (Stockholm); Keith Johnson. University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University; P. D. Jonson. Reserve Bank of Australia; Michael Keran. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; William Kost. U.S. Department of Agriculture; Wilhelm Krelle. University of Bonn; Pertti Kukkonen. Bank of Finland; Masaru Kurose. University of Pennsylvania; Sung Y. Kwack. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Washing. ton. D.C.); Lawrence J. Lau. Stanford University; J. A. Lybeck. Stock· holm School of Economics; Alex Markovski. Konjunkturinstitutet (StOckholm); S. Menshikov. United Nations; Chikashi Moriguchi. Kyoto University; J. J. Post. Central Planning Bureau (The Hague); G. A. Renton. London Graduate School of Business Studies; Dean DeRosa. U.S. Department of the Treasury; Duncan Ripley. International Mone· tary Fund; Kenneth Ruffing. UN Conference on Trade and Develop· ment; Louisa Sabater. UN Conference on Trade and Development; L. W. Samuelson. Organization for European Co· operation and De· velopment (Paris); J. A. Sawyer. University of Toronto; S. Schleicher. Institute for Advanced Studies (Vienna); Charles Schotta. U.S. Depart. ment of the Treasury; A. N. R . Schwartz. Central Planning Bureau (The Hague); Martin Schwartz. U.S. Department of Agriculture; Andras Simon. Institute of Economic and Market Research (Budapest); Gary Smeal. U .S. Department of the Treasury; Guy Stevens. Board of Gov· ernors of the Federal Reserve System (Washington. D.C.); Asher Tishler• • University of Pennsylvania; Lia Vellianttis-Fidas. U.S. Department of Agriculture; Carl Weinberg. University of Pennsylvania; Dirk Zanrlee. Economic Commission for Latin America. VOLUME
29, NUMBER 4
casts over the span 1975-77. The forecasts were revised and updated for the Toronto meetings. In addition. the following topics were discussed in Toronto: The New wedish Model (Franz Ettlin and Johan Lybeck); New • Regional Models for the Developing Countries (Julian Gomez) ; Commodity Models in LINK (F. Gerard Adams); Output. Inflation. and the Balance of Payments in a Small. Fixed-Exchange Rate Economy (Sung Kwack); A New Bonner Model for Germany (Wilhelm Krelle and Gerald Grisse); The New LINK Computer Programs (Jorge Gana); Problems in Implementing LINK Computations (Carl Weinberg); Models for Poland and Hungary (Stanislav Menshikov and Antonio Costa); Direct Bilateral Linkage (Carl Weinberg); and Methods for Introducing Capital Flows and Commodity Models (The Iron Ore Case) in LINK (Lawrence R. Klein). The annual business meeting for allocating research funds in the coming year. planning further meetings, and commissioning new research projects was held on the final day of the August meetings. It was decided at that time to structure the spring meeting more toward technical problems of generating new rounds of world trade forecasts and to limit attendance to primary technicians from each LINK center. concerned directly with preparing the forecasts. Philadelphia in March, 1976 . .was selected as a preferred site. The second meeting, WWill be broadened to take up more general topics of international economics; it will be held in late September, probably in Italy. At the Toronto meetings. there was a detailed discussion of new LINK projections for world trade. inflation. and activity through 1977. Most participants were somewhat more pessimistic about their own country or area's economic prospects for 1975 than they had been
at Frankfort in March or in the latest versions of their pre-LINK model solutions. Nevertheless. there was general consensus on the improvement in the world economic outlook for 1976 and 1977. In contrast to prevailing results of negative or lower real growth rates estimated for 1975, there were, in almost all cases, expectations for improving growth prospects in 1976 and 1977, accompanied by expanding levels of world trade. The cutting back of inflationary pressures, visible in most major LINK countries in 1975. was expected to continue to improve in 1976-77. An achievement of the LINK project at the University of Pennsylvania Center during 1974-75 was the completion of the changeover to an entirely new computer program for data management across all models. for estimation. for pre-LINK simulation for individual models. and for full LINK simulations by all system models. A committee was formed at Toronto to deal with problems arising from the transmitting of data and model information from research centers all over the world. This committee met during the course of the Toronto meetings and laid down specific guidelines for each LINK model proprietor. There has been increasing use of TELEX communication facilities between LINK Central in Philadelphia and the separate research centers. New facilities have been installed in London and Bologna to improve the communications network. The second LINK volume, listing all the models making up the system, has gone to press. Plans were laid in Toronto for initiating a third volume. under the editorship of John Sawyer. The suggested theme of the new book will be applications of the LINK system, using as a base the papers given in the two LINK sessions at the World Congress. . D
Language Use in Japan and the United States by Eleanor H . Jorden •
MANY PERSONS have noted the striking contrasts between Japanese and American language usage in equivalent sociolinguistic situations. Little systematic research had compared actual language use in these two countries. however, until the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies (JCJS),l together with a collaborating agency in Japan, sponsored a long-term study of the problem. The binational study extended over four years and en• The author. Mary Donlon Alger professor of linguistics at Cornell .Univer'sitv. is a member of the Subcommittee on Japanese Language Study of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. which is cosponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. DECEMBER
compassed a number of separate research projects in both countries. Completed in September 1974, what has emerged from the research is a picture of marked differences in language use and language meaning across the two cultures. Triggering the binational project was a concern ex1 The members of the committee are Gerald L. Curtis. Columbia Uni· versity (cochairman) ; Robert .J. Smith. Cornell University (cochairman) ; Karen W. Brazell. Cornell University; Robert E. Cole. University of Michigan ; Ellis S. Krauss. Western Washington State College; Kinhide Mushakoji. Sophia University; Tetsuo Najita. University of Chicago; Hugh Patrick. Yale University; Yoshiaki Shimizu. University of California. Berkeley; Kozo Yamamura. University of Washington ; staff. Susan J. Pharr.
pressed by linguists in Japan over barriers to communication emanating out of differences in language use in Japan and the V.S. At the initiative of Japanese linguists, an exploratory conference with V.S. linguists was held in Washington, D.C. in February 1970, under Council auspices and with funds from the Bureau of Cultural and Educational Affairs, Office of East Asian and Pacific Programs, V.S. Department of State, and from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), a Japanese governmental organization with which the JCJS has had a long-standing collaborative relationship.2 This meeting reached unanimous agreement that a study of language usage in parallel situations in the two cultures would produce a rich yield of data on an important problem. The research project itself got under way the following fall after a five-day planning meeting in August 1970 at which previous scholarly work was reviewed and key areas for research were defined. American and Japanese scholars organized their research in parallel teams. s On the American side, a fourmember research team undertook individual research projects with funds provided the Council by the V.S . Office of Education. Bates L. Hoffer analyzed stylistic variation in Japanese and English and its sociolinguistic implications. Masanori Higa studied the social-psychological aspects of the use of borrowed words in Hawaiian Japanese. Mary Sanches conducted research on the acquisition of sociolinguistic rules in Japanese, and Eleanor Jorden undertook a sociolinguistic analysis of women's language in the two cultures. In addition, Samuel Martin and John Fischer attended the conferences and presented papers on divergence in the acquisition of reading skills (Martin) and word association (Fischer). The Japanese scholars participating in the project engaged in research under the leadership of Chie Nakane with funds from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Takeo Doi studied concepts derived from the structure of consciousness characteristic of Japanese people. Tetsuya Kunihiro focused on personality structure as it affects language use. Linju Ogasawara anal2 See "An American-Japanese Partnership in Research in the Social Sciences and the Humanities," by Gerald L. Curtis and Susan J. Pharr, Items, March 1975, pp. 8-9.
S The American research unit, which was headed by Eleanor H . Jorden, included Bates L. Hoffer, Trinity University; Masanori Higa, formerly of the University of Hawaii, now at Tsukuba University; and Mary Sanches. University of Texas at Austin. Samuel E. Martin, Yale University. and John Fischer. formerly at Tulane University, now at the University of Pittsburgh. were present at the conferences and contrib· uted papers. The Japanese group of scholars was led by Chie Naka.ne, University of Tokyo; it included Takeo Doi and Tetsuya Kunihiro. both of the University of Tokyo; Linju Ogasawara, Ministry of Educa· tion; Takao Suzuki, Keio University' and Akira Hoshino, International Christian University.
yzed the English used by native speakers of Japanese. Takao Suzuki examined the use of address and selfreference in Japan, and Akira Hoshino analyzed J apanese terms of abuse with semantic differential scalese
Results of the research The results of these individual research projects were presented in two conferences, held in Tokyo in August 1973 4 and in San Antonio, Texas in September 1974. Much of the research traced language-use differences between the two societies to a basic difference in personality structure. A critical contrast derives from the group or situation orientation characteristic of Japanese and the more individualized perspective of Americans. While this difference has been noted frequently in scholarly writing on Japan, its sociolinguistic implications have never been fully explored. Data on the consequences for language use of these contrasting Japanese and American orientations were prominent in the evidence presented by the project's participants. The elaborate system of address and selfreference in the Japanese language is one example. In contrast to English, where the ego has an independent identification ("I"), the ego in Japanese is undetermined except with reference to the addressee. In an equivalent sociolinguistic context, these differences are likely to be reflected by the use of personalized English as again. situational or existential Japanese to explain an identical event. Other examples are male-female distinctions in language use and differences in American and Japanese conversational styles. While there appears to be an overall tendency away from the use of women's speech in Japanese as women participate in activities formerly monopolized by men, in situations where women are acting in a "woman's" role, women's speech is still clearly identifiable, reflecting women's group orientation. Similarly, conversational styles in the two cultures are affected by the contrast in orientation. Among Americans there is a premium placed on conversational skill, with individuality, originality, interest, and humor highly valued. Among Japanese, to the contrary, conversational quality receives little emphasis. Major cultural contrasts also emerged in the semantic analysis of the language of abuse. Unlike its American counterpart, it was reported, the Japanese language of abuse contains no reference to maternal figures and has few religious and sexual references. Instead, rude and abusive expressions in Japanese rely on invective
• Papers presented at the Tokyo conference were published by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science in "Report of the Secon. U.S.-Japan Joint Sociolinguistics Conference." Tokyo, March 1974. VOLUME
sentence styles and structures and often include scatological references. Evidence of linguistic divergence associated with changing cultural identification is provided by the research on Hawaiian Japanese. First-generation Japanese (issei) speak dialect-oriented Japanese. Second-generation Japanese (nisei) , who are American citizens by birth, and possess a far stronger identification with U.S. culture, speak English-oriented Japanese, which is marked by the use of many English loan words. Noticeably absent in their speech are polite, honorific, and feminine forms, which tend to be abandoned in the process of adapting the Japanese language for use in American contexts. Hawaiian japanese emerges .IS an in-group dialect which provides group identification
for its users; its borrowed English words are in no way limited to words that are lacking in Japanese. Stressing the importance of sociolinguistic translation for cross-cultural understanding, participants emphasized that human communication involves far more than denotative information sending. Researchers reported that nonreferential verbal communication, rather than the meaning of words themselves, is the area bearing major responsibility for cross-cultural misunderstandings. Although the sociolinguistics project has come to an end, several of the studies that were stimulated by it are continuing. A full report on the project and its findings will appear in a forthcoming symposium volume to be published by Trinity University Press. 0
Current Activities at the Council
Exploratory meetings on affective development
ings to practical programs concerned with affective development.
Two exploratory meetings on the topic of the development of affect in childhood were held recently at ' the Council. Developmental psychologists have shown growing interest in the noncognitive aspects of child development and the meetings were an attempt to assess the state of theory, research, and practice in this area. They were funded by a grant from the Spencer Foundation and planned by Peter B. Read and David Jenness of the Council staff. At the first meeting. on May 17 and 18. 1975. a small group of social scientists met to discuss recent research on affective development and to define current theoretical and methodological problems. The second meeting. on October 10 and 11. brought together individuals prominent in the development and implementation of relevant school programs. as well as a few researchers concerned with the topic. This group discussed the content of school programs designed to support the development of affect in children and attempted to relate these practices to existing theory and research. Both meetings were broad in focus. Among areas identified as especially problematic were the need for formal theories. the measurement of affective characteristics. and the role of cognition in emotional behavior. Participants discussed different research strategies to explore these problem areas and noted the difficulties involved in relating research find-
Workshop in criminal justice statistics
In order to encourage more statisticians and social scientists to work on the methodological and theoretical problems involved in crime measurement. a workshop was conducted from July 7-August 1. 1975. sponsored by the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice Statistics of the Council's Advisory and Planning Committee on Social Indicators. The workshop brought together three groups: a faculty composed of seven experts in criminal justice; seven participan ts who were young academic statisticians. sociologists. and psychologists ; and six government professionals. of whom five were from the Bureau of the Census. Funding for the workshop. which was held in Washington. D.C .• was provided by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEA A) of the U.S. Department of Justice. The program is administered by the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators. The workshop's program of acth'ities started with a series of lectures and seminars and concluded with the organization of the faculty and the participants into six working groups. Among the topics covered at the plenary meetings were conceptions of the criminal justice system . data sources. research approaches. methodological and substantive problems. and theoretical issues. The intensive inter-
change at these sessions sparked a high degree of interest ill the six working groups. each of which then undertook a concentrated exploration of a problem area in criminal justice research_ The topics on which they focused were the treatment of data ill victimization surveys; measurement and experimental design in the study of police effectiveness; the sentencing process; decision making by the U .S. Board of Parole; the deterrent effect of capital punishment; and the problem of designing a model of the criminal justice system. The faculty of the workshop consisted of Albert D. Biderman. Bureau of Social Science Research (Washington. D.C.) : Alfred Blumstein. Carnegie-Mellon University; John Clark. University of I\.[jnnesota; Michael .T . Hindelang. State University of New York at Albany; Albert J. Reiss. Jr.. Yale University; Richard Sparks. Rutgers University; and Leslie T. Wilkins. State University of New York at Albany. The social scientist participants in the workshop were David W . Britt. Florida Atlantic University : William B. Fairley. Harvard University; Stephen E. Fienberg. University of Minnesota; Gary G. Koch. University of North Carolina; Kinley Larntz. University of Minnesota; Colin Loftin. Brown University; and Howard Wainer. University of Chicago. Government professionals participating in the workshop were Ken Brimmer. :\'fimi Cantwell. Linda l\furphy. Tom Petersik. and J. Frederick Shenk. all of the U.S. Bureau of the Census; and Cynthia Turnure. Minnesota Governor's Commission on Crime Prevention and Control. In addition to the workshop itself. the
LEAA grant provides limited support for research projects in criminal justice statistics to be developed by the social scientist participants in the year following the workshop. It is anticipated that these projects will largely grow out of activities initiated by the working groups. Also provided for in the grant is a small postdoctoral fellowship program in criminal justice statistics to begin with the 1976-77 academic year. Applicants are asked to submit resumes. copies of publications. and project proposals (indicating the questions to be investigated. the data to be used. and the plan of analysis) no later than January 31. 1976 to David Seidman. SSRC Center for Social Indicators. 1755 Massachusetts Avenue. N.W.. Washington. D.C. 20036 [telephone: (202) 667-8884]. Albert J. Reiss, Jr. is chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice Statistics. The other members are Albert D. Biderman, Alfred Blumstein, Stephen E. Fienberg, and Leslie T. Wilkins; staff, David Seidman.
Project on the Latin American labor force A working conference of a project on the labor force in Latin America was held on July 13-17. 1975 at Yale University. The project will produce a "state-ofthe-art" volume on research dealing with the Latin American labor force. pointing out directions for future research as well as reviewing the existing Latin American literature and comparing it with other research. The project is sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. in collaboration with the Latin American Council on the Social Sciences. This conference was held with the cooperation of the Council on Latin American Studies of Yale University. At the conference. the project's two coordinators and twelve other participants discussed the focus of the planned volume and presented outlines for the chapters which will appear in it. The volume will propose directions for research encompassing the entire population that is economically active rather than limit it~ purview to the segments belonging to formal labor organizations. From this perspective. there will be an attempt to point to research which can explain the inability of labor organizations in most Latin American countries to achieve sufficient size and effectiveness to exert political power.
Topics to be covered in the volume include the structural conditions of supply and demand in the labor force; the working conditions of the rural work force; the incorporation of casual labor into the work force; the social organization of the tertiary or service' sector; the dynamics of the labor market; labor relations systems; labor unions; political action by the urban working class; and the ideologies of the working class. First drafts of chapters are expected in early 1976 and will be discussed at the project's next meeting. The coordinators of the labor force project are Ruben D. Kaztman. Bariloche Foundation. Rio Negro. Argentina (visiting professor. State University of New York at Stony Brook). and Jose Luis Reyna. El Colegio de Mexico. Albert o. Hirschman is chairman of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. The other members are Guillermo Bonfil-Batalla, Francesca Cancian, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Alejandro Foxley, Peter H. Smith, Alfred Stepan, and Herndn Vidal; staff, Louis Wolf Goodman and Patricia R. Pessar.
African studies: plans for workshops and conferences During the year 1975-76. the Joint Committee on African Studies of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies plans to sponsor several workshops and conferences. including a summer training institute on quantitative methods in the social sciences to be held at the University of Ibadan; a conference on inequality and social differentiation; and a seminar on cultural transformations. In order to plan for the conference on inequality. an informal seminar was held in New York on September 19-20. 1975 involving committee members. ten other scholars. and members of the Council staff. Participants engaged in a wide-ranging discussion of various theoretical and methodological approaches to the analysis of inequality in African societies and pointed out directions for future research. Several major themes and issues were identified which will be explored further at the more formal conference next year. The members of the Joint Committee on African Studies are Aristide R. Zolberg and Sara S. Berry (cochairmen), George C. Bond, Sekene Mody Cissoko, B. J. Dudley, James W. Fernandez, Jean Herskovits, and Edward W. Soja; staff, David L. Sills and Martha A. Gephart.
Linguistics in teacher training: a planning meeting The role of linguistics in teacher train- • ing was the theme of an August meeting in Washington. D.C .• organized by Roger W. Shuy and sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics in association with the Center for Applied Linguistics and the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. In attendance were II educators working in university- or college-based teacher training programs who joined in considering the ways in which linguistic knowledge and sociolinguistic concepts can be incorporated'into the training of teachers. There was agreement among them that recent linguistic research has much to offer education. if the needs of educators are understood. The meeting had two interrelated goals: to enlist the support of educational leaders in the dissemination of linguistic knowledge in teacher training. and to acquaint linguists with the realistic needs of teachers in the different areas of linguistics. Discussions emphasized the pervasive part that language plays in teaching and learning activities and the value of linguistic knowledge to teachers. both as a cognitive resource and as a body of knowledge to draw upon and apply in • everyday work. In addition. several areas of language research were identified at the meeting for future research efforts by linguists and educators working together. Included among them were variability in language; the application of linguistics to the teaching of reading; differences in learning styles; the use of language in verbal interaction between teachers and students; and the linguistic context of testing. In connection with language variability. stress was placed on the need for teachers to view language variation as orderly and natural and to recognize the distinction between normal or predictable variation and problematic or pathological variation. The Committee on Sociolinguistics intends to sponsor several more small meetings on the role of linguistics in teacher training. in different sections of the country. Members of the Committee on Sociolinguistics are Allen D. Grimshaw and Dell Hymes (cochairmen), Charles A. Ferguson, Charles J. Fillmore, Eduardo • Herndndez-Ch., Rolf Kjolseth, Gillian Sankoff, Joel Shener, and Roger W. Shuy; staff, David Jenness. VOLUME
New Publications .Irom Council activities anJ committee projects Ba.ic Background Item. lor U.S. Hou.ehold SUrlley., edited by Roxann A. Van Dusen and Nicholas Zill. A publication of the Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators of the Social Science Research Council. Washington. D.C.. 1975. 63 pages. $2.00.
This volume contains a model set of basic background questions and coding procedures for use in general population household interview surveys. Published by the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators. the compilation represents an effort by the Center to encourage the standardization of household data collected by U.S. survey research organizations. The objective is to make the data more comparable and. therefore. more useful both for the development of time se'ries and for secondary analysis studies. Basic Background Items for U.S. Household Surveys is the report of a working group of survey specialists in universities and in commercial and federal agencies; the chairman of the working group was â&#x20AC;˘ Philip E. Converse of the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, After a review of the background questions used in major surveys of their own and of other organizations. members of the group were able to reach consensus on a core set of items judged to provide adequate definitions of important background variables with a minimal investment of interview time and coding effort. The report includes recommended question wordings and coding procedures. along with explanatory notes and references to the relevant research literature. The variables covered include age. sex. marital status. ethnic group. religion. education. employment status. occupation. income. residential characteristics. and political identification. Also included in the volume are detailed classification codes for occupations. occupational prestige. household membership, and religious groupings. Copies of the report are available with prepayment of $2.00 from Basic Back~ound Items, Social Science Research Council. 605 Third Avenue. New York, N.Y. 10016. DECEMBER 1975
Latin America and the United State.: The Changing Political Realitie., edited by Julio Cotler and Richard R. Fagen. Product of a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. November 3G-December 3. 1972. Stanford: Stanford University Press. June 1974. 428 pages. Cloth. $17.50; paper. $4.95. (Spanish language edition published by Amorrortu Editores. Buenos Aires. Argentina.)
These 22 original essays and commentaries are the product of a conference of social scientists that evaluated recent changes in political relations between the United States and Latin America. Twothirds of the participants were from Latin America. Motivating the conference was a conviction that the realities of Latin America have changed more rapidly than has knowledge about them; that much academic and governmental thinking about politics in the hemisphere is irrelevant. anachronistic. or simply wrongheaded; and that a stronger countercurrent of serious professional work on hemispheric relations is needed. As the papers in the volume indicate. controversy at the conference was encouraged. and authors were urged to propose hypotheses. examine changes. and speculate about trends. The range of subjects includes the politics of the multinational corporation. military elites and military thinking, the diversity of Latin American nationalism. changing hemispheric markets. and the sources of U.S. foreign policy. Many of the themes and perspectives which were developed represent challenges to traditional notions of intrahemispheric reJations. In addition to the editors, the contributors to the volume are Octavio Ianni, Marcos Kaplan. An/bal Quijano Obreg6n, Philippe C. Schmitter. An/bal Pinto. Osvaldo Sunkel. Ernest R. May. Guillermo O'Donnell, Christopher Mitchell. Jorge Graciarena. Abraham F. Lowenthal, Heraclio Bonilla. Luigi R. Einaudi. Richard R. Fagen. Carlos Estevam Martins. Maria Conceir;ao Tavares, Olga Pellicer de Brody. Edelberto Torres Rivas. John Saxe-Fern;indez. Alfred Stepan, Luciano Martins. and Theodore H, Moran.
Applying Social P.ychology: Implications lor Re.earch, Practice, and Training, edited by Morton Deutsch and Harvey A. Hornstein. Product of an international conference sponsored by the Committee on Transnational Social Psychology (1964-74). Hillsdale. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1975.287 pages. $12.95.
In April 1973. 17 scholars and practitioners from six countries met in a Council-sponsored conference to confront issues involved in the applications of social psychology. especially how to improve fts use and usefulness. Applying Social Psychology, a product of that conference. includes contributions that deal with problem-centered research; with social psychological consulting and the use of social psychological technology; and with issues related to graduate training. In his introductory chapter. Morton Deutsch analyzes why earlier interest in a socially useful social psychology diminished and suggests measures for developing a social psychology that is continually concerned about being socially useful. The other contributors to the volume are Claude Faucheux. David C. Glass. Hilde T. Himmelweit, Harvey A. Hornstein, Martin Irle, Irving L. Janis. Harold H. Kelley. Christina Maslach. Steven J. Ruma. Jerome E. Singer. Jacobo A. Varela. Richard E. Walton. and Philip G. Zimbardo. The Formation 01 National State. in We.tern Europe, edited by Charles Tilly. Studies in Political Development 8. sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1975. 711 pages. Cloth. $22.50; paper. $4.95,
After its early emphasis on the processes of political change in Asia. Africa. and Latin America. the Committee on Comparative Politics (1954-1972) felt an increasing need to turn attention back to the history of state and nation building in Europe. In one sense. this volume is the independent product of a series of small meetings of European and American scholars that began in the summer of 1970. It is also the product of considerably more than these meetings. since the work invested in the seven previous volumes must be taken into account. The nine essays in the volume represent major efforts to explore the ways in which knowledge of the historical European experience can help to advance our understanding of contemporary political de-
velopment. Although the authors are not reluctant to generalize from the European experience, the volume is marked by an appeal for caution in comparing the circumstances of state building in early modern Europe with the situation of new states in the developing world. The stress is on the mobilization of resources for war, on the extension of this process to peace time, and on the achievement of taxing the wealthy as well as the poor. The contributors to the volume are Gabriel Ardant, French Ministry of Fi· nances; David H. Bayley, University of Denver; Rudolf Braun, University of Zurich; Samuel E. Finer, University of Manchester; Wolfram Fischer, Free Uni· versity of Berlin; Peter Lundgreen, University of Bielefeld; Stein Rokkan, University of Bergen; and Charles Tilly, University of Michigan. Oeeallional Papers on Korea, No.3, edited by James B. Palais and Margery D. Lang. A publication of the Joint Committee on Korean Studies in cooperation with the Institute for Comparative and Foreign Area Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, June 1975. 88 pages. No charge.
In its third issue, Occasional Papers on Korea presents research dealing with na· tionalism and cultural change, industrial management in North Korea, landlordtenant relations during th~ Yi Dynasty (1392-1910), and traditional social structure. The articles are the work of scholars and students of Korea in a variety of disciplines. Launched in 1972, Occasional Papers on Korea is sponsored by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies as a means of stimu· lating research on Korea in the United States. It publishes the work of both grad. uate students and advanced scholars. The articles in the first two issues of Occasional Papers were largely concen· trated in the field of history, especially economic and social history. They range from definitive essays on specific topics to broad and speculative treatments of major themes to preliminary findings by young scholars; they include research by both Korean and Japanese scholars. Occasional Papers on Korea is distributed without charge. To obtain copies, write to Professor James B. Palais, editor. Occasional Papers on Korea, Institute for Comparative and Foreign Area Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195.
COUNCIL PARTICIPATES IN SURVEY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AT NSF The Council is participating in a , new National Academy of Sciences survey of the social sciences in the National Science Foundation in two ways. First, Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, president, is serving as a member of the new committee; second, through its committee structure, the Council is requesting social scientists to submit suggestions directly to the committee. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on the Social Sciences in the National Science Foundation (NSF) 1 has been organized to recommend ways to increase the effectiveness of the behavioral and social science research programs of the NSF. The year-long study, undertaken at the request of NSF, will be headed by Herbert A. Simon, professor of psychology at CarnegieMellon University. The committee will prepare recommendations on NSF research priorities and futlJre commitment to behavioral and social science programs. Funding of these programs during the current fiscal year is expected to be approximately $50 million. Among the issues to be addressed by the committee are: -Currently neglected areas of research in the behavioral, social, and policy sciences that deserve NSF support -Ways to increase use of basic research results for public policy formation -The appropriate role of NSF in planning and stimulating basic research and in responding to initiatives from the field -Institutional or program support versus individual or project support -Coordination among existing social and behavioral science activities both within NSF and between NSF and other funding agencies The committee is organized within the NAS Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences and expects to submit an interim report by December 81, 1975, and a final report by July 81, 1976. The committee is encouraging social scientists throughout the country to comment on the current NSF program in the social sciences and offer suggestions for promising directions of social science research and activities that the NSF should consider strengthening or initiating. Sug-
gestions should be submitted as soon a s . possible, directly to Herbert A. Simon, % National Academy of Sciences JH818, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. 1 The members of the committee are Herbert A. Simon, Carnegie-Mellon University, chairman; Eleanor Jack Gibson, Cornell University; Leo A. Goodman, University of Chicago; Zvi Griliches, Harvard University: Charles V. Hamilton. Metropolitan Applied Research Center (New York); Gardner Lindzey. Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, California); James G. March, Stanford University; James N. Morgan, University of Michigan; James V. Neel, University of Michigan Medical School; William D. Neff, Indiana University; Marc Nerlove, Northwestern University; William H. Sewell, University of Wisconsin; Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, Social Science Research Council; Anthony F. C. Wallace, University of Pennsylvania; SherwOQd L. Washburn, University of California. Berkeley; and Frank H. Westheimer, Harvard University. The executive secretary of the committee is Sara Kiesler, professor of psychology at the University of Kansas, who became a full-time member of the National Research counCil. staff on September 2. 1975.
Fulbright-Hays Program Approximately 500 senior lecturers and research scholars from 65 countries will be in the United States during the academic year 1975-76 under the sponsorship of the senior Fulbright-Hays Program. During their stay, many will be available to give talks or lectures in their special fields or about the history and culture of their home countries. A wide range of disciplines is represented by this year's group of exchange scholars. There are 201 in the humanities, social sciences, and education; 63 in medical science; 55 in biological science: 88 in chemistry: 32 in engineering; 26 in physics; 24 in the animal and plant sciences: 16 in mathematics; and 8 in the earth sciences. The scholars are listed, with brief biographical data. in the 1975-76 Directory of Visiting Lecturers and Research Scholars, which is available free of charge from the Council for International EXchang'. of Scholars. II Dupont Circle. N.W., ' Washington. D.C. 20086. VOLUME
FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS
Grants for research in Soviet studies
The Joint Committee on Soviet Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies (which administers its program)-Herbert S. Levine (chairman), Mark G. Field, Peter H. Juviler, Walter M. Pintner, and Irwin Weilat its meeting on March 8, 1975 awarded .grants for research to the following individuals:
Kendall E. Bailes, assistant professor of history, University of California at Irvine, for research on the formation of the Soviet technical intelligentsia, 1917-1941 Walter D. Connor, assistant professor of sociology, Univers"ity of Michigan, for research on socialism, work, and equality Alice Gorlin, assistant professor of economics, Oakland University, for research on Soviet economic associations and economic reform Myron W. Hedlin, assistant professor of history, Ohio State University, for research on a political biography of Grigorii Zinoviev Erik P. Hoffmann, assistant professor of political science, State University of New York at Albany, for research on "the scientific-technological revolutions" and the Soviet political system Nikita M. Lary, associate professor of Russian and English literature, York University, Canada, for research on Russian film adaptations of the works of Dostoevsky Rensselaer W. Lee III, Ph.D. in political science and history, pethesda, Maryland, for research on "social" control of technical innovation in the Soviet Union Richard Lourie, assistant professor of Russian and Polish literature, University of Toronto, and associate of the Russian Research Center, Harvard University, for research on the state and the intelligentsia from the death of Stalin to the expulsion of Solzhenitsyn Linda L. Lubrano, associate professor, School of International Service, The American University, for research on ~e professional relationships and policy IDvolvement of Soviet scientists Paul J. Marantz, assistant professor of DECEMBER.
political science, University of British Columbia, for research on the Soviet Union and the Western world from 1917 to 1974 as a study in doctrinal change David C. Montgomery, assistant professor of history, Brigham Young University, for research on the life, works, and times of Hamid Alimjam, Soviet poet and publicist, 1909-1944 Elliott D. Mossman, associate professor of Slavic languages, University of Pennsylvania, for research on legal problems of technology transfer between Western and Soviet economic systems Murray Yanowitch, associate professor of economics, Hofstra University, for research on patterns of occupational stratification and mobility in the Soviet Union
Latin America and Caribbean area program In addition to the fellowships and grants reported in the June issue of Items, the following awards were made for predoctoral research training under the Latin America and Caribbean area program during 1975. INTER-AMERICAN RESEARCH TRAINING SEMINAR-On Social Security in Latin America: Pressure Groups, Stratification, and Inequality, June 1I0-August 211. 1975, at the Inter-American Center for the Study of Social Security (CIESS). Mexico City. Mexico. Directors: James M. Malloy and Carmelo Mesa-Lago. University of Pittsburgh. Jaysuno Abramovich. visiting lecturer in sociology. University of New Mexico Rafael Bayce Garcia Lagos. Center of Research and Social Studies of Uruguay Elizabeth King Beardsley. assistant professor of political science. Williams College Paul R. Casperson. lecturer in economics. University of Brazil Michael Conniff. graduate student in Latin American history. Stanford University Renato Duarte Santos. lecturer in economics. Federal University of Pernambuco. Brazil Ariel Gianola Martegani. Office of Personnel and Administration. Uruguay Sergio Gonzalez-Vega. graduate student in political science. Oberlin College Ernesto Aldo Isuani J aliff. lecturer in political and social science. National University of Cuyo. Argentina Helen Iva Lorn. researcher. Center of Urban Research. Brazilian Institute of Urban Administration
SfaH Appointments Martha A. Gephart joined the Council staff on September 29. 1975; her primary assignment is to work with the Joint Committee on African Studies. Miss Gephart received the B.A. degree in political science from Stanford University in 1966 and the M.A. degree in political science from Columbia University in June 1969. In June 1972. she was awarded the Certificate of African Studies by Columbia University. Currently. Miss Gephart is a Ph.D. candidate in the Columbia University department of political science and expects to receive the degree in spring 1976. Her dissertation topic is "A Time-series Analysis of African Foreign Behavior: A Partial Theory of Foreign Conflict." She is now directing a research project at Columbia University on the foreign policy of black African states. Peter B. Read. a sociologist who has been serving the Council as a consultant since February. became a staff associate on December 1. 1975. His primary assignment is to assist with program development in aspects of child development and the methodology of longitudinal research. Mr. Read received a B.A. in English literature from Grinnell College in 1965. an M.A. in education from Cornell University in 1967. and a Ph.D. in sociology from Cornell in 1972. During the academic year 1970-71 he held a predoctoral fellowship at the Russell Sage Foundation. He was an assistant professor of sociology at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York from 1971 to 1975. where he taught courses in social psychology and the sociology of education. He is the author of "Source of Authority and the Legitimation of Leadership in Small Groups" (Sociometry, June 1974). Michael Anthony Pagano. graduate student in government, University of Texas at Austin Mark B. Rosenberg. graduate student in political science. University of Pittsburgh Guillermo Rosenbluth Lopez. Economic Commission for Latin America. Santiago. Chile Rose Johnson Spalding. graduate student in political science. University of North Carolina Eduardo Viiiueia Suarez. graduate student in economics. Catholic University of Chile Richard R. Wilson. graduate student in sociology, Yale University
TRAINING INSTITUTE: GENETICS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES A 1976 summer training institute for social scientists on the genetics of developmental processes will be held under the auspices of the Council's Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior from June 21 to July !JO, 1976. The six-week program will be conducted at the Institute for Behavioral Genetics of the University of Colorado and is supported by a grant to the Council from the National Institute of Mental Health. The purpose of the project is to provide a conceptual framework in genetics for young scholars whose chief interest is in human developmental processes. Social scientists working in psychology or anthropology are considered appropriate candidates, but scholars with a behavioral background from other disciplines concerned with research in human development are also invited to apply.
EUgibility. Instruction will be offered at the advanced graduate and postdoctoral levels. Applicants must have completed a minimum of one year's graduate work prior to making application to attend the institute, and they must be United States citizens or have filed a Declaration of Intent to become a citizen. About twenty students will be accepted. All participants are required to attend the entire six-week program. Financial assistance. Stipends will be available in the amount of $540 for predoctoral trainees and $660 for postdoctoral trainees. Travel expenses will be provided up to an equivalent of round-trip jet economy fare. Allowances for dependents will not be available.
The course will consist of lectures and laboratory sessions (including "wet labs" in mammalian embryology), with em路 phasis placed throughout on opportunities for individual. discussions with staff members and other students. Included in the curriculum will be discussions of the princi pal concepts of major areas of genetics: molecular genetics, transmission genetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, developmental genetics, and evolution. Other topics will include embryology, chromosomal anomalies, gene linkage, pharmacogenetics, genetic counseling, psychopathology, personality, mental retardation, and cognitive abilities. Faculty. The director of the institute is Gerald E. McClearn, professor of psychology, University of Colorado, and director of the Institute for Behavioral Genetics at the university. Robert Plomin, assistant professor of psychology, University of Colorado, is institute coordinator. Other members of the teaching staff will include Joseph C. Daniel, professor of zoology, University of Tennessee; John C. DeFries, professor of behavioral genetics, University of Colorado; Lee Ehrman, professor of biology, State University of New York at Purchase; Leonard L. Heston, professor of psychiatry, University of Minnesota; Joseph Horn, associate professor of psychology, University of Texas at Austin; and Steven G. Vandenberg, professor of psychology, University of Colorado. There will also be guest lecturers for special topics. Applications. Completed applications and supporting. documents must be received by February 27, 1976; th~y will be reviewed by the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior. Announcement of awards will be made by March 22, 1976. Application forms and further information may be obtained from: Dr. Gerald E. McClearn Institute for Behavioral Genetics University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80!J09
Program. The institute's program is designed to provide students with an appreciation of the different types of genetic knowledge that have relevance to behavior in general and with a frame of reference for conceptualizing problems of behavioral development specifically in genetic terms. It should also provide an appropriate background for those wishing to continue further study in the genetics of developmental processes and to acquire appropriate research skills.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605
Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1975:
WILLIAM J. BAUMOL, BRIA1<;
L. BERRY, ALLAN G . BOGUE, LAWRENCE A . CREMIN, LEON EISENBERG, LEON D . EPSTEIN , RICHARD
F . FENNO, JR. , EDWARD E. JONES, HAROLD H . KELLEY, LAWRENCE R . KLEIN , WILLIAM H . KRUSKAL, CHARLES E. LINDBLOM, GARDNER LINDZEY, LEON L,IrsoN, CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, HERBERT MCCLOSKY, SALLY
MOORE, MURRAY G . MURPHEY, GUY H . ORCUTT, JOHN W. PRATT, ALICE S .
ROSSI, PEGGY R. SANDAY , ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, ELLIOTT P. SKINNER, JANET T. SPENCE, KARL E. TAEUBER, JOHN M. THOMPSON, ROBERT E . WARD, CHARLES V. 'VILLlE, HARRIET ZUCKERMAN
Officers and Staff: ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, PreSident; DAVID JENNESS, DAVID L. SILLS, Executive Associates; RONALD P. ABELES, ALVIA Y. BRANCH, LAWRENCE R. C ARTER, JUDITH FIELD, ROBERT A. GATf.5, MARTHA A . GEPHART, LOUIS WOLF GOODMAN, PATRICK G. MADDOX , ROBERTA B . MILLER, ROWLAND
MITCHELL, JR., ROBERT PARKE, PATRICIA R. PF.5SAR, SUSAN
A. VAN DUSEN; MARTHA W . FORMAN,
Acting Assistant Treasurer,
L. SZANTON, ~O~NN L. CARMICHAEL, Llbranan.
PH ,\RR, PETER B. READ, DAVID SEIDMAN, DAVID
CATHERINE V. RONNAN,