SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 29 NUMBER 2 JUNE 1975 605 THIRD AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016
MASS COMMUNICATIONS AND THE 1976 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION by Thomas E. Patterson and Ronald P. Abeles·
MAJOR CHANGES ARE SWEEPING the American political system, and the mass media are a powerful force behind many of them. Elections are now waged through the mass media, which have supplanted political parties as the major intermediary between office seekers and the electorate. Greatly increased campaign costs and more frequent and direct exposure of the public to its potential leaders have accompanied this development. Activists have turned more and more to the media, and less to traditional grass roots organizations, to mobilize support for their causes. From the stance of the Indians at Wounded Knee to the pleas of antiwar demonstrators in the streets to the demands of organized labor in the factories, the media are increasingly a major instrument of advocacy. Public policy is also being created more and more through the media. Elected officials have increasingly turned to the media to mold and activate public opinion and, by this means, to gain support for their policy goals both from the mass public and from elites in the public and private sectors. The increasing reliance of political elites on the media has accompanied an increasing concentration of media in fewer hands. This trend is most noticeable in the corporate giants that dominate the broadcast industry, • Thomas E. Patterson is on the faculty of the Department of Political Science at Syracuse University and a member of the Committee on Mass Communications and Political Behavior. For the three· year period. 1972-1975. he has been researching the mass media and voters under a grant from the National Science Foundation. Several publications have resulted from this research and additional publications. including two books. are forthcoming. Ronald P. Abeles is a social psychologist who serves as staff for the Committee on Mass Communications and Political Behavior. He has published papers in the areas of attitude change and political behavior. and is preparing a text on psychology and political behavior.
but is evident as well in the increasing proportion of chain-owned newspapers, and the growing national reputations of a few independent newspapers such as the New York Times and the Washington "Post. Decisions about what the public will know rest increasingly on the beliefs of a small elite which determines what the public should know. . Despite the clear and significant changes wrought by the media, and the hopes and fears accompanying these changes. not much is known about how the media operate, how political elites interact with media elites to affect the media agenda, or what effect this agenda has on the American people. Systematic research on the mass media has lagged far behind the media's rapid growth as a political instrument. Most of our knowledge about the mass media comes from particularistic and unsystematic observations by media and political elites and from scholarly research conducted, in the main, some
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 13
MASS COMMUNICATIONS AND THE 1976 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION by Thomas E. Patterson and Ronald P. Abeles
COMMITTEE BRIEF: Summer Training InstituteBiological Bases of Social Behavior
FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS
NEW PUBLICATION: Ezra F. Vogel (editor). Modern Japanese Organization and Decision-Making
RESOLUTION IN HONOR OF ELEANOR ISBELL
25 years ago, before the mushrooming influence of the media (especially television) occurred. The pioneering studies by Columbia University's Bureau of Applied Social Research found the media to have minimal effects upon voters and to serve mainly as reinforcers or catalysts of pre-existing attitudes and behavioral tendencies. 1 Research conducted in the past few years 2 has largely dealt with segments of the media-politics complex and has not covered the entire process. As a step toward filling these gaps in knowledge, the Committee on Mass Communications and Political Behavior 3 was established by the Council in September 1974. The committee has proposed an integrated research agenda for the 1976 election. Through several research teams, the committee intends to study the entire media process, from the formation of the media agenda to the impact of the agenda on the American people. Research teams will examine the influence of media elites and institutions, political figures and governmental institutions, and the flow of events on the determination of what the media communicate and what is ignored. They will also study the effects of media communications on the public's thinking and behavior, from images of political leaders to feelings about issues, to vote preferences, to attitudes toward government. The scope of the total research design can be reduced to two global questions: (1) How is the media agenda formed? (2) What impact does the agenda have on the public? HOW IS THE MEDIA AGENDA FORMED? The decisions of media elites and the choices made by candidates and their advisors are obviously paramount in influencing what is communicated through the media and what is ignored. How media elites define their roles, the journalistic norms that guide their behavior, and the imperatives of the organizations they represent most likely affect what these elites place on the agenda and. what they leave off. Candidates are similarly affected by their outlooks and the demands of their organizations. Their beliefs about the use of the media in the campaign and such organizational restraints as the availability of campaign funds will affect what they
1 Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet, The People's Choice, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1944; Bernard Berelson, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee, Voting, University of Chicago Press, 1954; Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Perso11a1 blfluence, Free Press, 1955. 2 For example: Jay G. Blumler and Denis McQuail, Television in Politics, University of Chicago Press, 1969; Chris Argyris, Behind the Front Page, Jossey路Bass, 1974; Leon Sigal, Reporters and Officials, D. C. Heath and Co., 1973; Thomas E. Patterson and Robert D. McClure, Political Advertising, Citizens Research Foundation, 1973.
communicate-or attempt to .c ommunicate-through the mass media. Also, the events occurring during the campaign period-their nature, importance, timingwill influence what is transmitted by the media. Some events require coverage, while other events afford leeway as to whether and how they will be reported. Moreover, the agenda-setting process is a dynamic one, involving interaction between media elites and candidates in the context of the campaign's events. The working relationships, the respective reputations, and the shared values of media elites and candidates will affect their interactions and, thereby, the form of the media agenda. Furthermore, candidates and media elites influence the course of some events, as they try to exploit, and even create, events. However, knowledge of the actual nature and importance of these various influences on the election news is unclear. It is not precisely known how the views that media elites and candidates have of the media affect their choices. It is not entirely clear how organizational imperatives affect the agenda. It is not fully understood how the nature of events dictates event coverage. It is uncertain exactly which candidate-media interactions are important or how these interactions impinge on the agenda. It is not known exactly how much control candidates and media elites have over the course of those events that appear on the agenda. These influences are important to understand, for the political consequences are vast. These influences can affect the unfolding of the campaign, and what the American people come to think of and know about the candidates. Media decisions about the kinds and amounts of coverage given to various candidates may define the public's images of the office seekers and their public visibility, thereby affecting the candidates' fortunes and the fate of the political positions they advocate. Decisions about what events and social problems will be emphasized, and which ignored, can narrow the election, thus aiding one candidate and hurting others. Decisions about the meaning of events, what they say about the candidates' fitness for office and their likelihood of winning, can similarly influence the course of an elec-
8 The members of the committee are Ben H. Bagdikian, Washington, D.C.; Leo Bogart, Newspaper Advertising Bureau; Richard A. Brody, Stanford University; Steven H. Chaffee, University of Wisconsin; Philip E. Converse, University of Michigan; Herbert Hyman, Wesleyan University; F. Gerald Kline, University of Michigan; Thomas E. Patterson, Syracuse University; Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, Social Science Research Council (chairman); Ithiel de Sola Pool, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The committee's work is funded by the John and Mary R. Markle Foundation. Forrest Chisman of the Foundation's staff has -participated in all meetings of the committee.
tion. Clearly embodied in these choices are public and private policy decisions that have a clear, direct influence on American politics and that form the target of this research plan. Four teams of scholars will share the responsibility for examining the influence that media elites, candidates, and events have on the shape of the media agenda. Each team has a specific research task, but the tasks are complementary. Together, the teams will provide a body of knowledge for understanding the process of agenda formation and for informing public and private policies relating to this area.
to plan the interview schedules for different types of personnel. Field observation and interview periods of one week or more per wave are anticipated.
Interactions between the media and candidates. The second team,4 directed by James David Barber of Duke University, will focus on media:-eandidate interactions: how candidates affect the media, how the media influence candidates, and the resultant impact on what the media prints and broadcasts. An understanding will be sought of how and why the mass media decide what to present, as they describe and evaluate the election. The media ate seen as important shapers of the national agenda--defining the key questions, setting the major themes, choosing the criteria of relevance. The media are also seen transmitting a politi:::al epistemology; they teach the meaning of the election to the electorate. Inevitably, too, the media produce evaluations; consciously or not, they preach the rights and wrongs of what is occurring. Of particular interest will be the media's role in winnowing the field of presidential candidates from many aspirants to the two candidates receiving the major party nominations. Unsystematic observation suggests that the mass media are enormously influential in this winnowing process. Systematic research will determine precisely how the media influence party nominations. Six waves of focused interviews are scheduled. The first wave took place in Spring 1975; the last will take place after the 1976 election. Interviews will be held with candidates for the presidency; with their campaign managers; with reporters and editors at major dailies, news magazines, and television networks; and with other bellwether journalists. The same people will be interviewed in each wave. Intensive research on mediacandidate interaction will take place in four key states during the primary season, which will include participant observation. Ten national and regional newspapers and the three news magazines will be clipped, and television reports and specials (including relevant segments of the three evening news programs) will be compiled for content analysis.
The media as organizations. The first team, directed by F. Gerald Kline of the University of Michigan, Steven H. Chaffee of the University of Wisconsin, and Leon V. Sigal of Wesleyan University, will examine institutional news-generating and dissemination practices, within and between major national media organizations, during the campaign year. "Generative" media institutions, which produce most of the news that is distributed locally by the many "derivative" news outlets, include the major wire services, news magazines, broadcast networks, and a few megalopolitan newspapers. These media are important to understand in some depth, not only because of their size and reporting capabilities, but because they are prime movers in determining the focus of the day's news. Their crucial importance stems from their influence on the efforts of other media, on campaign organizations, and on one another. Within each organization, three generic work functions will be examined in the course of this research: the surveillance-reportorial input, the packaging-transmittal output, and the assignment-management functions. A central goal will be learning how each medium's internal coordination of these functions, and of its interactions with other media, determines the way in which it handles unanticipated campaign news events. In order to accomplish this central goal, it will be necessary to monitor the content produced by the media and obtain information about the media organizations themselves. The former will be accomplished through "Critical" events and their handling by the media.1S the careful archiving and analyzing of the media content Gladys and Kurt Lang of the State University of New as described below. The latter will be obtained through York at Stony Brook plan intensive case studies of five interviewing of elites and observation. Extended intercritical events in order to focus on the degree of corviews, focusing on the three functions mentioned above, will be held with working personnel within the organi4 The other investigators on the team are Christopher Arterton, zations listed above: reporters, editors, producers, as- William Becker, Lawrence G. Goodwyn, Donald R. Matthews, and signment and rewrite desk personnel, etc. Three waves Jeffrey L. Pressman. 5 The Langs' work is part of a combined study of critical events of interviews are planned, one during the primaries, which includes an audience component directed by Sidney Kraus and one at convention time, and one during the campaign John Robinson of Cleveland State University. The critical events itself. Prior to each wave, the research group will meet' proposal is actually a single project with these two components. JUNE
respondence between several levels in the total communication system: (1) between the experience of participants and media reports of these events; (2) between what national news media disseminate about these events and what is available to a local audience; and (3) between the local media output and public perceptions of these events. Events such as the nominating conventions, televised debates, international crises requiring a presidential response, a mass demonstration that poses a threat to public order, or a scandal concerning a vice presidential candidate can be considered strategic research sites for observing in detail how the news media-by their presence, by what they report or withhold, by reaching a public, and by eliciting a certain response-structure political reality. In studying "critical events," the Langs will rely on flexible research procedures to obtain ephemeral data. These procedures involve observations at the site of events that are likely to have an impact on collective definitions as well as content analyses of reports of the ~ e events in the news media.
The analysis will be conducted on the daily newspapers and television affiliates in four cities. WHAT IMPACT DOES THE MEDIA AGENDA HAVE ON THE PUBLIC?
One fact is known about the impact of the mass media on the American public: the effects of the media are seldom direct or hypodermic. Rather, mass communications normally function among and through mediating influences, such as people's political predispositions and the uses they make of the mass media. Beyond this basic observation, however, our understanding of media effects is imprecise, and speculation far exceeds documentation. It is frequently said, for example, that television news has more influence on voters' images of candidates than the newspaper, but that the newspaper has more impact on the electorate's issue awareness. This has not yet been fully demonstrated. It is also widely believed, as another example, that televised political advertising has greater impact on News decisions of local media sources. Thomas E. people who are less interested and involved in politics 'Patterson of Syracuse University will examine the agenda than on those individuals who are greatly interested in decisions made by media elites at the community level. politics. But this relationship also has not been fully Of greatest concern will be the selection process through examined. which decision makers in daily newspapers and televiNor are the specific effects of the media understood. sion affiliates determine which of the alternative news For instance, the media's projection of candidates' items, made available from national sources such as the images has been discussed widely, particularly in popuwire services and networks, are relayed to the local lar writings, but the media's actual effect on images is audience. Local news outlets have considerable choice unknown. And, while it is clear that the media provide in what material will be used and how it will be prevoters with much of their information and focus people's sented and, thus, have great control over what their attention on certain public matters, it has not been audiences will be exposed to. And local media elites clearly established how much influence the media have do exercise their options; considerable variation exists in these areas, or what conditions mediate the media's between media in different locations throughout the impact. Moreover, many observers feel that the media country and even between different media in the same can define campaign situations for the public, but even location in what they relay to their audiences. Thus, this has not been carefully examined. Further, some an understanding of the process by which they select observers feel that public sentiments such as alienation certain news items, and ignore others, is of compelling and ideological beliefs are influenced by the media, importance. Explanations will be sought in such factors but recent research has not tested this premise. Other as the news perspectives, journalistic norms, and politiobservers, primarily those actively involved in politics, cal biases of these local elites, as well as other possible' believe that the media have substantial influence on influences such as staffing, news space, and normal newsvote choice, but few studies have carefully looked at handling procedures. . the question. The data for this research will be obtained primarily The media's impact on the public during the camthrough (I) interviews with local media elites which will take place at four different periods of the cam- paign. Three teams of scholars will share responsibility paign, (2) systematic observations of local news opera- for assessing the media's impact on the public. The first tions on four occasions during the campaign, and (3) team, directed by Thomas Patterson, will examine the comparison of the news content communicated by local media's influence during the campaign. It will address media over the course of the campaign with the poten- a wide range of topics, encompassing most of the questial content made available through national sources. tions about media impact raised by candidates, policy 16
makers, media personnel, political observers, and social scientists. Examined will be the impact of television news, newspapers, news magazines, and televised political advertising on voters; the impact of the media during primary elections, the party conventions, the general elections; the media's effects in different electoral and media situations; and the media's impact on a variety of personal reactions from people's images of candidates to their response to the issues to their vote preferences. Emerging from the research will be an extensive source of information about the media's impact on voters during a presidential election. The study will depend on a panel survey of voters, spanning the entire election period from before the primaries to election day. Interviews will be timed so that media effects can be isolated for the key phases of the campaign: primaries, conventions, the general election. Additionally, interviews will be conducted in several carefully selected media markets so that media effects on voters residing in non primary and primary states, in media-abundant and media-sparse locations, can be studied. The panel survey will be augmented by a detailed content analysis of the media sources to which interviewees are exposed.
The media's impact on the public between elections. This project, headed by Warren E. Miller of the University of Michigan, will represent the culminating step of a four-year, three-election study involving a national panel of the American electorate, designed to examine the long-term impact of mass communications on political behavior. Completion of this phase will permit close scrutiny of both the agenda-setting and influence functions of the diverse mass media during the entire Watergate period. The research team will examine the ways in which shifts in emphasis across the media have contributed to changes over time in aspects of the national political scene salient for the citizenry. Also examined will be the contribution of shifts in media descriptions and evaluations of political figures and issues to those changes in popular perspectives on policies, candidates, and parties that lead to differences in national election outcomes over the 1972-76 period. A representative sample of the American electorate, personally interviewed in 1972 in connection with the presidential election, was reinterviewed at the time of the 1974 congressional elections. The 1972 interview had gathered general information on respondents' media usage. The detail of this information was augmented considerably in 1974. In addition, a large amount of data on the specific content being disseminated by the various media within the primary sampling areas of the national survey was assembled. The 1976 reinterview JUNE
would complete this work by filling in information on continuities in media use and the ultimate perceptions, attitudes, and voting choices of the electorate panel. The impact of "critical events" on voters. This research team, directed by Sidney Kraus and John P. Robinson of Cleveland State University, will focus on the impact of five critical events on the electorate. Both scheduled and unscheduled events, such as the nominating conventions, televised debates, or an international crisis requiring a presidential response will be examined for their impact, through the mass media, on the voters. The research will discover how the media structure the political reality of the mass public. Short telephone interviews will be used in several locations to determine the immediate impact of media handling of events and as a screening device to identify target groups for more intensive follow-up interviews to discover media exposure and how persons arrived at their particular definitions of an event. A content analysis of the media. A media content analysis project will support both the research on media and campaign elites and the research on the audience effects of the media. The project will involve an exhaustive content analysis of over 100 newspapers spread throughout the country, the television networks regular newscasts, and weekly news magazines such as Time and Newsweek. Examined in the content analysis will be methods of news presentation and measures of news content in the various sources. The data obtained will serve the elite research by providing measures of the media output that results from the actions 'of these elites. The data will serve the audience effects research by providing measures of media content that can be related to people's reactions to politics. A similar content analysis project was conducted at the University of Michigan under the direction of F. Gerald Kline for the 1974 elections. Kline will also direct this phase of the research, which will concentrate on media materials collected during the 1976 election and also cover some retrievable media materials from 1972. THE COMMITTEE'S CONTINUING ROLE The individual research projects described here were developed by the research teams; the Committee on Mass Communications and Political Behavior will remain in existence during the field research phase to guarantee that the research product will be fully integrated. The committee will monitor the work of the various research teams and, through periodic meetings, review the teams' progress toward their separate goals and the combined goals. The committee will also serve as a policy body and will be prepared, if necessary, to 17
take whatever steps are required to insure the success of the overall project. Additionally, the committee's staff will serve as a continual liaison between the committee and the teams and between the teams themselves. The staff will provide an on-going channel for the full exchange of information. The research promises to provide important intellectual and practical gains. To achieve these ends, an ambitious publication plan is intended. It is expected, within two years of the completion of the field work, that each research team will produce one or more book-' length monographs. A major commercial publisher has already indicated a willingness to publish the series. The decision to publish the findings as a series of monographs reflects the division of responsibility between the research teams and their dependence on different
perspectives and methodologies. However, a volume that ties together the separate research findings will be written and added to the series. Although the scholars doing the field work will have initial rights to the use of the data, the research will also serve the broader social science community. The data sets created by the research will be released to the social science community within eighteen months after their preparation, in a form suitable for additional analysis. This time period will protect the initial efforts of the research teams but not discourage other researchers with an interest in the data. To achieve wide availability and use, the data sets will be placed in the ar<:hives of research consortiums such as the University of Michigan's Inter-University Consortium for Political
COMMITTEE BRIEF Biological Bases of Social Behavior * SUMMER TRAINING INSTITUTE ON GENETICS MEMBERS of the committee met on March 7 with members of the teaching faculty of the forthcoming Summer Training Institute on the Genetics of Developmental Processes for Social Scientists and selected four postdoctoral and 20 predoctoral students as participants. As announced in the December 1974 issue of ITEMS, the training institute will be conducted at the Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, June 16 - August I, with support from the National Institute of Mental Health. About 140 completed applications were reviewed in the selection of participants for the institute. Fourteen successful applicants are from psychology, five from anthropology, one each from zoology, psychiatry, education, and sociology; one combines interests in psychology and political science. Fourteen participants are women and ten are men; they reside in 17 states and in Canada. Those selected are: Postdoctoral: David P. Crews, research zoologist, University of California, Berkeley; Tibor Koertvelyessy, assistant professor of anthropology, Ohio University; Michael S. McCabe, assistant professor of psychia.try, University of Iowa College of Medicine; and Clare S. Porac, visiting assistant professor of psychology, University of Victoria. Predoctoral: Sheri Berenbaum, Universi.ty of California, Berkeley; Jeannie G. Boatler, University of Texas at Austin; Louise Carter-Saltzman, University of Minnesota; Robert Chapman, Rutgers University; Barbara A. Cornblatt, New School for Social Research; Gerard A. Dizinno, Florida State University; Robert Dworkin, Harvard University; Gail Greitzer, University of California, Los Angeles; Harold D. Grotevant, University of Minnesota; Sonja B. Haber, Miami University; Gail H. Ironson, University of Wisconsin; Pamela G. Maxwell, University of Chicago; Nancy 1. Nagle, University of U_tah; Sandra L. Schultz, University of Arizona; Nancy L. Segal, University of Chicago; Lonnie R. 18
Sherrod, Yale University; and Gail A. Stevens, Central Washington State College. Three predoctoral participants will attend the institute without support from the NIMH. They are Robert Frender and Nancy A. Nicolson, Harvard University; and David C. Rowe, University of Colorado. The faculty members of the institute are Gerald E. McClearn, professor of psychology and director, Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado (institute director); Robert Plomin, assistant professor of psychology, University of Colorado (institute coordinator); Joseph C. Daniel, professor of zoology, University of Tennessee; John C. DeFries, professor of behavioral genetics, University of Colorado; Linda K. Dixon, assistant professor of biology, University of Colorado, Denver; Joseph Horn, associate professor of psychology, University of Texas at Austin; Jeffry B. Mitton, assistant professor of environmental, population, and organismic biology, University of Colorado; Gilbert Omenn, professor of medical genetics, University of Washington; Sandra Scarr-Salapatek, professor of child development and psychology, University of Minnesota; and James R. Wilson, associate professor of psychology and of environmental, population, and organismic biology, University of Colorado. A number of guest lecturers will also partici pate in the program. The curriculum of the training insÂˇtitute will include discussions of the principal concepts of major areas of genetics: transmission genetics, cytogenetics, quantitative genetics, and developmental genetics. Topics to be discussed will include quanti.tative models of epigenesis and developmental canalization, research on the operon model of gene action and its relevance to developmental processes, chromosome puffing and hormonal control in development, chromosomal anomalies, gene linkage, pharmacogenetics, genetic counseling, mental retardation, perception, personality, and cognitive abilities. â&#x20AC;˘ David C. Glass (chainnan). Paul T. Baker, Peter B. Dews. Daniel X. Freedman, Gardner Lindzey. Gerald E. McClearn, Stanley Schachter. Richard F. Thompson; staff, David Jenness. VOLUME
f ELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS CONTENTS 19
GRANTS TO MINORITY SCHOLARS
GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH Africa) China) japan) Korea) Latin America) the Near and Middle East
POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS
INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Africa) Asia) Latin America and the Caribbean) the Near and Middle East) Western Europe
THESE PAGES list the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were awarded fellowships or grants by Council committees during the past few months. Most of the grant programs sponsored by the Council and the fellowship programs sponsored by the Council jointly with the American Council of Learned Societies are reported here; other lists will be published in the September issue of Items. The Council's fellowship and grant program is supported by funds it receives from foundations and other funding agencies. The programs change somewhat every year, and scholars interested either in predoctoral fellowships for dissertation research abroad or in postdoctoral grants for individual or collaborative research should write to the Council for a copy of the new brochure that describes the 1975-76 fellowship and grants program. It will be ready for mailing in early August. GRANTS TO MINORITY SCHOLARS FOR RESEARCH ON RACISM AND OTHER SOCIAL FACTORS IN MENTAL HEALTH The Committee on Grants to Minority Scholars for Research on Racism and Other Social Factors in Mental Health-Charles V. Willie (chairman), Rodolfo Alvarez, James P. Comer, Cora Bagley MarreFt, Alfonso Ortiz, Marian Radke Yarrow, Lloyd H. RogIer, and M. Brewster Smith-met on January 19, 1975. It reviewed 39 applications and made awards to the following eight scholars: Anita L. Alvarado, assistant professor of anthropology, University of New Mexico, for research on the role of historical demography and ethnicity systems in the racial identification of the Hispano population in New Mexico Oscar A. Barbarin, assistant professor of psychology, University of Maryland, for research on correlates of the positive Black self-concept Yoon Hough Kim, associate professor of sociology, East Carolina University, for an lDvestigation of factors that account for degrees of interracial acceptance and levels of achievement when schools are desegregated Isabelle N. Navar, associate professor of psychology, California State College, Dominguez Hills, for experimental research on racism: new methods of eliciting expression of JUNE
subjective attitudes and experiences in a Chicano group (renewal of grant awarded in 1972-73) Blanca G. Silvestrini, assistant professor of history, University of Puerto Rico, for research on racism and the development of the self-concept of Puerto Rican women in Puerto Rico and the United States Stanley Sue, assistant professor of psychology, University of Washington, for research on mental health services received by patients in the community mental health center system of Seattle Doris Y. Wilkinson, associate professor of sociology, Macalester College, for research on the role of racial beliefs in the psychiatric treatment of Black patients William M. Womack, assistant professor of psychiatry, University of Washington Medical School, for research on the effects of transracial adoption on Black preschool and primary grade children This program of grants is funded by the Maurice Falk Medical Fund, and is in its third year. The program continues to fulfill its original purpose of making research opportunities available primarily but not exclusively for young scholars from minority populations. The eight awards were made to four males and four females, including one Korean, one Chinese, one Puerto Rican, two Chicano, and three Black scholars. The average age of the grantees is 36 years, the youngest being 28 and the oldest 44. Successful applicants may arrange consultation sessions, at Council expense, with any member of the committee during the course of the year. The committee is a multidisciplinary group of social and behavorial scientists in anthropology, psychiatry, psychology, and sociology. GRANTS FOR AFRICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on African Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Aristide R . Zolberg (chairman), Sara S. Berry, Charles S. Bird, George C. llond, Sekene MOOy Cissoko, B. J. Dudley, James W. Fernandez, Jean Herskovits, Philip M. Mbithi, Edward W. Soja-at its meeting on March 15-16, 1975 awarded grants to the following individuals: Kofi Awooner, associate professor of English and comparative literature, State University of New York at Stony Brook, for research in Southeast Ghana, Togo, and Dahomey on the oral literature of the Ewe of Ghana and Togo Jean Due, professor of agricultural economics, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, for research in Tanzania and Zambia on alternative ways of improving allocation of credit to smallholder farmers Daniel Fine, assistant professor of political science, State University of New York, Oneonta, for research in Nairobi on multinational corporation managers and political development in Kenya Jan Hogendorn, associa'te professor of economics, Colby College, for research in Nigeria on the economic history of Northern Nigeria in the precolonial and early colonial periods 19
Willard Johnson, professor of political science, Massachu- Daniel W. Y. Kwok, professor of history, University of Hawaii, for research on populist thought in modern setts Institute of Technology, for research in the Middle China East and in Africa on promoting Middle East Petro-Fund investments in Africa through studies of the possibility Kenneth G. Lieberthal, assistant professor of political science, Swarthmore College, for a reexamination of the of increasing the project management skills of institutions Sino-Soviet relationship that receive such funds Bennetta Jules-Rosette, assistant professor of sociology, Uni- James R. Townsend, professor of pol.itical science, University of Washington, for research on nation, class, and versity of California, San Diego, for research in Lusaka, community in the Chinese revolution Zambia on an African religious community in transition Bonnie Keller, visiting assistant professor of anthropology Tang Tsou, professor of political science, University of Chicago, for research on the Chinese revolution and the and African studies, University of Illinois at Champaignproblem of inequality Urbana, for research in Tanzania on the feminine perChing-hsien Wang, associate professor of Chinese and comception of social reality parative literature, University of Washington, for reDaniel Kunene, associate professor of African languages and search on the origins and implications of modern Chinese literature, University of Wisconsin, for research in the Ii terary cri ticism United States on Thomas Mofolo and the emergence of Lynn T. White, III, assistant professor of politics, Princewrit路ten Sesotho prose ton University, for research on the development of ecoHarold Marcus, professor of history, Michigan State Uninomic institutions in Chinese cities versity, for research in Washington, London, Paris, Brussels, Rome, and Ethiopia on the life of Haile Selassie I Phyllis Martin, assistant professor of history and African GRANTS FOR RESEARCH stud:es, Indiana University, for research in Luanda, ON THE ECONOMY OF CHINA Cabinda, and Pointe-Noire on the history of Cabinda, Angola At a meeting on January 17, 1975, the Subcommittee on James Newman, associate professor of geography, Syracuse Research on the Chinese Economy-Dwight H. Perkins University, for research in Kenya on food accessibility (chairman), Robert Dernberger, Albert Feuerwerker, John among the Mijikenda Enid Schildkrout, assistant curator, American Museum of -G. Gurley, Kung-Chia Yeh-made its recommendations to Natural History, for research in Great Britain and Nigeria the Joint Committee on Contemporary China concerning on the impact of economic change on family structure grants. The Joint Committee approved awards to the folin West Africa David Skinner, assistant professor of history, University of lowing individuals: Santa Clara, for research in Sierra Leone and England Sen-dou Chang, professor of geography, University of on Islamic power in traditional West Africa Hawaii, for research in Hong Kong and the United States William Steel, assistant professor of economics, Vanderbilt on changing land use patterns in China, 1933-1975 University, for research in Ghana on labor underutiliza- John C. H. Fei, professor of economics, Yale University, tion and small-scale manufacturing employment for research in Taiwan on the structural stability of Dorothy Vellenga, assistant professor of sociology, Muskgrowth of traditional China ingum College, for research in Ghana and West Cameroon Victor D. Lippit, assistant professor of economics, Univeron the position of women in the emerging class structure sity of California, Riverside, for research in Tokyo, Hong of West Africa Kong, and the United States on the role of communes Sidney Waldron, assistant professor of anthropology, State in economic development University of New York, College at Cortland, for research Thomas A. Metzger, assistant professor of history, Univerin Ethiopia on community change in preindustrial Harar sity of California, San Diego, for research in the United States on the use of Chinese and Japanese secondary literature to analyze the transformation in the relation beGRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON CONTEMPORARY tween the state and economy in Ming and early Ch'ing AND REPUBLICAN CHINA China Ramon H. Myers, professor of economics, University of The Joint Committee on Contemporary China, sponsored Miami, Coral Gables, for research in the United States with the American Council of Learned Societies-Albert on the traditional peasant society and economy of NorthFeuerwerker (chairman), John W. Lewis (vice-chairman), east China Richard Baum, Myron Cohen, Ying-mao Kau, Philip A. James E. Nickum, lecturer in economics, California State University, Long Beach, for research in China on provinceKuhn, Dwight H. Perkins, and Ezra F. Vogel-at its meetlevel agricultural development since 1968 ing on March 8-9, 1975 awarded grants to the following Thomas G. Rawski, assistant professor of economics, Uniindividuals: versity of Toronto, for research in the United States on the economy of Republican China Emily M. Ahern, associate professor of anthropology, The Johns Hopkins University, for research on marriage alliances and animal symbolism in northern Taiwan GRANTS FOR JAPANESE STUDIES June T. Dreyer, assistant professor of political science, Miami University, for research on China's Northwest as Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on a political subsystem and its interactions with the central Japanese Studies (sponsored with the American Council of government in Peking Learned Societies) the Subcommittee on Grants for Research Robert A. Kapp, assistant professor of history, University of Washington, for research on government and local -Kozo Yamamura (chairman), James T. Araki, L. Keith Brown, Peter Duus, T. J. Pempel, and Ann Waswcr-at its society in wartime China: the nationalist experience
yard, Chae-Jin Lee, Youngi l Lim, and Edward W. Wagner -at its meeting on March 7-8, 1975 awarded grants to the following individuals: George Akita, professor of history, University of Hawaii, Oh Kon Cho, pos tdoctoral fellow, Department of Theatre, for research in Japan for a political biography of Hoshi Ohio State Universi ty, for research on the Korean puppet Toru theatre Barbara A. Anderson, research associate, Economic Growth Center, Yale University, for research in the United States Yong H:.Choe, assistant professor of history, University of Hawall, for research on social stratification in late Yi on internal migration during the modernilation of Japan dynasty Korea, 1600-1860 and Russia, 1885-1930 Albert M. Craig, professor of Japanese history, Harvard Bruce Cumings, junior research fellow, East Asian Institute, Columbia University, for research on provincial unrest University, for research in Japan and the United States and political participation in Korea, 1947-1950 on the building of the Meiji state, ]868-]885. John W. Dower, assistant professor of history, University Fujiya Kawashima, assistant professor of history, Bowling Green State University, for research on the rise of the of Wisconsin, Madison, for research in Japan and the new lineage elite, the Pannam Pak Clan in mid-Yi dynasty United States on Occupied Japan, 1945-1952 Korea George S. Elison, associate professor of history, Colby College, for research in Japan on Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Young Key Kim-Renaud, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Linguistics, University of Hawaii, for research on vowel Hideyoshi, and the reunification of Japan in the ] 6th harmony in the Korean language century Scott C. Flanagan, assistant professor of government, Florida John Kuark, associate professor of statistics, University of Denver, for a comparative study of economic developState University, for completion of an analytic survey ment in North and South Korea, 1964-1974 of Japanese mass political behavior (supplement to an award made in 1974, joint with Bradley M. Richardson) Peter. Lee,. professor of.. Korean and comparative literature, Umverslty of Hawau, for research on topoi in Korean Haruhiro Fukui, associate professor of political science, poetry University of California, Santa Barbara, for research in Young I. Lew, assistant professor of history, University of Japan on foreign policy making in contemporary Japan Houston, for research on Korea's response to the West Eleanor H. Jorden, professor of linguistics, Cornell Uniand to Japan, 1886-1910 versity, for a sociolinguistic study in Japan of attitudes toward language and their effect on intercultural com- Seung G. ~oon, associate professor of sociology, University of. Mallltoba, for research on changing family and kinmunication slup structures in the modernization process of Japan and George H. Kakiuchi, associate professor of geography, UniKorea versity of Washington, for research in Japan and the United States on the socioeconomic consequences and James Palais, assistant professor of history, Universitv of Washington, for research on authority and hierarchy in implications of rural to urban migration in ShiramineKorean Confucianism mura William LaFleur, assistant professor of political science, Marshall Pihl, executive assistant, Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, for research on the estabPrinceton University, for research in Japan on Buddhism lish~~nt of p'ar.sori as ~mique genre among forms of and waka in early medieval Japan traditIOnal Korean narrative literature Jeffrey P. Mass, assistant professor of history, Stanford University, for a study in Japan of the advance of warrior Don Chull Shin, assistant professor of political science, Sangamon State University, for research on monitoring power in late Kamakura Japan the quality of life in South Korea Marlene J. Mayo, associate professor of history, University of Maryland, for a study in Japan and the United States Soon Young Yoon, visiting Fulbright professor, Ewha Women's University, for research on an anthropological of Stanley K. Hornbeck and Japanese-American relations, study of the relationship between the Korean rural family 1928-1944 and the migration of young, unmarried females Bradley M. Richardson, associate professor of political sdence, Ohio State University, for completion of an analytic survey of Japanese mass political behavior (supplement to Collaborative "esearch grants an award made in 1974, joint with Scott C. Flanagan) Young C. Kim, associate professor of political science, William E. Steslicke, visiting scholar, School of Public George Washington University, and Health and Center for Japanese Studies, University of Hak-Joon Kim, instructor in political science, Seoul NaMichigan, for research in Japan on national health intional University, for research on press-government relasurance tions in Korea Marian B. Ury, assistant professor of Oriental languages, George Y. M. Won, professor of sociology, University of University of California, Davis, for research in the United Hawaii, and States on the Chinese tradition in pre-Tokugawa Japanese In-H~an ~h, associate professor of journalism, Kyung Hee literature, with special emphasis on shih poetry UmvefSltv, for research on a study of trade union governEzra F. Vogel, professor of sociology, Harvard University, ment in Korea for research in Japan on the rise and diffusion of the postwar zaikai GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES meeting on February 28, ]975 voted to make awards to the following individuals:
GRANTS FOR KOREAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Korean Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Chong-Sik Lee (chairman), Yunshik Chang, John Jamieson, Gari K. LedJUNE
The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored wi th the American Council of Learned SocietiesAlbert O. Hirschman (chairman), Guillermo Bonfil Batalla, Francesca Cancian, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Douglas A. Chalmers, Peter H. Smith, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Hernan 21
Vidal-at its meeting on March 13-15, 1975 awarded grants to the following individuals: Genaro Herrera Arriagada, Santiago, Chile, for research in Chile on the politics of the revolutionary left in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, 1965-1974 Raul Atria, researcher, Latin American Center of Demography, Santiago, for research in Chile on the social basis of Chilean political development, 1891-1973 Celia Barbato de Silva, professor of economics, Faculty of Engineering, University of the Republic of Uruguay, for research in Uruguay on the role of the state in the cattle industry, 1959-1974 Herac1io Bonilla, fellow, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Smithsonian Institution, for research in Washington and New York on economic and political relations between the United States and Peru, 1880-1945 Douglas Edgar Brintnall, assistant professor of sociology and anthropology, University of Northern Iowa, for .research in Aguacatan, Guatemala on the local meamng and impact of a national electoral fraud Enrique Browne, School of Architecture, Cath?lic. Univ~r颅 sity of Chile, for research on the use of housmg m La~m America and the United States among different SOClO路 economic strata Norma Stoltz Chinchilla, assistant professor, Program in Comparative Culture, University of California, Irvine, for research in Guatemala on industrialization and the status of women Margaret Ellen Crahan, visiting scholar, Institute of Latin American Studies, Columbia University, for research in the United States, Mexico, and Cuba on religious penetration, nationalism, and cultural dependency in Cuba, 1898-1958 Arcadio Diaz'Quinones, associate professor, Department of Literature, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, for research in Puerto Rico and other Caribbean islands on the Afro-Antillian poetry of Luis Pales-Matos Julius Lee Drummond, assistant professor of anthropology, University of Montana, for research in Guyana on population movement and ethnic intermixture in the interior of Guyana Edmundo Fuenzalida Faivovich, professor, Latin American Faculty of the Social Sciences, Santiago, for research in England on Chilean disintegration, transnational integration, and reintegration, 1945-1970 Marcela Gajardo j., visiting researcher, Center for Educational Studies, Mexico City, for research in Mexico on popular education, work, and social participation Richard Eugene Gardner, assistant professor of anthropology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, for research in Dominica, West Indies on the social definitions of production relations Adolfo Gurrieri, director, Division of Social Development, Latin American Institute of Political and Economic Studies, Santiago, Chile, for research in Argentina on the political formation of present-day Peronism Gabriel Gyarmati, professor, Institute of Sociology, Catholic University of Chile, for research in Chile on free competition, monopoly, and the professions John Mason Hart, associate professor of history, University of Houston, for research in Mexico City on the Mexican agrarian movement. 1810-1910 Stanley E. Hilton. associate professor of history. Louisiana State University. for research in Brazil on Brazil and the cold war. 1945-1954 22
Ricardo Alberto Hinrichsen Ramirez, researcher, Institute of Social and Economic Development, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina on changes in agrarian economic relations and regionalization in Argentina, 1950-1973 Alvaro Jara, professor of economic history, Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Chile, Santiago, for research in Paris, London, and Chile on the new economic historiography of Latin America Elizabeth Jelin, Buenos Aires, Argentina, for research on labor conflict in Argentina, 1945-1974 Robert Ray Kaufman, associate professor of political science, Douglass College, Rutgers University, for research in the United States on authoritarian-corporate rule in Latin America Ruben Delmar Kaztman, associate professor of political science, Bariloche Foundation, Bariloche, Argentina, for research in the United States on the industrial sociology of the Peruvian automobile industry. Franklin W. Knight, associate professor of history, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in Spain on wealth, property, and society in Cuba, 1750-1850 Alejandro Losada Guido, associate professor of literature, San Marcos University, Lima, for research in Mexico, Peru, and the United States on realist literature ' as a reflection of society Harry M. Makler, assistant professor of sociology. University of Toronto, for research in Canada and Salvador, Brazil on the role of industrial elites in the development of the Brazilian Northeast Lucila Ines Mena, assistant professor of Spanish literature, University of Virginia, for research in Colombia on the theme of political violence in recent Colombian narratives Manuel Jaime Mora y Araujo, visiting researcher, Center for Social Investigation, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina on the structural basis of voting behavior June C. Nash, professor of anthropology, City College, New York, for research in New York on the film "Autobiography of a Miner" William Hord Nicholls, professor of economics, Vanderbilt University, for research in Brazil on changes in the Brazilian agricultural economy, 1963-1973 James F. Petras, professor of sociology, State University of New York at Binghamton, for research in Peru and Venezuela on United States relations with Peru and Venezuela Gonzalo Piwonka, professor of history, University of Chile, for research in Glasgow and London on British interests in Chile, 1820-1880 John Crothers Pollock, assistant professor, Latin American Institute, Rutgers University, for research in the United States on the political roles of the news media John F. H. Purcell, assistant professor of political science, California State University, Fullerton, for research in Mexico on the state, economic enterprise. and urban policy Susan Kaufman Purcell. assistant professor of political science. University of California at Los Angeles. for research in Mexico on the state. economic enterprise, and urban policy Alejandro Rofman, researcher, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina on models of political economy and the process of regional inequality Ruth Sautu, associate researcher, Bariloche Foundation, Bariloche, Argentina, for research in Argentina on women in the Argentine labor force Kenneth Evan Sharpe, assistant professor of political sciVOLUME
ence, Swarthmore College, for research in Mexico on United States agribusiness and the Mexican Revolution Richard N. Sinkin, assistant professor of history, University of Texas at Austin, for research in Mexico on the Mexican political elite, 1821-1855 Leopoldo Solis, presidential staff, Mexico, for research in Princeton, New Jersey on obstacles to policies of economic reform in a mixed economy Emilio Willems, professor emeritus of anthropology, Vanderbilt University, for research in Brazil on ethnicity and labor mobility in an industrializing city Margaret Todaro Williams, assistant professor of history, University of Southern California, for research in California on a psychohistorical analysis of Peronism since 1955
sity of Michigan, for research on the possibilities and limitations of literature as a source for sociological research in modern Turkey Richard W. Bulliet, lecturer in Near Eastern studies, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the rate of conversion to Islam of the people of the Middle East after the initial Arabic conquests Edmund Burke III, associate professor of history, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research in France on French colonial stereotypes of the social structures of North Africa Byron D. Cannon, assistant professor of history, University of Wisconsin, for research in France on traditional local administration and economic change in Tunisia and Algeria, 1870-1914 Paul Ward English, professor of geography, University of Collaborative research grants Texas at Austin, for research in Iran on Isfahan as a city within a system of cities Xavier Albo, director, Center for Research and OrganizaCarter V. Findley, assistant professor of history, Ohio State tion of the Peasantry, La Paz, and University, for research on bureaucratic reform and socioThomas Custer Greaves, director, Division of Social Scicultural change in the Ottoman Empire in the 19th and ences, the Universi路ty of Texas at San Antonio, for re20th centuries search in Bolivia on process and linkage among Aymara Michael C. Hillman, assistant professor of Persian, Unipeasants and former peasants versity of Texas at Austin, for a critical review and apHector Apezechea, researcher, Center for Research and Sopraisal of the work of Jahi.l Al-e Ahamad, writer and cial Studies of Uruguay, Montevideo, and cri tic (1923-1969) Suzana Prates Paulino, researcher, Center for Research and Social Studies of Uruguay, Montevideo, for research in Halil !nalcik, professor of history, University of Chicago, for research in Turkey on the history of Istanbul, 1453Uruguay on the transition from political liberalism to 1838 economic liberalism Ivan Auger, associate researcher, Latin American Council Charles Issawi, professor of economics, Columbia University, for research in England, France, Turkey, and Lebaof the Social Sciences, Santiago, and non on the economic history of Turkey, 1800-1914 Gustavo Martinez, professor, Latin American Faculty of the Social Sciences, Santiago, for research in Chile on the Ronald C. Jennings, assistant professor of history, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, for research in development expectations and the power resources of Turkey on the urban society and economy of Ottoman underdeveloped primary product exporting nations Anatolia, 1600-1640 Wayne Cornelius, assistant professor of political science, Afaf Lutli AI-Sayyid Marsot, professor of Near East history, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Ministry of Finance and Public University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Credit, Mexico City, for research in Mexico on migraEgypt on the life of Muhammad Ali tion, rural underdevelopment, and public policy Michael P. Mazur, assistant professor of economics, DartAdolfo Figueroa, associate professor, Catholic University, mouth College, for research in Jordan on the developLima, and ment of the Jordanian economy since 1967 Richard Weisskoff, associate professor of economics, Iowa William L. Ochsenwald, assistant professor of history, VirState University, for research in Peru on rural and urban ginia Polytechnic Institute, for research in Turkey on income distribution the history of the Ottoman province of the Hijaz, 1840Michael Hall, assistant professor of history, Tulane Uni1918 versity, and Francis E. Peters, professor of history and Near Eastern Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, assistant profe<;sor of political science, languages and literatures, New York University, for a State University of Campina<, Campinas, for research in topographical survey in Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia Brazil on the working class in BraziJian society, 1920-1945 of areas of migra路tion and sedentarization in the Arab conquests leading to the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty GRANTS FOR NEAR Edward W. Said, professor of English and comparative AND MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES literature. Columbia University, for research in Lebanon and Egypt on the cultural and political backgrounds of The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, the novels of N~guib Mahfouz sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies Ali Reza Sheikholeslami, lecturer in poHtical science, Uni-Marvin Zonis (chairman), Janet Abu-Lughod, S. N. Eisenversi路ty of California, Riverside, for research on the role stadt, Ira M. Lapidus, K. Allin Luther, ~erif Mardin, Nur of local semiautonomous notables in the taxation system O. Yalman, 1. William Zartman, and Abdelkader Zghalof Qajar Iran, 1871-1896 at iots meeting on March 17-18, 1975 awarded grants to the Marilyn Robinson Waldman, assistant professor of history, Ohio State University, for research in Iran on the develfollowing individuals: opment of Persian prose and historiography in the 10th to the 13th centuries Ludwig W. Adamec, professor of Near Eastern studies, University of Arizona, for research in Afghanistan on its Bernard Weiss. assistant professor of Arabic studies, American University in Cairo, for research on the legal thought foreign policy toward the United States Sarah Moment Atis, Ph.D. in Near Eastern studies, Univerof Sayf aI-Din al-Amidi (d. 1233) JUNE
Collaborative resea1'ch grants
Robert Dubin, professor of sociology, University of California, Irvine, and Bilha Mannheim, associate professor of sociology, TechnionIsrael Ins-titute of Technology, for research in Israel on the effects of differing organizational and managerial characteristics on worker autonomy and commitment Dan I. Slobin, professor of psychology, University of California, Berkeley, and Do~an Ciicel0ltlu, associate professor of psychology, Hacettepe University, for research in the United States and Turkey on language reform, person perception, and values in Turkey POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Karl E. Taeuber (chairman), Howard Gardner, J. David Greenstone, Paul Kay, Edward J. Mitchell, Karen Spalding, and Robert Zemsky-at its meeting on March 14-15, 1975 voted to offer the following appointments: Masanao Aoki, professor of economics and electrical engineering, University of Illinois, for the study of economic theory, international trade, regional and urban economics, and disequilibrium phenomena, at Stanford University Robert H. Bates, assistant professor of political science, California Institute of Technology, for training in economics and in policy formation and evaluation in agriculture and rural development, at Stanford University Gabor S. Borit, visiting assistant professor of history, Washington University, for training at Harvard University in content analysis and mathematical statistics Joan C. Borod, Ph.D. candidate in clinical psychology, CaseWestern Reserve University, to study neuropsychological principles and procedures, at Veterans Administration Hospital, Boston Andrew K. Dolan, associate professor of law, University of Southern California, to study social science methodology, health care professions and delivery systems, and public health philosophy, at Columbia University, School of Public Health Janet W. D. Dougherty, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, to study generative linguistics, syntax, and semantics, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kristin Mann, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for training in social anthropology, historical demography, and quantitative methods, at Cambridge University Lise Menn, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, to study the acoustics of child speech, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Eric H. Monkkonen, assistant orofessor of American history, University of North Ca~olina, Charlotte, to study criminology and the history of criminal law, at Cambridge University Jerome Neu, assistant professor of humanities, University of California, Santa Cruz, to study at the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute and at Harvard Law School, in preparation for a study of the insanity defense in the law Don S. Rice, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, to study ecological theory and method at the University of Florida
Barbara B. Stallings, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, to study economics at Cambridge University INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Awards for dissertation research in five major world areas have been announced by the area committees of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies which administer the program of International Doctoral Research Fellowships (formerly the Foreign Area Fellowship Program). AFRICA
The awards were made by the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for the Africa Program-Sara S. Berry (chairman), Paula Ben-Amos, B. J. Dudley, Steven Feierman, and Inez S. Reid-at a meeting on March 16. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Frank T. Cherry, Jean Decock, Joan Vincent, and Jerome C. Wells. Virginia DeLancey, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of South Carolina, for research in Nigeria and Cameroon on the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility Patrick Fleuret, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of 'California, Santa Barbara, for language training in Swahili and research in Tanzania on staple food marketing in rural areas Robert Handloff, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research in London, Paris, Dakar, and Ivory Coast on Dyula trade networks Mark Huddleston, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for research in Sweden and Kenya on transnational bureaucratic politics and foreign aid Curtis Keim, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research in Belgium and Zaire on -a n economic history of the Mangbetu and Mabudu peoples Rozell Nesbitt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for language training and archival research in Portugal and research in Mozambique and Botswana on migratory labor Candelario Saenz, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for language training and research in Nigeria on the ecology and social organization of Saharan blacksmiths Ruth Stone, Ph.D. candidate in folklore, Indiana University, for research in Germany and Liberia on communication and interaction processes in musical e.vents among the Kpelle Gregory Stanton, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Ivory Coast on religion and health among the Ebrie Robert Tripp, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Teachers College, Columbia University, for archival research and Nankane language training and research in Ghana on agricultural decision making and nutrition in a compound farming system of northern Ghana ASIA
The awards were made by the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for the Asia Program-Susanne H. Rudolph (chairman), Myron Cohen, F. Tomasson Jannuzi, VOLUME
Delmos Jones, James W. Morley, Kenneth Pyle, Gilbert Rozman, and Josef Silverstein-at its meeting on March 28, 1975. It had been assisted by the Screening CommitteePaul A. Cohen, Leonard A. Gordon, Jean Grossholu, Robert Kearney, Gary R. Saxonhouse, Kent C. Smith, Stephen Tobias, and James W. White. China and Inner Asia Charles Backus, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Chicago, for research in Taiwan and Japan on the Nan Chao Kingdom and frontier policy in Southwest China during the Tang period Deborah Davis-Friedman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Boston University, for research in Hong Kong on old age in China since the Cultural Revolution Catherine Lynch, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research in Taiwan and Japan on the populism of Liang Sou-ming and Mao TSNung Dian Murray, Ph.D. candidate in modern Chinese history, Cornell University, for research in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and London on piracy in early 19th century China John R. Shepherd, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Taiwan on the pol hi cal economy of Chinese landlordism in Hai-shan Lawrence S. Weiss, Ph.D. candida路te in political science, Columbia University, for research in Hong Kong on the effect of Chinese Communist participation in the Korean War upon the political and economic development of China Northeast Asia Robert C. Angel, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in Japan on the foreign economic policy-making process in Japan, 1968-1972 Michael Barnas, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Chicago, for research in Japan on cultural transmission in Japanese small entrepreneurial families . Kent Calder, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in Japan on trade and investment liberalization under foreign pressure, 1964-1973 Donald N. Clark, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Korea on the revolution of 1392 as an instance of dynastic re~eneration Radcliffe Edmonds, Ph.D. candtdate in economics, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on residential location choice iIi urban Japan Mary J. Hertzog, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on the painting of Yosa Buson Edward J. Lincoln, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for research in Japan on the National Railway Corporation, 1949-1975, as an example of the economics of a public corporation under adversity Ron W. Napier, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for research in Japan on the interwar industrialization of the economy, with special emphasis on the labor market Charles F. Sayre, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Yale University, for research in Japan on the Ise-monogatari illustrations of the Muromachi period Sun-hee Song, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research in Korea on a comparative analysis of change in the social and political organization of two types of peasant villages Dorothy E. Westney, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, PrinceJUNE
ton University, for research in Japan on regional variations in Japan's modernization John D. Worland, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on market structure and the behavior of firms South Asia Jacqueline Ashby, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for research in Nepal on the role of formal schooling in national development Deborah Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Indiana University, for research in India on Bengali folk conceptions of mental illness and their implications fo~ the identity of the mentally ill Richard Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in language and literature, University of Pennsylvania, for research in India on a critical translation and linguistic-literary analysis of the Kiivyatmyi, the Apabhramsa poem of Dhanapala Nicholas Dirks, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in London and India on political authority and social relations in the Pandya country of South India from the Nayakas to the British Michael H. Fisher, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in India on a social and cultural history of the Awadh area of Uttar Pradesh, 1775-1856 Douglas Merrey, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for research in London and Pakistan on irrigation and social organization in West Punjab Regula Qureshi, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and ethnomusicology, University of Alberta, for research in India, Pakistan, and London on context and meaning in qawwali Indian Sufi music Lee I. Schlesinger, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in India on civilizational structures in Maharashtra Celeste Smucker, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research in India on the relationship between nutrition and infant and child mortality Southeast Asia James Beebe, Ph.D. candidate in education and international development, Stanford University, for research in the Phili p~ines on the identification of problem-solving skills used by rice farmers and the relationship of these skills to the science curriculum Barry Cerf, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Indonesia on the impact of environmental change among the Punan of Borneo Edwin L. Hutchins, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, San Diego, for research in New Guinea on a comparative study of the use of language for information processing Narujohn Iddhichiracharas, Ph.D. candidate in anthropologv, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Thailand on the social interaction between Thai peasants and the Chinese in a Northern Thai district Carol Laderman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Malaysia on traditional Malay medicine Linda Lim, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research in Singapore and Malaysia on the costs and benefits to less-developed countries of multinational firm investment in an export-ori~nted manufacturing industry, electronics Ellen M. Raffertv, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, for research in Indonesia on the acquisition of a national language, Indonesian, by East Javanese villagers 25
Andrew F. Toth, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Indonesia on modal practice in Balinese instrumental music LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN AREA
The awards were made by the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for the Latin America and Caribbean Program-Robert A. Potash (chairman), Albert R. Berry, Alejandro Portes, Joyce Riegelhaupt, and Riordan Roet-tat a meeting on February 14-15, 1975. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee--Ralph Bolton, Jane Jaquette, Marta Morello-Frosch, Janice Perlman, Ronald D. Sousa, and John D. Wirth.
Research Fellowships: United States Rolando Alum, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, U ni versi ty of Pittsburgh, for' research in the Dominican Republic on varieties of conflict resolution: behavioral options used by plantation workers George Reid Andrews, Ph.D. candidate in Latin American history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Argentina on the black community in Buenos Aires, 1800-1870 Deborah J. Barndt, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Michigan State University, for research in Peru and/or Uruguay on nonverbal indicators of power relationships Paul Beckerman, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Princeton University, for research in Brazil on index-linking Ann L. Craig, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Mexico on the impact of generational political socialization on citizen-government relations Carmen D. Deere, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Peru on the division of labor by sex in subsistence production on minifundia Darna L. Dufour, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State Universi路ty of New York, Binghamton, for research in Colombia on household variability in energy flow in a population of tropical forest hunters Philip R. Fletcher, Ph.D. candidate in education, Stanford University, for research in Brazil on adult basic education and social mobilization Evelyn J. Jacob, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Puerto Rico on culture, children's activities, and cognition John R. Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in language and literature, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on Macunaima literature and film Catherine LeGrand, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Colombia on the formation of rural society in northern Tolima, 1880-1930 Michael Meltzer, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, San Diego, for research in Mexico on sociocultural determinants of psychosocial withdrawal among the aged Francisco Scarano, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for -research in Puerto Rico on the sugar economy, 1815-1898 Marianne Schmink, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on variability and choice in female social roles in Minas Gerais Evelvne H. Stephens, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Peru on the functioning and social and political consequences of the reforms in 26
industrial organization introduced by the government since 1970 Joseph E. Sweigart, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on the coffee commission agent of Rio de Janeiro as a critical linkage in an expanding world economy, 1830-1910 Thomas J. Trebat, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Vanderbilt University, for research in Brazil on stabilization policy and the changing role of the state Ralph C. Waddey, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, University of Illinois, for research in Brazil on the codification of Afro-Bahian capoeim and its social context Eugene L. Wiemers, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on the economic and social history of Cordoba, Veracruz, 1821-1876
Research Fellowships: United Kingdom Thomas Cassidy, D. Phil. candidate in history, Christ's College, Cambr.idge, for research in Mexico on land ownership and use in Oaxaca, 1820-1910 Brian McBeth, D. Phil. candidate in economics and politics, Oxford University, for research in Venezuela on Juan Vicente Gomez and the oil companies Michael Mullaney, D. Phil. candidate in sociology, Essex University, for research in Argentina on the role of the Socialist Party in the political development of the urban labor movement, 1930-1943 Malcolm Pearce, D. Phil. candidate in history, Liverpool University, for research in Brazil on the development of the Brazilian armed forces and their relations to changing social, economic, and political systems, 1889-1930 Brian Pratt, D. Phil. candidate in political science, Centre of Latin American Studies, Cambridge University, for research in Peru on the political and economic relationship between the United States and Peru, 1960-1975 Reinhard Skinner, D. Phil. candidate in sociology, Cambridge University, for research in Peru on government and urban policy since 1968 Hilary Sommerlad, D. Phil. candidate in international politics, Universi1ty of York, for research in Peru on the effects of the Pacific War, 1879-1884, on the development of Peruvian economy and society
Research Fellowships: Canada Louise Binette, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University of Montreal, for Spanish language training at the Francisco Marroquin Linguistic Project, Antigua, Guatemala, and graduate study at the Universi,ty of Montreal, including Latin American studies Bernard Cloutier, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University of Montreal, for preliminary thesis research and language training in Peru, and graduate study at the Universi.ty of Montreal, including Latin American studies Isabelle Gobeil, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University of Laval, for preliminary thesis research in Venezuela Claudette Larouche, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University of Montreal, for preliminary thesis research and language training in Peru, and graduate study at the University of Montreal, including Latin American studies Celine Morin, M.A. candidate in sociology, University of Laval, for preliminary thesis research in Cuba, and graduate study at the University of Laval, including Latin American studies Laurie Nock, M.A. candidate in anthropology, Universi1ty of Calgary, for graduate study at the University of Calgary, including Latin American studies Nancy Thede, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University VOLUME
of Montreal, for field research in Peru for the Master's thesis Louis Toupin, M.A. candidate in political science, University of Quebec at Montreal, for Spanish language training at the Francisco Marroquin Linguistic Project, Antigua, Guatemala, and graduate study at the University of Quebec at Montreal, including Latin American studies NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
The awards were made by the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for the Near and Middle East Program -Nur O. Yalman (chairman), Jerome W. Clinton, R. Stephen Humphreys, ยงerif Mardin, and Karen Kay Petersen -at a meeting on March 16, 1975. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Elbaki Hermassi, Norman A. Stillman, and Marvin G. Weinbaum. David Joseph Biale, Ph.D. candidate in Jewish histo~y, University of California, Los Angeles, for research In Israel on the revision of Jewish historiography in the 20th century David Brooks, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton, for language training and research in Morocco and France on the social effects of Berber-speaking Moroccan wage laborers' migration to European industrial centers Robert Daniel Hoberman, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of Chicago, for research in Israel on modern Aramaic as spoken by immigrants from Iraqui Kurdistan Marie Thourson Jones, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Princeton University, for research in Tunisia on government policy on, and public response to education and family planning programs Justin Andrew McCarthy, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Turkey, France, and England on the population of Turkey in the 19th century Marguerita Dianne Ragsdale, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, University of Virginia, for disciplinary training in England and research in Egypt on Egypt's relations with the Arab nations of the Persian Gulf and the implications of its policies for world politics Margaret Price Wilder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for language training and research in Tunisia and France on the effects of migration from the island of Djerba to the Tunisian mainland WESTERN EUROPE
The awards were made by the Western Europe Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee-Val Lorwin (chairman), Jean Blondel, Jerald Hage, Donald R. Hodgman, and Joseph LaPalombara-at its meeting on March 1415, 1975. It had been assisted by the Screening CommitteeMichael Edelstein, Maurice Garnier, Harvey Hornstein. John M. Quigley, Rayna R. Reiter, and Joan W. Scott. Christian J. Adjemian, Ph.D. candidate in Romance linguistics, University of Washington, for research in France on the discourse function of French with reference to grammatical structure, intonational contour, and social context Eric L. Almquist, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Boston JUNE
University, for research in Ireland on domestic industries and rural Irish society, County Mayo, 1750-1974 Lanny G. Berry, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England on black immigrant parents from the Caribbean and the adjustment of their children in the English educational system Alice G. Bier, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for research in Spain on the impact of immigration on the socioeconomic aevelopment of towns near large industrial centers Ellwood B. Carter, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Chicago, for research in England on interethnic patterns of ambiguity and deception Judith A. Chubb, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Italy on dual labor markets and the political participation of the urban poor in a southern Italian town Patricia W. Crowe, Ph. D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Austria on social net~orks at three levels of urbanization in an Alpine regIOn Jo Dunning, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Davis, for research in France on graduates of the Ecole normale superieure de Sevres, 1880-1930 Warren H. Fishbein, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in England on social contracts and trade union politics Lisa B. Gr6ger, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in France on agricultural development and social change Donald J. Harvey, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, University of Texas at Austin, for research in England on a psychohistorical study of T. E. Lawrence William J. Hausman, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, for research in England on public policy and the supply of coal to London, 1700-1770 Joseph J. Houska, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Austria and the Netherlands on the political consequences of the decline of subcultural groups James H. Jackson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota, for research in West Germany on family size and household structure in the Ruhr Valley, 18401890 Michael Jerison, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research in France on general equilibrium models with noncompetitive agents Alison D. Klairmont, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in France on medicine and the medical profession in the sixteenth century Joel Krieger, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in England on wage structure~ in the British coal industry Maureen J. McConaghy, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Sweden on the learning of sex roles Gary G. Meyers, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in France on political culture in Villeneuve Eric A. Peterson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Sweden on the incorporation of interest groups into policy-making processes Diana O. Pinto, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in France and Italy on the influence of American social science on the growth of French and Italian sociology, 1945-1970 27
Janet R. Potash, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale -University, for research in France on the foundling problem, 18111871 John F. Romer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Belgium on migration and a working class community, 1846-1880 Charles F . Sabel, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in West Germany on Mitbestimmung and the responsibility of German trade unions Rose-Mary Schouten, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Southern Methodist University, for research in France on the impact of tourism in a village in southern France Duane A. Siler, Ph.D. candidate in history, Duke University, for research in England on insanity and the insane in late nineteenth-century English society Steven B. Webb, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in West Germany on effective tariff protection in the German Empire, 1879-1914 Frederick O. Yohn, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Princeton University, for research in France on the structural channels of French monetary policy John H. Zammito, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in West Germany on the sociology of the intelligentsia in Berlin, 1909-1930
Modern Japanese Organization and Decision-Making, edited by Ezra F. Vogel. Product of a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies held on MaUl, Hawaii, January 5-10, 1973. Berkeley: University of California Press, July 1975, 340 pages. Cloth, $15.00; paper, $4.95. This is the first in a series of five volumes to be published by the University of California Press. Each volume is based upon a conference attended by Japanese and foreign scholars; the purpose of each conference was to increase scholarly knowledge of Japanese society by enabling Japanese and foreign scholars to collaborate and to criticize each other's work. The conferences were sponsored by the Committee on Japanese Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, with funds provided by the Ford Foundation. The papers in the Vogel volume attempt to explain the major features of modern Japanese organization that have played a central role in Japan's extraordinarily rapid economic development.
BOARD PASSES RESOLUTION IN HONOR OF ELEANOR ISBEll founded Items in 1947 and soon made it an indispensable publication, whose every issue through that of December 1974 she meticulously, imaginatively, and anonymously edited; who has at all times been both the memory and the conscience of the Council; and who, in countless other ways, has enabled the Council both to function effectively during these tumultuous decades and to be an intellectually exciting place to work and to visit;
The following resolution, honoring Eleanor C. Isbell of the Counci l staff on the occasion of her retirement from the Council, was unanimously passed at the biannual meeting of the board of directors, March 21 , 1975: WHEREAS, our collea~ue Eleanor C. Isbell, who joined the staff of the CouncIl in the yesteryear of 1940, has reached the stage in the life cycle when even social scientists must turn over their professional responsibilities to others; and
BE IT RESOLVED, that this board of directors, speaking both for itself and for many past and all future generations of social scientists, expresses by word and deed its gratitude, respect, admiration, and affection for our friend and colleague and its very best wishes for the decades to come.
WHEREAS, this board of directors seeks appropriate words with which to express its deep appreciation to the sociologist-demographer who has written, rewritten, ghostwritten, edited. scrutinized, or otherwise improved every resolu tion placed before this board since she joined the Council-save only this one; who has prepared, edited, and preserved the agenda and the minutes of this board as well as those of the Committee on Problems and Policy; who has compiled and edited year after year the Annual Reports of the Council, which have always been scrupulously accurate and informative; who
Eleanor Isbell was presented with a printed and framed copy of the resolution, signed by Leon Lipson, chairman of the board; Gardner Lindzey, chairman, Executive Committee; and William H. Sewell, chainnan, Committee on Problems and Policy.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605
Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1975:
WILUAM J . BAUMOL, BRIAN J.
L. BERRY, ALLAN G. BOGUE, LAWRENCE A. CREMIN, LEON EISENBERG, LEON D . EpSTEIN, RICHARD
F. FENNO, JR., EDWARD E. JONES, HAROLD H. KELLEY, LAWRENCE R. KLEIN, WILLIAM H . KRUSKAL, CHARLES E. LINDBLOM, GARDNER LINDZEY, LEON UPSON, CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, HERBERT MCCLOSKY, SALLY FALK MOORE, MURRAY G. MURPHEY, GUY H. ORCUTT, JOHN W . PRATT, ALICE S. ROSSI, PEGGY R. SANDAY, ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, ELLIOTT P. SKINNER, JANET T. SPENCE, KARL E. TAEUBER, JOHN M. THOMPSON I ROBERT E. WARD, CHARLES V. WILLIE, HARRIET ZUCKERMAN
Officers and Staff:
ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON,
DAVID JENNESS, DAVID L. SILLS,
ROBERT A. GATES, LOUIS WOLF GOODMAN, PATRICK G. MADDOX, ROWLAND DAVID SEIDMAN, DAVID
RONALD P. ABELES, JUDITH FIELD,
L. MITCHELL, JR., AuCE L. MORTON, ROBERT PARKE, SUSAN J. PHARR,
L. SZANTON, ROXANN A. VAN DUSEN ; MARTHA W . FORMAN, Acting Assistant Treasurer, CATHERJNE V. RONNAN, Financial
NANCY L . CARMICHAEL,