SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 JUNE 1970 230 PARK AVENUEÂˇ NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017
GEOGRAPHY AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE: EXCERPTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE GEOGRAPHY PANEL OF THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES SURVEY * selected by Edward
have long been concerned with providing accurate descriptions and explanations of man's spatial organization of his environment. In both regional and topical studies, considerable emphasis has been placed upon map analysis, both to portray complex spatial patterns and processes in a simplified fashion and to examine the manner in which they coincide with each other. Earlier work in agricultural geography examined relationships between the patterns shown on agricultural land-use maps and such physical patterns as landforms and soil. Later studies greatly expanded the number and nature of the variables considered. Patterns of settlement, transportation, voting behavior, social attitudes, and a variety of other measures of human activity were examined and compared at different geographic scales. An example of the study of spatial patterns is the urban geographer's work on the interrelation between land values, population densities, and distance from the center of the city. Maps of land values have consistently shown a decline with distance from the central business district. A study by Knos shows a typical decline of land values in relation to distance from a central business GEOGRAPHERS
â€˘ These selections are reprinted (with minor changes) by permission of the publisher from GeograPhy, edited by Edward J. Taaffe (a Spectrum Book copyright by Prentice-Hall, Inc., and published on May 15, 1970). The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey was jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council and the Social Science Research Council and conducted by a central planning committee whose members were chairmen and cochairmen of panels in various social science fields. The report of the Geography Panel is the fourth panel report published (see page 24 infra).
district in Topeka, Kansas. l The extraordinary steepness of this decline illustrates the high value placed on central locations in American cities. As in many other metropolitan areas of the United States, the land value surface can be approximated by postulating that values decline exponentially with distance from the central business district. More general descriptive equations were developed to express not only the relation between land values and distance, but other important variables such as proximity to major thoroughfares, proximity to smaller secondary nodes of commercial activity in the city, and location within different socioeconomic areas of the city. The variation of such relationships with time has been illustrated by studies of the changes in land value surfaces in Chicago. In 1910 there was a close relationship between land values and distance from the central business district, as well as from the elevated railway lines. In succeeding decades both land-value and population-density slopes tended to flatten out. 2 In 1960 there was no longer a consistent decline in land values in all directions from the central business district. s Low land values were concentrated in the western and southern parts of the city, showing the increasingly strong influence of such factors as racial composition 1 Duane S. Knos, The Distribution of Land Values in Topeka, Kansas, University of Kansas, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, May 1962, especially Figures 1-5. 2 Brian J. L. Berry, Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967, Figure 6.5. 3 Maurice Yeates, "Some Factors Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Chicago Land Values, 1910-1960," Economic Geography, 41(1):57-70 (1965), Figures I, 2.
and the provision of urban amenities. These factors. in turn. had different effects at different distances as well as in the different radial sectors leading from the center of the city. Studies of distance-decay functions of land values and population densities are currently being expanded in an attempt to formulate more precisely their complex interrelationships with other factors. They are also being incorporated into cross-cultural investigations. where still further complications are being discovered. Brush, for example, shows population-density gradients for Indian cities which reflect such phenomena as dual gradients in cities with strong colonial origins or more dispersed populations in some new, planned cities.4 As the relation between distance, land values, population density, and other features becomes clearer. it should be possible to isolate more precisely the effects of certain changes. For example, the impact a new expressway will have on population, land values. and the resulting tax base can be anticipated more effectively. The negative effects of atmospheric pollution become clearer as one compares maps of areas most affected by pollution with maps that show where land values fall below the usual decline with distance, corrected for amenities and other factors. These effects, as well as those of changing population composition or new housing projects, form useful bases for formulating or modifying urban development policies. URBAN STUDIES Urban problems have long been a major area for geographic research. Urban studies were published by British and German geographers before the turn of the century, and by French, Swedish, and American geographers before World War I. Since World War II there has been an intensification of both research and educational activity in urban geography. Systems of Cities. The spatial organization of society is reflected in the arrangements of systems of cities as they have developed in regions, nations, and other areal units. Geographers have studied these urban patterns and the processes in their development at both the theoretical and the empirical level. One important theme is the spatial pattern of urban places according to their size. functions, and the linkages among them. Regularities in the size and number of settlements in a region have been described by equations that relate urban population and urban rank. Central-place theory and its derivatives deal with patterns of urban size, spacing, function, and tributary 4 John Brush, "Spatial Patterns of Population in Indian Cities,"' GeograjJhical Review, 58(3):362-392 (1968). Figure 3.
areas. The original impetus for much of this wCirk came from the study of southern Germany in 1933. by W . Christaller, who developed a general deductive theory to describe the size, number. and distribution of towns. U Continued map analysis of settlement patterns made it clear that there are certain regularities in the number and spacing of centers. There tends to be a nested hierarchy of centers, with a group of villages tributary to a town; a group of towns tributary to a city; a group of cities tributary to a larger metropolitan center. Characteristic clusterings of functions within villages. towns, and cities have been identified. Examples of village-, town-, and city-level functions are shown on Berry's maps of western Iowa. 6 In empirical studies both the assumptions and the implications of the Christaller model have been subjected to critical testing and modifications. In the early 1960's studies were made in the United States and other parts of the world that examine relationships between four closely related characteristics of these urban systems: size of center, spacing between centers, functions found in centers, and tributary area of centers. These have been expressed relatively precisely and have been found to be reasonably similar and predictable in areas of given densities and socioeconomic characteristics. More recently, attempts have been made to incorporate these relationships into the framework of general systems theory. A second theme in the study of groups of cities has been spatial processes. Recent spatial-process studies have dealt with many topics-migration flows, diffusion of innovations, and the increased concentration of growth on the largest centers. An understanding of the ways in which cities are connected into a system is clearly essential to an understanding of migration. The migration between towns. for example. is much heavier than the rural-to-urban flow; the different levels of the urban hierarchy are associated with a multiple-stage migration process; and commuting is becoming a substitute for migration as growing job centers reach out 30 miles or more to rural townships and small towns with inadequate local employment. The Monte Carlo simulation models used by Torsten Hagerstrand and other Swedish geographers in their early study of migration and of the diffusion of innovation had considerable impact on U.S. geography during the late 1950's and early 1960's, and the models were applied to a variety of empirical studies including the diffusion of street railways among U.S. cities. the spread and growth of urban centers in a colonizing area, the G See Barry J. Gamer, "Models of Urban Geography and Settlement Location," Chapter 9 in Richard J. Chorley and Peter Haggett, eds., Models in Geography, London: Methuen &: Co. Ltd., 1967, pp. 30!HI60. o Op. cit., Figures 1.9b, 1.9d. and 1.9f.
evolution of central-place systems, inter- and intra-urban migration patterns, and the growth of transportation networks. As the empirical studies progressed, the relatively simple original model was modified correspondingly. The distance effect was broadened to include economic and social distance as well as distance through a multi-level hierarchy; barrier effects were treated separately both in the abstract as reflective, absorbing, and permeable barriers, and in specific manifestations such as physical barriers, political boundaries, and social resistances. There was a growing interest in behavioral approaches to geography in the late 1960's, and studies of migration and diffusion were increasingly affected by the work of psychologists and sociologists studying similar problems. The process of urban growth has received considerable attention because of work dealing with the ways in which systems of cities have developed. Studies of the evolution through time of urban hierarchies have shown a tendency for centers to decline relative to centers at the next higher level in the system. With improved highways and increased mobility, towns have tended to take over functions of villages, cities to take over functions of towns, and large metropolitan centers have tended to increase their dominance over surrounding systems of smaller centers. There is evidence that a similar process is at work among the metropolitan areas themselves. The country's air-passenger traffic, for example, is dominated by a relatively few metropolitan centers. In the eastern zone, air-passenger traffic is dominated by New York or by cities such as Chicago, Atlanta, and others which, in tum, are dominated by New York. Cities in the western zone are dominated by Los Angeles and San Francisco. Between the two, a smaller zone focuses on Dallas and Houston. Studies through time indicate a small but remarkably consistent increase in the percentage share of New York and Los Angeles in the air traffic of all metropolitan areas. Studies that show the increasing dominance of large centers have reinforced the "growth pole" ideas used by economists, planners, and geographers, in which it is postulated that economic growth does not take place evenly over area but tends to be concentrated at a particular center or group of centers that expand more rapidly than surrounding areas. As the spatial economy develops, these centers tend to accelerate and widen the gap between them and the surrounding areas. The Metropolis as a System. Studies of the internal spatial organization of metropolitan areas have been similar to the studies of groups of cities in that they have dealt with comparable themes and have been concerned with the processes leading to spatial patterns and, more recently, with behavior in space. JUNE
Spatial patterns within the metropolis have been studied in detail by geographers and sociologists. Early morphological studies in the 1920's and 1930's occasioned much debate over the relative merits of three ways of describing the pattern of a city's growth: the concentric-zone theory, the axial or sector theory, and the multiple-nuclei theory. Some recent factorial ecology studies have indicated that the three models may be combined with some of the social-area dimensions developed by urban sociologists to form separate components of the total socioeconomic structure of city neighborhoods. Economic status seems to be distributed in sectors of high-, lower-, and middle-income neighborhoods radiating from the center of the city. Family status (fertility, type of income, etc.) tends generally to vary concentrically from the center of the city. Ethnic status tends to form clusters in different parts of the city. The study of population density and land values has resulted in the modification of distance-decay functions that have been rendered as two-dimensional surfaces, and related to both urban rent theory and information theory. The process of urban growth has also been a subject of continuing interest in intra-urban study. Historical studies of the growth of cities have been appearing in geographic journals since the tum of the century. Jean Gottman's study in the 1950's (in which he first identified the highly urbanized eastern seaboard area as "megalopolis") dealt with the tendency toward intermetropolitan coalescence as the suburbs of the major centers grew toward each other.T Urban growth processes have also been studied for particular types of land use and for certain urban subsystems. It has been shown that the spatial pattern of commercial centers undergoes drastic change as the metropolitan population continues to move outward. s The resulting problem of dislocation for small business has recently been studied separately for a selected group of large cities. The black ghetto has been ftudied as a separate subsystem in the city both in terms of its internal spatial patterns and its own growth process. Studies of commercial blight revealed significant differences both in hierarchical structure and in reaction to change in black commercial districts. The emphasis on behavior in the study of intra-urban growth processes is also reflected in other recent studies that deal with intra-urban migration, consumer-shopping behavior, and perceptions of neighborhood areas. Variations in the perception of urban space are well exemplified by some of David Lowenthal's work. Different 'i
Jean Gottman, Megalopolis: The Urbaniud Northeastern Seaboard
0/ the United States, New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1961. 8 James Simmons, The Changing Pattern 0/ Retail Location, University of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper No. 92, 1964.
groups of students followed carefully selected walks through unfamiliar parts of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and then responded to semantic differential and other tests about their impressions of what they had experienced. Preliminary results indicate sharp contrasts in the appreciation of the same environment between students of landscape architecture and those in English literature. Such variations in perception of action spaces are also of value in studies of intra-urban travel and residential mobility. Political behavior has been receiving more attention from urban geographers. Voting behavior, for example, has been studied for the effects of acquaintance circles, city-to-suburb migration, spatial contagion, and group identifications at varying levels. An interesting example of a behavioral and political approach to the study of urban spatial organization is a study being carried on in Philadelphia by Julian Wolpert of the location decision-making process involved in urban redevelopment. Since most urban redevelopment, such as the building of a new expressway, involves a spatially unequal distribution of benefits as opposed to costs, certain groups will be detrimentally affected by proposed changes. Wolpert postulates the greater participation by potentially impacted groups in such decision making and suggests a sequence of game-theoretic structures as an initial step in the development of a theory of locational strategy. The above examples represent only a few of the ways in which the research interests of the geographer have converged with those of the urban sociologist, engineer, city planner, regional scientist, and urban economist in studying the internal spatial organization of the city. Studies of the urban economy have prompted a common interest in city and regional input-output studies, multiplier effects, and locational patterns among geographers, urban economists, regional scientists, and planners; studies of urban transportation networks and related land-use patterns have been carried on by geographers, economists, engineers, and planners, and some of this interest is now focused in attempts to develop land-use forecasting models for urban areas ; central business districts, urban fringes, and individual types of land uses have also been investigated by geographers, urban sociologists, and city planners.
Cross-cultural Urban Studies. Comparative or crosscultural urban studies represent a particularly promising field for expanded work as new approaches to urban geography begin to proliferate. As each of the ideas or models mentioned in this brief summary is applied to cities or systems of cities in different regions and cultures, it provides useful insights both into the nature of the model and its assumptions, and into the nature of the cultural context in question. Different value systems and different social organizations produce significantly differing spatial systems. Further studies by urban and regional geographers are needed to provide better understanding of the effects of cultural differentiation on the range and nature of variation in the process of urbanization and on the applicability of Western technology in different parts of the world. SUMMARY COMMENTS The brief sketches and surveys chosen for discussion by the members of the Geography Panel provide a few glimpses of the diversity of contemporary geographic research. In addition to the predominantly urban studies excerpted above, the Panel surveyed the fields of cultural geography, locational analysis, and environmental behavior. The Panel believed that the geographer's concern with spatial organization particularly involves him in problems of the city, of regional development, and of environmental control. In the city, he studies changing popUlation patterns, expanding ghettos, and the increasing reach of the great metropolitan areas. In the region, he studies changing accessibility and circulation patterns; the rise and decline of large, medium, and small centers; and the spread of people and ideas from place to place. He examines man's own perception of his environment and suggests ways of organizing and preserving wilderness and other natural resources as well as ways of coping with flood, drought, and other natural hazards. Closer liaison between geographers and other disciplines, and deeper mutual understanding are essential to any intensified efforts to deal with these problems. Areas of apparent overlap should be regarded as areas of mutually reinforcing investigation in which emerging policy recommendations will have been critically screened by scholars of different orientations.
NOTES ON THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON HUMAN RESOURCES AND ADVANCED EDUCATION by Elbridge Sibley THE COMMISSION on Human Resources and Advanced Education was appointed by the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils in 1963 and discharged in 1969. 1 Both its mandate and its attitude toward the subjects of its concern are succinctly implied in the opening sentence of its recently published report: "How the nation develops and utilizes its human resources is determined by millions of individual decisions, each made for quite personal reasons." 2 In this observation and the affirmation that freedom to choose one's educational and vocational goals is a basic characteristic of a free society, the Commission's approach differs notably from that of numerous studies in which "manpower" has been treated as a faceless commodity to be processed, distributed, purchased, and used for purposes determined by some external agency, much in the manner of inanimate goods. The Commission's mandate to its research staff called for disinterested studies that should provide a better basis for informed decisions by makers of educational policy and for more rational exercise of individuals' freedom of choice. In the words of the report, "If the Commission staff had been able to do all they would have liked to do, they would have analyzed individually and in their interrelations half a dozen different aspects of the system and its operation: 1 Members of the Commission were Dae1 WolHe, American Association for the Advancement of Science (chairman); M. H. Trytten, National Research Council (vice-chairman); Robert D. Calkins, University of California, Santa Cruz; Allan M. Cartter, New York University; Henry Chauncey, Educational Testing Service; Kenneth S. Pitzer, Stanford University; Gordon N. Ray, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation; John W. Riley, Jr., Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States; Richard Schlatter, Rutgers University; Elbridge Sibley, Social Science Research Council; Gordon B. Turner, American Council of Learned Societies; and Frederick T . Wall, now of the American Chemical Society. The Commission's research staff comprised John K. Folger, now of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (director); Helen S. Astin, now of the Bureau of Social Science Research; and Alan E. Bayer, now of the American Council on Education, throughout the period of study. Serving as consultants or staff for shorter periods were Donald S. Bridgman, formerly of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company; W. Lee Hansen of the University of Wisconsin; A. G. Holtmann, now of Florida State University; Simon Marcson of Rutgers University; and Dee Burton, Jill Smith, and David Yochim, research assistants. 2 "Introduction: An Overview by Members of the Commission," in John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer, Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, March 1970, page xv.
"The educational processes employed to prepare young men and women for work in each of the professional and specialized fields that call for advanced education; "The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the output of the educational system; "The effectiveness with which men and women with specialized abilities and education are utilized in the economic, educational, artistic, religious, and other spheres of national life; "Present or prospective mismatches between the numbers and characteristics of persons prepared to do each major kind of work and the requirements or needs for such persons; "Wastes, inequities, and other faults in the system; "The variety of governmental and other policy-making arrangements that influence the education and utilization of specialized and professional manpower." 8 Recognizing the impossibility of accomplishing all this with the available time and resources, the staff investigated selectively some salient features. Drawing where possible on the data and findings of other agencies, the staff compiled projections of potential supply and demand for personnel. On the assumption that the decades immediately ahead will witness continuing growth of total numbers of advanced degrees earned and of numbers of professional and specialized workers to be employed, projections of current trends indicate potentially quite different supply-demand relationships in particular fields. In engineering,4Iaw, medicine, nursing, and social work, the projected numbers of openings exceed the projected numbers of graduates for the next decade or two; in the creative arts a continuing oversupply of aspirants for available employment is projected. Combining projections of school and college enrollments with those of graduates qualified to teach, and taking account of prospective curtailment of investments in research, the staff predicts a growing surplus of newly qualified elementary and secondary school teachers in the 1970's, and a more than adequate supply of Ph.D.'s for college and university Page xvii. â€˘ The well-known fact that projection of past trends is not equivalent to prophecy has already been dramatically exemplified in the case of engineers. Developments in recent months have led to extensive layoffs of engineers, especially in the aerospace industries, and responsible members of the engineering profession now foresee a serious lack of employment opportunities for 1970 graduates, particularly for those receiving advanced degrees. 8
faculties. Possible consequences suggested are that more young women may enter such fields as nursing and social work; that persons with less than doctoral training will find fewer academic positions open to them; that increasing numbers of Ph.D.'s will be employed in junior colleges, in industry, in government, and in nonprofit organizations; and that it may become possible to improve the quality of graduate education as the pressure for numbers lessens. Despite these estimates, it is concluded that "Because the structure of demand in both teaching and research is highly flexible, we will probably not need to develop new sources of employment for Ph.D.'s before 1985." ~ In the social sciences (including psychology), it is estimated that between 36,000 and 38,000 Ph.D.'s were actively employed in the United States in 1965, and that about 19,000 and 33,000 new Ph.D.'s will become available for employment in the five-year periods 1966-70 and 1971-75, respectively, if recent trends continue. About three fifths are currently employed in colleges and universities.6 The projections show a peak in the demand for social science teachers in four-year colleges and universities in the quinquennium 1966-70, followed by a decline in the following five years, when the number of new Ph.D.'s available will almost exactly match the projected demand. At the same time, it is predicted that M.A. graduates will no longer find many positions open to them on four-year college faculties. By some time between 1980 and 1985, the projected demand for social science teachers with Ph.D. degrees will have been saturated. even assuming a 15 percent reduction of the prevailing student-teacher ratio.T Under the heading of Policy Issues, the Commission takes note first of persistent though somewhat diminishing socioeconomic obstacles in the road to higher education. The annual number of college graduates would be almost doubled if the proportion of children completing college in all socioeconomic strata of the population were brought up to the present rate for children in the top fifth of the nation's homes. Larger budgets for schools and colleges would not by themselves bring this about; intellectual starvation in childhood, apathy, and lack of motivation doom large numbers of children both black and white to low educational achievement and atrophy of their latent abilities. Economic, social, and educational actions are all needed. Another essential condition for the optimum development and use of talent in a society committed to individual freedom is occupational mobility. Social and &
Page 74. Chapter lI. passim. Page 66.
technological changes can rapidly make obsolete particular skills; schools and colleges should aim to educate persons who will be capable of continuing to move to new jobs which call for more than rule-of-thumb application of textbook knowledge. 8 The body of the volume under review comprises staff studies directed by John K. Folger with the assistance of Helen S. Astin and Alan E. Bayer. A brief review of the history and current status of national manpower studies in the United States is followed by a synopsis of recent and anticipated changes in the supply and demand for educated persons. To the question whether the recent more rapid expansion of our educational system will produce more graduates in the future than our economy and society will demand, the general answer is thought to be that the foreseeable future college graduates will have a preferred place in the job market. But it is quickly added that this answer is subject to reservations and qualifications. The projections of .future demand used in most of the studies assume a 4 percent annual rate of economic growth, and a continual upgrading of the educational levels of persons entering many occupations, especially those for which academic credentials have not been customarily required. Those occupations for which a degree has traditionally been prerequisite are expected to provide employment for a diminishing part of future cohorts of college graduates. There follow analyses of supply and demand for college teachers in the humanities and in the natural and social sciences; for research workers; and for seven selected occupational groups, namely, law, medicine, engineering, elementary and secondary school teaching, social welfare work, nursing, and the performing arts. A second section of the book presents quantitative and qualitative data on students passing through successive educational stages, traces trends in students' career plans, and their subsequent occupational mobility. One chapter is concerned with determinants of scientists' professional achievement and incomes. Section III concerns three special groups: women with doctoral degrees, children of disadvantaged socioeconomic origins, and the effects on the United States of international movements of students ("the brain gain"). The final section contains a chapter on Manpower Planning and Manpower Market Operations, and one on further needed research. Tables of basic data and methodological notes occupy 80 pages of appendices. 8 A notable feature of a conference recently held by the National Academy of Sciences was the recurrent complaint of directon of industrial laboratories that young Ph.D.'s on their staffs tend to resist involvement in any work except along the narrow lines of their doctoral training.
24, NUMBER 2
COMMITTEE BRIEFS EXCHANGES WITH ASIAN INSTITUTIONS John K. Fairbank (chairman), Albert Feuerwerker, Donald G. Gillin, Frederic Wakeman, C. Martin Wilbur; staff, Bryce Wood At the committee's meeting on February 12, three appointments were made under its special program of fellowships for advanced graduate students and young postdoctoral scholars for research on materials at the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taipei: Samuel Y. Kupper, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for Chinese language training and research on the political, economic, and social developments in Kiangsi Province in the period immediately following the revolution of 1911; Susanne Paul, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for Chinese language training and research on Western Christian ethics and values versus Confucian civilization in nineteenth-century China; Donald S. Sutton, Lecturer in History, Carnegie-Mellon University, for research on the Yunnan army, 1909-25, with special reference to the relations of its officer corps and the Kuomin tang. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE ECONOMIC HISTORY PROJECT (Joint with the Latin American Social Science Council) Joseph Grunwald (chairman), Roberto Cortes Conde, Isaac Kerstenetzky, Stanley R. Ross, Stanley J. Stein, Miguel Urrutia Montoya; staff, Bryce Wood Preparation of a critical bibliography and guide to sources of published and unpublished materials relating to the economic history of selected Latin American countries since 18S0 is well advanced under the direction of Roberto Cortes Conde and Stanley J. Stein. In an introductory essay in the projected volume they will synthesize the contributions of the following scholars who are evaluating and annotating materials on six countries: Argentina, Tulio Halperin, University of Oxford; Brazil, Nicia Villela Luz, University of Sao Paulo; Chile, Osvaldo Sunkel, University of Chile, and Carmen Cariola de Sunkel; Colombia, William P. McGreevey, University of California, Berkeley; Mexico, Enrique Florescano, College of Mexico; and Peru, Shane Hunt, Princeton University, and Pablo Macera, Universityof San Marcos. It is expected that between 500 and 600 sources will be described and annotated for each country. Emphasis is being given to discovery and listing of unpublished materials in governmental agencies such as ministries of agriculture, as well as to those in the archives of banks, railway companies, and other private organizations. The introductory essay will include descriptions of the colonial economy of each country as background for understanding the problems and types of growth observed since 18S0 in the several countries. A conference of conJUNE
tributors and consultants will be held late in the autumn for review of drafts of the various sections of the volume. LEARNING AND THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS: SUBCOMMITTEE ON COMPENSATORY EDUCATION Jerome Kagan (chairman), Edgar G. Epps, Robert D. Hess, Lloyd N. Morrisett, Francis H. Palmer, Manuel Ramirez III; staff, Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr., Miriam Zellner A conference held by the subcommittee on February 1-2 inquired into what is being evaluated and what ought to be evaluated in compensatory education programs. A preceding conference on October 23-24 had considered problems in the measurement of community and institutional change. From these exploratory conferences, the subcommittee concluded that in evaluations of compensatory education programs there has been a tendency to focus on changes in the child's performance on tests and to neglect changes in his self-perception and his motivational and attitudinal dispositions. There has also been less concern with assessing whether significant changes have occurred in the circumstances of children's education than with measuring "improvement" in children. The subcommittee believes evaluation should be focused on the effectiveness of a program in creating a learning environment which is part of and supportive of the child's community. Thus success would be reflected in the child's pride in himself and his ethnic group, his motivation to learn, and the development of his intellectual and creative potentials; and the benefits of an enhanced self-concept probably would not be limited to children but would extend to other members of the community, as the school's relations with it became more positive. To develop guidelines for assessing the effects of compensatory education programs, the subcommittee has organized three work groups. The first, on self-concept, will consider the child's self-perceptions, his feelings of control over his fate, his values, his attitudes toward school, and his expectations of success or failure. Edgar G. Epps is chairman of this work group; the other members are Edward J. Barnes, University of Pittsburgh; Bert R. Brown, Cornell University; Cedric Clark, Stanford University; Norman K. Denzin, University of California, Berkeley; Philip W. Jackson, University of Chicago; Uvaldo Palomares, Human Development Training Institute; and Diana Slaughter, Yale University. The second work group will examine the extent to which the values of the school reflect and show respect for the culture of the pupils and their parents, the rapport between the school and community, the skills valued in the curriculum, and parents' and teachers' expectations for the children. Manuel Ramirez III is chairman, and the other members are Rene Ahumada, University of Texas; Andrew Billingsley, University of California, Berkeley; Alfred 19
Castaneda, University of California, Riverside; Jack D. Forbes, University of California, Davis; Douglass R. Price-Williams, Rice University; William Shack, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle; and Orlando L. Taylor, Center for Applied Linguistics. The third group will focus on cognitive thinking and seek to analyze reasoning, memory, cognitive style, interpersonal cognition, fantasy, and direct manifestations of talent in fields such as music and art. Francis H. Palmer is chairman, and the other members are Donn Bailey, Pennsylvania State University; Thomas G. Bever, Rockefeller University; Ronald Parker, City University of New York; Edward Ponder, New York University; Atilano A. Valencia, Southwest Cooperative Laboratories, Albuquerque; and Michael A. Wallach, Duke University. As a general strategy in developing measures, emphasis will be placed on procedures that take account of the relation of the child to his environment. Learning, performance, attitudes, curiosity, etc. will not be thought of as characteristics which the child possesses independently of the setting in which they are manifested. How the child behaves in his environment will be assumed to provide more useful information about effects of a compensatory education program than his performance on standardized tests or in atypical testing situations. The work groups each plan to hold several two- or threeday meetings during the next year, and members of the groups may work between meetings on developing assessment procedures. At the end of the year the three groups will meet together to plan a report on their efforts.
MINORITY RESEARCH AWARDS Austin Ranney (chairman), Edgar G. Epps, James L. Gibbs, Jr., Walter L. Wallace; staff, Elbridge Sibley Since publication of the December issue of Items, 8 additional awards have been made under the special program of grants to assist the work of social scientists who are members of ethnic minority groups or research on problems of those groups in American society: to Leonard G. Bearking, Ed.D. candidate, University of New Mexico, predoctoral award for research for a dissertation on belief and disbelief systems of American Indian and Mexican American college students; James A. Harris, Sr., Economist, First National City Bank, New York City, for research on cost-benefit analysis; Martin C. Ijere, Associate Professor of Economics, Claremont Men's College, for research on black capitalism in Watts (Los Angeles); Basil Matthews, Professor of Sociology, Talladega College, for research on the nature and status of Black Studies programs; Walter C. McIntosh, Ed.D. candidate, Teachers College, Columbia University, predoctoral award for research and preparation of a dissertation on curriculum for black ghetto students; Jasper C. Register, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Kentucky, predoctoral award for work toward the degree; William R. Scott, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, predoctoral award for research for a dissertation in AfroAmerican history; and Hanes Walton, Jr., Associate Professor of Political Science, Savannah State College, for research on the "Black and Tan Republicans."
PERSONNEL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Norton Ginsburg (chairman), H. M. Blalock, Jr., Milton C. Cummings, Jr., John M. Darley, Lawrence E. Fouraker, Murray G. Murphey, and Laura Nader-on March 910 voted to offer 23 new appointments. Of the 23 awards 5 are predoctoral and 18 postdoctoral: Evangelos A. Afendras, Ph.D. in linguistics, Associate Director of Research, International Center for Research on Bilingualism, Laval University, for postdoctoral study at the University of Hawaii of geographic factors in language distribution Michael Bond, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Stanford University, for postdoctoral training at MiChigan State University in ecological psychology John W. Cell, Assistant Professor of History, Duke University, for postdoctoral training in anthropology at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Robert L. Cooper, Assistant Professor, Department of Special Education, Yeshiva University, for postdoctoral training at Stanford University in linguistics Phoebe Ellsworth Diebold, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Stanford University, for study at Stanford Law School 20
~it? special reference to psychological problems 01 JUrIsprudence Kurt W. Fischer, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Harvard University, for postdoctoral training in research on children's cognitive development Caroline S. Freeman, Ph.D. in political science, for postdoctoral training at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University in psycholinguistics in preparation for research on political socialization Lawrence J. Golicz, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Maine, for predoctoral training at the University of Wisconsin in urban sociology and related disciplines Susan B. Hanley, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese history, Yale University, for postdoctoral training in economics and statistics Arthur M. Kleinman, M.D., for postdoctoral training at Harvard University in the history and philosophical and social implications of anthropology, sociology, psychology, and psychiatry Ronald Lee, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for postdoctoral training at the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, in historical demography Milton G. Lodge, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa, for postdoctoral training at Harvard University in psychophysiology VOLUME
Martin Margolis, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for predoctoral training at Harvard University in sociology and related disciplines Thomas A. Metzger, Ph.D. in Chinese history, for postdoctoral legal training at Harvard Law School Robert D. Retherford, Acting Assistant Professor of Demography, University of California, Berkeley, for postdoctoral training at the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, in research methods John M. Roberts, Ph.D. candidate in history, University . of Chicago, for predoctoral training in community study and survey methods Charles R. Roll, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana University, for postdoctoral training in the history and philosophy of science John B. Sharpless, II, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for predoctoral training at the Universities of Michigan and Chicago in quantitative methods and urban history W. Phillips Shively, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for postdoctoral training at Dartmouth College in applied mathematics Karen W. Spalding, Assistant Professor of History, Rutgers University, Newark, for postdoctoral training in anthropology Roy Turner, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of British Columbia, for postdoctoral training at the University of Oxford in the analysis of social interaction in natural situations Nellie M. Varner, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan, for postdoctoral training at Harvard University in research methods James A. Walsh, Professor of Psychology and Statistics, Iowa State University, for advanced postdoctoral training at Stanford University in mathematics and statistical theory FACULTY RESEARCH GRANTS The Committee on Faculty Research Grants-Edward E. Jones (chairman), Theodore R. Anderson, Allan G. Bogue, Bernard S. Cohn, Everett C. Ladd, Jr., Peter N. Steams, and Jerome L. Stein-at its meeting on March 13-14 awarded 31 grants: James J. Barnes, Associate Professor of History, Wabash . College, for research in the United States on AngloAmerican copyright problems in the nineteenth century Richard D. Brown, Assistant Professor of History, Oberlin College, for research on political development and social change in Massachusetts, 1750-1830 Richard Maxwell Brown, Professor of History, College of William and Mary, for research on the history of vigilantism in the United States Gerhard Casper, Professor of Law and Political Science, University of Chicago, for research in Germany on the German Constitutional Court Arlene K. Daniels, Associate Professor of Sociology, San Francisco State College, for research on ethics and ethical codes in psychiatry James W. Fernandez, Professor of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, for research in Spain on social and cultural change in two ecologically different municipios JUNE
J. William Gillette, Associate Professor of History, Douglass College, Rutgers University, for research on federal policy and public opinion, 1870-77: the retreat from ReconstructIon Thomas F. Glick, Assistant Professor of History, University of Texas, for research in the United States and Spain on the comparative history of Islamic and Christian Spain, 711-1250 Herbert G. Gutman, Professor of History, University of Rochester, for research on the American Negro family and social structure, 1850-1910 Peter M. G. Harris, Associate Professor of Sociology, Howard University, for research in Washington, D.C. to test a general theory of cyclical social change Willard W. Hartup, Professor of Child Psychology, University of Minnesota, for research in the Netherlands and other European countries in developmental psychology and on university training programs in that field Paul W. Holland, Associate Professor of Statistics, Harvard University, for research on methods of analyzing sociometric data George Huppert, Assistant Professor of History, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, for research in France on French officer and magisterial classes in the sixteenth century Frank J. Kottke, Professor of Economics, Washington State University, for research on public policy with respect to disciplined oligopolies in the United States Karl A. Lamb, Associate Professor of Politics, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research on the politics and values of affluent technocrats Emmet Larkin, Associate Professor of British History, University of Chicago, for research in London, Dublin, and Rome on the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland, 1849-78 John H. M. Laslett, Associate Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in the United States and Britain on coal miners and politics, 1865-1940 Gerda Lerner, Faculty, American history, Sarah Lawrence College, for research on the social history of Negro women in the United States Dietrich Orlow, Associate Professor of History, Syracuse University, for research in Germany on the history of the Nazi Party, 1933-45 (renewal) Richard Polenberg, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University, for research on the impact of the Korean War on American politics Ralph Reisner, Professor of Law, University of Illinois, for research in Sweden on legal standards and procedures affecting mentally abnormal offenders Howard Rosenthal, Associate Professor of Industrial Administration and Political Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, for research in France on electoral coalitions in the Fourth Republic David Sabean, Lecturer in European Social History, University of East Anglia, for research in Germany on rural family and kinship structure, 1650-1870 Glendon Schubert, University Professor, Political Science, York University, Toronto, for research in Switzerland on decision making in its Federal Court 21
Samuel F. Scott, Assistant Professor of History, Wayne State University, for research in France on the role of the line army in the Revolution, 1788-92 Barbara Shapiro, Associate Professor of History, Pitzer College, for research in England on political ideology, 1620-1700 J. Diedrick Snoek, Associate Professor of Psychology, Smith College, for research on interaction processes and outcomes in "encounter groups" John E. Talbott, Assistant Professor of History, Princeton University, for research in France on the administrative history of French universities, 1860-1914 Richard T. Vann, Professor of History and Letters, Wesleyan University, for researah in England on the social and demographic history of an Oxfordshire parish Marina v. N. Whitman, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United Kingdom on economic sovereignty and openness Reiner T. Zuidema, Associate Professor of Anthro~logy, University of Illinois, for research on the SOCIal, religious, and ceremonial significance of Andean art GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES
Patrick D. Hanan, Professor of Chinese Literature, Harvard University, for a critical history of the Chinese short story Yen-p'ing Hao, Associate Professor of History, University of Tennessee, for research on capitalism in China's treaty ports, 1842-1911 Yu-Kung Kao, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University, for research on T'ang regulated verse Byong-kon Kim, Assistant Professor of Music, California State College, Los Angeles, for research on tonal organization in traditional Korean music Philip A. Kuhn, Associate Professor of Chinese History, University of Chicago, for research on local institutions and political change in China, 1890-1937 Ellen J. Laing, Assistant Professor of Art and Art History, Wayne State University, for research on the paintings. lives, and activities of artists in Suchou, 1600-50 Richard H. Minear, Assistant Professor of History, Ohio State University, for research on the reception of Western law in Japan, 1850-90 James R. Morita, Assistant Professor of Chinese and Japanese, University of Oregon, for research on Waseda bungaku the journal edited by Tsubouchi Shoyo Masatoshi Nagatomi, Professor of Buddhist Studies, Harvard University, for research on the history of Japanese Buddhism and on Buddhist logic Kenneth B. Pyle, Associate Professor of History, U niversity of Washington, for research on Japanese youth movements and nationalism, 1895-1937 Robert J. Smith, Professor of Anthropology, Cornell University, for research on ancestor worship in contemporary Japan Barbara J. Teters, Professor of Government, Iowa State University, for research on ideas of law and justice in Meiji tradition Wei-ming Tu, Assistant Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University, for research on Wang Yangming's formative years (1472-1509) Frederic ''''akeman. Associate PJofessor of History, University of California. Berkeley, for research on Ming loyalism in Ch'ing China George M. Wilson, Associate Professor of History, Indiana University, for research on the Meiji Restoration Silas H. L. Wu, Associate Professor of History, Boston College, for research on Yung-cheng Emperor's succession to the throne (1722) Tsing Yuan, Assistant Professor of History, Swarthmore College, for research on social and economic change in Kiangnam, China, ]520-1620 J
In addition to the grants listed in the March issue of Items, the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies has made the following 3 awards: Research grants Wolfgang A. Luchting, Associate Professor of Spanish and German, Washington State University, for research in Lima and Buenos Aires on the contemporary Peruvian novel Richard J. Walter, Associate Professor of History, Washington University, for research in Argentina on a history of the Socialist party, 1890-1930 Collaborative research grant Eulalia Maria Laymeyer Lobo. Visiting Professor of Latin American History, University of South Carolina, and Harold B. Johnson, Jr., Assistant Professor of History, University of Virginia, for research in Brazil on money, prices, and wages in Rio de Janeiro, 1763-1930
GRANTS FOR EAST ASIAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on East Asian Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies -Marius B. Jansen (chairman), James I. Crump, Jr., Donald C. Hellmann, Felix Moos, and Edwin G. Pulleyblank-at its meeting on February 14 awarded grants to 20 scholars under its program of grants for research in the humanities and social sciences relating to Japan, pre-1911 China (including Taiwan), and Korea:
GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES
James T. Araki, Professor of Japanese, University of Hawaii, for a study of eight major contemporary Japanese novelists PatrIcia M. Bartz, Visiting Lecturer on Geography, Seoul National University, for research on the geography of South Korea H. Byron Earhart, Associate Professor of Religion, Western Michigan University, for research on the new Japanese religions
Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies, its Subcommittee on Grants for Russian and Soviet Studies--Edward J. Brown (chairman), Clayton L. Dawson, Warren W. Eason, Stephen D. Kertesz, and Hans J. Rogger-and Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies--Irwin T. Sanders (chairman), William E. Har-
kins, George W. Hoffman, Paul L. Horecky, Andrzej Korbonski, J. M. Montias, Michael B. Petrovich, and Alexander M. Schenker-at meetings on March 7 and 20-21, respectively, awarded 33 grants for research: Eugene P. Banks, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Wake Forest University, for research on ecology and values in Yugoslav villages George Barany, Professor of History, University of Denver, for a political biography of Stephen Szechenyi Frederick C. Barghoorn, Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research on political dissent in the Soviet Union Samuel H. Baron, Professor of History, University of California, San Diego, for research on the Weber thesis and the failure of capitalist development in "Early Modern" Russia Elizabeth K. Beaujour, Assistant Professor, Russian Division, Hunter College, City University of New York, for research on the interrelation of French and Russian prose in the 1920's John C. Catford, Professor of Linguistics, University of Michigan, for research on phonetics of Caucasian languages Peter K. Christoff, Professor of History, San Francisco State College, for research on nineteenth-century Russian Slavophilism Anna M. Cienciala, Associate Professor of History, University of Kansas, for research on the Free City of Danzig and the aftermath of Versailles Stephen F. Cohen, Assistant Professor of Politics, Princeton University, for research on the Stalin Revolution Leslie Dienes, Acting Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Kansas, for research on industrial location and policy in underdeveloped regions of Hungary Evsey D. Domar, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on special problems in resource allocation in socialist countries Stephen P. Dunn, Director of Research, Highgate Road Social Science Research Station, Inc., Berkeley, California, for examination of current Soviet research on the sociopolitical structure of ancient Eastern states Milton Ehre, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Chicago, for research on the creative work and personality of Ivan Goncharov Zbigniew Golab, Professor of Slavic Linguistics, University of Chicago, for research on the Arumanian dialect of Krusevo Frederick Kellogg, Assistant Professor of History, University of Arizona, for research on Russo-Romanian relations, 1878-94 Paul W. Knoll, Assistant Professor of History, University of Southern California, for research on the University of Cracow and the Renaissance in Poland to 1470 Gregor Lazarcik, Professor of Economics, State University College at Geneseo, New York, for research on factor productivity of East European agriculture since 1945 Robert H. Legvold, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Tufts University, for research on Soviet policy towards France since 1958 Jaroslav J. S_ Mracek, Associate Professor of Music, San Diego State College, for research on Czech Rorate Chants and Mass of the Utraquist Church JUNE 1970
Brian T. O'Connell, Assistant Professor of East European History, University of Washington, for research on Croatian politics and political parties, 1914-18 Svetozar Pejovich, Associate Professor of Economics, Texas A&:M University, for research on the firm, monetary policy, and property rights in a decentralized socialIst state Jaroslaw Pelenski, Associate Professor of History, University of Iowa, for research on the contest between Muscovite Russia and Poland-Lithuania for the lands of Old Rus' (1450's-1580's) Alexander Rabinowitch, Associate Professor of History, Indiana University, for research on the Bolshevik Party in Petrograd from July 1917 through the October revolution Oliver H. Radkey, Professor of History, University of Texas, for research on the unknown civil war in Russia Harry K. Rosenthal, Assistant Professor of History, California State College, Los Angeles, for research on Germany's relations with Poland Norman E. Saul, Visiting Associate Professor of History, Northwestern University, for research on the Russian Baltic fleet, 1917 Stavro Skendi, Associate Professor of Balkan Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, for research on the Balkan peoples under the Ottomans, 1453-1839 Lawrence L. Stahlberger, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages, Stanford University, for research on the history of Blok's Verses about the Beautiful Lady Kirk H. Stone, Research Professor of Geography, University of Georgia, for research on primary geographic qualities of Finnish rural settling processes Zdenek L. Suda, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Pittsburgh, for research on disintegration of totalitarian control structures Rolf H. W. Theen, Associate Professor of Government, Iowa State University, for research on Jacobian tradition in Russian social thought Andrzej T. Wirth, Visiting Professor of Slavic and Dramatic Literature, Stanford University, for research on the Slavic and Western "theater of the absurd" Paul E. Zinner, Professor of Political Science, University of California, Davis, for research on aspects of political development in Czechoslovakia, 1967-69
GRANTS FOR STUDY OF EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES The Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, of the Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies, at a meeting on March 20-21 made 19 grants for study of the following languages: Bulgarian James E. Augerot, Assistant Professor of Slavic Linguistics, University of Washington Czech Michael K. Bourke, graduate student, Slavic languages, Brown University John H. Burbank, Jr., graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, Yale University Michael D. Fortescue, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, University of California, Berkeley
Hungarian Kenneth A. Megill, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Florida Polish Frank ]. Corliss, Jr., Assistant Professor of Slavic and Eastern Languages, Wayne State University Victor R. Greene, Associate Professor of History, Kansas State University James C. Miller, graduate student, history, Indiana University Romanian Nicholas Chiacu, Instructor in Romanian, School of Language Studies, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Department of State Mary J. S. Hallow, graduate student, economics, University of Pittsburgh Andrew C. Janos, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley Kenneth J owitt, Acting Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley
Serbo-Croatian A. Julia Alissandratos, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, University of Chicago James S. Elliott, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, University of Michigan Diane P. Flaherty, graduate student, economics, Columbia University Laura M. Gordon, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, Harvard University Patrick G. Morris, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Colorado Slovenian James F. Cradler, graduate student, Slavic linguistics, Cornell University Sloven ian and Macedonian Anthony M. Mlikotin, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Southern California
PUBLICATIONS The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee under the auspices of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., December 1969. 335 pages. $7.95. Geography, edited by Edward J. Taaffe. Report of the Geography Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., May 1970. 154 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paJ;ler, $2.45. Politzcal Science, edited by Heinz Eulau and James G. March. Report of the Political Science Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychology, edited by Kenneth E. Clark and George A. Miller. Report of the Psychology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1970. 157 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Sociology, edited by Neil]. Smelser and James A. Davis. Report of the Sociology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 187 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95.
Is the Business Cycle Obsolete1, edited by Martin Bronfenbrenner. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability in cooperation with the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, April 3-7, 1967. New York: John Wiley & Sons, December 1969. 580 pages. $12.50. Changing Characteristics of the Negm Population, by Daniel O. Price. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, February 1970. 267 pages. $2.75. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Testing, and Guidance, edited by Wayne H. Holtzman. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process and the College Entrance Examination Board Commission on Tests, October 21-22, 1968. New York: Harper & Row, August 1970.404 pages. $10.00. Family and Kinship in Chinese Society, edited by Maurice Freedman. Product of a conference sponsored by the Subcommittee on Research on Chinese Society, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, September 15-18, 1966. Stanford: Stanford University Press, March 1970. 286 pages. $7.95. Human Resow'ces and Highe,' Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, March 1970. 507 pages. $17.50.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230 PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017 Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, tor the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1970: WILUAM O. AYDELOTTE, X. FREEDMAN, WILUAM GORHAM,
DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, JAMES S. COLEMAN, EUZABETH CoLSON, LEE J. CRONBACH, PHI UP D. CURTIN, ZVI GRlUCHES, CHAUNCY D. HARRIS, SAMUEL P. HAYS, MATTHEW HOLDEN, JR., DELL HYMES, GARDNER
LINDZEY, LEoN LIPSON, GEOFFREY H. MOORE, JAMES N. MORGAN, FREDERICK MOSTELLER, AUSTIN RANNEY, ALBERT REES, HENRY W. RIECKEN. HERBERT A. SIMON, NEIL
H. SMITH, M. BREWSTER S~IITH,
E. TAEUBER, DAVID B. TRUMAN, ANDREW P. VAYDA, ROBERT
E. WARD, CHARLES V. WILUE
Officers and Staff:
HENRY W. RIECKEN,
Vice-President; ELBRIDGE SmLEY, BRYCE WOOD, Executive Associates; ELEANOR Staff Associates; STANLEY LEHMANN, MIRIAM ZELLNER, Consultants;
C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR., NORMAN W. STORER, DONALD S. SHOUP, CATHERINE V. RONNAN,