I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 23 . NUMBER 4 . DECEMBER 1969 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017
ttBASIC RESEARCH IN THE SCIENCES OF BEHAVIOR": ABRIDGEMENT OF A CHAPTER IN THE REPORT BY THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES -SURVEY COMMITTEE* SCIENCE has a dual function. It serves man's search for the tools he needs in order to cope with his environment; at the same time it satisfies his strong urge to explore and understand the world around him-an urge that in our time has taken man to the moon. Scientists, in justifying the claims they place on society for support of their work, quite understandably stress primarily the benefits that can be derived from the application of scientific knowledge to the problems of society. But it would misrepresent science as a whole and its human significance to put exclusive emphasis on application, and to ignore the curiosity and intellectual drive that provide a major part of the fascination of science for scientist and layman alike. Indeed man must eat and be clothed. But he needs also to explore, to understand, to perceive, and to admire the beauty and intricate construction of the natural phenomena around him. The behavioral sciences share with the physical and biological sciences this dual concern for application and understanding, for mastering phenomena and standing in wonder of them. In this chapter some examples of lawfulness and pattern in human and social phenomena will be given. Some of these examples have • The report, The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs, was published by the National Academy of Sciences (in a limited edition, copyright by the National Academy of Sciences) on October 27, 1969 and commercially by Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, on December 10, 1969 (see page 59 infra). The Survey was jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the Social Science Research Council, and conducted by a central planning committee, responsible for preparation of the report. On behalf of the SSRC the report was reviewed by members of its Committee on Problems and Policy, which expresserl particular interest in the content of Chapter 4, here presented in abridged fonn (with permission of the publisher).
important practical implications, which will be men· tioned. But the principal purpose of the chapter is to illustrate how the application of scientific method to human affairs can reveal underlying order in the midst of superficial randomness and complexity-to show that man is a part of nature, not just a contingent intruder into an otherwise lawful world.
WHAT CAN MAN REMEMBER? How much can a man hold in memory for a short time, without painstaking "memorization"? The answer -which is surprisingly consistent for many different kinds of tasks and quite consistent among different persons-is that he can retain in short-term memory about seven "chunks" of information, a chunk being any unit of information that is thoroughly familiar to him, such as a number, a familiar word, or the name of a mend. This limit of seven chunks of immediate retention explains some familiar everyday phenomena, for example, that most persons can-though not easily-keep in mind a phone number from the time they look it up to the time they dial it. It also explains the "magic" in certain memory tricks; for example, by recoding data, information can be compressed into fewer chunks, and thus more items retained. The digit sequence 1, 4, 9, 2 decreases from four chunks to one if it is recognized as 1492, the year Columbus discovered America. It is now fairly well-established that unusual feats of short-term memory depend primarily on mastery of such recoding techniques, rather than on highly special individual "talents." Performance of many tasks in daily life is limited by this capacity of short-term memory. It is the main limit 49
I on doing simple arithmetic without paper and pencil, on speed of operating a desk calculating machine, on a pilot's retention and use of information from instrument panel displays, on a pianist'S sight-reading performance. Thus discovery of the seven-chunk memory limit and its high degree of constancy provided machine designers and methods analysts with important information about the capabilities of the human operator. Tasks can be designed so as not to impose excessive memory demands on the operator. What has been learned about memory phenomena does not apply only to simple tasks like remembering digits or letters. Human performance in much more difficult symbolic tasks-solving algebra problems, for example-has now been analyzed in considerable detail, with the finding that limits of short-term memory play a major role in successful manipulation of symbols. A major factor in this kind of success is the application to the problem of a strategy that does not require retention of more than seven chunks of information. How do successful problem-solvers acquire their strategies, and why do not the unsuccessful acquire them? The answers to those questions would have obvious applications to practical problems of learning and teaching. They have not yet been answered, but they suggest an exciting and important next direction for research on human problem-solving. SIZES OF THINGS Puzzling regularities in nature, seemingly arbitrary and coincidental, are actually clues to underlying lawful processes that the scientist seeks to discover. One such regularity that was observed in a considerable number of apparently unrelated phenomena was the so-called rank-size law_ The rank-size law was first observed in the late nineteenth century, by several linguists who discovered a surprising regularity in the relative frequency of different words in any body of text. It is well known that certain words, like "of," appear quite often, and other words, like "conundrum," rather seldom, and of course that the frequency of any specific word may vary widely from one text to another. If, however, the various words that appear in a particular text are listed in the order of their frequency, the observed regularity-which holds to a surprisingly good approximation-is that the tenth word on the list appears in the text about one tenth as often as the first word, the hundredth word about one hundredth as often as the first word, and so on. Why should this be? Why should the balance between frequent and rare words be exactly the same in the daily newspaper as in James Joyce's Ulysses J the 50
same in German books as in English books, the same in most (not all) schizophrenic speech as in normal speech? The mystery goes farther. If the largest cities of the United States are arranged according to their size as reported in the 1960 census-New York first, Chicago second, Los Angeles third, and so on-they can be seen to obey the very same rank-size law, in fairly good approximation. If two cities have ranks j and kJ respectively, in the list, their populations will be approximately in the ratio kjj. For example, in 1960 Philadelphia ranked fourth in size with 2,002,512 persons, and San Francisco ranked twelfth with 740,026. The ranksize law states that Philadelphia's population ought to be twelve fourths as large as San Francisco's-about three times as large, and it very nearly is. What do word frequencies have in common with city sizes, and what does either of these have in common with other frequencies to which the rank-size rule has been found to apply? Nothing specifically, but a great deal in general. Although there is not complete agreement among social scientists on how these regularities are to be explained, several plausible mechanisms are now known that lead to definite predictions of the distributions that are actually observed. Here we can sketch only one explanation that has been proposed for the city-size distribution. Cities grow by the net balance of births over deaths and, within a single economic domain permitting relatively free trade and movement, also by migration from country to city and from one city to another. Let us make the simplest assumptions: that birth and death rates are essentially independent of city size; that on t~ average the attractiveness of a city as a destination for migration is proportional to its size; and that on the average the probability of any given individual's or family's migrating from a city is independent of that city'S size. It can be shown, by application of probability theory, that under these assumptions the cities in the domain under consideration will tend to be distributed according to the rank-size law; this law describes the most probable equilibrium distribution of population. There are other significant applications of the theory. It has long been known that business firms in the United States, England, and other countries have size distributions that conform more or less to the rank-size law, except that size decreases less rapidly with rank than in the situations described previously (that is, the ratio of the largest firm to the tenth largest is generally less than ten to one). One puzzling fact has been that the degree of industrial concentration (as measured by how rapidly size falls off with rank in the distribution) VOLUME
I I I I J
I I I I I J
I I 1 J J J J
I 1 1
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
changes slowly or not at all even during periods of frequent mergers. Recently, it has been shown mathematically that, under certain assumptions about the sizes of the firms that disappear by merger and of those that grow by merger, mergers will have no effect on concentration. Moreover, the assumptions required for this mathematical derivation fit the United States data on mergers reasonably well. Thus a line of scientific inquiry that began with a linguistic puzzle over word frequencies has led to an explanation of an apparent paradox relating to industrial concentration. HOW IDEAS SPREAD Processes like those used to explain the distributions of city sizes and of business firm sizes are examples of diffusion processes, which have wide application to human affairs. We live in a society that depends heavily on new advances in technology and on securing the adoption of those advances throughout the society. Social scientists can look at the broad phenomena of diffusion; they can also dissect the phenomena and peer into the processes of learning and motivation that bring them about. Diffusion theories not wholly unlike the theory applied to city migration have been used to explain the adoption of hybrid corn by American farmers, the use of new antibiotics by physicians, and the spread of such diverse products as diesel locomotives and beer cans. These diffusion phenomena have been a fruitful meeting ground for psychologists, sociologists, and economists, and an equally fruitful area of convergence of methods of inquiry-sample surveys of opinions and behavior, interviewing, statistical analyses of census data and other public records, sophisticated mathematical model-building, careful observation, and rigorous thought. Consider the adoption of new drugs, for example. One can imagine several distinct processes: a physician's information and impetus to prescribe a new drug could come from his exposure to public media-medical journals, professional meetings, advertisements of pharmaceutical companies-or from individual professional contacts with his colleagues. When these different possibilities are translated into mathematical models, different time-patterns of adoption of innovations are predicted. Hence, time-series data on adoptions indicate the relative importance of the different processes. In almost all cases where such studies have been made, they have shown the major part played by "opinion leadership" of persons believed to be well-informed and reliable. Awareness of the role of opinion leadership in the DECEMBER
adoption of new practices and new viewpoints came initially in research on how voters make up their minds in an election and how opinions are molded in communities. In the 1940's social scientists interested in processes of influence and persuasion found that it was difficult to obtain financial support for basic research on decision making by consumers, but somewhat easier to obtain support for research on decision making by voters. Fortunately there was good reason to suppose that the same fundamental mechanisms were involved in both processes. Voting research provided clear-cut evidence on at least three important phenomena: opinion leadership, "cross-pressures," and attention mobilization. With regard to the first, it was found that in most areas of practical affairs recipients of communications evaluate them in terms of the reliability of their sources as well as by analysis of contents. Judgment of reliability of a source depends on perception of common interests and values, as well as assessment of its technical competence. Second, voting research showed that persons subjected to conflicting pressures from their social environments tended to withdraw from the conflict situation-not to vote, for example. If they did not withdraw, they often misperceived the situation in ways that reduced the dissonance between conflicting forces (for example, they saw the candidate for whom they intended to vote as agreeing with them on issues on which, in fact, he did not). Third, it was demonstrated that changes in voting intention during a campaign had less to do with persuasion, as that is usually understood, than with directing attention to particular issues and values. Voters did not often change their minds about particular issues; rather, they often shifted their attention from one set of issues early in the campaign to another later in the campaign. Because they might agree with one candidate on one issue but with another candidate on another issue, shifts in attention caused shifts in voting. N one of these findings is peculiar to behavior in voting situations; all of them appear equally clearly in consumer behavior and technology diffusion. It is a historical accident that much of the early research that disclosed these phenomena dealt with voting behavior. Potential applications of knowledge of socialinfluence processes are not limited to the particular areas in which the knowledge was originally obtained. There exist today the foundations of a theory that indicates how human beings of ordinary intelligence and information cope with a complex environment in which they are expected to make many difficul t choices, are faced with competing and conflicting claims, have incomplete and imperfect information, and encounter more issues than they can consider at any given moment. 51
FATHERS AND SONS Study of the diffusion-like processes can be applied to more detailed examinations of influence and decision making, as we have just seen. It can also be expanded into an examination of broader social processes, some of them extending over generations. One of the important aspects of any society concerns the amount and kinds of opportunities it offers to the members of each generation and the dependence of those opportunities on the parents' positions in the society. The kinds of data needed to assess individual opportunities are available in only a few societies. In the United States in recent times, population census data have made possible quite adequate analyses. In one study, for example, the occupations of individuals in 1962 were related to their education, the nature of their first jobs, and their fathers' education. Father's occupation, on the average, had little influence on son's occupation after the effects of the other two variables (father's education and nature of the first job) had been allowed for. On the other hand, differences in amounts of education and in types of first jobs were predictable, to a considerable degree, from father's education and father's occupation. Questions about social mobility and opportunity can be investigated not only for whole populations, but also for groups within populations. For example, differences in ethnic origins among white immigrants to the United States affect occupational achievement only indirectly through their effect on educational attainment. On the other hand, a substantial part (at least 20-25 percent) of the difference between mean incomes of black men and white men appears to be attributable to job discrimination, for the difference remains when the black and white men compared have the same educational attainments and the same family circumstances. USE OF RESOURCES Of all social scientists, economists have made the most extensive and significant use of formal deductive analysis (sometimes but not always mathematical) in their researches. Abstract models of economic phenomena serve both as approximate descriptions of some realworld phenomena, and as normative patterns from which to measure real-world departures. Economic analysis often leads to conclusions that are surprising. The factor-price-equalization theorem, first published in 1948, is an excellent example of a discovery in the pure theory of economics that initially may conflict with intuitions about the matter. For instance, suppose that each of two countries produces two com52
modities with the use of two factors of production, such as land and labor, and that one commodity requires more land per unit of labor than the other. Moreover, one of the countries has relatively more land, and the other, relatively more labor. In the absence of trade between the countries, the price of labor will be lower, relative to the price of land, in the country where labor is relatively abundant. Will this continue to be true if international trade in commodities is permitted between the two countries without allowing migration or interchange of either labor or land? Mathematical analysis shows that the answer is "No." If trade in commodities is introduced, prices will have to shift until the ratio of the price of land to the wage of labor in the one country is equal to the ratio in the other. Even more surprising, the total output of the two countries (in sum) will now be as large as it would be if movements of labor had been allowed. This is the factor-price-equalization theorem. Now the proof of the theorem demands that certain strong conditions-not mentioned previously-remain constant. Among other conditions, tariffs and other barriers to trade must be absent, and there must be no transportation costs. In the real world these conditions are not met, and relative factor prices differ substantially from one country to another. But the theorem still provides the same kinds of insights into the mechanisms of international trade that are provided by theorems in mechanics that assume "perfect vacuums" and "frictionless planes." They are useful limiting approximations to real states of affairs, giving measures of consequences of departing from those limiting conditions. GAMES IN REAL LIFE Throughout American political history no political party has been able to maintain a stable level of support substantially above the 50 percent mark for any length of time. Most of our history has seen a very close division between the major political parties, and occasional "landslide" elections-almost never giving the winner as much as two thirds of the popular vote-are usually soon followed by a swing of the pendulum back close to an even division. Something similar is apparent in the operation of European parliamentary governments. Successful parliamentary coalitions usually tend to include just enough groups to give them lean majorities; seldom, under democratic conditions, do oversize coalitions remain stable. Unless one is to attribute these observed facts to coincidence, they must have an explanation somewhere deep in the machinery of democracy. Game theory shows how an explanation of the "minimum-size prinVOLUME
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
ciple" can be derived rigorously from simple assumptions. The basic idea is that minimum-size majorities have all the power they need to govern; the price they must pay (in terms of concessions and compromises on issues) to attract or to retain additional adherents will be greater, the theorem shows, than anything the core group can hope to gain from the additional strength. WHAT THE GLANDS TELL THE MIND Economics tends to be concerned with man's most rational behavior; clinical psychology is often involved with his most irrational behavior-although Freud taught that one must always look for and seek to understand the method in madness. Some of the most interesting human phenomena of concern to the social sciences are those that bring man's reason into conjunction with his emotions and motivations. A classical problem in psychology relates to how people identify and label their own emotions. It might seem obvious that such diverse feelings as fear, rage, joy, and sorrow must represent different bodily reactions in the glandular and sympathetic nervous systems. Careful physiological research casts doubt on this, showing that many of the same bodily changes occur in very different emotional states. Our bodies seem to have far too few patterns of physiological response to account for the rich variety of emotions and moods that we experience psychologically. This paradoxical situation suggested to psychologists that they must look elsewhere than to the glands and sympathetic nervous system for a full explanation of emotion and feeling. One place to look was the brain and its thought processes. Perhaps the specificity of emotion had something to do with the individual's "labeling" it congruently with the particular situation in which he perceived himself to be and in which he experienced it. Perhaps whether the tears were the tears of laughter or sorrow depended on whether his thoughts told him he was in a happy situation or a sad one. This hypothesis was tested by using drugs to arouse certain physiological states under controlled experimental conditions so that the physiological response was independent of the social situation. The result was confirmatory. Individuals who were given injections of epinephrine bitartrate, which excites the sympathetic nervous system, reported feeling euphoric in the com路 pany of persons who were behaving in an excited, carefree way but angry in the presence of others who seemed to be annoyed, irritated, or enraged. Fear often causes people to avoid behavior that has fear-evoking consequences. Conversely, it has been shown experimentally that by using drugs to depress the symDECEMBER
pathetic nervous system, fear reactions may be so reduced that students, for example, will take greater risks of being caught at cheating in examinations. The findings on the physiological bases of fear have been explored further for their possible relation to some forms of criminal behavior. Experiments in prisons have shown that so-called sociopathic criminals exhibit low levels of anxiety and are greatly inferior to normal persons in learning to avoid pain, although they are just as capable as normal persons of learning rewarded behavior. Because fear is thought to be a key factor in learning to avoid pain, it seemed reasonable to investigate whether criminal sociopaths could be helped to learn to avoid painful events by injection of a sympathetic-nervous-system excitant to make them moderately anxious. When so treated, they showed a dramatic improvement in learning to avoid pain, whereas normal persons did not. The facts show that the nervous systems of sociopaths are more responsive to stress than are those of normal persons, and more sensitive to epinephrine. In fact, the sensitivity of sociopaths is so great as to be indiscriminate; they react autonomically to harmless as well as to frightening events, and hence their reactions do not help them to distinguish situations that are labeled painful, dangerous, or frightening and do not help them learn to avoid such situations. VARIETY OF CULTURES In opening our eyes to all the world's cultures, anthropology has taught the lesson of cultural relativity. It has shown that most of the customs that seem "quaint" or "primitive" represent, in fact, understandable adaptations of behavior to particular physical environments and particular courses of cultural development. It has greatly enhanced our ability to enjoy esthetically the products of other cultures without necessarily wanting to imitate those cultures or adopt their values. In many spheres of life, criteria of correctness are purely social. The only test of correctness in speaking a language is whether a certain way is the way "it is spoken." In the light of this conventional character of all language, it becomes challenging to discover whether there are any fundamental limitations on the modes of human communication-any "language universals." The question of language universals is one of the liveliest domains of social science today. Anthropologists, who have been major contributors to knowledge of the world's languages, use the vast body of grammatical information they have collected to investigate whether there are any languages that do not contain "verb-like" elements and "noun-like" elements. In the 53
have supervised some 2,000 parolees. In this century, observation of the operation of the penal system led sociologists to ask whether the probability that a parole would be successful could be predicted from the characteristics and histories of prisoners. Correct prediction would test the validity of theories of the motivation of criminals. The prediction schemes that have resulted from asking these questions not only have contributed to basic sociological knowledge, but also have led to the development of practical parole-prediction techniques that are part of the administration of parole systems in many jurisdictions today. A vast body of social science research rests on the FREE TRADE IN IDEAS data of the decennial census, an institution created for A number of the examples cited have shown how the purely pragmatic purpose of allocating representacuriosity in exploring striking or puzzling phenomena tives to the Congress. There is no end to such examples. has led social scientists to deeper understanding of mat- The lesson of the examples is that the basic and the ters of considerable practical importance. As in inter- applied components of research-properly construednational exchange, this kind of trade in ideas between do not compete but, rather, reinforce each other. Good basic and applied science flows both ways. Some of the basic research, leading to answers to fundamental quesgood ideas for basic research arise from the most im- tions, soon finds practical applications. Thoughtful atmediate and practical kind of inquiries. The roots of the tention to the world of practical problems raises basic study of short-term memory, discussed earlier, lie partly research questions of the most challenging kind. The in the need during World War II to improve human everyday world provides the scientist with an everperformance of vigilance tasks, such as watching air- renewing source of fresh research problems, while fundadefense radar scopes. In economics many research prob- mental inquiry provides him with a stream of ideas to lems have always been drawn from the need of govern- apply to the problems of the world. Any basic science has an inner logic of its own, which ments to fix policies for raising revenues, maintaining for considerable periods of time guides inquiry, defines employment, or modifying tariffs. A striking example of this reverse flow is provided problems, and discloses opportunities. This inner logic by practices in parole and parole prediction. John does not imply irrelevance to the practical world; it Augustus, a Boston cobbler, in 1841 volunteered to may, however, imply the need for patience to allow the assist offenders if the court would release them to his science to unravel its internal puzzles without demandcare. Before his death, he and his friends are said to ing that relevance always be instant or direct.
light of present evidence it appears that there are not. The modem school of structural linguistics has made great strides toward constructing general, formal theories of grammar that would help explain such universals, to the extent that they exist. To complete the circle, advances in structural linguistics have given new impetus to the psychological study of language behavior, so that today we have the rudiments of description of the "grammar" used by a child during his first months of speech and some predictions about what people remember from sentences that are read to them.
LINKAGE OF NATIONAL ECONOMETRIC MODELS: PROJECT uLINK," SPONSORED BY THE COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY by Bert G. Hickman â€˘ ECONOMETRIC model building is a flourishing enterprise today throughout the Western world and in Japan. Pioneered in the 1930's by Jan Tinbergen and in the United States beginning in the early 1940's by Lawrence R. Klein, the size and complexity of national econoâ€˘ The author is Professor of Economics at Stanford University. He has been a member of the Committee on Economic Stability since its inception in 1959 and its chairman since 1962. The other members of the committee are Martin Bronfenbrenner, Carnegie-Mellon University; James Duesenberry, Harvard University; Otto Eckstein, Harvard University; R. A. Gordon, University of California, Berkeley; Zvi Griliches, Harvard University; Lawrence R. Klein, University of Pennsyl-
metric models have subsequently grown apace with the progress of social accounting, statistical theory, and computer technology. This development has been powerfully abetted by the growing realization that structural econometric models have great utility in studying the dynamic properties of the economy, in forecasting applications, and in policy analyses. vania; Franco Modigliani, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Geoffrey H. Moore, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; Arthur Okun, Brookings Institution; Rudolf R . Rhomberg, International Monetary Fund; Charles L. Schultze, University of Maryland; staff, Paul Webbink. VOLUME
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
GENESIS OF PROJECT LINK
and supplemental funds from the Japan Economic Research Center and the Belgian National Science Foundation. The committee hopes that the basis of support may be broadened even further during the coming year.
In 1968 the Council's Committee on Economic Stability concluded that the time had come for an international effort to forge links between national econometric models. The feasibility of such a project was PURPOSES OF THE PROJECT examined at a planning conference held at Stanford University under the auspices of the committee on July The aim of the project is to augment radically our 8-9, 1968. Participants in this planning conference factual knowledge of the nature and strength of the included R . A. Gordon, Bert G. Hickman, Lawrence international economic relationships which bind inR. Klein, and Rudolf R. Rhomberg-representing the dividual countries into an effective world economy and committee-and R. J. Ball, London Graduate School of provide the channels for the propagation of stabilizing Business Studies; Hidekazu Eguchi, Bank of Japan; and destabilizing influences between countries. AttenJohn A. Sawyer, University of Toronto; Petrus J. Ver- tion is being concentrated initially on developing a doorn, Netherlands Central Planning Bureau; Jean world trade model to link the national models, but Waelbroeck, Free University of Brussels; and Tsunehiko capital flows will also be emphasized. 'Watanabe, Kyoto University. The group decided that The project will contribute substantially to basic the time was indeed ripe for an attempt to establish the knowledge about the structure of international trade framework of a world model by integrating the research and the interrelationships between the various national efforts of the various model-building groups. Pledges of economies and regions. In the present state of knowlcooperation were obtained from all participants to im- edge an econometric model for a particular nation or plement initial efforts to guide research toward a uni- region may explain imports endogenously but must form breakdown of import equations in the various accept the volume of world trade and exports as exogemodels. Meanwhile, the Committee on Economic Sta- nous. Experience has shown that the inability to make bility agreed to draft a research proposal and to recom- accurate exogenous predictions of export demand is mend that the Council seek financial support for a one of the major sources of error in forecasting domestic activity in many national models, particularly in the realistic program. The project is currently planned for a three-year case of economies heavily dependent on foreign trade. period beginning in 1969. Research is proceeding at Moreover, for a large industrial country with a subeach participating center, but provision is made for stantial share in world trade, such as the United States, coordinating the efforts of the several centers at fre- a national model cannot now be used to estimate the quent intervals. Mr. Klein is serving as Project Coordi- feedback effect on the country's own exports and donator, and the Coordinating Center at the University mestic activity, of the impact of a change in its import of Pennsylvania serves as central repository for the demand on activity levels abroad. Development of a world trade model, linking the associated models and data bank and keeps participants informed about project research, meeting plans, and various national models, will lead to many important administrative affairs. Regional working teams in North applications. The immediate relevance of the project America and Japan (under the chairmanship of Mr. to the study of balance-of-payments problems and poliRhomberg) and in Western Europe (chaired by Mr. cies, both in a national and world context, is self-evident. Ball) will meet once a year. An executive committee- The project will also permit systematic study of the Messrs. Hickman (chairman), Gordon, Klein, and processes of international transmission of stabilizing Rhomberg-will oversee the general course of the proj- and destabilizing forces, and of the processes by which ect from the vantage point of semiannual meetings. individual economies adjust to disturbances originating Finally, there is to be an annual working session of one abroad. It will facilitate quantitative study of the tradeor two weeks at which all participating research centers offs between the various objectives of economic policywill be represented. At each such session the work of full employment, growth, price stability, balance-ofthe preceding year is to be reviewed and assimilated, payments and monetary equilibrium--on both national and research plans are to be formulated on a cooperative and international levels. All these applications will be basis for the coming year. In keeping with the cooper- enhanced by the eventual integration of international ative international spirit of the entire enterprise, finan- capital flows into the system, although much will be cial support has been forthcoming from several sources, learned at an earlier stage from the trade model alone. Even the preparatory work of constructing value, with principal contributions from the International Monetary Fund and the National Science Foundation, quantity, and price series for each country's imports, DECEMBER
I classified according to a uniform system, will be of substantial importance. This is a data base that does not yet exist although the basic constituents are available, and the project will serve economic research by providing a central, standardized collection of trade statistics ready for econometric analysis. FIRST ANNUAL WORLD MEETING The first world meeting of Project LINK was held in Hakone, Japan on September 16-20, 1969, with the cosponsorship of the Japan Economic Research Center. The participants included 24 econometricians from eight countries and two international organizations. In addition to the participants in the July 1968 planning meeting (excepting Mr. Sawyer), the sessions were attended by Akihiro Amano and Yoichi Shinkai, Osaka University; John Helliwell, University of British Columbia; Shinichi Ichimura, Chikashi Moriguchi, and Masahiro Tatemoto, Kyoto University; Lars Jacobsson, National Institute of Economic Research, Sweden; Irving B. Kravis, University of Pennsylvania; Wilhelm Krelle, Bonn University; B. Marin-Curtoud, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; Saburo Okita, Japan Economic Research Center; Shuntaro Shishido, Economic Planning Agency, Government of Japan; Grant B. Taplin, International Monetary Fund; Tadao Uchida, Tokyo University; and Terrence Colvin, Washington, D.C., rapporteur. The first day was devoted to the general framework of model linkage. Three papers were presented, each followed by remarks by an assigned discussant and general discussion by the entire group: "An Overall Approach to a Model of World Trade," by Mr. Rhomberg, discussed by Mr. Hickman; "The Methodology of International Linkage," by Mr. Waelbroeck, discussed by Mr. Verdoorn; "Models of Developing Countries and Their Place in a World Trade Model," by Mr. MarinCurtoud, discussed by Mr. Ichimura. On the second day Mr. Klein first discussed the organization of Project LINK and the conceptual basis of the model. Mr. Helliwell then reported on "An Experiment in International Linkage: Canada and the U.S.A."; Mr. Rhomberg led the discussion of this report. Attention was next directed to specific technical questions of basic importance to the group effort, in papers by Mr. Kravis (joint with Robert E. Lipsey of Queens College, City University of New York) on "The Construction of Price Indexes and Other Data Problems in International Trade," discussed by Mr. Wae1broeck. and by Mr. Taplin on "Special Problems in Building a World Trade Model (commodity groups, prices, 56
demand pressure, c.i.f. - f.o.b. valuations, etc.)," discussed by Mr. Ball. Two papers were presented on the third day: "A Survey of Models from Europe and the United Kingdom," by Mr. Ball, discussed by Mr. Gordon, and "International Comparison of Existing Models," by Messrs. Eguchi, Moriguchi, and Watanabe, discussed by Mr. Klein. The fourth morning was devoted to reports by Mr. Klein on "Import Equations for the U.S. Model," discussed by Mr. Taplin, and by Mr. Krelle on "An Econometric Model of West Germany," discussed by Mr. Watanabe. In the afternoon an open discussion on improving national models for Project LINK was led by Mr. Hickman. The conference concluded with an open discussion of research plans for the coming year, led by Mr. Gordon.
I I 1 1
PLANS FOR 1970 Various approaches to the problems of building a world trade model to link national models were discussed at the Hakone meeting. Research using several of these approaches will proceed during the coming year. The principal efforts will be devoted to (1) readying the national models for linkage through trade flows, (2) fashioning rudimentary models for developed and developing countries and regions not already covered by existing models, (3) developing computational methods for obtaining consistent solutions to the set of national models with endogenous trade flows, (4) preparing a world trade matrix relating merchandise flows among the countries and regions delimited in the project, (5) experimenting with bilateral linkages between the United States and Canada and the United States and Japan, in which capital flows would be included along with trade flows. Each participating research center will deposit its model, data bank, and solution program at the Coordinating Center during the next few months. This will greatly facilitate the development of solution methods for the world model in the near future, and will provide a central computational facility for the eventual preparation of consistent world trade forecasts and simulation studies. The next world working session will be held in London in September 1970. The papers prepared for that session will probably be published as the first volume to result from Project LINK, and some of them will be proposed for delivery at the World Congress of the Econometric Society, to be held in Cambridge, England, September 8-14, 1970. VOLUME
I I 1
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
COMMITTEE BRIEFS MINORITY RESEARCH AWARDS Austin Ranney (chairman), Edgar G. Epps, James L. Gibbs, Jr., Walter L. Wallace; staff, Elbridge Sibley The committee was appointed to advise the President of the Council on the award of grants from a special fund of $75,000 provided by the Ford Foundation for the dual purpose of assisting the work of social scientists who are members of ethnic minority groups, and advancing research on problems of those groups in American society. Five grants have thus far been made: to Carolyn O. Atkinson, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for completion of research for a dissertation on Negroes' attitudes toward Jews; Lawrence C. Coore, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of London, for preparation of a dissertation on comparative patterns in manpower planning; Morris J. McDonald, M.S.W., Our Lady of the Lake College, for graduate study of sociology at the University of California, Davis; Leslie B. McLemore, Ph.D. candidate in government, University of Massachusetts, for completion of research for a dissertation on the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party; James E. Teele, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Harvard School of Public Health, for research on "Operation Exodus," a school racial integration project in Boston. Nominations of prospective candidates for awards, or inquiries concerning eligibility may be addressed to the office of the Council, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017. The committee acts upon each case as promptly as possible.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS Charles A. Ferguson (chairman), Jacques Brazeau, Susan M. Ervin-Tripp, Joshua A. Fishman, Allen D. Grimshaw, John J. Gumperz, Dell Hymes, William D. Labov, Stanley Lieberson; staff, Elbridge Sibley Pursuant to the concern reflected in Allen Grimshaw's article "Language as Obstacle and as Data in Sociological Research" (Items, June 1969, pp. 17-21), the committee has proposed a summer-long seminar on the ethnography and ethnology of interrogation, to be held in 1971 if the necessary funds can be obtained. The seminar would be held at a bilingual or multilingual site where the participantslinguists, sociologists, and other social scientists-could observe in actual encounters both the obstacles to unequivocal communication between speakers of different languages or variants of the same language, and the implicit clues to meaning which linguists can detect but which tend to escape the attention of social scientists untrained in linguistics. The committee is convinced that much social research has been impaired both by neglect of the obstacles and by unawareness of information implicit in total responses as distinguished from the lexical content of respondents' words. At a meeting on October 24 the committee heard reports DECEMBER
by three invited guests and by some of its own members on their current research. Robert L. Cooper of Yeshiva University told of his study of language diversity in 23 markets in Ethiopia, where various combinations of some of the 95 languages of the country are used in different transactions. The situations there and in Kenya, where Swahili has emerged as a lingua franca, were compared. Mr. Cooper's experience in using local high-school students as observers and recorders of language usage was thought to be applicable to research in other bilingual or multilingual places. Aaron J. Cicourel of the University of California, Santa Barbara, spoke first of the development of his own interest in linguistic problems: he had found in the course of his sociological research on Argentinian families that the information elicited in interviews is significantly conditioned by appropriate or inappropriate use of polite or familiar forms in asking about particular subjects. His current research on the use of sign language by deaf persons in different countries has revealed semantic variables which appear to be independent of syntax. Fred L. Strodtbeck of the University of Chicago spoke as a social psychologist who finds that bilingual respondents sometimes give semantically different responses in their two languages. In his investigation of this problem he has administered three standardized tests of "maturity" to subjects in bilingual communities in Yucatan and in rural Wisconsin. Mr. Ferguson discussed his research on the use of Arabic as a lingua franca by certain segments of the Ethiopian population. Mr. Lieberson's article, "Language Shift in the United States-Some Demographic Clues," an analysis of census data on ethnic groups speaking foreign languages, is to appear in the International Migration Review. Mr. Hymes reported that the University of Pennsylvania, with funds provided by the National Institute of Mental Health, is able to offer grants to individuals for predoctoral or postdoctoral research and writing on sociolinguistic topics. He hopes that potential grantees will be brought to his attention. Recent products of the research project on acquisition of communicative competence, of which the committee was a cosponsor (see the report by Susan Ervin-Tripp, Items, June 1969, pp. 22-26), include four recently completed doctoral dissertations and a fifth nearing completion. These are based on research in as many different societies, guided by the Field Manual prepared by the project staff: "Acquisition of Language by Luo Children," by Benny G. Blount; "Language Acquisition by Tenejapa Tzeltal Children," by Brian Stross; "The Acquisition of Language by Samoan Children," by Keith T. Kernan; "Language Behavior in a Black Urban Community" [in the United States], by Claudia Mitchell-Kernan. Jan Brukman's dissertation on linguistic interaction between adults and children in a South Indian Dravidian-speaking tribe is nearing completion. All the authors were candidates for the doctorate in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. 57
I Their combined work represents a significant effort to produce comparable cross-cultural data and findings. The committee has under consideration proposals for two projects in what may be described as macrosociolinguistics, one on language diversity within nations and one on language shifts associated with social revolutions. These proposals are to be reviewed at a future meeting. TRANSNATIONAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Morton Deutsch (chairman), Leon Festinger, Martin Irle, Jaromfr Janousek, Harold H. Kelley, John T. Lanzetta, Serge Moscovici, Henri Tajfel; staff, Stanley Lehmann The meetings sponsored by the committee for planning the special sessions on social psychology at the Congress of the Interamerican Society of Psychology, as reported in Items, March 1969, resulted in the formation of an independent Latin American Committee for Social Psychology (pro tem). The executives of this committee are Luis 1. Ramallo, Latin American School of Sociology, Santiago; Aroldo Rodrigues, Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro; Jorge Garda-Bouza, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires; and Luis Lara-Tapia, National Autonomous Univer-
sity of Mexico. This committee's first proposal was that a research training seminar would be a promising means of stimulating social psychological research in Latin America, where individual investigators tend to feel isolated and out of contact with the main stream of the science. Under the joint sponsorship of the Committee on Transnational Social Psychology and the Latin American Committee for Social Psychology (pro tem) a research training seminar will be held in ViDa del Mar, Chile, on January 5-30, 1970. The focus will be on contemporary issues in social psychological research. It is too early to report the full roster of seminar participants and guests. Some fifteen Latin American social psychologists and their students have been invited to participate, and three specialists from the United States and Europe have been invited to help guide the seminar. At least half of the seminar period will be devoted to conducting actual research projects, which will involve all the participants. Support for the seminar has been made available from grants for the work of the Council's committee from the Foundations' Fund for Research in Psychiatry and the American Psychological Foundation, and from funds provided by UNESCO in Chile to the Latin American Committee.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL At the annual meeting of the board of directors of the Council in September, Daniel X. Freedman and Herbert A. Simon were re-elected directors-at-Iarge for the two-year term 1970-71. William Gorham of the Urban Institute and Leon Lipson of Yale University were newly elected directors-at-Iarge for the same term. The other directors-at-Iarge are Lee J. Cronbach, Chauncy D. Harris, Matthew Holden, Jr., and Dell Hymes. Robert E. Ward was elected chairman of the board of directors; Samuel P. Hays, vice-chairman; Elizabeth Colson, secretary; and Neil J. Smelser, treasurer. The following members of the board were elected as its Executive Committee: David B. Truman (chairman), James S. Coleman, Chauncy D. Harris, Frederick Mosteller, and Austin Ranney. Gardner Lindzey was named chairman of the Committee on Problems and Policy, and Zvi Griliches was elected a member of the committee. Its other members are Harold C. Conklin, Albert Rees, William H. Sewell, Herbert A. Simon, and ex officio: Henry W. Riecken, Robert E. Ward, and Samuel P. Hays. COUNCIL COMMITTEES ON FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS
Faculty Research Grants. Edward E. Jones, Duke University (chairman); Everett C. Ladd, Jr., University of Connecticut; Peter N. Stearns, Rutgers University; and Jerome L. Stein, Brown University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1969-70. Newly appointed to the 58
committee are Theodore R. Anderson, University of Minnesota; Allan G. Bogue, University of Wisconsin; and Bernard S. Cohn, University of Chicago. Governmental and Legal Processes. Austin Ranney, University of Wisconsin (chairman); Richard F. Fenno, Jr., University of Rochester; Warren E. Miller, University of Michigan; Walter F. Murphy, Princeton University; and James W. Prothro, University of North Carolina, have been reappointed members of the committee. Social Science Personnel. Norton Ginsburg, University of Chicago, has been reappointed chairman of the committee, which has charge of the Council's research training fellowship program. Milton C. Cummings, Jr., Johns Hopkins University; Lawrence E. Fouraker, Harvard University; and Murray G. Murphey, University of Pennsylvania, also have been reappointed. Newly appointed to the committee are H. M. Blalock, Jr., University of North Carolina; John M. Darley, Princeton University; and Laura Nader, University of California, Berkeley. JOINT COMMITTEES OF THE ACLS AND SSRC OFFERING GRANTS FOR RESEARCH
African Studies. Elizabeth Colson, University of California, Berkeley (chairman); L. Gray Cowan, Columbia University; Philip D. Curtin, University of Wisconsin; Walter Deshler, University of Maryland; William O. Jones, Stanford University; Roy Sieber, Indiana University; and Robert F. Thompson, Yale University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1969-70. VOLUME
I I I I I 1 1
I I I I I 1 1
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
Contemporary China. John M. H. Lindbeck, Columbia University (chairman); Albert Feuerwerker, University of Michigan; Walter Galenson, Cornell University; Chalmers Johnson, University of California, Berkeley; Frederick W. Mote, Princeton University; and Ezra F. Vogel, Harvard University, have been reappointed members of the committee. George M. Beckmann, University of Washington, and Arthur P. Wolf, Stanford University, have been newly appointed. East Asian Studies. Marius B. Jansen, Princeton University, has been appointed chairman of a new committee on grants for research in the humanities and social sciences relating to Japan, pre-1911 China, and Korea. The other members are James I. Crump, Jr., University of Michigan; Donald C. Hellmann, University of Washington; Felix Moos, University of Kansas; and Edwin G. Pulleyblank, University of British Columbia. Foreign Area Fellowship Program. Henry W. Riecken (chairman); Pendleton Herring (director of the program); Frederick Burkhardt, American Council of Learned Societies; and Chauncy D. Harris, University of Chicago, have been reappointed to the committee. Newly appointed is Joseph B. Casagrande, University of Illinois. Latin American Studies. Joseph Grunwald, Brookings Institution (chairman); John P. Augelli, University of Kansas; John T. Dorsey, Jr., Vanderbilt University; Munro S. Edmonson, Tulane University; Mario Ojeda G6mez, College of Mexico; Enrique Oteiza, Torruato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires; Stanley R. Ress, University of Texas; and Joseph Sommers, University of Washington, have been reappointed members of the committee. Newly appointed is Richard R. Fagen, Stanford University. Near and Middle East. William M. Brinner, University of California, Berkeley (chairman); L. Carl Brown, Princeton University; Oleg Grabar, Harvard University; and I. William Zartman, New York University, have been reappointed members of the committee. Newly appointed are Paul Ward English, University of Texas; and Marvin Zonis, University of Chicago. Slavic and East European Studies: Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies. Irwin T. Sanders, Boston University (chairman); William E. Harkins, Colum-
bia University; George W. Hoffman, University of Texas; Paul L. Horecky, Library of Congress; Andrzej Korbonski, University of California, Los Angeles; J. M. Montias, Yale University; Michael B. Petrovich, University of Wisconsin; and Alexander M. Schenker, Yale University, have been reappointed members of this subcommittee, which has charge of the programs of grants for East European studies and for study of East European languages. Slavic and East European Studies: Subcommittee on Grants for Russian and Soviet Studies. Edward J. Brown, Indiana University (chairman); Clayton L. Dawson, University of TIlinois; Warren W. Eason, Ohio State University; Stephen D. Kertesz, University of Notre Dame; and Hans J. Rogger, University of California, Los Angeles, have been reappointed members of the subcommittee.
OTHER COMMITTEE APPOINTMENTS Roy Simon Bryce-Laporte, Yale University, and Eugene D. Genovese, University of Rochester, have been appointed members of the Committee on Afro-American Societies and Cultures. Chalmers Johnson, University of California, Berkeley, has been added to the membership of the Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, of the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, cosponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies. Arthur Okun, Brookings Institution, and Charles L. Schulue, University of Maryland, have been appointed members of the Committee on Economic Stability. Franco Modigliani, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has been appointed a member of the Joint Committee on Social Science in Italy, cosponsored with the Adriano Olivetti Foundation. Robert J. Smith, Cornell University, has been added to the membership of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, cosponsored with the ACLS. Martin Irle, University of Mannheim (on leave, at the New School for Social Research, 1969-70), has been appointed a member of the Committee on Transnational Social Psychology.
NEW PUBLICA rlONS Agricultural Development in China, 1J68-1968, by Dwight H. Perkins. SJ?onsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chlcago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1969. 412 pages. $12.50. The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee under the auspices of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: PrenticeHall, Inc., December 1969. 335 pages. $7.95. DECEMBER
Political Science, edited by Heinz Eulau and James G. March. Report of the Political Science Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Sociology, edited by Neil T. Smelser and James A. Davis. Report of the Sociology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 187 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. 59
I Is the Business Cycle Obsolete?, edited by Martin Bronfenbrenner. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability in cooperation with the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, April 3-7, 1967. New York: John Wiley & Sons, December 1969. 592 pages. $12.50. Changing Characteristics of the Negro Population, by Daniel O. Price. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, December 1969. 270 pages. $2.75. China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900-1913, edited by Mary Clabaugh Wright. Product of the Conference on the Chinese Revolution of 1911, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 22-27, 1965. New Haven: Yale University Press, November 1968. 518 pages. $15.00. Chinese Communist Politics in Action, edited by A. Doak Barnett. Papers prepared for the Conference on Microsocietal Study of the Chinese Political System, sponsored by the Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 29 - September I, 1967. Seattle: University of Washington Press, April 1969. 648 pages. Cloth, $12.50; paper, $3.95. The Chinese Economy under Communism, by Nai-Ruenn Chen and Walter Galenson. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, September 1969. 266 pages. $7.95. Conduct and Conscience: The Socialization of Internalized Control over Behavior, by Justin Aronfreed. Expansion of a paper prepared for the conference on moral development, held by the former Committee on Socialization and Social Structure, October 31-November 3, 1963. New York: Academic Press, October 1968. 414 pages. $12.50. Economic Trends in Communist China, edited by Alexander Eckstein, Walter Galenson, and Ta-Chung Liu. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China, October 21-23, 1965. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, September 1968. 757 pages. $17.50. Family and Kinship in China, edited by Maurice Freedman. Product of a conference sponsored by the Subcommittee on Research on Chinese Society, Jomt Committee on Contemporary China, September 15-18, 1966. Stanford: Stanford University Press, February 1970. 272 pages. $8.50. Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan
E. Bayer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, December 1969. c. 500 pages. Industrial Development in Pre-Communist China, by John K. Chang. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1969. 163 pages. $6.00. Language Problems of Developing Nations, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Charles A. Ferguson, and Jyotirindra Das Gupta. Papers prepared for the conference sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics, November 1-3, 1966. New York: John Wiley & Sons, September 1968. 536 pages. $12.95. Middle Eastern Cities: Ancient, Islamic, and Contemporary Middle Eastern Urbanism: A Symposium, edited by Ira M. Lapidus. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, and the University of California, Berkeley, Committee for Middle Eastern Studies, Center for Planning and Development Research, and Department of City and Regional Planning, October 27-29, 1966. Berkeley: University of California Press, December 1969. 217 pages. $6.00. The Nature of Fascism: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the Reading University Graduate School of Contemporary European Studies, edited by S. J. Woolf. Product of a conference held with the aid of the Committee on Comparative Politics, April 3-4, 1967. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, November 1968. 268 pages. People of Rural America, by Dale E. Hathaway, J. Allan Beegle, and W. Keith Bryant. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, January 1969. 298 pages. $3.50. Political and Administrative Development, edited by Ralph Braibanti. Product of a conference sponsored by tbe Duke University Commonwealth-Studies Center with the assistance of the Committee on Comparative Politics, July 16-22, 1967. Durham: Duke University Press, May 1969. 718 pages. $15.00. Political Science and Public Policy, edited by Austin Ranney. Product of conferences sponsored by the Committee on Governmental and Legal Jlrocesses, June 15-17, 1966 and August 28-29, 1967. Chicago: Markham Publishing Company, September 1968. 300 pages. $5.95.
I I I I I
Research and Resources of Haiti, edited by Richard P. Schaedel. Papers of the conference held by the Research Institute for the Study of Man with the assistance of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, November 1-4, 1967. New York: Research Institute for the Study of Man, July 1969. 624 pages. $5.75.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230
Incorporated in the State o/Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose 0/ advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1969:
WILLIAM O. AYDELO'ITE, ABRAM BERGSON, PETER M. BLAU, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, JAMES S. CoLEMAN, EUZABETH COLSON, HAROLD
C. CONKUN, LEE J. CRONBACH, PHIUP D. CURTIN, DANIEL
FREEDMAN, ZVI GRIUCHES, MORRIS H. HANSEN, CHAUNCY D .
SAMUEL P. HAYS,
MATTHEW HOLDEN, JR., DELL HYMES, GARDNER LINDZEY, GEOFFREY H. MOORE, JAMES N. MORGAN, FREDERICK MOSTELLER, DON K. PRICE, AUSTIN RANNEY, ALBERT
HENRY W. RrECKEN, HERBERT A. SIMON, NEIL J. SMELSER, ALLAN H. SMITH, JOHN THIBAUT, DAVID B. TRUMAN, ROBERT
Officers and Staff:
HENRY W. RIECKEN,
Vice-President; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY, BRYCE Staff Associates; STANLEY LEHMANN, MIRIAM
C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR., NORMAN W. STORER, RON NAN, Financial Secretary
Executive Associates,' ELEANOR Consultants; CATHERINE V.
I I 1
I I I I \