Items Vol. 22 No. 4 (1968)

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PENDLETON HERRING TO BE SUCCEEDED BY HENRY W. RIECKEN AS PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL As ANNOUNCED in October, Pendleton Herring after twenty years as President of the Social Science Research Council will retire on December 31, 1968. He will be succeeded by Henry W. Riecken, who has been a VicePresident of the Council since 1966 and in charge of its Washington office, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. For the time being Mr. Riecken will spend the major part of his time in the Washington office; the head_quarters of the Council will remain at 230 Park Avenue, New York.

on projective tests of personality, on the effects of human relations training, and on the behavioral consequences of a person's perception of the motivation of another's behavior toward him. His study of attitude and personality changes in young people as results of a period of altruistic labor was published as The Volunteer Worll Camp in 1952. In the following year Mr. Riecken had his first formal association with the Council through participation in the Summer Institute in Mathematics held at Dartmouth College by the Committee on Mathematical Training of Social Scientists. In 1954 Mr. Riecken joined the faculty of the UniTHE NEW PRESIDENT versity of Minnesota as Research Professor of Sociology The new President of the Council is a social psycholo- and a member of the senior staff of the Laboratory for gist with broad experience in social science research and Research in Social Relations. There, in addition to rein the administration of programs for its support. His search on problem solving in small groups, he studied research career began with the Bureau of Agricultural with two colleagues a millennial movement and its reEconomics in studies of rural communities and popula- action to the disconfirmation of its prophet's predictions. tions in the northeastern part of the United States dur- The results were published as When Prophecy Fails. Mr. ing 1939-41. In the early wartime years he was engaged Riecken was active in the interdisciplinary social science in opinion and attitude surveys related to rationing, training program at Minnesota and, as a member of the labor shortages, and popular morale. From 1943 to 1945 Social Science Research Council's Committee on Rehe served in the Army Air Corps psychological research search Training, helped to plan the program of summer units. He was in Italy, France, and England as a mem- research training institutes initiated by the Council in ber of Aircrew Evaluation and Research Detachment 1956. Number Two. This group attempted to develop measIn 1958 Mr. Riecken took a two-year leave of absence ures of combat proficiency, in order to test the validity from the University of Minnesota to serve as program of methods of selection that had been applied to aircrew director for social science at the National Science Founcadets prior to their training. dation. The Foundation at that time had a small, narAfter the war Mr. Riecken resumed graduate study at rowly based program of grants for the social sciences, Harvard University, where he received the Ph.D. from overshadowed by programs in the biological and physi. . the new Department of Social Relations in 1950. As a cal sciences. During Mr. Riecken's tenure, which was • member of the Harvard faculty for the next four years, extended to six years, the grants program under he lectured on small group behavior and did research his direction was expanded to include all the social sci·11

ences and grew almost tenfold in size. In the same period the Foundation accorded organizational equality to the social sciences and included social scientists on its Board of Directors. In 1964 Mr. Riecken was given responsibility for the science education programs of the Foundation and was made one of its three Associate Directors. He continued in this capacity until he became Vice President of the Council in July 1966, with special responsibility for its interests in relations between the federal government and social science. CAREER OF PENDLETON HERRING LONG ASSOCIATED WITH THE SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

as editor-in-chief in 1945-47. The "Capture and Record" studies under the auspices of the Committee on Public Administration laid the groundwork for the programs of the Council's Committee on War Studie_ and of the Bureau of the Budget's Advisory Committee on Records of War Administration, which Mr. Herring helped organize, serving as secretary and later as chairman. Under the program of the Advisory Committee the wartime experiences of governmental agencies were recorded in formal administrative histories. Drawing on the experience of the Committee on Public Administration with case studies, Mr. Herring developed a different format and initiated at the Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard the case studies that have since been further elaborated and are now carried forward in the Inter-University Case Program, Inc. Mr. Herring was the first chairman of the Council's Committee on Political Behavior and served also as member and chairman of the Committee on Social Science Personnel, in charge of administration of the research training fellowship program. When appointed President of the Council he had served as a member of the Committee on Problems and Policy since 1942 and as a member of the board of directors since 1946. Mr. Herring holds the Navy Department's Civilian Distinguished Service Award, an M.A. (hon.) from Harvard and the LL.D. from Princeton and from Johns Hopkins. He has served on advisory committees of thos_ three universities and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Philosophical Society, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is the author of Group Representation Before Cong1'ess (1929, 1967); Federal Commissioners: A Study of Their Cm'eers and Qualifications (1936); Public Administration and the Public Interest (1936, 1967); The Politics of Democracy (1940, 1965); Presidential Leadership (1940, to be reissued in 1969); and The Impact of War (1941). Mr. Herring upon his retirement will become a consultant of the Council. He will continue to serve as Director of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 444 Madison Avenue, New York, which is administered by a joint committee of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies, for the purpose of enabling selected scholars to become specialists on various world areas outside the United States.

Pendleton Herring became President of the Council in June 1948, having previously been an officer of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and a member of the faculty of Harvard University for eighteen years after receiving the Ph.D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University in 1928. For the first ten years of the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration he held the post of Secretary. Toward the end of World War II he served on the task force under Secretary Forres tal on the unification of the armed services. During the attempt in 1946 to negotiate an international control agreement he was head of the Secretariat of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. He has served the United States government in the Bureau of the Budget and has been a consultant to the War Department, the Navy Department, the Air Force, and more recently chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Social Sciences to the National Science Foundation. He was president of the American Political Science Association in 1953, and is currently president of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and vice-president of the International Social Science Council. He has served on the Program Committee of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO. As Ford Foundation Visiting Research Professor he spent the spring semester of 1963 at Princeton University. Before his appointment as President of the Council Mr. Herring had been participating in its affairs and in associated activities since 1931, when he was appointed a member of its Committee on Pressure Groups and Propaganda. He served on the Council's Committee on Public Administration from 1940 to 1945 and was its vice-chairman and staff for several years. At the )'equest of the Committee on Public Administration , Mr. Herring edited Civil-Military Relations: Biblio- RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE COUNCIL IN TRIBUTE TO ITS RETIRING PRESIDENT gmphical Notes on Administrative Problems of Civilian Mobilization. He was one of the group concerned with The Council's board of directors at its annual meet-e launching the Public Administmtion Review and served iJ13" in September honored Mr. Herring for the accom42





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plishments of his presidency, adopting the following tribute and resolution by acclamation: "Pendleton Herring brought to the Presidency of the Council a set of qualifications peculiarly important to our concerns and to the problems of these years. To the collective interests of a rapidly developing set of disciplines he brought-as his own academic accomplishments had promised--an insightful receptivity to invention, tempered by a wisdom that is far from conventional. During a period in which each of the social sciences has been marked by a growing distinction of system and of method, he has encouraged their efforts toward disciplinary maturity without himself losing sight of their common stakes. "When emphasis understandably has been placed on strengthening the purely intellectual capabilities of the several disciplines, he has been sensitive to their obligation with respect to concrete problems of policy without encouraging the pretension of certainty. In years when the relations between government and the social sciences have become crucial and complicated, he has helped to shape those relations with a skill born of his scholarly experience, his years of involvement in governmental matters, and his deep awareness of both the hazards and the opportunities that such relations involve. In a period marked by the birth or revival in many quarters of the

world of a scientific approach to human behavior and the affairs of society, he has been constructively aware that a scientific community can recognize no national frontiers and has led the Council to creative activities of international scope . "In a position whose imperatives may easily lead either to placid contentment with the possible or to misguided pursuit of the premature, he has brought a critical restlessness that is unblemished by complacency, a constructive skepticism that does not throttle imagination, and a zest for the new and the creative that is unmarred by malignant enthusiasms. "No one man and surely no one organization would claim credit for the accomplishments of the social sciences in these two decades, but no one man has done more toward those achievements than Pendleton Herring, and, in consequence, no organization more than the Council that he has led can take greater pride in its share in those developments. "Therefore be it Resolved That on the occasion of Pendleton Herring's retirement as President of the Social Science Research Council the Directors of the Council record their gratitude to him, and that in token of their gratitude and in recognition of his twenty years of distinguished achievement in that office they designate him President Emeritus."

e CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, TESTING, AND GUIDANCE by Wayne H. Holtzman¡ AMONG the major trends in education today, the concept of individualized instruction to bring about more effective learning on a large scale has captured the imagination of many behavioral scientists, educational technologists, engineers, and administrators. To keep track of each student moving at his own pace in a continuous progress environment, where the particular branching of the curriculum is fitted to his own learning aptitudes and level, requires a high-speed computer to manage the curriculum and assist with the instruction. The rapid growth of computer uses in education, the development of programmed instruction, and the joint entrance of major manufacturing companies, textbook publishers, • The author is Dean of the College of Education, University of Texas, a former member of the Council's board of directors, and currently chairman of its Committee on Learning and the Educational Process and a member of the Commission on Tests. College Entrance Examination Board, under whose joint auspices the conference reported here was held. DECEMBER


and research and development centers into the computer field has resulted in the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field generally known as computer-assisted instruction. Several conferences on computers in education have been held and a small number of articles have appeared during the past few years. In most cases these conferences and publications have described preliminary computer systems, the requirements for an adequate technology, plans for the future, and initial attempts to demonstrate applications of computer-assisted instruction. These efforts have attracted wide attention because of the promise of such applications as revolutionary approaches to education. After reviewing preliminary work in progress, the Council's Committee on Learning and the Educational Process a year ago concluded that certain major research and development programs had reached the point where the significance of results could be evaluated. 48

The recently formed Commission on Tests sponsored by the College Entrance Examination Board meanwhile had moved deeply enough into the problems of standard scholastic aptitude testing to be concerned about the implications of new educational technology for testing and guidance in the future. Informal discussion between members of the Council's committee and the Commission on Tests led to approval of a proposal for a conference on computer-assisted instruction, testing, and guidance, to be held under their joint sponsorship. A special committee consisting of Wayne H. Holtzman (chairman), and C. Victor Bunderson, University of Texas; Philip Jackson, University of Chicago; Robert Glaser, University of Pittsburgh; and Winton Manning, College Entrance Examination Board, was given responsibility for planning the conference. The major purposes of the conference, which was held at the University of Texas on October 21-22, 1968,1 were to bring specialists together with informed critics to present, review, and evaluate the latest research and relevant theoretical developments involving mancomputer interactive systems for instruction, testing, and guidance; and to acquaint leaders in education and the behavioral sciences with the state of computer-based technology in education and the major problems that must be solved before such technology can be fully implemented. Ten specialists were commissioned by the planning group to prepare formal papers for distribution well in advance of the conference. A critic was also selected for each paper and asked to prepare a review, for presentation at the conference, with the aim of bridging the gap between the technical specialist and the general scientist, educator, or policy maker. Some 50 persons -members of the sponsoring organizations and other national bodies concerned with computers in educationwere invited to participate in the conference. Since all participants had received copies of the formal papers, most of the time at the conference was devoted to presentations by the critics and general discussion following brief summaries of the papers. SYSTEM DESIGN The first paper, by Donald L. Bitzer, University of Illinois, dealt with some pedagogical and engineering design aspects of computer-based education. After describing the Plato System that has evolved over the past 8 years, the author outlined the requirements of an economically viable system built around a new plasmadisplay panel. Bitzer believes that this system will reduce Financial support for the conference was provided by the College Entrance Examination Board and a grant to the Council from the Fund for the Advancement of Education. 1


the direct operating cost of instruction to 25 cents per student hour. The system involves a very large computer with 4,000 student terminals that can be located at any distance from the central computer. In addition to a key- A set, each student terminal would consist of the plasma-" display device which is about 12 inches square and has the advantage over the commonly used cathode-ray-tube display that the images need not be continually regenerated. A digitally "addressable" slide selector and projector will allow locally stored information to be projected on the rear of the translucent glass-paneled display. In this way projected images, in color, could have superimposed on them alphanumeric or graphical displays. These displays, generated by the control computer, could be transmitted via telephone line. Discussion of Bitzer's novel design was led by J. G. Castle, Jr., University of Pittsburgh, who pointed out that it was stimulating to have such a complete design made public in its preliminary form. Insufficient attention, however, had been given to the complicated problems of curriculum and computer system programming and to the logistics of instructional material and scheduling for the proposed system. Many participants were skeptical of Bitzer's preliminary cost estimates, believing it unrealistic to expect cost per student-hour to drop much below two dollars in the near future. Yet, all agreed that the basic idea is promising and may indeed represent the kind of engineering breakthrough essential to progress in this field.


INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Factors to consider in the design of computer-assisted instructional sequences and activities were systematically presented in a paper by C. Victor Bunderson. The crossfertilization between computer science procedure and formalization, programmed instruction, and learning psychology will lead to new methods and standards of instructional design. A detailed analysis of behavioral objectives for an instructional program, including intermediate objectives extending down through the entering behaviors, is the most crucial step in instructional design. A flow chart showing how multiple entry points into the hierarchy are to be provided for students differing in attainment of intermediate objectives can be prepared. The modularity provided by the behavioral analysis meets good design standards for computer programs. Using materials recently developed for an IBM 1500 instructional computer system at the University of Texas, Bunderson illustrated in detail the manner in which individualization of instruction can be prescribed and continuously improved, taking into account the • learner's aptitudes and immediate rate of progress.






In the role of critic, Robert Glaser developed further four major issues raised in Bunderson's paper: (1) the analysis of the learning tasks and their structure; (2) _ the difficulty of discovering interactions between indiWvidual differences and learning variables; (3) the kind of short-term history variables to measure and the type of learning treatments to employ in order to individualize instruction; and (4) the potentiality of computerassisted instruction in giving the student a facility for manipulating, redesigning, and rearranging the elements of the curriculum. Glaser drew extensively from his own work in the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh and at the Oakleaf Experimental School where a major demonstration of individually prescribed instruction has been under way for several years. OPTIMIZING LEARNING An important problem in computer-assisted instruction is the development of a theory and accompanying mathematical models for optimizing learning on the basis of the student's past history. Such a theory should not rely on standard teaching heuristics, but on a quantitative description of learning. A paper by Richard D. Smallwood, Stanford University, presented an optimization procedure for a general class of learning models. _The major objective is to design a decision (branching) logic so that the available past history of the student, particularly his immediate past performance, can be used in some meaningful way to influence the future course of his instruction. In the particular learning model employed by Smallwood, an optimization procedure in which the minimum presentation-cost alternative is always chosen at each sequence in the instruction represents a decision policy that would be nearly 80 per cent more efficient than a fixed sequence for all students. Smallwood's procedure overcomes a serious computational obstacle in former optimization schemes. Lee Gregg, Carnegie-Mellon University, as critic of Smallwood's approach was concerned that the use of highly sophisticated mathematical techniques results at best in a quantitative "overkill" of the comparatively trivial classes of learning to which such techniques can now be applied, and even more deeply concerned about what he regarded as the inappropriateness of the learning models that were used by Smallwood. These models do not reflect the internal states of learners as revealed by information processing analyses. Indeed, the way in which the student organizes -information in _ short-term memory depends heavily on the way he con• ceives information, which differs from one learner to another. An approach more appropriate than attempting DECEMBER


to optimize sequence, then, would be to use computerassisted instruction to analyze and solve problems in attempts to formulate a model of the way the student organizes and manages information. INDIVIDUALLY TAILORED TESTING In the near future many mental tests presumably will be administered and scored by computer. Not only can the computer test many individuals simultaneously with the same or different test items, but each subject can be allowed to answer test questions at his own speed. Given a pool of precalibrated items to choose from, the computer can design a different test for each person. In a major theoretical contribution, Frederic M. Lord, Educational Testing Service, considered problems of test theory for tailored testing in which each item is selected for administration on the basis of the subject's responses to previous items, with a view toward optimal measurement of his aptitude. Restricting attention to tests used for measurement rather than for instructional purposes, Lord discovered that, for a large class of problems and for individuals of average ability, the conventional test and the best individually tailored procedure are about equal in efficiency; but for high- or low-scoring subjects the conventional peaked test is only about 30 per cent efficient compared to tailored testing. Drawing heavily on bioassay theory and the theory of stochastic processes with particular reference to Markov chains, Lord offered some tentative answers to important questions. Bert F. Green, Jr., Carnegie-Mellon University, in his review extended Lord's work by replotting selected curves from Lord's graphs to illustrate more clearly situations in which tailored testing might be preferred to conventional testing. He also explored in more detail the interaction between testing and instruction and showed that for certain instructional decisions, tailored testing provides a potentially significant economy over conventional tests. He directed attention to measures of performance other than gross right or wrong item scores, measures that would be more appropriate to the powerful capabilities of a computer. Since in regard to measurement tailored testing appears to offer little advantage over the best that can be done with conventional testing, the interplay between instruction and evaluation and new possibilities for measurement that are provided by computer-based testing represent potentially more fruitful areas for research. LANGUAGE PROCESSING The more powerful applications of computers for instruction, testing, or guidance require some form of

natural language processing by the computer. Problems the tutorial program for first graders, was employed by in the linguistic analysis of constructed student responses Suppes with 30 fourth graders at the Brentwood School. were examined in a paper by Robert F. Simmons, Uni- The fourth system described by Suppes and Morningversity of Texas, who described a simplified decision star was a Russian program instituted at Stanford for A model for a tutorial instructional system. He analyzed a teaching comprehension of written and spoken Russian, . . set of actual student responses to demonstrate the meth- and mastery of Russian grammar and syntax. In each ods by which the language processor can "understand" case, extensive evaluation was based on a variety of the meaning of constructed responses and generate mini- measures internal to the programs as well as some exmally appropriate tutorial interaction. The tutorial ternal criteria. In some cases comparisons were made model described requires the capability to recognize with similar groups receiving conventional instruction. and measure the extent to which any two English state- The scope and volume of internal data indicated a ments are equivalent paraphrases of each other. More- wealth of relationships, the analysis of which has barely over, it must be able to generate English statements that begun, which can be of enormous value to the psycholoexpress the meaning of any student response or canoni- gist and educator. When compared to control groups, cal answer. To satisfy these requirements, the language the groups taught in the various programs have often processor that Simmons has programmed uses syntactic proved superior in one way or another. In reviewing the Stanford programs, Gail Young of and semantic analysis functions to read and transform the text into a deep structure of concepts where trans- Tulane University emphasized the potential contribution of computer-assisted instruction in alleviating a formational equivalence can be established. Using a delightful set of examples, Raven McDavid, number of broad social problems as well as improving University of Chicago, showed how Simmons' model the quality of mathematics education. He cautioned could not achieve true equivalence of the nuances of against overstandardization, pointing out that diversity meaning even with the use of deep structure analysis of of approaches to education should be encouraged. The the language. Nevertheless, a close approximation to ability of the skilled teacher to translate an intuitive natural language processing could be of great value in observation by the student into a learning experience developing tutorial interactions for computer-assisted in- which nourishes the germ of a mathematical idea could struction, but its implementation is several years away. hardly be duplicated by a machine. STANFORD PROGRAMS IN ARITHMETIC, LOGIC, AND RUSSIAN Several papers dealt with major demonstrations of computer-assisted instruction already under way or advanced interactive systems that provide interesting models of future educational applications. The best-known demonstrations have been carried out at Stanford University. In these, several different computer systems and a wide range of subject matters and students have been used. Patrick Suppes and Mona Morningstar summarized four ongoing programs that have recently been evaluated. The most extensive of these is the drill-and-practice program in arithmetic which involves the participation of more than 1,500 children in grades one through six. The short drills are taken daily by children working at typewriter terminals connected by telephone lines to a central computer at Stanford. The second system described by Suppes is tutorial and involves the teaching of mathematics to first graders in a local school. Curriculum material is presented by audio and visual displays; the student responds on a standard keyboard or uses a light pen to touch one of the answer choices displayed on the cathode-ray-tube. A logic and algebra program, using the same system as 46

SIMULATION OF CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS A paper dealing with computer-assisted instruction in chemistry was prepared by J. J. Lagowski, University of Texas. The use of the computer to simulate laboratory instruction in chemistry or physics is particularly attractive since it offers a possible means of improving instruction in large science classes at the high school and college levels. Lagowski discussed the logistical problems of university laboratory sections, for which computer-assisted instruction provides a promising alternative. He presented a number of examples of laboratory simulation, ranging from spectroscopy to titration experiments. In each case the student manipulates the simulated apparatus, varying the parameters and observing the results. While feasibility studies completed by Lagowski and others demonstrate the practicality of such simulated laboratory experiments, major evaluative studies are still in progress, and it is too early to determine whether or not the amount and kind of learning that take place are as effective as in a real laboratory. In a critique of Lagowski's paper, Edward Lambe, State University of New York at Stony Brook, analyzed the important differences between the simulated and. real laboratory, and pointed out a number of problems






in attempting to use computers for science teaching in a university setting. _GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Can a machine counsel? This provocative question formed the basis for a paper by Allan B. Ellis and David V. Tiedeman of Harvard University. After a general discussion of the similarities and differences between the human counselor and the computer, Ellis and Tiedeman described the Information System for Vocational Decisions Project in which Harvard University and a number of school systems in New England participate. Thirteen major data files, ranging from the student's own biographical and test data to occupation files and information about educational institutions, are stored in the computer memory whence the student can call forth information as needed in exploring vocational or educational areas and attempting to reach decisions. Agreeing in general with Ellis and Tiedeman, Donald Super, Columbia University, commented on other important issues in the use of a computer system for counseling or guidance purposes. Machines may never be able to counsel in the fullest sense of the term, but they will provide a new order of information essential to intelligent planning on the part of the student who is seeking _guidance. TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE In the concluding paper Emmanuel Mesthene of Harvard University examined the broader social and philosophical implications of educational science and technology. He observed that modem technology is not only bringing about changes in the physical world, but also in institutions, attitudes, values, goals, and conceptions of the meaning of existence. Some questions raised by the idea of widespread computer-assisted instruction and information networks include: What are the implications for a teacher in terms of qualifications, training, and attitudes? What roles will teachers, or those who replace them, play? Will the distinctions between vocational and general education, and between formal and adult education begin to disappear? What are the implications for the relationships between school and family, school and community, and school and government, e.g., what will happen to the caretaker function of the schools and to local control of educational policy? Mesthene also discussed A. G. Oettinger's controversial study at Harvard regarding probable developLA ments in the next ten years as the result of use of com~ puter-assisted instruction and other technological aids in the schools. Oettinger's pessimistic conclusions, reDECEMBER.


ported elsewhere, were disputed by a number of the conference participants. Of importance to the orderly and socially beneficial development of computer-assisted instruction, according to Mesthene, is the avoidance of four major pitfalls inherent in the state of the art. The tendency to ignore over-all aspects of the learning process in favor of mathematical models of simple and well-behaved phenomena is one pitfall. Premature exploitation of untested systems by industrialists is another. Using the phrase, the seductiveness of rigor, Mesthene voiced his concern that technology may enable us to do things more efficiently and faster, but it does not help us decide whether these are the right things to do. Technology may enable us wrongly to reinforce present educational processesprocesses which perhaps should be discarded rather than shored up. The final pitfall discussed was the possibility that the stress on efficiency and achievement, perhaps unconsciously reinforced by the values on which technology is based, may degrade the extent to which education deals directly with such important, value-oriented aspects of human development as character building and citizenship training. MAJOR OUTCOMES OF THE CONFERENCE The rapid growth of computers in education and the accompanying scientific and technical advances in human learning, problem solving, information processing, individual guidance, educational testing, and instructional design represent a major interdisciplinary advance which is impressive to note, considering the fact that most such developments have taken place within only the past five years. Participants in the conference were particularly struck by the extent to which all these activities that are central to education at every level require a full-scale coordinated effort. Individualized instruction demands a fusion of learning technology, repeated diagnostic testing, and close integration of extensive data files for problem solving, career planning, and self-examination by the student. And in tum, the budding technology desperately needs more powerful theoretical formulations, and basic scientific research, if it is to avoid sterility and mismanagement. At this early stage in technology, one can only dimly perceive the profound changes that will be produced by computer-assisted instruction in the social organization of education, in the structuring of curricula at all levels, and in the meaning of education to the individual. It is already apparent that the present prototype systems are only the primitive forerunners of what is to come. While it is obvious that a great deal of research and development are necessary before full-scale imple47

mentation of computer-assisted instruction can take place, the potential changes in society and the individual that could result from the new technology in education should be carefully considered by all scientists, educators, humanists, and policy makers who are concerned

about the future. Major contributions to the conference are being assembled for publication in a volume by Harper and Row. This will include a brief summary of the discussions which is being prepared by Karl Zinn, University of Michigan. .,


COMMITTEE BRIEFS AREA AND LANGUAGE PROGRAMS REVIEW Robert E. Ward (chairman), George M. Beckmann, Morroe Berger, Alexander Eckstein, Alex Inkeles, Edgar Polome, Irwin T. Sanders, Roy Sieber, Charles Wagley; staff, Richard D. Lambert, Director; Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr. This committee was appointed in September as an advisory body for a review of area and language programs in American universities, which has been undertaken under the auspices of the Council at the request of the Division of Foreign Studies, Bureau of Higher Education, U.S. Office of Education. Initial plans for the study were made at a conference, held on June 25, of specialists from each of the area committees cosponsored by the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societies. In attendance were John P. Augelli, University of Kansas (Latin American Studies); Morroe Berger, Princeton University (Near and Middle East); Robert I. Crane, Syracuse University (Asian Studies); John W. Hall, Yale University Gapanese Studies); William E. Henthorn, Princeton University (Korean Studies); William O. Jones, Stanford University (African Studies); and John M. Thompson, Indiana University (Slavic and East European Studies); Gordon B. Turner, ACLS; and Pendleton Herring, Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr., Henry W. Riecken, and Bryce Wood. As recommended by the conference participants, the study is expected to include examination of the place of area studies in university administrative structures, the relations of area programs to disciplinary departments, the role and importance of language in area training, the problems of training in foreign countries, the placement of scholars who have completed their training, and the extent to which later research and teaching experience relate to the earlier area training. In July, Richard D. Lambert, University of Pennsylvania, agreed to direct the study. Because of prior commitments he is currently engaged on a part-time basis only, but will give full time to the study from January through September. He has begun discussions of area programs with officials at various foundations, developed further plans for the study, arranged for necessary staff assistance, and has started visiting selected centers. The advisory committee was appointed at his request, to facilitate consultation with representatives of a variety of disciplines and interests in various world areas. A first meeting of the committee is scheduled to be held on December 9. 48

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES IN THE UNITED STATES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Frederick Burkhardt (chairman), Donald J. Grout, H. Field Haviland, Jr., Pendleton Herring; staff. Gordon B. Turner Extension for the next five years of the joint committee's program to enable humanistic and social science organizations in the United States to serve as hosts to international scholarly congresses and conferences has been made possible by a grant of $250,000 to the American Council of Learned Societies from the Ford Foundation. Special consideration will be given to small research conferences and colloquia designed to open new avenues of inquiry or to focus on "fresh, imaginative subjects of research." Inquiries should be directed to the American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.


JAPANESE STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) John W. Hall (chairman), George Akita, Marius B. Jansen, Solomon B. Levine, William H. McCullough, Edwin O. Reischauer, Robert E. Ward; staff, Bryce Wood, David A. Titus, Martin E. Weinstein The committee has held two meetings since its appointment last spring. It has undertaken a general survey of the status of Japanese studies, to be conducted through a series of disciplinary conferences whose reports will provide basic data for a general report to be produced late in 1969. Support for these conferences has been made available to the SSRC by the Ford Foundation, and a grant from the Bureau of Cultural Affairs, Department of State, enables the committee to arrange for participation of Japanese scholars in the conferences. After completion of the survey the committee plans to hold five major research conferences which are expected to result in published volumes. The first disciplinary conference, on political science, was held in New York on October 24-25, 1968. The following papers were discussed: "The Present Condition of Japanese Political Studies," by Junnosuke Masumi, Tokyo Metropolitan University; "The Study of Japanese Politics: What Is To Be Done?" by William E. Steslicke, Columbia Uni- AI versity; "The Study of International Politics in Japan," b y . Kinhide Mushakoji, Sophia University; and "American VOLUME 22. NUMBn 4

Scholarship and Japanese International Politics," by Donald C. Hellmann, University of Washington. Participants in the conference, in addition to authors of papers, Mr. Ward, and staff of the committee, were: Hans H. Baerwald, University California, Los Angeles; Lawrence W. Beer, University of Colorado; Ardath W. Burks, Rutgers - The State University; John C. Campbell, Columbia University; Allan B. Cole, Tufts University; Lee W. Farnsworth, Brigham Young University; John M. Farrior and Richard L. Sneider, Department of State; Haruhiro Fukui, University of California, Santa Barbara; Dan F. Henderson, U~iversity of Washington; Yasumasa Kuroda, University of Hawaii; Frank Langdon, University of British Columbia; Paul F. Langer, RAND Corporation; Michael Leiserson, University of California, Berkeley; F. Roy Lockheimer, American Universities Field Staff; John M. Maki, University of Massachusetts; Theodore McNelly, University of Maryland; Douglas Mendel, Jr., University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; Bradley Richardson, Ohio State University; David Sissons, Australian National University; James R. Soukup, University of Texas; Kurt Steiner, Stanford University; Nathaniel B. Thayer, Japan Society; Warren Tsuneishi, Library of Congress; and Chitoshi Yanaga, Yale University. The second disciplinary conference, on research on modern Japanese history, was held in New York on November 8-9. Three sessions were devoted respectively to Tokugawa history, Meiji history, and Taisho-Showa history. Formal papers were not prepared, but each discussion attempted to answer the following questions: What is the tAtate of research by Japanese scholars? What are its implica- . ~ions for Western scholars? What needs to be done by scholars in the West? A fourth session considered questions outside the chronological periods. Albert Craig of Harvard University served as chairman of the conference. Other par-


ticipants, in addition to Messrs. Hall and Jansen and staff of the committee, were: George M. Beckmann, Claremont Graduate School; Hugh Borton, and Herschel F. Webb, Columbia University; James B. Crowley, Yale University; Roger F. Hackett, University of Michigan; Harry D. Harootunian, University of California, Berkeley; Dan F. Henderson, and Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington; Takayoshi Matsuo, Donald H. Shively, and Ezra F. Vogel, Harvard University; Akira Iriye, University of Rochester; Tetsuo Najita, University of Wisconsin; Frederick Notehelfer, University of California, Los Angeles; Bernard S. Silberman, Duke University; and George M. Wilson, Indiana University. KOREAN STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Edward W. Wagner (chairman), George M. Beckmann, William E. Henthorn, Gari K. Ledyard, Chong-Sik Lee, Fred Lukoff, Felix Moos, Glenn D. Paige, Michael C. Rogers; staff, Bryce Wood The committee has been concerned principally with pro~ lems of library resources and control of materials for research on Korea. It has appointed a subcommittee on materials, which is actively encouraging interinstitutional cooperation, including relations with libraries in Korea, in the use of current holdings and the development of research resources of all kinds. At a meeting in October the committee appropriated funds to assist with the preparation of a bibliography of English language materials on Korea, which is being compiled by the Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii. The committee hopes to arrange for the publication of a bibliography of basic reference works on Korea in Korean and other languages, including Russian.

PERSONNEL DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL At the annual meeting of the board of directors of the Council in September, Lee J. Cronbach and Chauncy D. Harris were re-elected directors-at-Iarge for the two-year term 1969-70. Dell Hymes of the University of Pennsylvania and Kenneth J. Arrow of Harvard University were newly elected directors-at-Iarge for the same term, but the latter is unable to accept the office. The other directors-atlarge are Abram Bergson, Daniel X. Freedman, Don K. Price, and Herbert A. Simon. Frederick Mosteller was elected chairman of the board of directors; Robert E. Ward, vice-chairman; Allan H. Smith, secretary; and Morris H. Hansen, treasurer. The following members of the board were elected as its Executive Committee: David B. Truman (chairman), Dorwin Cartwright, James S. Coleman, Chauncy D. Harris, and ~ustin Ranney. Gardner Lindzey was named chairman of Whe Committee on Problems and Policy, and William H. Sewell of the University of Wisconsin was elected a member DECEMBER


of the committee. Its other members are Harold C. Conklin, Samuel P. Hays, Albert Rees, Herbert A. Simon, and ex officio: Pendleton Herring (to be succeeded by Henry W. Riecken in January 1969), Frederick Mosteller, and Robert E. Ward. COUNCIL COMMITTEES ON FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS

Faculty Research Grants. Frank R. Westie, Indiana University (chairman); Stanley M. Elkins, Smith College; Edward E. Jones, Duke University; Everett C. Ladd, Jr., University of Connecticut; and Jerome L. Stein, Brown University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1968-69. Newly appointed to the committee are Laura Nader, University of California, Berkeley, and Peter N. Stearns, Rutgers - The State University. Social Science Personnel. Norton Ginsburg, University of Chicago, has been reappointed chairman of the committee, which has charge of the Council's research training fellow49

ship program. Milton C. Cummings, Jr., Johns Hopkins University; John C. McKinney, Duke University; Murray G. Murphey, University of Pennsylvania; and Allan H. Smith, Washington State University, also have been reappointed. Newly appointed to the committee is Karl E. Weick, University of Minnesota. JOINT COMMITTEES OF THE ACLS AND SSRC OFFERING GRANTS FOR RESEARCH

African Studies. Elizabeth Colson, University of California, Berkeley, has been appointed chairman of the committee. L. Gray Cowan, Columbia University; Philip D. Curtin, University of Wisconsin; Walter Deshler, University of Maryland; William O. Jones, Stanford University; Roy Sieber, Indiana University; and Robert F. Thompson, Yale University, have also been reappointed members of the committee for 1968-69. Newly appointed is Igor Kopytoff, University of Pennsylvania. Asian Studies. Robert I. Crane, Syracuse University, has been reappointed chairman of the committee for 1968-69. Marius B. Jansen, Princeton University; Richard L. Park, University of Michigan; and Laurence Sickman, William R. Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, have been reappointed. New members are Joseph R. Levenson, University of California, Berkeley; Lauriston Sharp, Cornell University; and Robert O. Tilman, Yale University. Contemporary China. John M. H. Lindbeck, Columbia University (chairman); Albert Feuerwerker, University of Michigan; Walter Galenson, Cornell University; Frederick W. Mote, Princeton University; George E. Taylor, University of Washington; and Ezra F. Vogel, Harvard University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1968-69. Chalmers A. Johnson, University of California, Berkeley, has been newly appointed. Foreign Area Fellowship Program. Pendleton Herring (chairman); Frederick Burkhardt, American Council of Learned Societies; Robert N. Burr, University of California, Los Angeles; Chauncy D. Harris, University of Chicago; and Schuyler C. Wallace, former Director, Foreign Area Fellowship Program, have been reappointed to the committee. Latin American Studies. Joseph Grunwald, Brookings Institution (chairman); John P. Augelli, University of Kansas; and Enrique Oteiza, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires, have been reappointed members of the committee. Newly appointed members are John T. Dorsey, Jr., Vanderbilt University; Munro S. Edmonson, Tulane University; Mario Ojeda G6mez, College of Mexico; Stanley R. Ross, University of Texas; and Joseph Sommers, University of Washington. Near and Middle East. William M. Brinner, University of California, Berkeley, has been appointed chairman of the committee for 1968-69. Morroe Berger, Princeton University; Oleg Grabar, University of Michigan; Malcolm H . Kerr, University of California, Los Angeles; and Bernard Lewis, University of London, also have been reappointed. Newly appointed are Leon Carl Brown, Princeton University, and I. William Zartman, New York University. 50

Slavic and East European Studies: Subcommittee on Grants for Russian and Soviet Studies. Edward J. Brown, Indiana University (chairman); Clayton L. Dawson, University of Illinois; Stephen D. Kertesz, University of Notre Dame; and Hans J. Rogger, University of California, Angeles, have been reappointed members of the subcommittee. Newly appointed is Warren Eason, Ohio State University. Slavic and East European Studies: Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies. The members of this subcommittee, which has charge of the programs of grants for East European studies and for study of East European languages, are Irwin T. Sanders, Education and World Affairs (chairman); William E. Harkins, Columbia University; George W. Hoffman, University of Texas; Paul L. Horecky, Library of Congress; Andrzej Korbonski, University of California, Los Angeles; J. M. Montias, Yale University; Michael B. Petrovich, University of Wisconsin; and Alexander M. Schenker, Yale University.


OTHER COMMITTEE APPOINTMENTS Frederic Wakeman, University of California, Berkeley, has been appointed a member of the Committee on Exchanges with Asian Institutions. Walter F. Murphy, Princeton University, has been appointed a member of the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes. Donald J. Grout, Cornell University, and H. Fiel., Haviland, Jr., Brookings Institution, have been appointe~ members of the Joint Committee on International Congresses in the United States, cosponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies. William E. Henthorn, Princeton University; Fred Lukoff, University of Washington; Felix Moos, University of Kansas; and Michael C. Rogers, University of California, Berkeley, have been added to the membership of the Joint Committee on Korean Studies, cosponsored with the ACLS. Wayne H. Holtzman, University of Texas, has been named chairman of the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process; and Richard C. Anderson, University of Illinois, and Gordon H. Bower, Stanford University, have been added to the membership. Robert K. Merton, Columbia University (chairman); Robert G. Gilpin, Jr., Princeton University; Belver C. Griffith, American Psychological Association; Warren O. Hagstrom, University of Wisconsin; Everett Mendelsohn, Harvard University; Richard R. Nelson, Yale University; and Charles Weiner, American Institute of Physics, have been appointed members of a new Committee on Social Organization of Science, for which Norman W. Storer serves as staff. Earl E. Houseman, U .S. Department of Agriculture, and John W. Lehman, American Statistical Association, been added to the membership of the Committee on tis tical Training. VOLUME




CONTENTS OF ITEMS, VOLUMES 21-22 (1967-68) * -ARTICLES Bergson, Abram. Conference on Eastern European Economies, 22:7 Fox, Karl A. Functional Economic A"eas and Consolidated U"ban Regions of the United States, 21 :45 Glass, David C. Genetics and Social Behavior, 21: 1 Holtzman, 'Wayne H. Conference on Computer-Assisted 171struction, Testing, and Guidance, 22:43 Hymes, Dell. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages: Their Social Contexts, 22:13 International Research and Exchanges Board Appointed by American Council of Leamed Societies and Social Science Resem'ch Council, 22:31 Jones, William O. Labor and Leisurc in Traditional Africa1l Societies, 22: 1 Lanzetta, John, Henri Tajfe1, and Leon Festinger. Transnational Social Psychology: Notes on the International Conference in Vienna, April 9-14, 1967, 21:30 Nuttin, Jozef M., Jr., and Jos M. F.Jaspars. The European Research Training Semmar in Experimental Social PsyclIO logy, University of LOt/vain, JlIly 31- September 2, 1967, 21:41 Pendleton He,.,.ing To Be Succeeded b)l HCll!"')' W. Riecken as President of the Council, 22:41 Ranney, Austin. The Study of Policy Content: A Framework for Choice, 22:25 Taeuber, Conrad, Frederick Mosteller, and Paul Webbink. New Council Committee on Statistical Training, 21:49 AWard, Robert E. Military Occupations and Political •. . , Change: A Conference Held in New York, April 20-22, 1967, 21 :25 Wood, Bryce. "Social Science in Latin AlIu1'ica": Notes on the Proceedings of the Conference Held in Rio de Janeiro, Mm'cll 29-31, 1965, 21:13 COMMITTEE BRIEFS AND OTHER REPORTS African Studies, 21 :9; 22: 1, 10 Area and Language Programs Review, 22:48 Areas for Social and Economic Statistics, 21 :45 Asian Studies, 21:22; 22:21, 22 Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey, 21 :7, 20 Biological Bases of Social Behavior, 21: 1 Comparative Politics, 21: 17, 25 Contemporary China, 21:5, 9, 23; 22:11 Economic Stability, 21: 18 Exchanges with Asian Institutions, 21:19; 22:18 Faculty Research Grants, 21:8, 21; 22:9, 20 • For an index to Volumes 1-20 (J947-66) see Items, Vol. 22, No.2, Part 2, June 1968.



Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 21 :33; 22:32 Governmental and Legal Processes, 21 :9, 22; 22: 10, 25 International Congresses in the United States, 22:48 International Organization, 21:6; 22:8 International Research and Exchanges Board, 22:31 Social Science in Italy, 21:19; 22:18 Japanese Studies, 22:48 Korean Studies, 21:51; 22:49 Latin American Studies, 21:6, 10, 13, 24; 22:22 Learning and the Educational Process, 22:43 Near and Middle East, 21: 11; 22: 11, 23 Sino-American Cooperation in the Humanities and Social Sciences, 22:8 Slavic Studies Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, 22:38 Subcommittee on Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, 21 :23; 22:23 Social Science Personnel, 21:21; 22:20 Socialization and Social Structure, 21:6 Sociolinguistics, 21:6, 20, 51; 22:13, 19 Statistical Training, 21 :49 Transnational Social Psychology, 21 :30, 41 PERSONNEL APPOINTMENTS Committees, 21 :39; 22:49 Directors and Officers of the Council, 21:8; 22:9, 49 Faculty Research Grants, 21 :8, 21; 22:9, 20 Foreign Area Fellowships, 21 :33; 22:32 Grants for African Studies, 21:9; 22:10 Grants for Asian Studies, 21:22; 22:21 Grants for Latin American Studies, 21: 10, 24; 22:22 Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China, 21:9, 23; 22:11 Grants for Research on Governmental and Legal Processes, 21:9, 22; 22:10 Grants for Research on the Near and Middle East, 21 :11, 22: 11, 23 Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, 21 :23; 22:23 Grants for Southeast Asian Studies, 22:22 Grants for Study of East European Languages, 22:38 Research Training Fellowships, 21:21; 22:20 ANNOUNCEMENTS Fellowships and Grants, 21 :40; 22:40 Fulbright-Hays Awards, 22:12 PUBLICA TIONS B()oks. 21 : J 2, 21, 39. 52; 22: 12, 24, 39, 52

.1 1

NEW PUBLICATIONS The Central Middle East: A Handbook of Anthropology, edited by Louise E. Sweet. Product of a project initiated by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, September 1968. HRAFlex Book MI-001. 2 vols. 420 pages. $13.50. China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900-1913, edited by Mary Clabaugh Wright. Product of the Conference on the Chinese Revolution of 1911, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 22-27, 1965. New Haven: Yale University Press, November 1968. 518 pages. $15.00. The Construction Industry in Communist China, by Kang Chao. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, February 1968. 252 pages. $8.75. Early Education: Current Theory, Research, and Action, edited by Robert D. Hess and Roberta M. Bear. PaJ?ers prepared for the Conference on Preschool EducatIOn, sponsored by the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, February 7-9, 1966. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, March 1968. 282 pages. $6.95. Economic T"ends in Communist China, edited by Alexander Eckstein, Walter Galenson, and Ta-Chung Liu. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China, October 21-23, 1965. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, September 1968.757 pages. $17.50. Genetics, edited by David C. Glass. Papers prepared for the conference cosponsored by Rockefeller University, Russell Sage Foundation, and the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior, November 18-19, 1966. New York: Rockefeller University Press and Russell Sage Foundation, May 1968.270 pages. $7.50. Language Problems of Developing Nations, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Charles A. Ferguson, and Jyotirindra Das Gupta. Papers prepared for the conference sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics, November 1-3, 1966. New York: John Wiley & Sons, September 1968. 536 pages. $12.95. Metropolitan A"ea Definition: A Re-evaluation of Concept and Statistical Practice, U.S. Bureau of the Census Working Paper No. 28, by Brian J. L. Berry with Peter G. Goheen and Harold Goldstein. Report on a study made for the former Committee on Areas for Social and Economic Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of the Census, June 1968. 51 pages. 50 cents. The People of Ruml America, by .J. Allan Beegle, Dale E.

Hathaway, and W. Keith Bryant. Sponsored by the Committee on Population Census Monographs in rn,'ln,'l'" with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, ernment Printing Office, January 1969. c. 291 pages. c. $3.00. Political Research and Political Themy, edited by Oliver Garceau. Prepared with the assistance of the Council. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, September 1968. 266 pages. $7.95. Political Science and Public Policy, edited by Austin Ranney. Product of conferences sponsored by the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes, June 15-17, 1966 and August 28-29, 1967. Chicago: Markham Publishing Company, September 1968. 300 pages. $5.95. Public Policy, Vol. 17, edited by John D. Montgomery and Albert O. Hirschman. Includes 5 papers prepared for the Conference on Military Occupations and Political Change, held by the Committee on Comparative Politics, April 20-22, 1967: "The Legacies of the Occupation of Germany," by Carl J. Friedrich; "The Potential for Democratization in Occupied Germany: A Problem in Historical Projection," by Leonard Krieger; "Allied Strategies of Effecting Political Change and Their Reception in Occupied Germany," by Peter H. Merkl; "Soviet Occupation in Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary," by Hugh Seton-Watson; "The Potential for Democratization in Prewar Japan," by Robert E. Ward. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, September 1968. 474 pages. $7.00. Revolutionary Russia, edited by Richard Pipes. Product of the conference on the Russian Revolution, cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies and the Harvarda, University Russian Research Center, April 4-9, 1967. • Cambridge: Harvard University Press, January 1968. 376 pages. $7.95. Socialization and Society, edited by John A. Clausen, with contributions also by Orville G. Brim, Jr., Alex Inkeles, Ronald Lippitt, Eleanor E. Maccoby, and M. Brewster Smith. Report of the former Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, June 1968. 416 pages. $5.50. The Spatial Economy of Communist China, by Yuan-Ii Wu. Prepared with the aid of the Committee on the Economy of China. New York: Frederick A. Praeger for the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, January 1968. 386 pages. $10.00.








Incorporated in the State 01 Illinois, December 27, 1924, lor the purpose 01 advancing research ill the social sciences Directors, 1968:







Officers and Staff: PENDLETON HERRING, President; PAUL tive Associates; ELEANOR C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary


Vice-Presidents; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY, BRYCE WOOD, Execu._ Staff Associates; JEROME E. SINGER, Consultant; CATHERINE