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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 20 . NUMBER 3 . SEPTEMBER 1966 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017

AGRICUl rURAL DEVELOPMENT: PROBLEMS AND ISSUES· by Bruce F. Johnston and Herman M . Southworth

THE Council's Committee on Agricultural Economics has attempted to respond to and serve the growing interest in the problems of agriculture in the less developed countries by producing a volume dealing with agricultural development in the context of over-all economic growth. Strategic aspects of the subject are discussed in chapters contributed by 18 authors and coauthors, who draw together what we have learned of relevant characteristics of traditional agricultures, what their modernization requires from other sectors of the economy, and what it contributes to them.l Each chapter delineates problems and points to lines of economic research critical for their resolution. Experience has demonstrated that low productivity in agriculture can limit economic growth. Industrialization and agricultural development are not valid alternatives. Effective plans for development must embrace both. Raising agricultural productivity and inducing a marketed surplus of farm products must be a major concern, as must development of linkages between the

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• This is a condensed version of the introductory chapter in Agl"icultuml Development and Economic Growth, a book sponsored by the Council's Committee on Agricultural Economics (whose members also constitute the Committee on New Orientations in Research of the American Farm Economic Association) and edited by Herman M. Southworth of Pennsylvania State University, chairman of the committee, and Bruce F. Johnston of Stanford University, a member of the committee since 1962. The volume is to be published in 1967 by Cornell University Press (copyright by Cornell University), with whose permission this version is printed here. The other members of the committee are John Blackmore, University of Minnesota; Robert L. Clodius, University of Wisconsin; George Montgomery, Kansas State University; Philip M. Raup, University of Minnesota; and George S. Tolley, North Carolina State University. . . 1 A list of the chapter titles and authors, with the names of critics in '-parentheses, appears at the end of this article.

two sectors that will give effect to the interdependence required of them in a modem industrial economy. INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL AND NONAGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT A number of broad interrelationships between agriculture and the nonagricultural economy in development are well recognized. As the largest sector of the economy, agriculture is the source of manpower for industrial expansion, the source of essential supplies for maintaining a growing industrial population and of exports to be traded for industrial goods, and the chief potential source of savings for nonagricultural investment. For these roles to be fulfilled, however, agricultural productivity must be increased. This requires a variety of off-farm inputs; providing them can be a stimulus to the industrial sector. It also requires incentives for farmers to invest in these inputs, in the form of attractive markets for their increased output; this, too, the growing nonfarm sector can provide. For incentive income to be meaningful to farmers, there must be goods that they can buy with it; the development of this rural market can also provide stimulus to nonagricultural production. Thus growth in the two sectors interacts, each supporting and stimulating the other. It is at once evident, however, that the nature and strength of these interrelationships change as development progresses. It would be most helpful if we had a fully elaborated theory of agricultural development and its interconnections with the rest of the economy at successive stages. Because of conceptual difficulties and,

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even more serious, the lack of empirical knowledge, a universally acceptable theory of agricultural development is not yet within our grasp. Moreover, the diversity of agricultural conditions and of the general economic situation in different developing countries--and within different farming regions of an individual countrymakes it quite impossible to formulate universally valid policies or prescriptions for promoting agricultural development. In spite of these difficulties, J. W. Mellor goes a considerable way toward formulating a general theory (Chapter 2). He first examines in some detail the role of agriculture in over-all economic development and the characteristics of traditional agriculture, then discusses major implications for the process of modernizing the agricultural sector. Although the difficulties in such an attempt to formulate useful generalizations are formidable, they do not negate the importance of the insights that may be derived from better theoretical understanding of agriculture's role in development. Economists are inevitably influenced strongly by their implicit theories of agricultural development when they attempt to formulate programs for economic advancement in their own or foreign countries. To the extent that these implicit theories are molded by familiarity with an industrialized economy, the underlying premises and judgments are likely to be faulty. Improvement of theoretical insights can help one to avoid such errors. It can also provide guidance in the urgent task of collection and analysis of the factual information needed to reduce dependence on intuition in decision making. The overwhelmingly agricultural character of most of the less developed countries is a major determinant of the problems they face. The situation differs among countries; agriculture no longer supports a major part of the population in some countries of Latin America. But elsewhere in Latin America and in the underdeveloped countries of Africa and Asia, the bulk of the population continues to find its livelihood in agriculture. This fact has a fundamental influence on the nature of the interrelationships between agriculture and the rest of the economy and on the process of agricultural development. Rapid rates of population growth, probably the most universal characteristic of the less developed countries, also have major implications. Population is growing in most underdeveloped countries at rates of two, three, or even three-and-a-half per cent annually, in contrast with the rates of one to one-and-a-half per cent that characterized the earlier "population explosions" in the developed countries of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. These rapid rates of population increase 30

compound the problem of achieving satisfactory economic growth in two ways: food supply problems are aggravated when output (or output plus imports) must increase by two to three per cent a year simply to maintain the present unsatisfactory levels of food intake; rapid population growth makes much more difficult th~ structural transformation required in shifting from an ovenvhelmingly agrarian economy to one with the drastically different occupational distribution of the labor force that characterizes economic maturity. For both economic and nutritional reasons (and even as an aid to political stability), a considerable expansion in food supplies is a necessary condition for economic development. This would be true even without the excessive rates of population growth; these multiply the urgency (Chapter 9). Achievement of this increase in domestic production depends on the technology used in farm production and on its organization and management. Technology and management are, of course, intimately related. It is now generally recognized that the scope for increasing agricultural output simply by better management of the land, labor, and limited capital currently employed, using only the existing technology of production, is extremely limited. Some of the early efforts at technical aid assumed that teaching fanners a few new techniques-imported from the "advanced" countries-could greatly increase output. This hope, also, has been fairly well deflated; techniques are seldo~ simply transferable from temperate-zone to tropical agriculture. Differences in crops and in soils, temperatures, and rainfall patterns require different applications of agronomic principles, and these require research in the area of application. Where such research has been undertaken, the results have shown considerable promise (Chapter 6). Substantial increases in production can often be achieved, however, through adding to the existing technology a few well-selected new features that have high complementarity with those already used. The combination of improved seed, fertilizer, and controlled supplies of moisture is a widely cited example. In general, raising farm productivity as well as output depends upon the use of increasing quantities of purchased inputs, and for these farmers must depend mainly upon nonagricultural sources. The extent to which a nation's farmers can supplement their farm-supplied resources with purchases from outside agriculture depends on their receipts from sales of farm products. In a predominantly agricultural economy, the market demand for agricultural output (except for the possibility of exports) is severely limited becaus_ of the relatively small population dependent on pur-

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chased food. As a result. most farm households are of necessity mainly engaged in producing food to meet their own subsistence requirements. Thus the scope for raising output per worker in agriculture (again apart "om the possibility of production for export) is depen~ent on the growth of domestic demand for agricultural products relative to the size of the farm population. Here. again. population problems complicate the picture. With rapid population growth. the denominator of this ratio is certain to increase in most developing countries rather than to decrease. In concrete terms overcrowding on the land is aggravated. or where it is not yet a problem is certain to become one, unless nonfarm employment opportunities are growing more rapidly than the population of working age. This consideration is especially relevant for countries where agriculture accounts for 70 to 80 per cent of the farm labor force. and the total population and labor force are growing at two or three per cent annually. In such circumstances it is likely to be at least a half century before the farm labor force begins to decline in absolute numbers, and even the decline in its relative share will be slow. (If a country's total labor force is growing at two per cent and nonfarm employment is gTowing at three per cent-no mean achievement given the current tendency for developing countries to pursue a rather capital-intensive pattern of investment-well .,.ver a century would elapse before the farm labor force .ould begin to decline in absolute numbers. This is on the assumption that agriculture initially accounted for 80 per cent of the labor force; if its initial share was only 50 per cent, this "turning point" would be reached in only 32 years, assuming the same rates of growth of total and nonfarm labor force.) Given the availability of inputs needed to improve technology and a sufficient ultimate demand for increased output, how rapidly farmers will adopt the improved technology depends on additional factors. Efficient sources of production credit may be a significant factor in enabling farmers to adopt more rapidly a new technology that requires use of purchased equipment or materials. Equally important is an organization of production that both permits and gives incentive to producers to increase their output. Here the system of landholding and tenure (discussed in Chapter 8) can be of critical importance. A factor that is too often taken for granted is the development of an efficient marketing system linking rural supplies and urban demands (Chapter 10). In a predominantly subsistence economy such a system obviously does not exist. Such infrastructural investments as facilifor transportation and communication are of parimportance to agricultural development (ChapSEPTEMBER

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ter 4). In addition there is usually a scarcity of persons having the technical skills. and often the entrepreneurial capabilities, to fulfill this function. Marketing is the reverse of the coin of specialization; without an efficient system of exchange, urban demands cannot be effective as incentives to farm production. Finally, the speed of adoption of more productive methods is affected by farmers' willingness to change and by their information regarding the opportunities open to them. John Brewster (Chapter 3) discusses the deepseated impediments that traditional cultures oppose to agricultural development. Education (Chapter 5) can be a major force in overcoming these, both in teaching specific techniques of production and in gradually inculcating an understanding of change. its necessity and its benefits. In all these respects agriculture is dependent on outside efforts and outside investment. As Mellor points out, the issue is not whether investment should flow into agriculture or the reverse. There must be a two-way flow. The possibility of a net flow from agriculture to help the over-all development effort depends on judicious investment in agriculture to raise its productivity. This brings us back to certain fundamental requirements for accelerating economic growth and for sustaining a high rate of growth. Exclusive preoccupation with physical capital has now been replaced by a more sophisticated view of the growth process. Empirical studies have made it abundantly clear, however, that a substantial increase in the levels of saving and investment are critical requirements for a satisfactory rate of economic growth. Moreover, capital formation must not only raise the total productive capacity of the economy but must also lead to changes in the productive structure. These changes in the structure of a developing economy occur partly in response to the differences in income elasticities of demand for various types of goods and services, including the food-nonfood contrast that underlies Engel's Law. But the structural changes also reflect differences in the potentialities for reduction of costs in different lines of production and the interdependencies that are important in a modem, productive economy. The relationships between investment in the conventional sense, investment in "human resources," and technical change are questions that have rightly claimed increased attention by economists during the past decade. It is now generally recognized that a major part of economic growth stems from "technical progress"; the growth in output in a progressive economy greatly exceeds the rate attributable to an increase in the use of capital and other physical inputs. Much of this advance credited to the catch-all category of "technical change" represents changes in technology that are em31


bodied in new capital goods; hence the process is sensitive to the rate of gross investment even though much more is involved than merely increases in the physical quantity of capital per worker. Within the agricultural sector there appear to be particularly significant possibilities for increasing factor productivity by organizational changes, by improving the managerial and labor skills of farmers, and by technological innovations for which the capital requirements are modest. And because of the large quantities of labor and land already committed to agriculture, those possibilities are of great importance. AREAS OF CONSENSUS AND UNRESOLVED ISSUES: SOME DILEMMAS OF DEVELOPMENT Economic development presents a number of dilemmas; many of these show most sharply in relation to agriculture. The most obvious dilemma concerns the urgency of development. The objective is industrialization. It would be convenient if a developing nation could focus its efforts solely on this aim but, as we have seen, this is not possible. Apart from the question whether a program that does not take account of the bulk of a nation's population can properly be called "national development," industrialization itself must be supported by an adequate food supply. Unless this is to be provided by food imports-which presents another dilemma-domestic farm output must be increased. The issue here is not simply that of "balanced" versus "unbalanced" growth. In fact, the process of structural transformation can be frustrated either because nonfarm employment opportunities are not expanding rapidly enough in relation to the growth of total population and labor force, or because agricultural productivity is not rising sufficiently to provide food for a growing nonfarm population. Some of the most difficult issues of development policy stem from the fact that a developing country must simultaneously satisfy the resource requirements for industrial expansion and for increasing farm output and productivity. The nature of agriculture, furthermore, makes it less amenable than other industries to "crash" programs of development. One can build an industrial plant, bring workers to it, train a few of them on the spot to manage and supervise and others to perform specialized routine tasks, and hope within a limited time to have a functioning establishment. The technology is known and is transferable without major modification; the tasks are new, but by that very token can be learned without an encumbrance of traditional practices to be unlearned. 32

In agriculture the biological production process depends on solar energy, rainfall, and soil. It is inherently spread out in time and space. Its technology is not simply transferable, but must be adapted to the peculiar conditions of particular locations. Production is sea sonal, and each worker usually must be skilled in JIll' variety of tasks. The production process is only partly subject to human control, and management must be able to cope with highly variable exigencies of local weather and other conditions. Production is normally carried on by a large number of individual farm operators for whom it is a livelihood-the only source of their families' sustenance. Errors are costly. and individual operators are understandably hesitant to assume the risk of innovations whose advantages over traditional methods are uncertain. The scarcity of managerial personnel capable of applying new methods suggests that there should be considerable economies of scale in its employment. This is indeed one of the arguments advanced for creating largescale farms. In some underdeveloped countries, for example, a small fraction of the farm population may represent a subsector of large-scale, highly commercial farms that account for a major part of the marketed output and use substantial quantities of capital and current inputs while the market involvement of the rest of the farm units is very slight. Kenneth L. Bachman and Raymond P. Christensen suggest that this type of "dual siz. structure," which seems to be especially prevalent Latin America, is likely to result in inefficient use of farm resources of land and labor, in part because the net return to the individual operator that results from saving on the cost of hired labor may be much greater than the social return from labor-substituting capital investment (Chapter 7). In much of agriculture, for the reasons given above, the management function cannot efficiently be highly centralized but must provide flexibility for dealing with the peculiarities of current local situations. As E. M. Ojala suggests (Chapter 14), government programs can often have the greatest impact when they support and reinforce, rather than supplant, the initiative and efforts of a nation's farmers. A pervasive theme in the volume is that in the earlier stages of development particular importance attaches to measures that raise the productivity of the existing resources of labor and land in agriculture. This proposition is not to be confused with the quite different assertion that a substantial part of the farm labor force is "surplus" in the static, ceteris paribus sense that a significant fraction of the farm labor force could be removed without affecting agricultural output. The importance of human resources in agricultura.

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development sharpens the time dilemma in respect also to programs of education and training (Chapter 5). How shall resources be allocated among programs for advanced training of personnel capable of carrying on the essential to substantial, sustained technological progress, training of administrative personnel capable of direc.ting the operating programs that are needed, and training of the larger numbers who are needed to carry out the local operations in areas and villages-not to mention popular education that looks a generation ahead to raise the capacity of the whole population for economic advance? Agricultural extension programs, for example, pay little return unless and until research has produced and tested profitable innovations to extend. But research is equally futile unless its product is carried into practice, and an effective extension service cannot be built overnight. Investment in human resources is a time-consuming process, and realistic anticipation of needs is not easy. Imports and exports have been mentioned parenthetically in the preceding discussion as offering alternatives in problems of domestic transformation. Trade policy presents dilemmas in which the issues are by no means clearly resolved. The dependence of agricultural development on a process of structural transformation is qualified to some extent by the possibilities of international specializa.on through trade. Production of export crops is, of • ourse, a highly important source of monetary income for farmers in many of the less developed countries, often a good deal more important than the domestic market for purchased food. Judgments differ with respect to the role that expansion of agricultural exports should or will play in the future economic growth of today's underdeveloped countries. H. G. Johnson and Sidney Hoos suggest (in their comments on Chapter 11) that George S. Tolley and George D. Gwyer go too far in endorsing neglect of the traditional export sectors. Agricultural price and taxation policies are another controversial area, in which conflicting viewpoints emerge in the discussions by Raj Krishna and Stephen R. Lewis (Chapters 12 and 13). Krishna affirms that the transformation of traditional agriculture depends primarily on the "techno-organizational effort" that expands the availability of knowledge and of complementary inputs such as fertilizers. But he is also convinced that efforts to expand output by fostering technical change which creates more favorable input-output relationships must be bolstered by what he terms a "positive price policy." He is very much aware that the terms of trade should not be "too favorable" to agriculture, but believes that the recent experience in many developing countries suggests that the rate of increase in farm SEPTEMBER

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output will be too slow unless price incentives are more favorable than they have been in recent years. Lewis's discussion of the issues relevant to taxation of the agricultural sector gives a good deal of attention to the ways in which different types of taxation-or measures having equivalent effects-will affect production incentives. A fundamental preoccupation in the chapter, however, is the view that agriculture as the dominant sector must make a substantial contribution to the growing requirements for tax revenue in a developing country that is expanding education, transportation facilities, and other types of service and capital infrastructures. Lewis also notes some reasons why many governments seek to make use of taxation, particularly of agriculture, as a device to increase rates of saving and investment. NEED FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The questions posed in the successive chapters of the volume point to the enormous and challenging need for empirical research directed toward solving critical problems of agricultural development. The success or failure of developmental efforts in many countries will depend in considerable measure on the extent to which relevant, competent, and imaginative research facilitates the tasks that policy makers and administrators face in seeking rational answers to questions crucial to the formulation of agricultural development policy. Careful marshalling and analysis of factual data are required, but mechanical application of research techniques in current use among agricultural economists in the economically advanced countries is obviously inappropriate. Much greater attention should be given to the limitations of the data that are available. Existing statistics frequently should be tested and adjusted on the basis of collateral information; and programs to initiate the collection of reasonably accurate data on crop area, yields, output, inputs, and other basic statistics often should have high priority. Moreover, it is essential. to study explicitly many factors that can be taken for granted in advanced economies, and to take account of variables that are exceedingly difficult to quantify but are of crucial importance. This is particularly true of measures and policies that lead to increased output through applications of technical knowledge and through improvements in the institutional environment. There is a conspicuous need for ingenuity in devising fruitful types of research that will throw light on the complex issues of agricultural development policy. Historical and comparative studies represent a familiar and valuable approach. Several authors emphasize the need for close collaboration between agricultural scientists, 33


economists, and other social scientists in order to identify especially promising lines of development. The number of important, unanswered problems is so great and the gaps in statistical and other available information are so ubiquitous that there must be concentration on selected problems and gaps that demand immediate attention. These research needs will, of course, have different priorities in different countries. There is a well-nigh universal need, however, for better knowledge of the existing farming systems as a basis for assessing types of change that are feasible and capable of yielding the greatest returns in specific situations. But the many detailed and specific studies that are needed will not be of maximum value unless they are framed with as much understanding as possible of the various facets of agricultural development and of the interactions between agriculture and nonagriculture in the process of economic growth. Table of Contents: Agricultural Development and Economic Growth Chapter I Introduction, by Bruce F. Johnston and Herman M. Southworth 2 Towards a Theory of Agricultural Development. by J. W. Mellor (William O. Jones and Theodore W. Schultz)

3 Traditional Social Structures as Barriers to Change, by John Brewster (Elihu Katz and Wilbert E. Moore) 4 The Importance of the Agricultural Infrastructure, by Clifton Wharton Uohn Blackmore and Kenneth H. Parsons) 5 Education and Training in Agricultural Development, by' George Montgomery (Leonard F. Miller and Anthon_ Tang) 6 Distinctive Features of Agricultural Development in the Tropics, by W. W. McPherson and Bruce F. Johnston (Sir Joseph Hutchinson and Charles E. Kellogg) 7 The Economics of Farm Size, by Kenneth L. Bachman and Raymond P. Christensen (Solon L. Barraclough and Earl O. Heady) 8 Land Reform and Agricultural Development, by Philip M. Raup (Thomas F. Carroll and Ronald P. Dore) 9 Food and Nutrition in a Developing Economy, by Marguerite C. Burk and Mordecai Ezekiel (Mark Hegsted and Bruce F. Johnston) 10 The Role of Marketing Institutions, by J. C. Abbott (Norman Collins and Marvin P. Miracle) II International Trade in Agricultural Products, by George S. Tolley and George D. Gwyer (Sidney Hoos and Harry G. Johnson) 12 Agricultural Taxation in a Developing Economy, by Stephen R. Lewis (W. A. Lewis and William H. Nicholls) 13 Agricultural Price Policy and Economic Development, by Raj Krishna (Walter P. Falcon and D. Gale Johnson) 14 The Programming of Agricultural Development, by E. M. Ojala (Erven J. Long and Gustav F. Papanek)

COMMITTEE BRIEfS AREAS FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS Karl A. Fox (chairman), Brian J. L. Berry, Lester R. Frankel, lohn Friedmann, W. L. Garrison, Britton Harris, Donnell M. Pappenfort, Conrad Taeuber Under the sponsorship of the committee's subcommittee on area delineation-Messrs. Taeuber (chairman), Berry, John R. Borchert, Fox. Frankel, Garrison, Pappenfort, and Walter F. Ryan-substantial progress has been made on a re-examination of the basis of definition of the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas used by the Census Bureau and other agencies. The project is being carried out under Mr. Berry's direction at the University of Chicago Center for Urban Studies and is financed by a contract between the Census Bureau and the Council. A staff of at times up to ten research assistants has been employed, and extensive use has been made of the facilities and professional programming staff of the University's Computation Center. Two general inquiries have been completed-a detailed review of the history of area classification in the United States, the principles used, criticisms advanced, alternatives suggested. and results of their application; and a compilation of the various forms of regionalization of the United 34

States used by administrative agencies-as well as a sample case study of the 8 midwestern SMSA's centering on Chicago. Just initiated is a comprehensive analysis for the United States of the census data recorded in 1960 on commuting from every standard location area to selected county or city workplaces; and a comparison of this analysis of commuting with the 1960 census SMSA classification, and with alternative classifications and regionalizations, together with evaluation of alternative criteria in the light of the commuting information. CONTEMPORARY CHINA: LIAISON COMMITTEE ON STUDY OF CONTEMPORARY CHINA

(Joint with American Council of Learned Societies, Association of British Orientalists, and British Academy) A. Doak Barnett, Maurice Freedman, Pendleton Herring, John M. H. Lindbeck, C. H. Philips, George E. Taylor. D. C. Twitchett, Kenneth R. Walker; staff, Bryce Wood The liaison committee held its second meeting at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of Lon-.) don, on June 8-9. The meeting was devoted largely to re. . . VOLUME

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view of reports on research and training institutions concerned with Chinese studies in some 25 countries, which had been requested as a result of the committee's first meeting. On the basis of this review the committee concluded that principal immediate need in its field throughout the is for more trained scholars and greater resources for training. It has therefore undertaken further study of ways in which such training may be advanced in countries in which resources for studies of contemporary China are at different stages of development. ECONOMY OF CHINA Simon Kuznets (chairman), Walter Galenson (director of research), Abram Bergson, Alexander Eckstein, Ta-Chung Liu, S. C. Tsiang; staff, Paul Webbink Beginning' September 1, 1966, the office of the committee will be located at the School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. Requests for "The Economy of Mainland China, 1949-1963: A Bibliography of Materials in English," by Nai-Ruenn Chen, should therefore be sent to the committee at that address.

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Community Decision-making Process," by Mr. Goriely. The following papers were also presented: "Single Representation of Plural Interests: The Case of the European Communities," by Mr. Alting von Geusau; "The United States and the European Economic Community in the Atlantic System: The Problem of Theory," by Mr. Kaiser; and "The European Community as a Political System," by Mr. Lindberg. The papers and discussions provided a useful review of recent findings concerning international organizational trends in Europe and of problems and possibilities for further research. The grantees received helpful suggestions and constructive criticism of their work, and the committee was able, in a meeting following the conference, to assess its program and evaluate alternative approaches which might be used in the future. A summary report on the conference by the staff of the committee and the papers presented by Messrs. Alting von Geusau and Kaiser will be published in the Journal of Common Market Studies. Mr. Scheinman's paper will appear in an early issue of International Organization.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION

SOCIAL SCIENCE IN ITALY (Joint with Adriano Olivetti Foundation)

Inis L. Claude, Jr. (chairman), Lincoln P. Bloomfield, William Diebold, Jr., Leland M. Goodrich, Ernst B. Haas, H. Field Haviland, Jr., Stanley Hoffmann; staff, Bryce ''''ood

Manlio Rossi Doria (chairman), Francesco Alberoni, Norberto Bobbio, Massimo Fichera, Pendleton Herring, George H. Hildebrand, Joseph LaPalombara, Wilbert E. Moore; Secretary, Alberto Spreafico

Since a substantial number of the projects supported the program of grants for research offered by the committee during the past three years have dealt with the development of international organizations in ''''estern Europe, the committee held a conference on this subject on July 2-6, 1966 at the Villa Serbelloni, Bellagio. In addition to members and staff of the committee, the participants included four grantees who are conducting research on \Vestern European subjects-Georges Goriely, Free University of Brussels; Lawrence Scheinman, University of California, Los Angeles; James P. Sewell, Yale University; and George Stambuk, George Washington University-and the following' American and European specialists in the field: Frans A. M. Alting von Geusau, Catholic University of Tilburg; George A. Codding, Jr., University of Colorado; Robert W. Cox, Institute for Labour Studies, Geneva; Pierre Hassner, Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, Paris; Karl Kaiser, Harvard University; U. ,"'. Kitzinger, Nuffield College, University of Oxford; Leon N. Lindberg, University of Wisconsin; Jean Siotis, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Geneva; and Gerda Zellentin, University of Cologne. Three preliminary reports on current projects were presented by grantees: "Bureaucratic Relationships in the European Economic Community," by Mr. Scheinman; "Political Interest Groups and the European Economic Comunity," by :Mr. Stambuk; "The Role of the Economic and Social Committee of the European Communities in the

The committee's first meeting, held in Rome on April 1-2, was devoted to exploration of what information would be needed before sound decisions concerning the development of its program could be made. In preparation for the next meeting, to be held in New York in October, at the committee's request the secretary undertook to provide the members with a number of reports on the feasibility of particular types of efforts that might be made by the committee. To this end the Italian members in May and June held six meetings, of small groups of economists, historians, psychologists, sociologists, lawyers, and political scientists, respectively. Each meeting was planned to explore specific problems, needs, and developmental opportunities in the discipline concerned. The secretary has begun the preparation of a master file on Italy's institutional and personnel resources available for social science training and research. The committee is also collaborating with the Italian Social Science Association in the preparation of bibliographical materials in the field of sociology.

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SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE John A. Clausen (chairman), Orville G. Brim, Jr., Alex Inkeles, Ronald Lippitt, Eleanor E. Maccoby, M. Brewster Smith; staff, Jerome E. Singer "The Interaction of Person and Society," by Paul-Henri Chombart de Lauwe (translated by Suzanne R. Clausen),

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and "Research on Socialization and Personality Development in the United States and France: Remarks on the Paper by Professor Chombart de Lauwe," by John A. Clausen, were published in the American Sociological Review, April 1966. These articles are the products of the committee's collaboration, initiated at the 1962 meeting of the International Seminar on Family Research, in preparation of an annotated bibliography and abstracts of the French literature on socialization. The articles will also be published in French, in the Bulletin de Ps),chologie, October 1966. "The Study of Ordinal Position: Antecedents and Outcomes," by Edward E. Sampson, a report prepared with the aid of the committee's work group on family size and ordinal position, was published in Progress in ExpeTimental Personality ReseaTch, Vol. 2, edited by Brendan A. Maher (Academic Press, December 1965).

TRANSNATIONAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Leon Festinger (chairman), Jaap Koekebakker, John T. Lanzetta, Serge Moscovici, Ithiel de Sola Pool, Ragnar Rommetveit, Stanley Schachter, Henri Tajfel; staff, Jerome E. Singer _ The committee's second summer training institute for European social psychologists will be held at the University of Louvain in the summer of 1967, under the direction of Jozef M. Nuttin, Jr. and with the cosponsorship of the European Association for the Advancement of Experimental Social Psychology. The faculty will include Messrs. Moscovici and Tajfel; Elliot Aronson, University of Texas; Edward E. Jones, Duke University; Harold H. Kelley, University of California, Los Angeles; Mauk Mulder, University of Utrecht; and Robert B. Zajonc, University of Michigan.

PERSONNEL FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM In the fourth year of administration of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program by the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, fellowships have been awarded for study of five major world areas. As of August I, the following 167 appointments have been accepted for 1966-67 (a few additional appointments are expected): African Studies Progmm Hoyt S. Alverson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for Afrikaans language training and research in the Republic of South Africa on the processes of industrial commitment: attitude changes among the Bantu Robert H. Bates, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for course work in anthropology, ChiBemba language training, and research in England and Zambia on the effects of urbanization on African political attitudes Fred J. Berg, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on the history of Mombasa in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (renewal) Louis Brenner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Nigeria and the United States on Bornu under Sheikh Muhammad AI-Amin AI-Kanemi (renewal) Everett W. Chard, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research in Kenya and the United States and preparation of a dissertation on the problems of economic development and integration of the local government system in Kenya (renewal) Clement Cottingham, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for French language training at the Monterey Institute of Foreign Studies and interdisciplinary course work relating to Africa 36

Chester A. Crocker, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Johns Hopkins University, for research in England, France, and Africa on factors influencing order and stability in African countries Christopher P. Ehret, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for course work in Swahili and anthropology and research in the United States, England, Kenya, and Tanzania on the Southern Nilotes in East Africa from the beginning of the Christian era toa the eighteenth century: the evidence of loan words • Harvey M. Feinberg, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University, for Twi language training and research in the Netherlands and Ghana on political and social change in towns near Dutch trading forts on the Gold Coast, 1750-1872 James D. Graham, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Tanzania and the United States on socioeconomic change in the Njombe District of Tanzania, 1920-61 (renewal) Bruce T. Grindal, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research in Ghana on education and culture change among the Isala of Northern Ghana Isebill V. Gruhn, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England, France, and the United States on functional integration in scientific and technical matters before the Commission for Technical Cooperation in Africa South of the Sahara (renewal) Fred Hayward, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Princeton University, for research and preparation of a disserta- . tion in West Africa, France, England, and the United States on the formation of politically oriented organizations in Sierra Leone and Senegal (renewal) Raymond Hopkins, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research and preparation of a dis-_ sertation on political role development in Tanzania. (renewal) VOLUME

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Kennell A. Jackson, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for Swahili language training, completion of degree requirements, Kamba language training, and research in the United States, London, and Kenya on the oral traditions of the Kamba of Kenya (renewal) Charles M. H. Keil, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for completion of research in Nigeria on Tiv creativity and semi-Bantu ethnomusicology (renewal) Neil O. Leighton, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for research in Liberia, Ghana, and Sierra Leone on the role of the nonindigenous entrepreneur in the nation-building process Michael D. Levin, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Princeton University, for interdisciplinary course work, Ekai language training, and research in the United States and Nigeria on Nigerian economic organization and development at the local level Bernth O. Lindfors, Ph.D. candidate in English, University of California, Los Angeles, for French language training at the Monterey Institute of Foreign Studies and interdisciplinary course work William F. Lye, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in South Africa, Basutoland, England, and the United States on the tribal history of the interior high veld of South Africa, 1822-37 (renewal) Wyatt MacGaffey, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for preparation of a dissertation on clanship, land tenure, and politics in the Lower Congo (renewal) Patrick Manning, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in France and Dahomey on the economic history of south and central Dahomey, 1870-1914 Robert C. Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Northwestern University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the Aladuras and social change in Nigeria (renewal) Philip A. Noss, Ph.D. candidate in African language and literature, University of Wisconsin, for research in Cameroun and the United States on a linguistic description of the Yaiwe dialect of the Gbaya language (renewal) Harold A. Olofson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, for Hausa language training and interdisciplinary course work relating to Africa John B. Riddell, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Pennsylvania State University, for French language training, interdisciplinary course work relating to Africa, and research in the United States, England, and Sierra Leone on the spatial development of transportation in Sierra Leone David W. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in the United States, Europe, North Africa, and Senegal on Tokolor Muslim Senegalese responses to French conquest, 1845-65 Dov Ronen, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for French language training and research in the United States, Paris, and Dahomey on education and the role of the educated in modernization

M-Yb S /V

Edward J. Schumacher, Ph.D. candidate in public law and government, Columbia University, for research in Paris, Mali, and Senegal on administration and agricultural development in Senegal and Mali Marilyn Silberfein, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Syracuse University, for Swahili language training and research in Tanzania on spatial analysis of the impact of new village settlements on their respective regions Morris A. Simon, III, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for interdisciplinary course work relating to Africa and ChiBemba language training David H. Spain, Ph.D. candidate in anthropolo~, Northwestern University, for Kanuri language traming and research in Nigeria on the role of innovators and entrepreneurs in the public and private sectors of the Kanuri economy Leo Spitzer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England and the United States on Sierra Leone Creole intellectual history as reflected in writings and oral traditions (renewal) Jack R. Stauder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Cambridge, for preparation in Cambridge of a dissertation on the ecology and social organization of the Majangir of Southwest Ethiopia (renewal) Richard E. Stren, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Kenya on urbanization and development in East Africa: a case study of Mombasa Richard E. Stryker, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research and preparation of a dissertation on community power and decision making in Ivory Coast (renewal) Malcolm D. Valentine, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for completion of degree requirements, reading in African anthropology, Luo language training, and research in the United States, London, and Uganda on national politics and parochial policies in Kenya and Uganda David S. Wiley, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Princeton Theological Seminary, for Bemba language training and research in Zambia on the function of religious social movements in social change Diane L. Zeller, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in the United States, London, and Uganda on changing ideas, attitudes, and beliefs about health and medicine among certain African tribes Asia and Near East Studies P1"Ogram

Lawrence A. Babb, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Rochester, for research in England and India on the development of the Satnami sect (renewal) Frank P. Baldwin, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Korean language training, and completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Korea and the United States on the Independence Movement of March 1919 with reference to Japanese colonial administration (renewal) Richard D. Baum, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for Chinese language training and preliminary research in Taiwan toward a dissertation

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vf

37


Barry B. Blakeley, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for Japanese language training, completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations, and interdisciplinary course work relating to the Far East Karen W. Brazell, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, Columbia University, for preliminary research on a translation of Towazugatari John A. Brim, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Hong Kong on Chinese social organization and its psychological concomitants in the New Territories (renewal) Gwendolyn S. Brooks, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations Robert L. Canfield, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for interdisciplinary course work relating to the Middle East and research in the United States, London, and Afghanistan on adaptive patterns in selected Afghan villages Edward C. Clark, Ph.D. candidate in Turkish history, Princeton University, for Ottoman Turkish language training, and research in the United States and Turkey on aspects of the Ottoman ancestors of contemporary TurkIsh industrialists Donald R. DeGlopper, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for Chinese language training and research in Taiwan on contractual relations and voluntary associations among businessmen in a market town Carter V. Findley, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in the United States, England, and Turkey on nineteenth-century Ottoman history Paul Friedland, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for completion of research in Japan on military aspects of the reforms of Wang An-shih (renewal) Lois A. Giffen, Ph.D. candidate in Arabic literature, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Middle East, Europe, and the United States on the history of Arabic literature on the theory of profane love (renewal) James A. Hafner, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Michigan, for research in Thailand on the mechanics and structure of inland water transport systems Thomas J. Harper, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, University of Michigan, for preliminary research on the Japanese novel, course requirements including anthropology and history relating to Japan, and preparation for examinations Stanley J. Heginbotham, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for Tamil language training and research in India on political and administrative factors affecting levels of agricultural production in two Tamil villages Boruch K. Helman, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for Arabic language training and research in Egypt and England on bureaucracy, modernization, and institution building in Egypt, 18821914 (renewal) Ralph W. Huenemann, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for completion of course requirements, preparation for examinations, and preliminary research toward a dissertation 38

William G. Irons, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation 10 Iran and the United States on a nomadic Turkoman tribe (renewal) Edward A. Jones, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in the United States, Malaysia, and Great Britain on the British administration of • the Federated and Unfederated Malay States, 18851914 David Keightley, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research in Taiwan on the genesis of a tradition: values and realities in preImperial China (renewal) Stephen L. Keller, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for Hindi language training, interdisciplinary course work relating to India, and research in the United States and India on attitudes of Indian refugees Richard A. Kraus, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Hong Kong, Japan, England, and the United States on the economic determinants of the growth of the modern Chinese textile industry, 18901937 (renewal) Matthew V. Lamberti, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research in Japan on a political biography of Tokugawa N ariaki (renewal) Joseph A. Massey, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for training in quantitative methods and survey research, completion of course requirements, and preparation for examinations Thomas A. Metzger, Ph.D. in history, Harvard University, for Chinese language training and research in Taiwan and Japan on the Ch'ing salt monopoly _ Roy P. Mottahedeh, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the history of Western Persia in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries (renewal) Peter M. Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research in Taiwan and Japan on WeiYuan and the early modernization movement in China and Japan (renewal) Stephen M. Olsen, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for Chinese language training and preliminary research in Taiwan toward a dissertation Roger K. Paget, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Indonesia and the United States on Indonesian central government ideology (renewal) William B. Quandt, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for Arabic language training, and research in Tunis and Algeria on the backgrounds and cultural orientations of Algerian political elites Robert R. Reed, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for Spanish language training and research in the United States and the Philippines on twentieth-century urban development in the Philippines (renewal) John F. Richards, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in India on the A'i effects of the Mughal administration of Golconda, WI 1687-1724 (renewal) VOLUME

20,

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3


Arthur L. Rosenbaum, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England and the United States on the Peking-Mukden Railway, 1880-1911 (renewal) Gary R. Saxonhouse, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for Japanese language training and interdisciplinary course work relating to Japan Carl G. Sesar, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan on critical analysis and translation of Japanese No plays (renewal) Dennis N. Skiotis, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for interdisciplinary studies relating to the Middle East and research in the United States, Europe, Greece, and Turkey on TepedelenIi Ali Pasha George W. Spencer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India, England, and the United States on the imperial conquests of the Chola Empire in eleventh-century South India (renewal) Thomas R. Stauffer, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for research in the United States, England, Lebanon, Saudi-Arabia, Libya, and India on the impact of the international petroleum industry on the balance of payments (renewal) Royall Tyler, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Classical Chinese training, preparation for examinations, reading in intellectual and economic history, and preliminary research toward a dissertation (renewal) Lisa B. Volow, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Michigan, for research in the Soviet Union, Iran, Afghanistan, and Turkey on the social and economic context of Timurid architecture Robert J. J. Wargo, Ph.D. candidate in philosophy, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on the concepts of the philosophy of Nishida Kitaro Howard J. Wechsler, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for Chinese language training and research in Taiwan on the life of Wei Cheng, 580-643 A.D. Martin E. Weinstein, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Columbia University, for research in Japan on Japanese rearmament policy Philip West, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations .J ohn K. Whitmore, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the history of fifteenth-century Vietnam (renewal)

Latin American Studies Program Jeffry Adelman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of course work and preparation for examinations Robert S. Byars, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Illinois, for intensive Portuguese language training, interdisciplinary course work relating to Brazil, and research in the United States and Brazil on its emerging political parties David S. C. Chu, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for interdisciplinary course work relating SEPTEMBER

1966

to Latin America, intensive Spanish language training, and preliminary research toward a dissertation David M. Davidson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in the United States, Brazil, and Portugal on the integration of the Amazon in the eighteenth century (renewal) John T. Deiner, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Rutgers - the State University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Argentina and the United States on the inter-American labor organization in Argentina (renewal) David G. Epstein, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for interdisciplinary course work relating to Brazil and research in the United States and Brazil on the Brasilia plan and its execution Stuart I. Fagan, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for interdisciplinary course work relating to Latin America and research in the United States and Venezuela on interest group articulation and aggregation patterns in Venezuela Jane Fearer, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, University of Oxford, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Colombia and Oxford on the social and religious organizations of the Indians of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (renewal) Juan H. Gomez-Quinones, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Mexico on Mexican nationalism: the formative years, 1890-1912 Thomas C. Greaves, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for interdisciplinary course work relating to Latin America and research in the United States and Peru on social change in four Peruvian haciendas Emil B. Haney, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics, University of Wisconsin, for research in Colombia on the impact of new agricultural technology on economic reorganization of minifundia in two highland communities (renewal) John H. Hann, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, and the United States on Brazil's foreign policy toward its neighbors of the Plata Basin, 1808-70 (renewal) Robert B. Hartford, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for preparation for examinations, in~er足 disciplinary course work relating to Latin Amenca, and intensive Spanish language training Stanley E. Hilton, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Texas, for interdisciplinary course work relating to Latin America and preliminary research in Brazil and the United States toward a dissertation John :M. Ingham, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Mexico and the Umted States on culture and personality in a Mexican village (renewal) Norris B. Lyle, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for preparation for examinations, interdisciplinary course work relating to Brazil, and preliminary research toward a dissertation 39


Michael G. Owen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Mexico and the United States on semantic structures in Yucatec (renewal) Carlos Pelaez, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Columbia University, for research in Brazil on the structural transformation of the Brazilian economy (renewal) Reid R. Reading, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for course work in sociology and survey research techniques, and research in the United States and Colombia on political socialization in Colombia John F. Scott, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Columbia University, for interdisciplinary course work in the United States and Mexico Ron L. Seckinger, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Florida, for interdisciplinary course work relating to Latin America and research in the United States and Brazil on the function of municipal government in a Brazilian frontier town Alan P. Sloan, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Peru and the United States on the role of interest groups in the political process in Latin America (renewal) Alfred C. Stepan, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of examinations and research in the United States and Brazil on intrastate political integration in Brazil (renewal) Franklin Tugwell, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for research in Venezuela and the United States on the foreign relations of the Betancourt administration, 1959-63 Floyd La M. Tullis, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for interdisciplinary course work and research in the United States and Peru on urbanrural cleavage in Peru Peter E. Winn, Ph.D. candidate in history, St. John's College, University of Cambridge, for intensive Spanish language training and interdisciplinary course work relating to Latin America at Columbia University Soviet and Eastern European Studies P1'Ogmm

Raymond W. ~ake~, Ph.D. cand.idate in government, Harvard UmversIty, for ArabiC language training, course work, and interdisciplinary training relating to the Soviet Union (renewal) Eva S. Balogh, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for Polish language training and course work including East European geography Kenneth N. Brostrom, Ph.D. candidate in Russian litera~ure, Uniyersity. o~ ~ichigan, for Polish language trainmg and mterdlsclphnary course work relating to the Soviet Union Larry T. Caldwell, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Flet0er School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, for completion of research in London Paris the Soviet Un~on, ~I?-d the United States on politicai uses of strategic mlhtary power by the United States and the Soviet Union (renewal) Edwin G. Dolan, Ph.D. candidate in economics Indiana University, for course work (renewal) , 40

Peter B. Golden, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Turkish and Kipchak language training, preparation for examinations, and background studies in the United States and Turkey (renewal) Paul R. Gregory, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for a training program in Soviet and East European economics Pierre R. Hart, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the United States, Finland, and the Soviet Union on the image of St. Petersburg in Russian fiction (renewal) Mildred R. Howe, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research and preparation of a dissertation on the operation of a market sector and labor migration in the Soviet Union (renewal) Ellen S. Hurwitz, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for preparation for examinations, directed reading in Soviet studies, and preliminary research toward a dissertation (renewal) Frank L. Ingram, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature, Indiana University, for completion of a dissertation on Koz'ma Prutkov in the context of Russian humorous satirical literature (renewal) J. Michael Kitch, D.Phil. candidate in history, University of Oxford, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Europe on Rumania during World War I Ingrun Lafleur, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Hungarian language training, preparation for examinations, and research in the United States, Vienna, Prague, and Budapest on the attempts to spread the revolution to central Europe, 1918-19 (renewal) Robert H. Legvold, Ph.D. candidate in political science, _ Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, for preparation of a dissertation on a comparative study of Soviet policy toward six West African states in the post-Colonial period (renewal) Edwin Levy, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history and philosophy of science, Indiana University, for preparation for examinations, course work, and reading in Russian history and science William S. Lofgren, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Karel Kramar and Czech political life, 1890-1918 (renewal) Linda L. Lubrano, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for research on Soviet policy toward science and scientists (renewal) Paul J. Marantz, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on evolution of Soviet ideology since Stalin (renewal) Carl H. McMillan, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in economics, Johns Hopkins University, for interdisciplinary course work relating to the Soviet Union Gerald E. Mikkelson, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Pushkin's philosophy of history (renewal) James C. Mills, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on D. A. AI Tolstoi as minister of education in Russia, 1866-80 • (renewal)

e

VOLUME

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3


Jaroslaw Pelinski, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for preparation of a dissertation on the concept of empire in Russian political thought in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (renewal) Mark Pinson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Soviet Union and the United States on Ottoman reform, Balkan nationalism, and Russian policy, 1856-76 (renewal) Philip R. Pryde, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Washington, for preparation for examinations, interdisciplinary course work relating to the Soviet Union, and research on utilization of water resources in the Soviet Union Richard L. Rudolph, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on the role of financial institutions in the industrialization of Bohemia, 1840-1914 (renewal) Donald V. Schwartz, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for course work in Russian history and literature and research on the communications aspect of administrative behavior under the Soviet system (renewal) Ronald G. Suny, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research and preparation of a dissertation on the Baku Commune (renewal) John R. Swanson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of ''''isconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Lebanon, the Soviet Union, and the United States on Soviet policy toward Syria and Lebanon, 1944-64 (renewal) ''''illiam Taubman, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the rise and role of public participation in Soviet city government since 1959 (renewal) Charles E. Timberlake, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the political thought and deeds of Ivan Il'ich Petrunkevich (renewal) Paul R. Willging, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Columbia University, for completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations (renewal) Betty Jo Winchester, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Hungarian foreign policy in the 1930's (renewal)

Western European Studies Progmm Gordon M. Adams, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for German language training and research in the United States and Brussels on the legitimacy and extent of the "foreign relations" of the European Economic Community Geoffrey W. Chapman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for interdisciplinary study including comparative politics in Western Europe, and research in tIie United States, France, and Italy on French and Italian politics and diplomacy before World War I William B. Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for preparation of a dissertation on French colonial administrators in French West Africa, 18871960 (renewal) SEPTEMBER

1966

David P. Conradt, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Brown University, for German language training and research in England and Germany on the social bases, ideology, and leadership of the British Liberal Party and the German Free Democratic Party Earlene J. Craver, Ph.D. in history, University of Southern California, for study in Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands of anarchosyndicalism in the Latin countries, 1900-1921 George D. Frangos, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Greece, Rumania, and Austria on the Philike Etaireia-a critical social and historical analysis Robert P. Grathwol, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Germany and the United States on the German Cabinet and the politics of rapprochement, 1924-28 (renewal) David D. Gregory, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, for research in Spain and Germany or France on the influence of migration on social organization, culture, and personality in the agrarian peasant communities of eastern Spain Edward C. Hansen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for completion of a dissertation on the sharecropping system in the vineyard area of Catalonia (renewal) Reinhold A. Heller, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Indiana University, for Norwegian language training and research in Norway, Germany, and Austria on an analysis of Edvard Munch's "Life Frieze," with emphasis on his relationship to authors and literature known to him Henry H. Kerr, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for German language training, background studies, and research in the United States, Germany, and France on the processes of representation in the European Economic Community Dominick C. LaCapra, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in France and the United States on Emile Durkheim (renewal) Vojtech Mastny, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in West Germany, Israel, and England on German rule in Bohemia and Moravia, 1939-45 (renewal) Carl P. McCarthy, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Lichtenstein and the United States on culture change and relations between law and social control in Lichtenstein (renewal) John P. McKay, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Paris and the United States on the role of French, Belgian, and German direct investment and entrepreneurship in Russian industrialization, 1880-1914 (renewal) Bernard H. Moss, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Italian language training and research in Italy and France on the French and Italian labor movements Lois A. Pattison, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for German language training and research 41


in the United States, West Germany, and Paris on the place of Germany in De Gaulle's European policy Robert D. Putnam, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for Italian and German language training, background reading, and research in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy on "elite political culture" in Western Europe Robert Rosen, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for German language training, training in French urban sociology, and research in France and West Germany on relations of patterns of ideology and socioeconomic decay Joel A. Sachs, Ph.D. candidate in musicology, Columbia University, for French language training, background reading, and research in the United States and European cities on Johann Nepomuk Hummel and the breakdown of national barriers in music of the early nineteenth century Dean B. Savage, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, for preparation for examinations and research in the United States, France, and Germany on the French and German business elites since World War II (renewal) Theda Shapiro, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Columbia University, for research in the United States, France, and Germany on social and political criticism of West European avant-garde painters in the early twentieth century Ingrid J. Tedford, Ph.D. candidate in Scandinavian literature, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation for examinations and research on Knut Hamsun and Max Frisch Max W. Yeh, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, University of Iowa, for reading in European intellectual and cultural history and research in England, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy on the interrelations between the visual arts and literature

Postdoctoral Fellowship Program in Latin American Studies Under this separate program administered by the Foreign Area Fellowship Program during 1964-66, 15 appointments were made: Robert M. Carmack, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Arizona State University, for a social anthropological study in Guatemala of social control within an Indian community, with emphasis on the legal system William M. Denevan, Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research in Peru on the history of land use and settlement patterns in western Amazonia (renewal) Richard R. Fagen, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Stanford University, for completion of research in Mexico on community power in a Mexican state (renewal) Roger M. Haigh, Assistant Professor of History, University of Utah, for intensive Spanish language training and research in the United States and Argentina on the role of four interior cities during the struggle for independence in Argentina and on the relationship

42

between their creole hierarchies and the provincial caudillos Jack J. Himelblau, Assistant Professor of Spanish, University of Michigan, for research in Guatemala on evaluation of Miguel Angel Asturias' artistic vision as a seen in the Leyendas, short stories and novels ., Harold B. Johnson, Jr., Ph.D. in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research in Brazil on a history of Rio de Janeiro during the Viceroyalty, 17631808 (renewal) Donald B. Keesing, Assistant Professor of Economics, Columbia University, for intensive Spanish language training, interdisciplinary course work or reading relating to Latin America, and research in the United States, Mexico, and Chile on the impact of trade policies on Mexico's industrial development Herbert S. Klein, Assistant Professor of History, University of Chicago, for completion of research in Argentina and Brazil on a comparative history of their working classes (renewal) Neill W. Macaulay, Jr., Assistant Professor of History, University of Florida, for continuation of research in Brazil on the march of the Prestes Column, 1924-27 (renewal) Phyllis J. Peterson, Assistant Professor of Government, Indiana University, for a comparative study in Argentina and Brazil of political party leadership Bernard E. Segal, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Dartmouth College, for Spanish language training and research in Argentina and Chile on perspectives and performance of health professionals Norman R. Stewart, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Nebraska, for research in Ecuador on migration and settlement of highland Indians in Ecua- A'I dor's southern tropical lowlands • Joseph S. Tulchin, Assistant Professor of History, Yale University, for intensive Spanish language training and research in the United States and Argentina on the foreign policy of Hipolito Yrigoyen, President of Argentina, 1916-22 and 1928-30 Roger B. Walker, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Washington University, for research in Brazil on the organization of its economic development (renewal) Maurice Zeitlin, Assistant Professor of Sociology, U niversity of Wisconsin, for completion of research in Chile on the social bases of Chilean political democracy (renewal) APPOINTMENTS TO COMMITTEES Manlio Rossi Doria, Professor of Agricultural Economics at the University of Naples, has been named chairman of the Committee on Social Science in Italy, which is jointly sponsored by the Council and Adriano Olivetti Foundation. Milos Macura, Director of the United Nations Population Division, has been appointed a member of the Committee on Manpower, Population, and Economic Change. Susan M. Ervin-Tripp, Associate Professor of Speech at the University of California, Berkeley, has been appointed a member of the Committee on Sociolinguistics.

VOLUME

20,

NmlBER

3


PUBLICA rlONS The Brookings Qua1'terly Econometric Model of the United States, edited by James S. Duesenberry, Gary Fromm, Lawrence R. Klein, and Edwin Kuh. Sponsored by the ....., . , Committee on Economic Stability. Chicago: Rand McNally Be Company, and Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1965. 791 pages. $9.00. Communication Sciences and Law: Reflections from the Jurimetrics Conference, edited by Layman E. Allen and Mary Ellen Caldwell. Product of a conference held by the Jurimetrics Committee of the Association of American Law Schools, September 5-7, 1963, with the aid of the Council's former Committee on Political Behavior. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, February 1966. 462 pages. $17.50. Comparing Nations: The Use of Quantitative Data in CrossNational Research, edited by Richard L. Merritt and Stein Rokkan. Revisions of papers prepared for the international conference held by the International Social Science Council and the Yale Political Data Program, September 10-20, 1963, with the aid of the Council's former Committee on Political Behavior. New Haven: Yale University Press, February 1966. 600 pages, $12.50. The Development of Sex Differences, edited by Eleanor E. Maccoby, with contributions also by David A. Hamburg and Donald T. Lunde, Walter Mischel, Lawrence Kohlberg, Roy G. D'Andrade, Sanford M. Dornbusch, and Roberta Oetzel. Stanford Studies in Psychology V. Product of the work group on sex differences, sponsored by the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. Stanford: Stanford University Press, October 1966. c. 400 pages. c. $8.75. ~ Education and Economic Development, edited by C. Arnold . . , Anderson and Mary Jean Bowman. Outgrowth of a conference, April 4-6, 1963, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth and the University of Chicago Comparative Education Center. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1965. 446 pages. $10.75. Education and Political Development, edited by James S. Coleman. Studies in Political Development 4, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, June 1965. 632 pages. $10.00. European Research in Cognitive Development, edited by Paul H. Mussen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 30, No.2 (Serial No. 100), September 1965. Report of a conference sponsored by the former Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 124 pages. $3.00. Field Guide for the Study of Socialization, edited by Beatrice B. Whiting, John W.M. Whiting, Irvin L. Child, William ,.y. Lambert, et al. Revision of a Field Manual orginally prepared under the auspices of the former Committee on SOCIal Behavior. New York: John Wiley Be Sons, August 1966. c. 216 pages. c. $2.95. Financing the Chinese Government Budget: Mainland China, 1950-1959, by George Ecklund. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, October 1966. 192 pages. $5.00. Income Distribution in the United States, by Herman P. Miller. Sponsored by the Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, September 1966. 310 pages. $2.25.

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SEPTEMBER

1966

Invention and Economic Growth, by Jacob Schmookler. Prepared with the aid of the CommIttee on Economic Growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, September 1966. 352 pages. $9.95. Learning by Discovery: A Critical Appmisal, edited by Lee Shulman and Evan R. Keislar. Proceedings of a conference held by Stanford University and the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, January 28-29, 1965. Chicago: Rand McNally Be Company, Autumn 1966. Learning and the Educational Process: Selected Papers from the Research Conference . .. held at Stanford University, June 22 - July 31, 1964, edited by John D. Krumboltz. Chicago: Rand McNally Be Company, October 1965. 290 pages. $6.50. Mathematical Learning, edited by Lloyd N. Morrisett and John Vinsonhaler. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 30, No.1 (Serial No. 99), July 1965. Report of a conference sponsored by the former Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 150 pages. $3.00. Political Culture and Political Development, edited by Lucian W. Pye and Sidney Verba. Studies in Political Development 5, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, July 1965. 584 pages. $10.00. Political Parties and Political Development, edited by Joseph LaPalombara and Myron Weiner. Studies in Political Development 6, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, August 1966. 495 pages. $8.50. Quantitative Planning of Economic Policy: A Conference of the Social Science Research Council Committee on Economic Stability, edited by Bert G. Hickman. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, April 1965. 292 pages. $7.95. Social Structw'e and Mobility in Economic Development, edited by Neil J. Smelser and Seymour Martin l..ipset. Papers prepared for a conference held by the Committee on Economic Growth, January 30-February 1, 1964. Chicago: Aldine Publishmg Company, August 1966. 448 pages. $10.75. Socialization after Childhood: Two Essays, by Orville G. Brim, Jr. and Stanton Wheeler. Revisions of papers prepared for the Conference on Socialization through the Life Cycle, May 17-19, 1963, sponsored by the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. New York: John Wiley Be Sons, January 1966. 125 pages. Cloth, $4.95; paper, $2.25. The Study of College Peer Groups: Problems and Prospects for Research, edited by Theodore M. Newcomb and Everett K. Wilson. Based on the work of seminars sponsored by the former Committee on Personality Development in Youth. National Opinion Research Center Monographs in Social Research No.8. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1966. c. 300 pages. $8.95. The Study of Urbanization, edited by Philip M. Hauser and Leo F. Schnore. Sponsored by the former Committee on Urbanization. New York: John Wiley Be Sons, July 1965. 562 pages. $9.75. 43


COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OFFERED IN 1966-67: DATES FOR FILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS Grants for Research on Governmental and Legal Proc-'esses, applications, December 1, 1966; awards, February_ 15, 1967 '" Grants for African Studies, applications, December 15, 1966; awards, February 1, 1967 ,.. Grants for Asian Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December 1, 1966; awards, about 12 weeks thereafter ,.. Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China, applications, December 15, 1966; awards, February 1, 1967 ,.. Grants for Latin American Studies, applications, December 15, 1966; awards, February 1967 '" Grants for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, applications, December 15, 1966; awards, February 1, 1967 ,.. Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December 15, 1966; awards, within 10 weeks thereafter '" Travel grants for international conferences on Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017

Applications for fellowships and grants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because full consideration cannot be assured for late applications, and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which program a given proposal should be submitted, prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries should indicate the nature of the proposed training or research; the approximate amount and duration of support needed; one's age, occupation or current activity and vocational aim, country of citizenship and country of permanent residence; academic degrees held (specifying the fields of study); and if currently working for a degree, one's present stage of advancement toward it. A brochure describing the several programs is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017.

'" Foreign Area Fellowships, applications to be submitted to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 444 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022, by November 1, 1966; awards, April 1, 1967

Research Training Fellowships, applications, December 31, 1966; awards, March 15, 1967 Faculty Research Grants, fi1'st competition: applications, November 1, 1966; awards, January 3, 1967; second competition: applications, February 1, 1967; awards, April 1, 1967

• Offered under a joint program of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council.

WASHINGTON OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL Henry W. Riecken, newly appointed a Vice-President of the Council, has opened its Washington office at 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. (Washington, D.C. 20036). As announced in the June issue of Items, Mr. Riecken will be responsible for the Council's interests in relations between the federal government and the social sciences, and the

activities of the Washington office will be particularly concerned with those interests. Other continuing activities and programs of the Council are administered at its headquarters in New York, and inquiries about fellowship and grant programs and about activities of Council committees should be addressed to the Council at 230 Park Avenue, New York.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230

PARK

AVENUE,

NEW

YORK,

N.Y.

10017

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the pUl"pose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1966: J. CRONBACH,

WILLIAM O. AYDELOTTE, BERNARD BAILYN, ABRAM BERGSON, JOH:-; R. BORCHERT, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, HAROLD C. CONKLIS, LEE

KARL A. Fox, MORTON H. FRIED, WILLIAM J. GOODE, JR., MORRIS H. HANSEN, CHAUNCY D. HARRIS, SAMUEL P. HAYS, PENDLETON

HERRING, GEORGE H. HILDEBRAND, DELL HYMES, THOMAS S. KUHN, STANLEY LEBERGOTT, GARDNER LINDZEY, QUINN McNEMAR, FRANCO MODIGLIANI, FREDERICK MOSTELLER, J. ROLAND PENNOCK, DON

K. PRICE, LEO F. ScHNORE, HERBERT A. SIMON, DAVID B. TRUMAN, RALPH H. TURNER, JOHN

USEEM, ROBERT E. 'VARD

Officers and staff: PENDLETON HERRING, President; PAUL WEBBINK, HENRY ·W. RIECKEN, Vice-Presidents; ELBRIDGE SmLEY, BRYCE WOOD, Executive Associates; ELEANOR C. ISBELL, ROLAND L. MITCHELL, JR., NORMAN W. STORER, Staff Associates; JEROME E. SINGER, Consultant; CATHERINE V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary

44

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Items Vol. 20 No. 3 (1966)  
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