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VOLUME 20 . NUMBER 2 . JUNE 1966 230 PARK AVENUE' NEW YORK, N. Y. 10017

PRESCHOOL EDUCATION: REPORT ON A CONFERENCE by Lloyd N. Morrisett¡ FERMENT in preschool education is readily observable and easy to explain. A combination of urgent need, ideas, and money has created a climate highly favorable to research and action. On February 7-9 the Council's Committee on Learning and the Educational Process 1 sponsored a conference on preschool education to assist in assessment of what is known and what needs to be known in order to improve early educational programs. The conference was held at the University of Chicago's Center for Continuing Education and was attended by 37 scientists, practitioners of early childhood education, and interested observers.2 The proceedings of the con• The author is Vice-President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. A former member of the staff of the Council, he has served on a number of its committees and is currently a member of the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, which sponsored the conference that he reports on here. 1 The committee consists of Lee J. Cronbach, Stanford University (chairman); Richard C. Atkinson, Stanford University; Eleanor J. Gibson, Cornell University; Jerome Kagan, Harvard University; Evan R. Keislar, University of California, Los Angeles; George A. Miller, Harvard University; Lloyd N. Morrisett; staff, Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr. 2 In addition to Messrs. Atkinson, Cronbach, Keislar, Morrisett, Mrs. Gibson, and the staff of the committee, the participants included: Donald M. Baer, University of Kansas; Alfred L. Baldwin, and Clare Baldwin, New York University; Carl E. Bereiter, University of Illinois; Bettye M. Caldwell, Upstate Medical Center, State University of New York, Syracuse; Courtney B. Cazden, Burton L. White, and Sheldon H. White, Harvard University; Cynthia P. Deutsch, New York Medical College; Mario Fantini, and Marjorie Martus, Ford Foundation; Barbara D. Finberg, Carnegie Corporation of New York; William Fowler, University of Chicago Nursery School; Joseph A. Glick, Yale University; Eugene S. Gollin, Fels Research Institute; Edmund W. Gordon, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Yeshiva University; Susan W. Gray, George Peabody College for Teachers; Robert D. Hess, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Fred L. Strodtbeck, University of Chicago; Louis Levine, Yeshiva University; Eleanor E. Maccoby, Stanford University; Omar K. Moore, University of Pittsburgh; Shirley G. Moore, University of Minnesota;

ference are expected to be published next year in a volume edited by Robert D. Hess of the University of Chicago, who with Alfred L. Baldwin of New York University and the writer planned the conference for the committee. The need for more knowledge and better practice in preschool education springs from many sources. Most pressing is the need to help the children of poverty to break out of the cycle of inadequate education, low occupational skill, low pay. It is all too obvious that many children in low income and minority groups neither have adequate educational opportunities nor are able to take full advantage of the meager opportunities they have. One forward step is to give these very young children better preparation to benefit from standard school practice. In Operation Head Start the United States has committed itself to this effort in a massive way. The first year of the project was 1965, and the Office of Economic Opportunity reports that 561,000 children were involved in programs costing a total of $94,500,000. The former figure is to be compared with a 1964 nursery school enrollment of 971,000 and a kindergarten enrollment of 2,716,000. While the needs of the disadvantaged are among the strongest factors motivating interest in preschool education, they by no means provide the sole motivation. The last decade has seen education at all levels become the subject of intense public interest. Curriculum reform Glen Nimnicht, New Nursery School, Colorado State College; Maya Pines, New York City; Nancy Rambusch, Program for the Disadvantaged. Board of Education, Mount Vernon, N.Y.; Halbert B. Robinson. and Emily G. Willerman, University of North Carolina; Clarence Sherwood. Action for Boston Community Development Project; and David P. Weikart, Perry Pre-School Project. Ypsilanti Public Schools.


efforts that began in the fields of mathematics and physics, and now run through the social sciences, humanities, and arts, have placed increasing emphasis on the intellectual content of education. This emphasis, together with the sheer magnitude of the amount to be learned, has put a premium on learning more at earlier ages. What were once college subjects are now taught in high school. High school subjects are taught in elementary school, and many people ask whether preschool children cannot acquire significant intellectual skills before entering first grade and thus accelerate their educational progress at all levels. The academic impulse in preschool education has been further strengthened by contemporary research on the development of language and intellect. The work of ] ean Piaget, based on years of study and ingeniously devised observational methods, has provided a detailed examination of complex changes taking place in children's intellectual development during the preschool years. In addition, the cognitive psychologist's studies of the reception of information from the environment, information processing, and language and communication have stressed that the preschool child is developing intellectually at the same time that he is growing physically and maturing in his emotional and social behavior. All these influences have tended to give many recent studies of preschool education an academic and intellectual emphasis that sometimes seems misplaced to more traditional workers in this field. Much nursery school and kindergarten education has been predicated on the assumption that the preschool years are primarily a period for establishing the basis for sound social and emotional growth. The major exception to this tradition has been the Montessori movement which stresses attainment in a graded series of tasks to give basic sensory and motor education. The premium now being placed on academic and intellectual attainment does not mean that the wisdom of traditional nursery school and kindergarten education is no longer valuable, but it does suggest the importance of examining very carefully the opportunities of the preschool years to enhance intellectual performance so as to be able better to assess the relative merits of a variety of educational approaches. PLASTICITY OF BEHAVIOR Many of the papers and much of the discussion at the conference documented the plasticity of behavior in the preschool child. Historical biographies nearly always have given examples of precocious intellectual and artistic performance at an early age-at least some of which were apparently based on intensive educational efforts, as in the case of John Stuart Mill. What has not been 18

evident is whether these were exceptional cases of rare children able to profit from early tuition, or whether they merely provided outstanding instances of a more general phenomenon-the ability of young children to learn from carefully designed educational efforts. Evidence that the latter is true continues to accumulate. The pre-intellectual and intellectual behavior of normal children can be varied within wide limits under appropriate environmental and training conditions. Burton L. White has been studying infants from one to six months of age for the past eight years. He has been able systematically to accelerate and retard the rate of development of visual exploration and visually directed hand reaching, among other early behaviors, within broad limits. For example, in one study an advance of 6Y2 weeks in reaching was achieved by an experimental group compared to untrained controls. A more general conclusion from White's work is that very early sensory-motor behavior, such as visually directed reaching, is in itself a highly complex process, but one which can be studied systematically and influenced strongly by rearing conditions. Without clear understanding based on careful observation, however, relevant changes in rearing conditions would be hard to discover. The plasticity of behavior so apparent at this very early age continues to characterize later behavior. Perhaps the most dramatic documentation of this can be found in the work of Omar K. Moore. He approaches early learning with an assumption that children will learn important intellectual and social skills easily and at early ages if their environments are arranged to maximize the opportunity to discover these skills. He has shown that children of ages 3-5 can learn to read, write, and take dictation if they are given the opportunity to learn in what he calls responsive environments. Moore believes further that the early acquisition of these skills will foster both academic performance and healthy social and emotional growth. The major point here, however, is that this is another demonstration that early behavior can be systematically varied under appropriate educational conditions. Although there are relatively few manipulative studies of first language learning, Courtney Cazden did report results indicating that certain kinds of parental behavior are related to the acquisition of grammar. In one experimental study Cazden found that richness of verbal exchange may be critical in the child's acquisition of grammar and other language features. Specifically, Cazden suggests that variety of linguistic exchange is beneficial in itself, over and above the quantity of speech. Impoverished and simplified or abbreviated speech forms may make it harder, rather than easier, to learn correct language. These three examples were buttressed VOLUME




by William Fowler's paper, which summarized many studies of early stimulation and the emergence of cognitive functioning. The general conclusion that environmental, rearing, and educational procedures can advance or retard at least some types of cognitive functioning is inescapable. The duration and long-term influence of these effects are another matter. RESULTS OF INADEQUATE STIMULATION A corollary conclusion is that inadequate stimulation at early ages results in long-term deficiencies in cognitive functioning. While we do not yet know what constitutes an optimum level of stimulation at any age, there is general evidence that extremely bland and impoverished environments do produce harmful effects. This point was brought out in several ways, ranging from White's observations on institutionally reared children to Halbert Robinson's reports of experimental studies of animal rearing and various naturalistic studies comparing institutionally raised and home-reared children. Two broad research questions emerge from these considerations. First, if impoverished environments can produce long-term deficits in cognitive learning and cognitive functioning, what level and type of stimulation will maximize cognitive growth? Is this something in which there should be a certain minimal level and variety of stimulation beyond which additions are superfluous, or are there specific amounts and arrangements of stimulation which will have maximal effects? Some preschool programs seem to be predicated on the former assumption, but the work of White, Moore, and Cazden, among others, suggests the latter. A second question is: Given certain specific inadequacies in early stimulation, what kinds of programs can be devised to overcome the residual effects of early deprivation and bring children to a normal level of cognitive functioning? Many of the preschool programs for disadvantaged and minority group children are designed to find answers to this question. And it is to this end that a massive social investment has been made in Operation Head Start. EFFECTIVENESS OF SHORT-TERM INTERVENTION Unfortunately, we cannot be confident that preschool programs will be outstandingly successful in remedying the detrimental effects of early environment. A clear conclusion from the conference is that there is no compelling evidence for the long-term effectiveness of shortterm educational intervention at the preschool level. The papers by Fowler and Robinson both emphasized this, but it also emerged in the comments of many par路 JUNE 1966

ticipants. Robinson summarized the point by saying that many preschool programs for disadvantaged children have shown that they make relatively large gains in intelligence test performance during the first year of the program; but this characteristic acceleration in intellectual growth is not always maintained during a second preschool year or when the children enter first grade. At least one study S showed an average decrease in IQ during the second year of the program. These decreases may appear in the second year of a preschool program or in the first grade. Also, children who have no preschool experience gain in IQ when exposed to the stimulating experiences of first grade and so further diminish differences between experimental and control groups. The general finding that gains in cognitive functioning based on intensive preschool training are difficult to maintain is arresting. The implications to be drawn from these results are much less clear-especially since other research shows that early gains of certain types tend to be maintained. Durkin,路 for example, in studying children who learned to read before entering school found that early readers at all IQ levels tended to maintain their advantage over classmates at least as far as the third grade. Many interpretations are being given to this confusing and sometimes conflicting evidence; this is and will continue to be an area of intense research activity. One conclusion is that the intensive preschool program ought to be extended throughou t the school years and combined with special school programs which will stabilize and enhance the early gains. This approach characterizes the work of the Deutschs and their coworkers. Another conclusion is that preschool programs that start at ages 3-5 are already too late, and that intensive remedial efforts should begin much earlier-perhaps very soon after birth. Robinson and his colleagues have plans for a day care and child research center which will enroll children as young as six weeks. Additional possibilities include the chance that a portion of the reported early gains are experimental artifacts, not produced by the conditions of treatment but being generalized results of novelty and change, or test-retest phenomena. This suggests the need for more analytical approaches to early education and replication of studies. Among the many other possible conclusions is the possibility that social and cultural variables associated with school begin to mask or wash out the real benefits of intensive early education. This is not a definitive list of interpretations of these complex findings, but it should 8 D. P. Weikart, C. K. Kamii, and N. L. Radin, "Perry Pre-School Project Progress Report," Ypsilanti Public Schools, June 1964 (mimeographed). 4 Dolores Durkin, "A Fifth Year Report on the Achievement of Early Readers," Elementary School Journal, 65:76-80, 1964.


be enough to indicate that this is a rich area for research, demanding careful analysis and sensitivity to a multiplicity of variables. VARIETY OF APPROACHES During the conference brief reports were given on several experimental preschool programs (cf. the conference program, page 21 infra). Although the conference did not comprehensively survey projects in this field, the wide variety of goals, content, and methods referred to was striking. Any broad characterization of these approaches will do them disservice as they are all based on complex sets of theoretical presuppositions and embody a variety of objectives and procedures, but an idea of the diversity can be gained by examining a few of the major characteristics. Hess and his colleagues are studying maternal teaching behavior as it relates to children's ability to learn and profit from instruction. Hess finds, among other things, that maternal teaching behavior predicts a young child's intellectual performance at least as well as mother's IQ and social class. This suggests that the mother's behavior is a variable which sets limits on the child's intellectual abilities and that in cases of inadequate home conditions either compensatory programs must be introduced to resocialize the child's ability to handle information, or the mother's behavior must be altered where it is inadequate. Hess points up the critical importance of home environment, and his work suggests preschool procedures adaptable to the home. An eclectic approach is taken in those programs that try to provide enriching experience in a preschool setting, to give culturally disadvantaged children a background more nearly equivalent to that of their middleclass counterparts. At the conference perhaps the best illustration of this approach was given by Bettye Caldwell. In this approach differences in stimulation and opportunity between middle-class and deprived environments are examined, and the preschool situation is used in attempts to remedy the differences. In contrast, Deutsch and his colleagues attempt to identify specific deficits in ability and performance and then provide experiences which will compensate for previous deficiencies in environment and education. Frequently this means some novel method found to be an adequate educational technique at one age may not be efficacious at a later age. The compensatory experience must be appropriate to the present capacities of the child. At least two points of view presented during the conference rely upon the structure of the environment to mediate educational experience for the child. The Montessori approach places great importance on tasks that


require minimal instructions and are self-correcting. The tasks in turn are carefully ordered to lead the child in a developmental sequence from sensory-motor to symbolic experience. In comparison to other preschool programs that place primary emphasis on childteacher or peer interaction, the Montessori technique relies primarily on a carefully structured environment. Moore also places reliance on a structured environment -but to allow children to learn important strategies of behavior in situations where failure will not have severe consequences. A responsive environment is structured to allow children to discover and learn these strategies. Finally, a radically different approach was discussed by Donald Baer who showed how the application of operant conditioning techniques by teachers would alter classroom behavior. In this illustration Baer indicated how the teacher could be taught to control his own attention to children selectively to produce desirable classroom behavior. In contrast to many other approaches to preschool education, Baer's work is a direct application of some techniques of animal learning. LONG-TERM STUDY AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION A recurrent theme in the discussions at the conference was the importance of longitudinal research that continues long enough to assess the residual effects of early educational experience. The transience of many effects over a few months to one or two years makes long-term follow-up mandatory. In addition, the objectives of early training are often not so much to be met in immediate performance, as in the transfer of this learning to later performance. For example, early visual and auditory training may be introduced to insure later competence in reading. Reading achievement, in tum, needs to be assessed over long periods of time in that the ultimate aim is not simple mastery of the skill but speed, comprehension, enjoyment, and cultivated taste in literature. This example also indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of early educational results. In narrow assessment and evaluation based on only a few possible areas of achievement, gains may be overestimated as a result of looking simply at behavior very similar to that being given intensive training, or underestimated as a result of failing to discern important transfer effects. Participants in the conference stressed that comprehensive evaluation has been severely hampered by the scarcity of reliable measuring instruments that can be used with young children. Results are often reported in terms of IQ changes even though IQ tests are recognized as not being particularly appropriate to experimental objectives. These tests simply happen to be VOLUME




among the few reliable measuring instruments available. The design and production of new measuring instruments for use in preschool studies clearly are given high priority by many of the workers in this area.

representing mere substitutions and intensifications of middle-class advantages and values. The thesis in this simplified form would probably be rejected by many who study the preschool child. A few approaches, notably the Montessori and Moore programs, rather explicitly reject this idea. The assertion that the middle-class home MODEL OF THE MIDDLE-CLASS HOME is the ideal preschool educational environment does, The plight of the child in the slums is the focus of however, highlight key scientific and philosophical many new preschool programs. Even when this is not questions. Even though, as this conference demonstrated, we now the focus it is a social problem of such urgency that it pervades most current thinking about preschool educa- know comparatively little about the effectiveness of tion. The practical objective is often to find ways to early educational techniques, it is increasingly clear that bring the level of educational functioning of dis- the preschool child is an enormously pliable organism advantaged children up to that of their middle-class capable of very broad achievements under suitable counterparts-a level that will enable the former to educational conditions. Ideas of what the limits of those profit from the normal system of education in the first achievements might be have changed considerably as a grade and beyond. No one can deny the vital social im- result of research reported at the conference and elseportance of this objective, but it implies that the where. A better understanding of the limits of early problems of preschool education would be mainly re- achievement, intellectual, social, emotional and physical, solved by transforming slums into middle-class neighbor- is one of the key scientific problems in this area. As that hoods. Another way to state this is to say that the middle- understanding is achieved, we shall still have to decide class home is the optimal educational environment for what the objectives of preschool education should be, the preschool child-nursery school and kindergarten given what are sure to be vastly enlarged opportunities.

Program: CONFERENCE ON PRESCHOOL EDUCATION Center for Continuing Education.



of Chicago. February 7-9. 1966


Eugene S. Gollin

Robert D. Hess Discussion Donald M. Baer Bettye M. Caldwell Cynthia P. Deutsch Susan W. Gray Lawrence Kohlberg Omar K. Moore



February 7, 1:30 P.M.

Fred L. Strodtbeck


February 9, 9:00 AM.



Halbert B. Robinson February 8, 9:00 A.M. Chairman: Richard C. Atkinson INFORMAL EDUCATION DURING THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE

Burton L. White JUNE


Chairman: Lee





Sheldon H. White SUMMARY







Eleanor E. Maccoby


COMMITTEE BRIEFS COMPARATIVE POLITICS Lucian W. Pye (chairman), Gabriel A. Almond, Leonard Binder, R. Taylor Cole, James S. Coleman, Herbert Hyman, Joseph LaPalombara, Sidney Verba, Robert E. Ward, Myron Weiner; staff, Bryce Wood The committee joined the Departments of History and of Political Science at Washington University in sponsoring a conference on American Political Party Development, held at the University on April 21-24, 1966. The principal objective of the conference was to stimulate discussions, particularly among historians and political scientists, of analytical and theoretical problems in research on the development of political parties. The following papers were prepared for the conference: "Political Parties and Developmental Analysis," by Frank J. Sorauf, University of Minnesota; "Politics and Ideology in Pre-Revolutionary America," by Bernard Bailyn, Harvard University; "The First American Party System," by Paul Goodman, University of California, Davis; "The Second Party System," by Richard P. McCormick, Rutgers - The State University; "Party Politics and the Union and Confederate War Efforts," by Eric L. McKitrick, Columbia University; "Political Parties and the Local-Cosmopolitan Continuum," by Samuel P. Hays, University of Pittsburgh; "Political Parties and Partisan Behavior," by Donald E. Stokes, University of Michigan; "Socioeconomic Development, Interparty Competition, and Policy," by Richard E. Dawson, Washington University; "Party, Policy, and Constitution," by Theodore J. Lowi, University of Chicago. Other participants in the conference included Mr. Weiner of the committee; Walter Dean Burnham, Haverford College; WilIiam N. Chambers, Carl A. McCandless, Ralph E. Morrow, Robert R. Palmer, Robert H. Salisbury, and Sam B. Warner, Jr., Washington University; Marcus Cunliffe, University of Sussex; Noble E. Cunningham, Jr., University of Missouri; Charles D. Farris, University of Florida; Don E. Fehrenbacher, and David M. Potter, Stanford University; Shaw Livermore, Jr., University of Michigan; Austin Ranney, University of Wisconsin; Richard Rose, University of Manchester; Charles G. Sellers, Jr., University of California, Berkeley; and John C. Wahlke, State University of New York at Buffalo. The papers are being edited by Messrs. Chambers and Burnham, for publication in 1967. As a step toward stimulation of empirical political research in Japan by its social scientists, the committee has provided funds for an analysis of Japanese electoral data by Michitoshi Takabatake, Assistant Professor of Law and Politics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo, currently a Fulbright Research Scholar at Yale University, where the study supported by the committee will be carried out during 1966-67. CONTEMPORARY CHINA: SUBCOMMITTEE ON RESEARCH ON CHINESE SOCIETY G. William Skinner (chairman), Maurice Freedman Morton H. Fried, Irene B. Taeuber; staff, Bryce Wood ' 22

Funds have been made available by the National Science Foundation for completion of the subcommittee's bibliographical project, of which Mr. Skinner is director and Richard Sorich of Columbia University, associate director. The project will result in publication of annotated bibliographies of works on Chinese society since 1644 in Chinese, in Japanese, in Western languages including Russian, and works on overseas Chinese in any language. The first of four volumes is expected to be published in 1967. ECONOMY OF CHINA Simon Kuznets (chairman), Walter Galenson (director of research), Abram Bergson, Alexander Eckstein, Ta-Chung Liu, S. C. Tsiang; staff, Paul Webbink The committee at its meeting on April 9 arranged for support during the coming summer of research by John G. Gurley of Stanford University on the financing of Chinese economic development, and by S. C. Tsiang on the roles of Chinese fiscal and monetary policies, and for support during the coming year of research on agricultural production, by Kang Chao at the University of Wisconsin. With the aid of the committee John K. Chang of the University of Michigan is engaged in revision and extension of his study of Chinese industrial development from 1912 to 1949. Several other studies initiated under the auspices of the committee are also continuing. Two volumes, presenting results of work for the committee, Chinese Economic Statistics: A Handbook for Mainland China, by Nai-Ruenn Chen, and Financing the Chinese Government Budget: Mainland China, 1950-1959, by George N. Ecklund, are expected to be published this summer by the Aldine Publishing Company. GOVERNMENTAL AND LEGAL PROCESSES Austin Ranney (chairman), Philip E. Converse, Richard F. Fenno, Jr., Samuel P. Huntington, Victor G. Rosenblum, John C. Wahlke; staff, Bryce Wood With the financial assistance of the committee an interdisciplinary conference on nonmarket decision-making was held in the office of the Council on April 22-23, 1966. This conference was the third in a series initiated in 1963 by James M. Buchanan and Gordon Tullock of the University of Virginia. The meetings have brought together different groups of scholars interested in the application of deductive social science theory to political plans and decisions. Exploring the applicability of the "rationality premise" drawn from economics and game theory, sociologists, economists, political scientists, psychologists, and others have been building and testing models with this premise as one axiom, and are using it in analyses of policy alternatives. Formal papers were not prepared for the conference, but reviews of research in progress were presented and it was announced that a collection of relevant papers, edited by Mr. Tullock, is to be published soon by the Thomas Jefferson Center for Studies in Political Economy, University of Virginia. VOLUME




In addition to Messrs. Buchanan and Tullock, the participants in the conference included Mr. Fenno and the staff of the committee, and Hayward R. Alker, Jr., Yale University; John P. Crecine, University of Michigan; Otto A. Davis, Carnegie Institute of Technology; Anthony Downs, Real Estate Research Corporation; Gerald Garvey, Department of Defense; John C. Harsanyi, and Aaron Wildavsky, University of California, Berkeley; Gerald H. Kramer, Peter C. Ordeshook, and William H. Riker (chairman of the conference sessions), University of Rochester; James G. March, University of California, Irvine; Julius Margolis, Stanford University; Robert McGinnis, Cornell University; Mancur Olson, Jr., Princeton University; Vincent A. Ostrom, Indiana University; Charles R. Plott, Purdue University; W. Craig Stubblebine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Oliver E. Williamson, University of Pennsylvania. For the purpose of reassessing relationships of political scientists to the analysis of public policy, the committee has invited some 25 persons to participate in a conference on the study of policy content and its relevance for the study of politics, to be held at Princeton, New Jersey on June 15-17. The following papers have been prepared for the conference and distributed in advance: "The Political Scientist as Analyst and Critic," by Vernon Van Dyke, University of Iowa; "The Categorization of Policy Contents," by Lewis A. Froman, Jr., University of California, Irvine; "Analytical Systems for- the 路Study of Policy Content," by Aaron Wildavsky, University. of ~alifornia, Berkeley; "Description, Analysis, and Sensitivity to Change," by Lucian W. Pye, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; "Political Feasibility," by Ralph K. Huitt, University of Wisconsin; and "The Political Scientist as Policy Maker," by John R. Schmidhauser, U.S. House of Representatives. ' Others expected to participate in addition to members of the committee and staff include: Marver H. Bernstein, Princeton University; Bernard C. Cohen, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Willard Hurst, University of Wisconsin; Max M. Kampelman, Washington, D.C.; Herbert Kaufman, Yale University; Theodore J. Lowi, University of Chicago; James G. March, University of California, Irvine; Richard E. Neustadt, and H. Douglas Price, Harvard University; Nelson W. Polsby, Wesleyan University; William H. Riker, University of Rochester; M. Brewster Smith, University of California, Berkeley; and Sidney Verba, Stanford University. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Joseph Grunwald (chairman), Charles W. Anderson, David E. Apter, John P. Augelli, Robert N. Burr, Fred P. Ellison, Orlando Fals Borda, Allan R. Holmberg; staff, Bryce Wood Support in the amount of $1,000,000 for continuation and expansion of the joint committee's program has been provided by the Ford Foundation for a five-year period. With these funds the committee will continue to sponsor research conferences and to offer grants for research by individual JUNE


scholars. In addition, it will offer postdoctoral fellowships combining training and research, and awards for research in Latin America by American or Canadian scholars in collaboration with Latin American scholars. Further information on these new types of awards will be available in September. During the past few years the committee, like other bodies concerned with the development of Latin American studies, has discussed the need for a professional organization of scholars concerned with research on Latin America. As a result of a request made at a conference held by the Management Committee of the United States - Latin American Faculty Interchange Program in December 1964, the joint committee appointed a subcommittee to consider problems relating to formation of such an organization. In line with its recommendations funds were allocated for a meeting of a ratifying group, and the joint committee subsequently joined the Hispanic Foundation of the Library of Congress and the Latin American Research Review Board in sponsoring this meeting, held in Washington, D.C. on May 6-7, 1966. The meeting was chaired by Frederick Burkhardt, President of the American Council of Learned Societies, and resulted in the founding of the Latin American Studies Association and election of its first officers. NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Morroe Berger (chairman), Robert M. Adams, William M. Brinner, Charles Issawi, Bernard Lewis, Herbert H. Paper, Nadav Safran; staff, Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr. With support provided by the committee Charles L. Geddes, Assistant Professor of Islamic History at the University of Colorado, and in 1965-66 Fulbright Lecturer in Near Eastern History at Tribhuban University, Kathmandu, Nepal, will devote the summer to collection of materials in the Near East for an annotated guide to bibliographies on the M usIim peoples. SIMULATION OF PSYCHOLOGrCAL AND SOCIAL PROCESSES Bert F. Green, Jr. (chairman), Robert P. Abelson, James S. Coleman, Robert K. Lindsay, Philip J. Stone The committee has made four additional grants for intensive study of computer simulation programs: John M. Amos, Associate Professor of Management, University of Tulsa, for study with Elwood S. Buffa, Professor of Production and Operations Management, University of California, Los Angeles, of the use of Program 1401-10 to simulate effects of automation on employees, firms, and society Marcia Guttentag, Visiting Fellow, Department of Sociology, Yale University, for study with Sydney Rome [and Beatrice Rome], Decision Processes Staff, System Development Corporation, of application of the "Leviathan" program to simulate certain aspects of racial integration in a school system Robert R. Pagano, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Washington, for study with Herbert A. Simon, 23

Professor of Administration and Psychology, Carnegie Institute of Technology, of teaching processes by use of the General Problem Solver program Peter Park, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, for study with Robert G. Potter, Jr., Associate Professor of Sociology, and James M. Sakoda,

Professor of Sociology, Brown University, of the "FERMOD" program to analyze the symptomatology and etiology of alcoholism These appointments exhaust the funds provided for this program of the committee.

PERSONNEL WASHINGTON OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL Henry W. Riecken, Associate Director (Education) of the National Science Foundation since 1964, has been named a Vice-President of the Social Science Research Council. The appointment will take effect on July I, when the Council will reopen a Washington office, with support provided by the Russell Sage Foundation. Mr. Riecken in his new position will be responsible for the Council's interest in relations between the federal government and the social sciences. Mr. Riecken has extensive academic and government experience. He received an A.B. degree from Harvard University in 1939 and an M.A. degree from the University of Connecticut in 1941. After a brief period with the U.S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, he served for two years in the Army, then returned to Harvard to study for the Ph.D. in social psychology, which was awarded in 1950. He taught and did research in social and clinical psychology at Harvard until 1954, when he was appointed to the University of Minnesota faculty. He went to Washington in 1958 to assume the direction of the social science research program at the National Science Foundation. Under his leadership that program grew into the present Division of Social Sciences. Mr. Riecken was appointed Associate Director for educational programs in April 1964. In commenting on his career at the Foundation, Leland J. Haworth, its Director, said: "During his tenure at the Foundation, Mr. Riecken has held very important assignments. He was the key person in forming and molding the Division of Social Sciences into the successful operation we have today. More recently, he has provided outstanding leadership as the senior official responsible for our educational programs. I wish him every success." Mr. Riecken is Chairman of the Panel on Behavioral Sciences of the Federal Council on Science and Technology; a member of the Board of Directors of the Association for Aid to Crippled Children; and a member of the Advisory Committee to the Office of International Research of the National Institutes of Health. COUNCIL STAFF Norman W. Storer, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Harvard University since 1962, has been appointed a Staff Associate of the Council and will join the staff at 230 Park Avenue, New York, during the summer. Mr. Storer received an A.B. degree from the University of Kansas in 1952, and an M.A. from the same University in 1956. A Research Training Fellow of the Council during 1959-60, he received 24

the Ph.D. degree in sociology from Cornell University in 1961. During 1960-62 he was a Research Associate with the Science and Public Policy Program at the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration and an Instructor in Sociology. Mr. Storer is the author of The Social System of Science, just published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Jerome E. Singer, who last October joined the staff as a Consultant (see Items, December 1965), will continue to serve the Council in this capacity on a part-time basis during the coming year. RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Charles E. Gilbert (chairman), Norton Ginsburg, Samuel P. Hays, Gerhard Lenski, Robert B. MacLeod, Melvin W. Reder, and Allan H. Smith-on March 11 voted to offer 17 new appointments (9 predoctoral and 8 postdoctoral) and to renew 2 current predoctoral fellowships for a second year. It also named 3 alternates, one of whom has subsequently been awarded a pre doctoral fellowship. The selection of research training fellows this year was guided by new policies which represent in effect a return to the original central purpose of the Council's fellowship program, to provide opportunities for research training that goes beyond prevailing doctoral standards. In the intervening years since the inception of the program in 1925, there had been increasingly frequent deviations from this single purpose in the case of applicants of superior caliber even though they were simply fulfilling the usual requirements for the doctoral degree; for some years prior to 1965 support was given for dissertation writing to students who had already completed all other work for the degree. Last September, the Council, recognizing that other agencies now offer able students ample support for conventional doctoral training, decided that its fellowship funds should be invested exclusively in appointees who seek some further enhancement of their capacity for research, and that special consideration should be given to unorthodox ventures which would be unlikely to command support elsewhere. Each of this year's new appointees, predoctoral and postdoctoral alike, will be supplementing his regular doctoral training by experience either in a different discipline or in a different methodology. Several students of history, for example, will work under the guidance of professors of other social sciences; two political scientists whose previous training has been in the formal tradition of that discipline will spend the year at centers of empirical behavioral research, while two other political scientists and two psychologists VOLUME




will go abroad to work with scholars of different theoretical orientations. On the basis of preliminary information a large number of prospective candidates were found ineligible under the redefined program; the number of formal applications accepted this year was sharply reduced to 76 from about 270 in each of the first five years of this decade. The number of new awards offered this year, 17, represents a corresponding reduction from the earlier average of about 55 per year. Conversely, the staff has been able to devote more individual attention to applicants and appointees, and it has been possible to provide more adequate financial support. The stipends offered this year average about $6,700; the average in recent years was slightly less than $4,000. As evidence that the revised fellowship program is providing opportunities not otherwise available, it can be noted that only one of the 17 new awards was declined. In that case the applicant had previously accepted a faculty appointment. In some previous years as many as one out of four awards were declined, usually to accept other fellowships with equal or higher stipends. A list of the 20 awards follows: Maurice Belanger, Assistant Professor of Education, Harvard University, postdoctoral fellowship for study in Switzerland of research methodology in the work of Jean Piaget Samuel J. Berner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Italy on the urban patriciate in sixteenth-century Florence (renewal) Thomas J. Crawford, Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, Harvard University, postdoctoral fellowsnip for study and research trainin~ at Yale University with emphasis on computer simulatIon, and at the University of Michigan Summer Institute in Survey Research Techniques J. Peter Euben, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England on political theory, social science, and contemporary analytic philosophy Jon B. Fackler, Ph.D. candidate in history, Pennsylvania State University, for training in analysis of quantitative data, at the University of Pennsylvania Charles S. Fisher, Ph.D. in mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, and National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow and Visiting Fellow, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Princeton University, postdoctoral fellowship for further study of sociology and research on a contemporary group of "revolutionary" mathematicians Robert S. Gilmour, Ph.D. candidate in public law and government, Columbia University, postdoctoral fellowship for training in empirical theory and methodology Peter G. Goheen, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Chicago, for research in Canada and the United States on a new methodological approach to the social historical geography of Toronto, 1850-1900 Michael J. Halpin, Ph.D. candidate in American civilization, University of Pennsylvania, for research training in connection with a study of political realignment in Philadelphia JUNE


Theodore Hershberg, Ph.D. candidate in American history, Stanford University, for sociological training in preparation for research on race relations in a northern and a southern community, 1880-1900 Jeremy C. Jackson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for training at the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques in demographic methods and for research in Switzerland on the bourgeoisie of Canton Vaud under the Bernese regime, 1536-1798 Constance K. Kamii, Research Associate, Perry Preschool Project, Ypsilanti Public Schools, postdoctoral fellowship for study in Switzerland of the application of Piaget's developmental theory to a preschool curriculum for socially disadvantaged children F. Gerald Kline, Ph.D. candidate in mass communication, University of Minnesota, for study of mathematical social science analysis Robert F. Lyke, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, postdoctoral fellowship for study in England of new conceptions and models of the democratic political process D. Kent McCallum, Ph.D. candidate in government, Claremont Graduate School, postdoctoral fellowship for research training in England, including study in anthropology and research on authority and legitimacy in segmentary systems Jerry F. Medler, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Oregon, postdoctoral fellowship for study of mathematics applicable to research on political phenomena Joan W. Scott, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for training in sociological research methods and research in France on relationships between utopian social theories and social structure in the nineteenth century M. Douglas Scott, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in public law and government, Cofumbia University, for training at the University of Michigan in quantitative political analysis and related social research methods William H. Sewell, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for further training in sociological methodology and research in France on working class responses to the strains of urban and industriallife in St. Etienne, 1850-70 Richard Tyler, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England on Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1595-1645, and its influence on New England (renewal) FACULTY RESEARCH GRANTS The Committee on Faculty Research Grants--John Thibaut (chairman), Dewey W. Grantham, Victor Jones, Irving B. Kravis, David S. Landes, MelÂŁord E. Spiro, and Frank R. Westie-held the second of its two scheduled meetings on March 18. It made the following 22 grants: Donald N. Baker, Assistant Professor of History, Michigan State University, for research in Paris and Amsterdam on the reconstitution of the French Socialist Party, 1921-24 John Francis Bannon, S.J., Professor of History, Saint Louis University, for research on Herbert E. Bolton, founder of a "school" of American history writing 25

Daniel A. Baugh, Assistant Professor of History, Princeton University, for research in England on government and industry in Britain at the beginning of the industrial revolution David P. Calleo, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research in London on views on European political integration among British political and intellectual elites Charlotte Erickson, Lecturer in Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science, for research in Washington, D.C. and London on social and economic adjustment of British immigrants in the United States in the nineteenth century in the light of their economic and social origins Michael K. Evans, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Israel on an aggregate econometric model of the Israeli economy Robert M. Fogelson, Assistant Professor of History, Columbia University, for research on the history of Harlem, 1900-65 Thomas L. Hankins, Assistant Professor of History, University of Washington, for research on Jean d'Alembert and the history of mechanics in the eighteenth century Irving L. Janis, Professor of Psychology, Yale University, for research on the influence of membership in a small group on the participants' attitudes and decisions Roger M. Keesing, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research on social relations and cultural code in Kwaio, Malaita Raymond F. Kierstead, Assistant Professor of History, Yale University, for research in Paris on the intendants of Louis XIV, 1685-1715: a study of public administration in the age of absolutism Everett C. Ladd, Jr., Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Connecticut, for research on political ideology in an American central city, a suburb, and a small town Peter J. Larmour, Assistant Professor of History, Ohio State University, for research in Paris and Vienna on radical and nationalist groups in France and Austria, 1871-90 Jacques Melitz, Associate Professor of Economics, Tulane University, for research in Europe on a general theory of central banking: a study of foreign central banks William Poole, Assistant Professor of Political Economy, Johns Hopkins University, for research on the effects of some long-run institutional changes on the demand for money Leopold Pospisil, Professor of Anthropology, Yale University, for research in Austria on political and legal change in a Tirolean village J. A. Raftis, Professor of Social and Economic History, University of Toronto, for research in England on small group and community structures in late medieval and early modem times Paul Roazen, Instructor in Government, Harvard University, for research in Israel, Switzerland, the Netherlands, England, and the United States on the sociology of an intellectual group: Freud and his pupils David J. Saposs, Adjunct Professor of International Labor Relations, School for International Service, American University, for research on the history of labor ideologies (supplementary to grant-in-aid awarded in 1963-64) 26

Harry M. ScobIe, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the "rules of the game" as perceived by white and Negro members of the political elite in the United States Charles Tilly, Professor of Sociology, University of Toronto, for research on the forms and incidence of political upheaval in Western countries undergoing urbanization and industrialization Richard H. Tilly, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Michigan, for research in East and West Berlin and in Merseburg on the development of central banking in Prussia and Germany, 1800-1914 GRANTS FOR ASIAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Asian Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-John A. Pope (chairman), Robert I. Crane, H. G. Creel, Albert Feuerwerker, L. A. Peter Gosling, John L. Landgraf, and Richard L. Park-at its meeting on February 19 awarded grants to 23 scholars for advanced research in the humanities and social sciences dealing with East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia: David Abosch, Visiting Associate Professor of History, University of Colorado, for research on social Darwinism in Japan: the modernization of japan's traditional expansionism Aziz Ahmad, Professor of Islamic Studies, University of Toronto, for collection of material for a religious and cultural history of Islamic India and Pakistan Paul R. Brass, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Washington, for research on opposition parties in Indian politics William J. Chambliss, Assistant Professor of History, University of Kentucky, for compilation of a glossary for Tokugawa period legal history and research on Japanese criminal procedure during the late Tokugawa period Yen-p'ing Hao, Assistant Professor of History, University of Tennessee, for research on China's modernization and merchants: the Cantonese comprador-merchants, 1842-84 Leighton W. Hazlehurst, Ph.D. in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for analysis of the social bases for interurban trade and market relations among merchant communities of northern India Ray Huang, Assistant Professor of Historical Studies, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, for research on governmental finance under the Ming Robert A. Huttenback, Associate Professor of History, California Institute of Technology, for research on the northern frontier of India, !846-1901, with special emphasis on the development of British policy toward this region Frank W. Ikle, Professor of History, University of New Mexico, for a study of Sir Mark Aurel Stein John R. Krueger, Associate Professor of Uralic and Altaic Studies, Indiana University, for research on OiratMongolian language and literature, 1642-1942 Yasumasa Kuroda, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Southern California, for research on politicallife in a Japanese community VOLUl\(E




Joseph R . Levenson, Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research on Chinese identity: the province, the nation, and the world Rhoads W. Murphey, Professor of Geography, University of Michigan, for research on urbanization and the Western impact on East Asia: the treaty-port phenomenon J. Norman Parmer, Professor of History, Northe~ Illinois University, for completion of research for a history of Malaya Nicholas N. Poppe, Professor of Far Eastern and Slavic Languages and Literature, University of Washington, for studies in Script Oirat Daniel B. Ramsdell, Assistant Professor of History, Bowling Green State University, for research on party government and China policy in Imperial Japan, 1918-31 John R. W. Smail, Assistant Professor of History, University of Wisconsin, for research on the early history of the Indonesian Army, as part of studies toward a general history of the Indonesian Revolution Burton Stein, Associate Professor of History, University of Minnesota, for a study of the South Indian agrarian system David J. Steinberg, Assistant Professor of History, University of Michigan, for research on "benevolent assimilation": America's early years in the Philippines Alan M. Stevens, Assistant Professor of Linguistics, University of Michigan, for research for a grammar of Bikol Romeyn Taylor, Associate Professor of History, University of Minnesota, for an annotated translation of Ming T'ai-tsu pen-chi in Ming-shih Alex Wayman, Associate Professor of Indian Studies, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a chapter on Buddhism for Historia Religlonum Lea E. Williams, Professor of Political Science, Brown University, for field investigation of the interplay of ethnic communalism and multicommunal nationalism in the party and parliamentary politics of Malaysia GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES The Subcommittee on Grants for Slavic and East European Studies (of the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies) -Henry L. Roberts (chairman), Edward J. Brown, David T. Cattell, Alexander Erlich, Charles Jelavich, and Alexander M. Schenker-at its meeting on February 11 awarded 23 grants for research: George Barany, Associate Professor of History, University of Denver, for research on Count Stephen Szechenyi and the national awakening of Hungary Stephen P. Dunn, Research Associate, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, for ethnographic study of the great Russian people Herbert J. Ellison, Professor of History, University of Kansas, for research on Soviet agriculture and the debate on agricultural policy, 1917-27 Herman Freudenberger, Associate Professor of Economics, Tulane University, for research on the rise of Brno, Czechoslovakia, as a textile center JUNE 1966

Thor.nas J.. He~arty, Assistant Professor of History, Brandeis Umverslty, for research on student movements in Russian universities, 1855-1917 Sidney Hei~man! Associate Professor of History, Colorado State UmversIty, for research on the life and career of Nikolai I. Bukharin Bertrand N. Horwitz, Assistant Professor of Business Administration, University of Rochester, for research on the effect of changing criteria of success on accounting measurement in selected industries of the Soviet Union Assya H~mesky, Asso~iate .Professo.r ~f Slavic Languages and LIteratures, U mverslty of Michigan, for analysis of N. M. Jazykov's verse Paul W. Knoll, Assistant Professor of History, Purdue University, for research on the role of university-trained men in the administration of Poland under Casimir the Great, 1333-70 Andrzej Korbonski, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on recent economic reforms in Poland David MacKenzie, Associate Professor of History and Government, Wells College, for research on a political biography of General M. G. Cherniaev: Lion of Tashkent Ian M. Matley, Associate Professor of Geography, Michigan State University, for research on the pastoral economy of the Stari Vlah region of Bosnia Glenn G. Morgan, Associate Professor of Political Science, San Jose State College, for research on Soviet administrative law Svetozar Pejovich, Associate Professor of Economics, St. Mary's College, for research on the relationship between the administrative allocation of investment funds and productivity of capital in Yugoslavia, 1954-64 Marin Pundeff, Professor of History, San Fernando Valley State College, for research on sources and evolution of Bulgarian nationalism George F. Putnam, Associate Professor of History, Louisiana State University, for research on the religiousphilosophical movement in early twentieth-century Russia Alex M. Shane, lr., Assistant Professor of Russian, University of Cali ornia, Davis, for a critical study of the early works of A. Remizov, E. Zamjatin, M. Prisvin, and Aleksej N. Tolstoj Rudolf L. Tokes, Assistant Professor of Government, Wesleyan University, for research on the history of the Communist Party in Hungary Glenn E. Torrey, Professor of Social Science, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, for research on Rumania and the belligerents, 1914-18 Vera Von Wiren-Garczynski, Institute of Germanic and Slavic Languages, City College, City University of New York, for research on language and revolution: the experience of Zoshchenko Arthur Voyce, San Francisco, California, for research on the arts of modern Russia Dean S. Worth, Professor of Slavic Languages, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on functional sentence perspective in Slavic languages Judith C. Zacek, Assistant Professor of History, San Fernando Valley State College, for research on Russian philanthropy in the reign of Alexander I 27


transformation of socioeconomic systems of two plantations in Ceara

In addition to the awards listed in the March issue of Items, the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies, has made the following grants for research: Murdo J. MacLeod, Assistant Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United States on written social protest in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia since the late nineteenth century Bernard J. Siegel, Professor of Anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Brazil on continuity and

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST In addition to the awards listed in the March issue of Items, the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies, has made the following grant for research: James A. Bellamy, Associate Professor of Arabic Literature, University of Michigan, for research in the Near East on Ibn Abid-Dunya, author of Kitab Makarim al-Akhlaq

PUBLICA TIONS The Brookings Quarterly Econometric Model of the United States, edited by James s. Duesenberry, Gary Fromm, Lawrence R. Klein, and Edwin Kuh. Sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability. Chicago: Rand McNally Be Company, and Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1965.791 pages. $9.00. Communication Sciences and Law: Reflections from the jurimetrics Conference, edited by Layman E. Allen and Mary Ellen Caldwell. Product of a conference held by the Jurimetrics Committee of the Association of American Law Schools, September 5-7, 1963, with the aid of the Council's former Committee on Political Behavior. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, February 1966. 462 pages. $17.50. Comparing Nations: The Use of Quantitative Data in CrossNational Research, edited by Richard L. Merritt and Stein Rokkan. Revisions of papers prepared for the international conference held by the International Social Science Council and the Yale Political Data Program, September 10-20, 1963, with the aid of the Council's former Committee on Political Behavior. New Haven: Yale University Press, February 1966. 600 pages. $12.50. The Development of Sex Differences, edited by Eleanor E. Maccoby, with contributions also by David A. Hamburg and Donald T. Lunde, Walter Mischel, Lawrence Kohlberg, Roy G. D'Andrade, Sanford M. Dornbusch, and Roberta Oetzel. Stanford Studies in Psychology V. Product of the work group on sex differences, sponsored by the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. Stanford: Stanford University Press, c. July 1966.

Education and Economic Development, edited by C. Arnold Anderson and Mary Jean Bowman. Outgrowth of a conference, April 4-6, 1963, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth and the University of Chicago Comparative Education Center. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1965.446 pages. $10.75. European Research in Cognitive Development, edited by Paul H. Mussen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 30, No.2 (Serial No. 100), September 1965. Report of a conference sponsored by the former Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 124 pages. $3.00. Learning and the Educational Process: Selected Papers from the Research Conference . .. held at Stanford University, June 22 - July 31, 1964, edited by John D. Krumboltz. Chicago: Rand McNally Be Company, October 1965. 290 pages. $6.50. Political Parties and Political Development, edited by Joseph LaPalombara and Myron Weiner. Studies in Political Development 6, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, August 1966. c. 472 pages. c. $8.50. Socialization after Childhood: Two Essays, by Orville G. Brim, Jr. and Stanton Wheeler. Revisions of papers prepared for the Conference on Socialization through the Life Cycle, May 17-19, 1963, sponsored by the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. New York: John Wiley Be Sons, January 1966. 125 pages. Cloth, $4.95; paper, $2.25.









Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, fOT the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1966:






Officers and Staff: C. ISBELL, ROWLAND







Executive Associates;

L. MITCHELL, JR., Staff Associates; JEROME E. SINGER, Consultant; CATHERINE V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary


Items Vol. 20 No. 2 (1966)  
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